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  • 1.
    Abdulla, Parosh
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Datorteknik.
    Atig, Mohamed Faouzi
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Datorteknik.
    Jonsson, Bengt
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Datorteknik.
    Lång, Magnus
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Datorteknik.
    Ngo, Tuan-Phong
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Datorteknik.
    Sagonas, Konstantinos
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Datalogi.
    Optimal stateless model checking for reads-from equivalence under sequential consistency2019Ingår i: Proceedings of the ACM on programming languages, ISSN 2475-1421Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a new approach for stateless model checking (SMC) of multithreaded programs under Sequential Consistency (SC) semantics.  To combat state-space explosion, SMC is often equipped with a partial-order reduction technique, which defines an equivalence on executions, and only needs to explore one execution in each equivalence class.  Recently, it has been observed that the commonly used equivalence of Mazurkiewicz traces can be coarsened but still cover all program crashes and assertion violations.  However, for this coarser equivalence, which preserves only the reads-from relation from writes to reads, there is no SMC algorithm which is (i) optimal in the sense that it explores precisely one execution in each reads-from equivalence class, and (ii) efficient in the sense that it spends polynomial effort per class.  \end{inparaenum} We present the first SMC algorithm for SC that is both optimal and efficient in practice, meaning that it spends polynomial time per equivalence class on all programs that we have tried.  This is achieved by a novel test that checks whether a given reads-from relation can arise in some execution.  Our experimental results show that Nidhugg/rfsc, although slower than the fastest SMC tools in programs where tools happen to examine the same number of executions, always scales similarly or better than them, and outperforms them by an exponential factor in programs where the reads-from equivalence is coarser than the standard one. We also present two non-trivial use cases where the new equivalence is particularly effective, as well as the significant performance advantage that Nidhugg/rfsc offers compared to state-of-the-art SMC and systematic concurrency testing tools.

  • 2.
    Abdulla, Parosh Aziz
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Datorteknik.
    Atig, Mohamed Faouzi
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Datorteknik.
    Bouajjani, Ahmed
    Ngo, Tuan Phong
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Datorteknik.
    A load-buffer semantics for total store ordering2018Ingår i: Logical Methods in Computer Science, ISSN 1860-5974, E-ISSN 1860-5974, Vol. 14, nr 1, artikel-id 9Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We address the problem of verifying safety properties of concurrent programs running over the Total Store Order (TSO) memory model. Known decision procedures for this model are based on complex encodings of store buffers as lossy channels. These procedures assume that the number of processes is fixed. However, it is important in general to prove the correctness of a system/algorithm in a parametric way with an arbitrarily large number of processes. 

    In this paper, we introduce an alternative (yet equivalent) semantics to the classical one for the TSO semantics that is more amenable to efficient algorithmic verification and for the extension to parametric verification. For that, we adopt a dual view where load buffers are used instead of store buffers. The flow of information is now from the memory to load buffers. We show that this new semantics allows (1) to simplify drastically the safety analysis under TSO, (2) to obtain a spectacular gain in efficiency and scalability compared to existing procedures, and (3) to extend easily the decision procedure to the parametric case, which allows obtaining a new decidability result, and more importantly, a verification algorithm that is more general and more efficient in practice than the one for bounded instances.

  • 3.
    Abdulla, Parosh Aziz
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Datorteknik.
    Atig, Mohamed Faouzi
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Datorteknik.
    Bouajjani, Ahmed
    IRIF Université Paris Diderot, Paris, France.
    Ngo, Tuan Phong
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Datorteknik.
    Context-bounded analysis for POWER2017Ingår i: Tools and Algorithms for the Construction and Analysis of Systems: Part II, Springer, 2017, s. 56-74Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose an under-approximate reachability analysis algorithm for programs running under the POWER memory model, in the spirit of the work on context-bounded analysis initiated by Qadeer et al. in 2005 for detecting bugs in concurrent programs (supposed to be running under the classical SC model). To that end, we first introduce a new notion of context-bounding that is suitable for reasoning about computations under POWER, which generalizes the one defined by Atig et al. in 2011 for the TSO memory model. Then, we provide a polynomial size reduction of the context-bounded state reachability problem under POWER to the same problem under SC: Given an input concurrent program P, our method produces a concurrent program P' such that, for a fixed number of context switches, running P' under SC yields the same set of reachable states as running P under POWER. The generated program P' contains the same number of processes as P and operates on the same data domain. By leveraging the standard model checker CBMC, we have implemented a prototype tool and applied it on a set of benchmarks, showing the feasibility of our approach.

