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  • 1.
    Bengtsson, Fia
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Functional Traits in Sphagnum2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Peat mosses (Sphagnum) are ecosystem engineers that largely govern carbon sequestration in northern hemisphere peatlands. I investigated functional traits in Sphagnum species and addressed the questions: (I) Are growth, photosynthesis and decomposition and the trade-offs between these traits related to habitat or phylogeny?, (II) Which are the determinants of decomposition and are there trade-offs between metabolites that affect decomposition?, (III) How do macro-climate and local environment determine growth in Sphagnum across the Holarctic?, (IV) How does N2 fixation vary among different species and habitats?, (V) How do species from different microtopographic niches avoid or tolerate desiccation, and are leaf and structural traits adaptations to growth high above the water table?

    Photosynthetic rate and decomposition in laboratory conditions (innate growth and decay resistance) were related to growth and decomposition in their natural habitats. We found support for a trade-off between growth and decay resistance, but innate qualities translated differently to field responses in different species. There were no trade-offs between production of different decay-affecting metabolites. Their production is phylogenetically controlled, but their effects on decay are modified by nutrient availability in the habitat. Modelling growth of two species across the Holarctic realm showed that precipitation, temperature and vascular plant cover are the best predictors of performance, but responses were stronger for the wetter growing species. N2 fixation rates were positively related to moss decomposability, field decomposition and tissue phosphorus concentration. Hence, higher decomposition can lead to more nutrients available to N2-fixing microorganisms, while higher concentrations of decomposition-hampering metabolites may impede N2 fixation. A mesocosm experiment, testing effects of water level drawdown on water content and chlorophyll fluorescence, showed that either slow water loss or high maximum water holding capacity can lead to desiccation avoidance. Furthermore, leaf anatomical traits rather than structural traits affected the water economy.

    This thesis has advanced the emerging field of trait ecology in Sphagnum by comparing many species and revealing novel mechanisms and an ever more complex picture of Sphagnum ecology. In addition, the species-specific trait measurements of this work offers opportunities for improvements of peatland ecosystem models.

    Delarbeten
    1. Photosynthesis, growth, and decay traits in Sphagnum – a multispecies comparison
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Photosynthesis, growth, and decay traits in Sphagnum – a multispecies comparison
    2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 6, nr 10, s. 3325-3341Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Peat mosses (Sphagnum) largely govern carbon sequestration in Northern Hemisphere peatlands. We investigated functional traits related to growth and decomposition in Sphagnum species. We tested the importance of environment and phylogeny in driving species traits and investigated trade-offs among them. We selected 15 globally important Sphagnum species, representing four sections (subgenera) and a range of peatland habitats. We measured rates of photosynthesis and decomposition in standard laboratory conditions as measures of innate growth and decay potential, and related this to realized growth, production, and decomposition in their natural habitats. In general, we found support for a trade-off between measures of growth and decomposition. However, the relationships are not strong, with r ranging between 0.24 and 0.45 for different measures of growth versus decomposition. Using photosynthetic rate to predict decomposition in standard conditions yielded R2 = 0.20. Habitat and section (phylogeny) affected the traits and the trade-offs. In a wet year, species from sections Cuspidata and Sphagnum had the highest production, but in a dry year, differences among species, sections, and habitats evened out. Cuspidata species in general produced easily decomposable litter, but their decay in the field was hampered, probably due to near-surface anoxia in their wet habitats. In a principal components analysis, PCA, photosynthetic capacity, production, and laboratory decomposition acted in the same direction. The species were imperfectly clustered according to vegetation type and phylogeny, so that some species clustered with others in the same section, whereas others clustered more clearly with others from similar vegetation types. Our study includes a wider range of species and habitats than previous trait analyses in Sphagnum and shows that while the previously described growth–decay trade-off exists, it is far from perfect. We therefore suggest that our species-specific trait measures offer opportunities for improvements of peatland ecosystem models. Innate qualities measured in laboratory conditions translate differently to field responses. Most dramatically, fast-growing species could only realize their potential in a wet year. The same species decompose fast in laboratory, but their decomposition was more retarded in the field than that of other species. These relationships are crucial for understanding the long-term dynamics of peatland communities.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Ekologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-284287 (URN)10.1002/ece3.2119 (DOI)000376646700024 ()27103989 (PubMedID)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    VetenskapsrådetForskningsrådet FormasKungliga Vetenskapsakademien
    Tillgänglig från: 2016-04-16 Skapad: 2016-04-16 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-02-01Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Biochemical determinants of litter quality in 15 species of Sphagnum
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Biochemical determinants of litter quality in 15 species of Sphagnum
    2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Plant and Soil, ISSN 0032-079X, E-ISSN 1573-5036, Vol. 425, nr 1-2, s. 161-176Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims Sphagnum mosses are ecosystem engineers that create and maintain boreal peatlands. With unique biochemistry, waterlogging and acidifying capacities, they build up meters-thick layers of peat, reducing competition and impeding decomposition. We quantify within-genus differences in biochemical composition to make inferences about decay rates, related to hummock-hollow and fen-bog gradients and to phylogeny. Methods We sampled litter from 15 Sphagnum species, abundant over the whole northern hemisphere. We used regression and Principal Components Analysis (PCA) to evaluate general relationships between litter quality parameters and decay rates measured under laboratory and field conditions. Results Both concentrations of the polysaccharide sphagnan and the soluble phenolics were positively correlated with intrinsic decay resistance, however, so were the previously understudied lignin-like phenolics. More resistant litter had more of all the important metabolites; consequently, PC1 scores were related to lab mass loss (R-2 = 0.57). There was no such relationship with field mass loss, which is also affected by the environment. PCA also revealed that metabolites clearly group Sphagnum sections (subgenera). Conclusions We suggest that the commonly stated growth-decomposition trade-off is largely due to litter quality. We show a strong phylogenetic control on Sphagnum metabolites, but their effects on decay are affected by nutrient availability in the habitat.

