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  • 101.
    Idborg, Helena
    et al.
    Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Zandian, Arash
    SciLifeLab, Division of Affinity Proteomics, Department of Protein Science, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ossipova, Elena
    Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wigren, Edvard
    Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Preger, Charlotta
    Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Mobarrez, Fariborz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cancer Pharmacology and Computational Medicine.
    Checa, Antonio
    Division of Physiological Chemistry 2, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Sohrabian, Azita
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Pucholt, Pascal
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology.
    Sandling, Johanna K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology.
    Fernandes-Cerqueira, Cátia
    Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Rönnelid, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Oke, Vilija
    Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Grosso, Giorgia
    Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Kvarnström, Marika
    Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Wheelock, Craig E
    Division of Physiological Chemistry 2, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Syvänen, Ann-Christine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Rönnblom, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology.
    Kultima, Kim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Persson, Helena
    Science for Life Laboratory, Drug Discovery and Development & School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Gräslund, Susanne
    Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Gunnarsson, Iva
    Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Nilsson, Peter
    SciLifeLab, Division of Affinity Proteomics, Department of Protein Science, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Svenungsson, Elisabet
    Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Jakobsson, Per-Johan
    Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Circulating Levels of Interferon Regulatory Factor-5 Associates With Subgroups of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients.2019In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 10, article id 1029Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a heterogeneous autoimmune disease, which currently lacks specific diagnostic biomarkers. The diversity within the patients obstructs clinical trials but may also reflect differences in underlying pathogenesis. Our objective was to obtain protein profiles to identify potential general biomarkers of SLE and to determine molecular subgroups within SLE for patient stratification. Plasma samples from a cross-sectional study of well-characterized SLE patients (n = 379) and matched population controls (n = 316) were analyzed by antibody suspension bead array targeting 281 proteins. To investigate the differences between SLE and controls, Mann-Whitney U-test with Bonferroni correction, generalized linear modeling and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis were performed. K-means clustering was used to identify molecular SLE subgroups. We identified Interferon regulating factor 5 (IRF5), solute carrier family 22 member 2 (SLC22A2) and S100 calcium binding protein A12 (S100A12) as the three proteins with the largest fold change between SLE patients and controls (SLE/Control = 1.4, 1.4, and 1.2 respectively). The lowest p-values comparing SLE patients and controls were obtained for S100A12, Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP1) and SLC22A2 (padjusted = 3 × 10-9, 3 × 10-6, and 5 × 10-6 respectively). In a set of 15 potential biomarkers differentiating SLE patients and controls, two of the proteins were transcription factors, i.e., IRF5 and SAM pointed domain containing ETS transcription factor (SPDEF). IRF5 was up-regulated while SPDEF was found to be down-regulated in SLE patients. Unsupervised clustering of all investigated proteins identified three molecular subgroups among SLE patients, characterized by (1) high levels of rheumatoid factor-IgM, (2) low IRF5, and (3) high IRF5. IRF5 expressing microparticles were analyzed by flow cytometry in a subset of patients to confirm the presence of IRF5 in plasma and detection of extracellular IRF5 was further confirmed by immunoprecipitation-mass spectrometry (IP-MS). Interestingly IRF5, a known genetic risk factor for SLE, was detected extracellularly and suggested by unsupervised clustering analysis to differentiate between SLE subgroups. Our results imply a set of circulating molecules as markers of possible pathogenic importance in SLE. We believe that these findings could be of relevance for understanding the pathogenesis and diversity of SLE, as well as for selection of patients in clinical trials.

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  • 102.
    Imgenberg-Kreuz, Juliana
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine.
    Epigenetic and Gene Expression Signatures in Systemic Inflammatory Autoimmune Diseases2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Autoimmune diseases are clinical manifestations of a loss-of-tolerance of the immune system against the body’s own substances and healthy tissues. Primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are two chronic inflammatory autoimmune diseases characterized by autoantibody production and an activated type I interferon system. Although the precise mechanisms leading to autoimmune processes are not well defined, recent studies suggest that aberrant DNA methylation and gene expression patterns may play a central role in the pathogenesis of these disorders. The aim of this thesis was to investigate DNA methylation and gene expression in pSS and SLE on a genome-wide scale to advance our understanding of how these factors contribute to the diseases and to identify potential biomarkers and novel treatment targets.

    In study I, differential DNA methylation was analyzed in multiple tissues from pSS patients and healthy controls. We identified thousands of CpG sites with perturbed methylation; the most prominent finding was a profound hypomethylation at regulatory regions of type I interferon induced genes in pSS. In study II, a cases-case study comparing DNA methylation in pSS patients with high fatigue to patients with low fatigue, we found methylation patterns associated to the degree of fatigue. In study III, RNA-sequencing was applied to investigate the transcriptome of B cells in pSS in comparison to controls. Increased expression of type I and type II interferon regulated genes in pSS was observed, indicating ongoing immune activation in B cells. In study IV, the impact of DNA methylation on disease susceptibility and phenotypic variability in SLE was investigated. We identified DNA methylation patterns associated to disease susceptibility, SLE manifestations and different treatments. In addition, we mapped methylation quantitative trait loci and observed evidence for genetic regulation of DNA methylation in SLE.  