  • 4.
    Abdulla, Parosh Aziz
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Datorteknik.
    Atig, Mohamed Faouzi
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Datorteknik.
    Bouajjani, Ahmed
    Ngo, Tuan Phong
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Datorteknik.
    Replacing store buffers by load buffers in TSO2018Ingår i: Verification and Evaluation of Computer and Communication Systems, Springer, 2018, s. 22-28Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider the weak memory model of Total Store Ordering (TSO). In the classical definition of TSO, an unbounded buffer is inserted between each process and the shared memory. The buffers contains pending store operations of the processes. We introduce a new model where we replace the store buffers by load buffers. In contrast to the classical model, the buffers now contain load operations. We show that the models have equivalent behaviors in the sense that the processes reach identical sets of states when the input program is run under the two models.

  • 5.
    Abdulla, Parosh Aziz
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Datorteknik.
    Atig, Mohamed Faouzi
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Datorteknik.
    Bouajjani, Ahmed
    Ngo, Tuan Phong
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Datorteknik.
    The benefits of duality in verifying concurrent programs under TSO2016Ingår i: 27th International Conference on Concurrency Theory: CONCUR 2016, Dagstuhl, Germany: Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik , 2016, s. 5:1-15Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We address the problem of verifying safety properties of concurrent programs running over the Total Store Order (TSO) memory model. Known decision procedures for this model are based on complex encodings of store buffers as lossy channels. These procedures assume that the number of processes is fixed. However, it is important in general to prove the correctness of a system/algorithm in a parametric way with an arbitrarily large number of processes.

    In this paper, we introduce an alternative (yet equivalent) semantics to the classical one for the TSO semantics that is more amenable to efficient algorithmic verification and for the extension to parametric verification. For that, we adopt a dual view where load buffers are used instead of store buffers. The flow of information is now from the memory to load buffers. We show that this new semantics allows (1) to simplify drastically the safety analysis under TSO, (2) to obtain a spectacular gain in efficiency and scalability compared to existing procedures, and (3) to extend easily the decision procedure to the parametric case, which allows obtaining a new decidability result, and more importantly, a verification algorithm that is more general and more efficient in practice than the one for bounded instances.

  • 6.
    Abdulla, Parosh Aziz
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Datorteknik.
    Atig, Mohamed Faouzi
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Datorteknik.
    Lång, Magnus
    Ngo, Tuan Phong
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Datorteknik.
    Precise and sound automatic fence insertion procedure under PSO2015Ingår i: Networked Systems: NETYS 2015, Springer, 2015, s. 32-47Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We give a sound and complete procedure for fence insertion for concurrent finite-state programs running under the PSO memory model. This model allows ''write to read'' and ''write-to-write'' relaxations corresponding to the addition of an unbounded store buffers between processors and the main memory. We introduce a novel machine model, called the Hierarchical Single-Buffer (HSB) semantics, and show that the reachability problem for a program under PSO can be reduced to the reachability problem under HSB. We present a simple and effective backward reachability analysis algorithm for the latter, and propose a counter-example guided fence insertion procedure. The procedure infers automatically a minimal set of fences that ensure correctness of the program. We have implemented a prototype and run it successfully on all standard benchmarks, together with several challenging examples.

  • 7.
    Abdulla, Parosh Aziz
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Datorteknik.
    Atig, Mohamed Faouzi
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Datorteknik.
    Ngo, Tuan-Phong
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Datorteknik.
    The Best of Both Worlds: Trading efficiency and optimality in fence insertion for TSO2015Ingår i: Programming Languages and Systems: ESOP 2015, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2015, s. 308-332Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a method for automatic fence insertion in concurrent programs running under weak memory models that provides the best known trade-off between efficiency and optimality. On the one hand, the method can efficiently handle complex aspects of program behaviors such as unbounded buffers and large numbers of processes. On the other hand, it is able to find small sets of fences needed for ensuring correctness of the program. To this end, we propose a novel notion of correctness, called persistence, that compares the behavior of the program under the weak memory semantics with that under the classical interleaving (SC) semantics. We instantiate our framework for the Total Store Ordering (TSO) memory model, and give an algorithm that reduces the fence insertion problem under TSO to the reachability problem for programs running under SC. Furthermore, we provide an abstraction scheme that substantially increases scalability to large numbers of processes. Based on our method, we have implemented a tool and run it successfully on a wide range benchmarks.

  • 8.
    Ngo, Tuan-Phong
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Datorteknik. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för datorteknik.
    Model Checking of Software Systems under Weak Memory Models2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    When a program is compiled and run on a modern architecture, different optimizations may be applied to gain in efficiency. In particular, the access operations (e.g., read and write) to the shared memory may be performed in an out-of-order manner, i.e., in a different order than the order in which the operations have been issued by the program. The reordering of memory access operations leads to efficient use of instruction pipelines and thus an improvement in program execution times. However, the gain in this efficiency comes at a price. More precisely, programs running under modern architectures may exhibit unexpected behaviors by programmers. The out-of-order execution has led to the invention of new program semantics, called weak memory model (WMM). One crucial problem is to ensure the correctness of concurrent programs running under weak memory models.