    Nyckelord
    Peatland, Decay resistance, Sphagnan, Phenolics, Lignin, Hummock-hollow
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Botanik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-354249 (URN)10.1007/s11104-018-3579-8 (DOI)000430992300011 ()
    Forskningsfinansiär
    VetenskapsrådetKungliga Vetenskapsakademien
    Anmärkning

    Correction in: PLANT AND SOIL, Volume: 439, Issue: 1-2, Pages: 569-572, Special Issue: SI, DOI: 10.1007/s11104-019-04046-5

    Tillgänglig från: 2018-06-29 Skapad: 2018-06-29 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-08-16Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Environmental drivers of Sphagnum growth in mires across the Holarctic region
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Environmental drivers of Sphagnum growth in mires across the Holarctic region
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Nyckelord
    climate, global change, NPP, peatlands, peat mosses, nitrogen deposition
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Naturvetenskap
    Forskningsämne
    Biologi med inriktning mot ekologisk botanik; Biologi med inriktning mot ekologisk botanik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-375010 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2019-01-24 Skapad: 2019-01-24 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-02-01
    4. Variation in symbiotic Nfixation among Sphagnum and feather mosses
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Variation in symbiotic Nfixation among Sphagnum and feather mosses
    Visa övriga...
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Nyckelord
    diazotrophs, peat moss, bog, peatland, nitrogen, phosphorus, carbon, nutrient cycling, traits, boreal forest
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Naturvetenskap
    Forskningsämne
    Biologi med inriktning mot ekologisk botanik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-375008 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2019-01-24 Skapad: 2019-01-24 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-02-01
    5. Mechanisms behind species-specific water economy responses to water level drawdown in peat mosses
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Mechanisms behind species-specific water economy responses to water level drawdown in peat mosses
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Nyckelord
    peat mosses, water economy, capitulum water content, bulk density, hyaline cell, pore size, leaf anatomy
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Naturvetenskap
    Forskningsämne
    Biologi med inriktning mot ekologisk botanik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-375009 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2019-01-24 Skapad: 2019-01-24 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-02-26
  • 2.
    Bengtsson, Fia
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Granath, Gustaf
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Cronberg, Nils
    Rydin, Håkan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Mechanisms behind species-specific water economy responses to water level drawdown in peat mossesManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 3.
    Bengtsson, Fia
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Granath, Gustaf
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Cronberg, Nils
    Rydin, Håkan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Mechanisms behind species-specific water economy responses to water level drawdown in peat mossesManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 4.
    Bengtsson, Fia
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Granath, Gustaf
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rydin, Håkan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Photosynthesis, growth, and decay traits in Sphagnum – a multispecies comparison2016Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 6, nr 10, s. 3325-3341Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Peat mosses (Sphagnum) largely govern carbon sequestration in Northern Hemisphere peatlands. We investigated functional traits related to growth and decomposition in Sphagnum species. We tested the importance of environment and phylogeny in driving species traits and investigated trade-offs among them. We selected 15 globally important Sphagnum species, representing four sections (subgenera) and a range of peatland habitats. We measured rates of photosynthesis and decomposition in standard laboratory conditions as measures of innate growth and decay potential, and related this to realized growth, production, and decomposition in their natural habitats. In general, we found support for a trade-off between measures of growth and decomposition. However, the relationships are not strong, with r ranging between 0.24 and 0.45 for different measures of growth versus decomposition. Using photosynthetic rate to predict decomposition in standard conditions yielded R2 = 0.20. Habitat and section (phylogeny) affected the traits and the trade-offs. In a wet year, species from sections Cuspidata and Sphagnum had the highest production, but in a dry year, differences among species, sections, and habitats evened out. Cuspidata species in general produced easily decomposable litter, but their decay in the field was hampered, probably due to near-surface anoxia in their wet habitats. In a principal components analysis, PCA, photosynthetic capacity, production, and laboratory decomposition acted in the same direction. The species were imperfectly clustered according to vegetation type and phylogeny, so that some species clustered with others in the same section, whereas others clustered more clearly with others from similar vegetation types. Our study includes a wider range of species and habitats than previous trait analyses in Sphagnum and shows that while the previously described growth–decay trade-off exists, it is far from perfect. We therefore suggest that our species-specific trait measures offer opportunities for improvements of peatland ecosystem models. Innate qualities measured in laboratory conditions translate differently to field responses. Most dramatically, fast-growing species could only realize their potential in a wet year. The same species decompose fast in laboratory, but their decomposition was more retarded in the field than that of other species. These relationships are crucial for understanding the long-term dynamics of peatland communities.

  • 5.
    Bengtsson, Fia
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Rydin, Håkan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Granath, Gustaf
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Environmental drivers of Sphagnum growth in mires across the Holarctic regionManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 6.
    Bengtsson, Fia
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Rydin, Håkan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Hajek, Tomas
    Univ South Bohemia, Dept Expt Plant Biol, Fac Sci, Branisovska 1760, CZ-37005 Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic;Czech Acad Sci, Inst Bot, Dept Funct Ecol, Dukelska 135, CZ-37982 Trebon, Czech Republic.
    Biochemical determinants of litter quality in 15 species of Sphagnum2018Ingår i: Plant and Soil, ISSN 0032-079X, E-ISSN 1573-5036, Vol. 425, nr 1-2, s. 161-176Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims Sphagnum mosses are ecosystem engineers that create and maintain boreal peatlands. With unique biochemistry, waterlogging and acidifying capacities, they build up meters-thick layers of peat, reducing competition and impeding decomposition. We quantify within-genus differences in biochemical composition to make inferences about decay rates, related to hummock-hollow and fen-bog gradients and to phylogeny. Methods We sampled litter from 15 Sphagnum species, abundant over the whole northern hemisphere. We used regression and Principal Components Analysis (PCA) to evaluate general relationships between litter quality parameters and decay rates measured under laboratory and field conditions. Results Both concentrations of the polysaccharide sphagnan and the soluble phenolics were positively correlated with intrinsic decay resistance, however, so were the previously understudied lignin-like phenolics. More resistant litter had more of all the important metabolites; consequently, PC1 scores were related to lab mass loss (R-2 = 0.57). There was no such relationship with field mass loss, which is also affected by the environment. PCA also revealed that metabolites clearly group Sphagnum sections (subgenera). Conclusions We suggest that the commonly stated growth-decomposition trade-off is largely due to litter quality. We show a strong phylogenetic control on Sphagnum metabolites, but their effects on decay are affected by nutrient availability in the habitat.