    In conclusion, the results presented in this thesis provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying autoimmunity in pSS and SLE. The studies confirm the central role of the interferon system in pSS and SLE and further suggest novel genes and mechanisms to be involved in the pathogenesis these autoimmune diseases.

    List of papers
    1. Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis in multiple tissues in primary Sjögren's syndrome reveals regulatory effects at interferon-induced genes
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis in multiple tissues in primary Sjögren's syndrome reveals regulatory effects at interferon-induced genes
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 75, no 11, p. 2029-2036Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Increasing evidence suggests an epigenetic contribution to the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, including primary Sjögren's Syndrome (pSS). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of DNA methylation in pSS by analysing multiple tissues from patients and controls.

    METHODS: Genome-wide DNA methylation profiles were generated using HumanMethylation450K BeadChips for whole blood, CD19+ B cells and minor salivary gland biopsies. Gene expression was analysed in CD19+ B cells by RNA-sequencing. Analysis of genetic regulatory effects on DNA methylation at known pSS risk loci was performed.

    RESULTS: We identified prominent hypomethylation of interferon (IFN)-regulated genes in whole blood and CD19+ B cells, including at the genes MX1, IFI44L and PARP9, replicating previous reports in pSS, as well as identifying a large number of novel associations. Enrichment for genomic overlap with histone marks for enhancer and promoter regions was observed. We showed for the first time that hypomethylation of IFN-regulated genes in pSS B cells was associated with their increased expression. In minor salivary gland biopsies we observed hypomethylation of the IFN-induced gene OAS2. Pathway and disease analysis resulted in enrichment of antigen presentation, IFN signalling and lymphoproliferative disorders. Evidence for genetic control of methylation levels at known pSS risk loci was observed.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights the role of epigenetic regulation of IFN-induced genes in pSS where replication is needed for novel findings. The association with altered gene expression suggests a functional mechanism for differentially methylated CpG sites in pSS aetiology.

    National Category
    Rheumatology and Autoimmunity
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-278026 (URN)10.1136/annrheumdis-2015-208659 (DOI)000386469300023 ()26857698 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationSwedish Society for Medical Research (SSMF), 521-2014-2263 521-2013-2830Swedish Research Council, 350-2012-256Science for Life Laboratory - a national resource center for high-throughput molecular bioscience
    Note

    De 2 första författarna delar förstaförfattarskapet.

    Available from: 2016-02-23 Created: 2016-02-23 Last updated: 2019-10-23Bibliographically approved
    2. Epigenome-wide DNA methylation patterns associated with fatigue in primary Sjogren's syndrome
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Epigenome-wide DNA methylation patterns associated with fatigue in primary Sjogren's syndrome
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    2016 (English)In: Rheumatology, ISSN 1462-0324, E-ISSN 1462-0332, Vol. 55, no 6, p. 1074-1082Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. Chronic fatigue is a common, disabling and poorly understood phenomenon. Recent studies indicate that epigenetic mechanisms may be involved in the expression of fatigue, a prominent feature of primary SS (pSS). The aim of this study was to investigate whether DNA methylation profiles of whole blood are associated with fatigue in patients with pSS. Methods. Forty-eight pSS patients with high (n = 24) or low (n = 24) fatigue as measured by a visual analogue scale were included. Genome-wide DNA methylation was investigated using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. After quality control, a total of 383 358 Cytosine-phosphate-Guanine (CpG) sites remained for further analysis. Age, sex and differential cell count estimates were included as covariates in the association model. A false discovery rate-corrected P < 0.05 was considered significant, and a cut-off of 3% average difference in methylation levels between high- and low-fatigue patients was applied. Results. A total of 251 differentially methylated CpG sites were associated with fatigue. The CpG site with the most pronounced hypomethylation in pSS high fatigue annotated to the SBF2-antisense RNA1 gene. The most distinct hypermethylation was observed at a CpG site annotated to the lymphotoxin alpha gene. Functional pathway analysis of genes with differently methylated CpG sites in subjects with high vs low fatigue revealed enrichment in several pathways associated with innate and adaptive immunity. Conclusion. Some genes involved in regulation of the immune system and in inflammation are differently methylated in pSS patients with high vs low fatigue. These findings point to functional networks that may underlie fatigue. Epigenetic changes could constitute a fatigue-regulating mechanism in pSS.