    The thesis proposes three techniques for reasoning and analyzing concurrent programs running under WMMs. The first one is a sound and complete analysis technique for finite-state programs running under the TSO semantics (Paper II). This technique is based on a novel and equivalent semantics for TSO, called Dual TSO semantics, and on the use of well-structured transition framework. The second technique is an under-approximation technique that can be used to detect bugs under the POWER semantics (Paper III). This technique is based on bounding the number of contexts in an explored execution where, in each context, there is only one active process. The third technique is also an under-approximation technique based on systematic testing (a.k.a. stateless model checking). This approach has been used to develop an optimal and efficient systematic testing approach for concurrent programs running under the Release-Acquire semantics (Paper IV).

    The thesis also considers the problem of effectively finding a minimal set of fences that guarantees the correctness of a concurrent program running under WMMs (Paper I). A fence (a.k.a. barrier) is an operation that can be inserted in the program to prohibit certain reorderings between operations issued before and after the fence. Since fences are expensive, it is crucial to automatically find a minimal set of fences to ensure the program correctness. This thesis presents a method for automatic fence insertion in programs running under the TSO semantics that offers the best-known trade-off between the efficiency and optimality of the algorithm. The technique is based on a novel notion of correctness, called Persistence, that compares the behaviors of a program running under WMMs to that running under the SC semantics.

    Delarbeten
    1. The Best of Both Worlds: Trading efficiency and optimality in fence insertion for TSO
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>The Best of Both Worlds: Trading efficiency and optimality in fence insertion for TSO
    2015 (Engelska)Ingår i: Programming Languages and Systems: ESOP 2015, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2015, s. 308-332Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a method for automatic fence insertion in concurrent programs running under weak memory models that provides the best known trade-off between efficiency and optimality. On the one hand, the method can efficiently handle complex aspects of program behaviors such as unbounded buffers and large numbers of processes. On the other hand, it is able to find small sets of fences needed for ensuring correctness of the program. To this end, we propose a novel notion of correctness, called persistence, that compares the behavior of the program under the weak memory semantics with that under the classical interleaving (SC) semantics. We instantiate our framework for the Total Store Ordering (TSO) memory model, and give an algorithm that reduces the fence insertion problem under TSO to the reachability problem for programs running under SC. Furthermore, we provide an abstraction scheme that substantially increases scalability to large numbers of processes. Based on our method, we have implemented a tool and run it successfully on a wide range benchmarks.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2015
    Serie
    Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743 ; 9032
    Nyckelord
    weak memory, correctness, verification, TSO, concurrent program
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Datavetenskap (datalogi)
    Forskningsämne
    Datavetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-253645 (URN)10.1007/978-3-662-46669-8_13 (DOI)000361751400013 ()978-3-662-46668-1 (ISBN)
    Konferens
    24th European Symposium on Programming, ESOP 2015, April 11–18, London, UK
    Projekt
    UPMARC
    Tillgänglig från: 2015-05-29 Skapad: 2015-05-29 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-11-21
    2. A load-buffer semantics for total store ordering
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>A load-buffer semantics for total store ordering
    2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Logical Methods in Computer Science, ISSN 1860-5974, E-ISSN 1860-5974, Vol. 14, nr 1, artikel-id 9Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We address the problem of verifying safety properties of concurrent programs running over the Total Store Order (TSO) memory model. Known decision procedures for this model are based on complex encodings of store buffers as lossy channels. These procedures assume that the number of processes is fixed. However, it is important in general to prove the correctness of a system/algorithm in a parametric way with an arbitrarily large number of processes. 

    In this paper, we introduce an alternative (yet equivalent) semantics to the classical one for the TSO semantics that is more amenable to efficient algorithmic verification and for the extension to parametric verification. For that, we adopt a dual view where load buffers are used instead of store buffers. The flow of information is now from the memory to load buffers. We show that this new semantics allows (1) to simplify drastically the safety analysis under TSO, (2) to obtain a spectacular gain in efficiency and scalability compared to existing procedures, and (3) to extend easily the decision procedure to the parametric case, which allows obtaining a new decidability result, and more importantly, a verification algorithm that is more general and more efficient in practice than the one for bounded instances.