  • 7.
    Granath, Gustaf
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Rydin, Håkan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Baltzer, Jennifer L.
    Biology Department, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Canada.
    Bengtsson, Fia
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Boncek, Nicholas
    Department of Biological Sciences, Union College, Schenectady, NY, USA.
    Bragazza, Luca
    Department of Life Science and Biotechnologies, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy; Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, WSL Site Lausanne, Station 2, Lausanne, Switzerland; Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne EPFL, School of Architecture, Civil and Environmental Engineering ENAC, Laboratory of ecological systems ECOS, Station 2, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Bu, Zhao-Jun
    Institute for Peat and Mire Research, Northeast Normal University, State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Wetland Ecology and Vegetation Restoration, Changchun, China; Jilin Provincial Key Laboratory for Wetland Ecological Processes and Environmental Change in the Changbai Mountains, Changchun, China.
    Caporn, Simon J. M.
    School of Science and the Environment, Division of Biology and Conservation Ecology, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK.
    Dorrepaal, Ellen
    Climate Impacts Research Centre, Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, Abisko, Sweden.
    Galanina, Olga
    Institute of Earth Sciences, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia; Komarov Botanical Institute Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia.
    Galka, Mariusz
    Laboratory of Wetland Ecology and Monitoring & Department of Biogeography and Paleoecology, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Poznan, Polen.
    Ganeva, Anna
    Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Gillikin, David P.
    Department of Geology, Union College, Schenectady, NY, USA.
    Goia, Irina
    Babe ̧s-Bolyai University, Faculty of Biology and Geology, Department of Taxonomy and Ecology, Cluj Napoca, Romania.
    Goncharova, Nadezhda
    Institute of Biology of Komi Scientific Centre of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Syktyvkar, Russia.
    Hajek, Michal
    Masaryk Univ, Fac Sci, Dept Bot & Zool, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Haraguchi, Akira
    Univ Kitakyushu, Dept Biol, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Harris, Lorna I.
    McGill Univ, Dept Geog, Montreal, Canada.
    Humphreys, Elyn
    Carleton Univ, Dept Geog & Environm Studies, Ottawa, Canada.
    Jirousek, Martin
    Masaryk Univ, Fac Sci, Dept Bot & Zool, Brno, Czech Republic; Mendel Univ Brno, Fac AgriSci, Dept Plant Biol, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Kajukalo, Katarzyna
    Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Lab Wetland Ecol & Monitoring, Poznan, Poland; Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Dept Biogeog & Paleoecol, Poznan, Poland.
    Karofeld, Edgar
    Univ Tartu, Inst Ecol & Earth Sci, Tartu, Estonia.
    Koronatova, Natalia G.
    Russian Acad Sci, Siberian Branch, Inst Soil Sci & Agrochem, Lab Biogeocenol, Novosibirsk, Russia.
    Kosykh, Natalia P.
    Russian Acad Sci, Siberian Branch, Inst Soil Sci & Agrochem, Lab Biogeocenol, Novosibirsk, Russia.
    Lamentowicz, Mariusz
    Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Lab Wetland Ecol & Monitoring, Poznan, Poland; Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Dept Biogeog & Paleoecol, Poznan, Poland.
    Lapshina, Elena
    Yugra State Univ, Khanty Mansiysk, Russia.
    Limpens, Juul
    Wageningen Univ, Plant Ecol & Nat Conservat Grp, Wageningen, Netherlands.
    Linkosalmi, Maiju
    Finnish Meteorol Inst, Helsinki, Finland.
    Ma, Jin-Ze
    Northeast Normal Univ, State Environm Protect Key Lab Wetland Ecol & Veg, Inst Peat & Mire Res, Changchun, Jilin, Peoples R China; Jilin Prov Key Lab Wetland Ecol Proc & Environm C, Changchun, Jilin, Peoples R China.
    Mauritz, Marguerite
    No Arizona Univ, Dept Biol Sci, Ctr Ecosyst Sci & Soc Ecoss, Flagstaff, USA.
    Munir, Tariq M.
    Univ Calgary, Dept Geog, Calgary, Canada; St Marys Univ, Dept Geol, Calgary, Canada.
    Natali, Susan M.
    Woods Hole Res Ctr, Falmouth, USA.
    Natcheva, Rayna
    Bulgarian Acad Sci, Inst Biodivers & Ecosyst Res, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Noskova, Maria
    Russian Acad Sci, Komarov Bot Inst, St Petersburg, Russia.
    Payne, Richard J.
    Univ York, Environm, York, N Yorkshire, England; Penza State Univ, Penza, Russia.
    Pilkington, Kyle
    Union Coll, Dept Biol Sci, Schenectady, NY USA.
    Robinson, Sean
    SUNY Coll Oneonta, Dept Biol, Oneonta, NY USA.
    Robroek, Bjorn J. M.
    Univ Southampton, Biol Sci, Southampton, Hants, England.
    Rochefort, Line
    Laval Univ, Dept Plant Sci, Quebec City, PQ, Canada; Laval Univ, Ctr Northern Studies, Quebec City, PQ, Canada.
    Singer, David
    Univ Neuchatel, Inst Biol, Lab Soil Biodivers, Neuchatel, Switzerland; Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Biosci, Dept Zool, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Stenoien, Hans K.
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, NTNU Univ Museum, Trondheim, Norway.
    Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina
    Univ Eastern Finland, Sch Forest Sci, Peatland & Soil Ecol Grp, Joensuu, Finland.
    Vellak, Kai
    Univ Tartu, Inst Ecol & Earth Sci, Tartu, Estonia.
    Verheyden, Anouk
    Union Coll, Dept Geol, Schenectady, NY USA.
    Waddington, James Michael
    McMaster Univ, Sch Geog & Earth Sci, Hamilton, Canada.
    Rice, Steven K.
    Union Coll, Dept Biol Sci, Schenectady, NY USA.
    Environmental and taxonomic controls of carbon and oxygen stable isotope composition in Sphagnum across broad climatic and geographic ranges2018Ingår i: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 15, nr 16, s. 5189-5202Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Rain-fed peatlands are dominated by peat mosses (Sphagnum sp.), which for their growth depend on nutrients, water and CO2 uptake from the atmosphere. As the isotopic composition of carbon (C-12(,)13) and oxygen (O-16(,)18) of these Sphagnum mosses are affected by environmental conditions, Sphagnum tissue accumulated in peat constitutes a potential long-term archive that can be used for climate reconstruction. However, there is inadequate understanding of how isotope values are influenced by environmental conditions, which restricts their current use as environmental and palaeoenvironmental indicators. Here we tested (i) to what extent C and O isotopic variation in living tissue of Sphagnum is speciesspecific and associated with local hydrological gradients, climatic gradients (evapotranspiration, temperature, precipitation) and elevation; (ii) whether the C isotopic signature can be a proxy for net primary productivity (NPP) of Sphagnum; and (iii) to what extent Sphagnum tissue delta O-18 tracks the delta O-18 isotope signature of precipitation. In total, we analysed 337 samples from 93 sites across North America and Eurasia us ing two important peat-forming Sphagnum species (S. magellanicum, S. fuscum) common to the Holarctic realm. There were differences in delta C-13 values between species. For S. magellanicum delta C-13 decreased with increasing height above the water table (HWT, R-2 = 17 %) and was positively correlated to productivity (R-2 = 7 %). Together these two variables explained 46 % of the between-site variation in delta C-13 values. For S. fuscum, productivity was the only significant predictor of delta C-13 but had low explanatory power (total R-2 = 6 %). For delta O-18 values, approximately 90 % of the variation was found between sites. Globally modelled annual delta O-18 values in precipitation explained 69 % of the between-site variation in tissue delta O-18. S. magellanicum showed lower delta O-18 enrichment than S. fuscum (-0.83 %0 lower). Elevation and climatic variables were weak predictors of tissue delta O-18 values after controlling for delta O-18 values of the precipitation. To summarize, our study provides evidence for (a) good predictability of tissue delta O-18 values from modelled annual delta O-18 values in precipitation, and (b) the possibility of relating tissue delta C-13 values to HWT and NPP, but this appears to be species-dependent. These results suggest that isotope composition can be used on a large scale for climatic reconstructions but that such models should be species-specific.