    Nyckelord
    Verification, TSO, concurrent program, safety property, well-structured transition system
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Datavetenskap (datalogi)
    Forskningsämne
    Datavetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-337278 (URN)000426512000008 ()
    Projekt
    UPMARC
    Tillgänglig från: 2018-01-23 Skapad: 2017-12-21 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-11-21
    3. Context-bounded analysis for POWER
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Context-bounded analysis for POWER
    2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Tools and Algorithms for the Construction and Analysis of Systems: Part II, Springer, 2017, s. 56-74Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose an under-approximate reachability analysis algorithm for programs running under the POWER memory model, in the spirit of the work on context-bounded analysis initiated by Qadeer et al. in 2005 for detecting bugs in concurrent programs (supposed to be running under the classical SC model). To that end, we first introduce a new notion of context-bounding that is suitable for reasoning about computations under POWER, which generalizes the one defined by Atig et al. in 2011 for the TSO memory model. Then, we provide a polynomial size reduction of the context-bounded state reachability problem under POWER to the same problem under SC: Given an input concurrent program P, our method produces a concurrent program P' such that, for a fixed number of context switches, running P' under SC yields the same set of reachable states as running P under POWER. The generated program P' contains the same number of processes as P and operates on the same data domain. By leveraging the standard model checker CBMC, we have implemented a prototype tool and applied it on a set of benchmarks, showing the feasibility of our approach.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Springer, 2017
    Serie
    Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349 ; 10206
    Nyckelord
    POWER, weak memory model, under approximation, translation, concurrent program, testing
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Datorsystem
    Forskningsämne
    Datavetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-314901 (URN)10.1007/978-3-662-54580-5_4 (DOI)000440733400004 ()978-3-662-54579-9 (ISBN)
    Konferens
    23rd International Conference on Tools and Algorithms for the Construction and Analysis of Systems (TACAS), 2017, April 22–29, Uppsala, Sweden
    Projekt
    UPMARC
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-03-31 Skapad: 2017-02-07 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-11-21Bibliografiskt granskad
    4. Optimal Stateless Model Checking under the Release-Acquire Semantics
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Optimal Stateless Model Checking under the Release-Acquire Semantics
    2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: SPLASH OOPSLA 2018, Boston, Nov 4-9, 2018, ACM Digital Library, 2018Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a framework for efficient application of stateless model checking (SMC) to concurrent programs running under the Release-Acquire (RA) fragment of the C/C++11 memory model. Our approach is based on exploring the possible program orders, which define the order in which instructions of a thread are executed, and read-from relations, which define how reads obtain their values from writes. This is in contrast to previous approaches, which in addition explore the possible coherence orders, i.e., orderings between conflicting writes. Since unexpected test results such as program crashes or assertion violations depend only on the read-from relation, we avoid a potentially large source of redundancy. Our framework is based on a novel technique for determining whether a particular read-from relation is feasible under the RA semantics. We define an SMC algorithm which is provably optimal in the sense that it explores each program order and read-from relation exactly once. This optimality result is strictly stronger than previous analogous optimality results, which also take coherence order into account. We have implemented our framework in the tool Tracer. Experiments show that Tracer can be significantly faster than state-of-the-art tools that can handle the RA semantics.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    ACM Digital Library, 2018
    Nyckelord
    Software model checking, C/C++11, Release-Acquire, Concurrent program
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Datorsystem
    Forskningsämne
    Datavetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-358241 (URN)
    Konferens
    SPLASH OOPSLA 2018
    Projekt
    UPMARC
    Tillgänglig från: 2018-08-26 Skapad: 2018-08-26 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-01-09Bibliografiskt granskad
  • 9.
    Ngo, Tuan-Phong
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Datorteknik.
    Abdulla, Parosh
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Datorteknik.
    Jonsson, Bengt
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Atig, Mohamed Faouzi
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Datorteknik.
    Optimal Stateless Model Checking under the Release-Acquire Semantics2018Ingår i: SPLASH OOPSLA 2018, Boston, Nov 4-9, 2018, ACM Digital Library, 2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a framework for efficient application of stateless model checking (SMC) to concurrent programs running under the Release-Acquire (RA) fragment of the C/C++11 memory model. Our approach is based on exploring the possible program orders, which define the order in which instructions of a thread are executed, and read-from relations, which define how reads obtain their values from writes. This is in contrast to previous approaches, which in addition explore the possible coherence orders, i.e., orderings between conflicting writes. Since unexpected test results such as program crashes or assertion violations depend only on the read-from relation, we avoid a potentially large source of redundancy. Our framework is based on a novel technique for determining whether a particular read-from relation is feasible under the RA semantics. We define an SMC algorithm which is provably optimal in the sense that it explores each program order and read-from relation exactly once. This optimality result is strictly stronger than previous analogous optimality results, which also take coherence order into account. We have implemented our framework in the tool Tracer. Experiments show that Tracer can be significantly faster than state-of-the-art tools that can handle the RA semantics.

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