  • 8.
    Mazziotta, Adriano
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm Resilience Ctr, Stockholm, Sweden;Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Species Informat Ctr, Box 7007, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Granath, Gustaf
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Rydin, Håkan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Bengtsson, Fia
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Norberg, Jon
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm Resilience Ctr, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Scaling functional traits to ecosystem processes: Towards a mechanistic understanding in peat mosses2019Ingår i: Journal of Ecology, ISSN 0022-0477, E-ISSN 1365-2745, Vol. 107, nr 2, s. 843-859Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of trait trade-offs and environmental filtering in explaining the variability in functional traits and ecosystem processes has received considerable attention for vascular plants but less so for bryophytes. Thus, we do not know whether the same forces also shape the phenotypic variability of bryophytes. Here, we assess how environmental gradients and trade-offs shape functional traits and subsequently ecosystem processes for peat mosses (Sphagnum), a globally important plant genus for carbon accumulation. We used piecewise Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to understand how environmental gradients influence vital processes across levels of biological organization. We gathered data on functional traits for 15 globally important Sphagnum species covering a wide range of ecological preferences. Phenotypes lie along well-established axes of the plant economic spectrum characterizing trade-offs between vital physiological functions. Using SEM, we clarified the mechanisms of trait covariation and scaling to ecosystem processes. We tested whether peat mosses, like vascular plants, constrain trait variability between a fast turnover strategy based on resource acquisition via fast traits and processes, and a strategy of resource conservation, via slow traits and processes. We parameterized a process-based model estimating ecosystem processes linking environmental drivers with architectural and functional traits. In our SEM approach the amount of variance explained varied substantially (0.29 <= R-2 <= 0.82) among traits and processes in Sphagnum, and the model could predict some of them with high to intermediate accuracy for an independent dataset. R-2 variability was mainly explained by traits and species identity, and poorly by environmental filtering. Some Sphagnum species avoid the stress caused by periodic desiccation in hollows via resource acquisition based on fast photosynthesis and growth, while other species are adapted to grow high above the water-table on hummocks by slow physiological traits and processes to conserve resources. Synthesis.We contribute to a unified theory generating individual fitness, canopy dynamics and ecosystem processes from trait variation. As for vascular plants, the functional traits in the Sphagnum economic spectrum are linked into an integrated phenotypic network partly filtered by the environment and shaped by trade-offs in resource acquisition and conservation.

  • 9.
    Tyler, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Biol Museum, POB 117, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Fia
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Dahlberg, Carl Johan
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Ecol Environm & Plant Sci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lonnell, Niklas
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Species Informat Ctr, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hallingback, Tomas
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Species Informat Ctr, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Reitalu, Triin
    Tallinn Univ Technol, Inst Geol, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Determinants of bryophyte species composition and diversity on the Great Alvar of oland, Sweden2018Ingår i: Journal of Bryology, ISSN 0373-6687, E-ISSN 1743-2820, Vol. 40, nr 1, s. 12-30Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Factors driving the species richness and distribution of bryophytes are poorly studied and not well understood, particularly in grasslands. We analysed the occurrence of bryophyte species and variation in species richness across 674 plots (0.5 m x 0.5 m) in alvar vegetation (grassland on limestone pavement with thin or no soil) on oland (Sweden) in relation to substrate characteristics and chemistry, inundation frequency, grazing pressure and geographical variables. We found 148 taxa, including 11 nationally red-listed ones. Species richness per plot was significantly associated with substrate type, positively associated with pH and grazing intensity, but negatively associated with soil depth. However, richness of species typical of, or restricted to, alvar habitats responded differently to richness of species more common in other habitats. Typical alvar species were favoured by high pH, shallow soil and low phosphate availability, while generalists preferred relatively low pH, higher phosphate availability and organic or mull soil types. Distance from the alvar margin had only weak effects. Concerning the effects on individual species and community composition, inundation frequency and pH were found to have the largest effects, although other factors (substrate type, soil depth, bare soil, bare stone, phosphate availability and grazing pressure) were more important for some individual species, stressing the importance of microsite variability and variability in management for regional species richness. From a conservation perspective, it is concluded that grazing is generally positive whilst factors increasing phosphate availability may disadvantage the typical alvar species, and proximity to the alvar margin is not a major problem.

  • 10. van den Elzen, Eva
    et al.
    Bengtsson, Fia
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Fritz, Christian
    Rydin, Håkan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Lamers, Leon P.M.
    Variation in symbiotic Nfixation among Sphagnum and feather mossesManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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