    Keywords
    primary Sjogren's syndrome, epigenetics, DNA methylation, fatigue
    National Category
    Rheumatology and Autoimmunity
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-299502 (URN)10.1093/rheumatology/kew008 (DOI)000377432200015 ()
    Available from: 2016-07-22 Created: 2016-07-22 Last updated: 2017-11-28Bibliographically approved
    3. Transcription profiling in CD19+ B-cells in primary Sjögren's syndrome reveals an interferon-signature with upregulated BAFF and TLR7
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Transcription profiling in CD19+ B-cells in primary Sjögren's syndrome reveals an interferon-signature with upregulated BAFF and TLR7
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Research subject
    Medical Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-310386 (URN)
    Available from: 2016-12-14 Created: 2016-12-14 Last updated: 2016-12-14
    4. DNA methylation mapping identifies gene regulatory effects in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>DNA methylation mapping identifies gene regulatory effects in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Research subject
    Medical Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-310387 (URN)
    Available from: 2016-12-14 Created: 2016-12-14 Last updated: 2016-12-14
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  • 103.
    Imgenberg-Kreuz, Juliana
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology.
    Almlöf, Jonas Carlsson
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Leonard, Dag
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology.
    Alexsson, Andrei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology.
    Nordmark, Gunnel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology.
    Eloranta, Maija-Leena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology.
    Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Anders A
    Lund University, Skane University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Jönsen, Andreas
    Lund University, Skane University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Padyukov, Leonid
    Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gunnarsson, Iva
    Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Svenungsson, Elisabet
    Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Rönnblom, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology.
    Syvänen, Ann-Christine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular epidemiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Sandling, Johanna K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    DNA methylation mapping identifies gene regulatory effects in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus2018In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 77, no 5, p. 736-743Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune condition with heterogeneous presentation and complex aetiology where DNA methylation changes are emerging as a contributing factor. In order to discover novel epigenetic associations and investigate their relationship to genetic risk for SLE, we analysed DNA methylation profiles in a large collection of patients with SLE and healthy individuals.

    Methods: DNA extracted from blood from 548 patients with SLE and 587 healthy controls were analysed on the Illumina HumanMethylation 450 k BeadChip, which targets 485 000 CpG sites across the genome. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype data for 196 524 SNPs on the Illumina ImmunoChip from the same individuals were utilised for methylation quantitative trait loci (cis-meQTLs) analyses.

    Results: We identified and replicated differentially methylated CpGs (DMCs) in SLE at 7245 CpG sites in the genome. The largest methylation differences were observed at type I interferon-regulated genes which exhibited decreased methylation in SLE. We mapped cis-meQTLs and identified genetic regulation of methylation levels at 466 of the DMCs in SLE. The meQTLs for DMCs in SLE were enriched for genetic association to SLE, and included seven SLE genome-wide association study (GWAS) loci: PTPRC (CD45), MHC-class III, UHRF1BP1, IRF5, IRF7, IKZF3 and UBE2L3. In addition, we observed association between genotype and variance of methylation at 20 DMCs in SLE, including at the HLA-DQB2 locus.

    Conclusions: Our results suggest that several of the genetic risk variants for SLE may exert their influence on the phenotype through alteration of DNA methylation levels at regulatory regions of target genes.

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    fulltext
  • 104.
    Imgenberg-Kreuz, Juliana
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology.
    Almlöf, Jonas Carlsson
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Leonard, Dag
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Nordmark, Gunnel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Eloranta, Maija-Leena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Padyukov, Leonid
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Rheumatol Unit, Dept Med Solna, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Gunnarsson, Iva
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Rheumatol Unit, Dept Med Solna, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Svenungsson, Elisabet
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Rheumatol Unit, Dept Med Solna, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Sjowall, Christopher
    Linkoping Univ, Rheumatol AIR, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Rönnblom, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology.
    Syvänen, Ann-Christine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Sandling, Johanna K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology.
    Treatment-Associated DNA Methylation Patterns in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus2017In: Arthritis & Rheumatology, ISSN 2326-5191, E-ISSN 2326-5205, Vol. 69, no S10, article id 2654Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 105.
    Imgenberg-Kreuz, Juliana
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology.
    Carlsson Almlöf, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine.
    Leonard, Dag
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Div Neuro & Inflammat Sci, Rheumatol, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Syvänen, Ann-Christine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Rönnblom, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Sandling, Johanna K.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology.
    Nordmark, Gunnel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala Univ, Sect Rheumatol, Uppsala, Sweden;Uppsala Univ, Sci Life Lab, Dept Med Sci, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Shared and Unique Patterns of DNA Methylation in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Primary Sjogren's Syndrome2019In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 10, article id 1686Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To performa cross-comparative analysis of DNA methylation in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome (pSS), and healthy controls addressing the question of epigenetic sharing and aiming to detect disease-specific alterations. Methods: DNA extracted from peripheral blood from 347 cases with SLE, 100 cases with pSS, and 400 healthy controls were analyzed on the Human Methylation 450k array, targeting 485,000 CpG sites across the genome. A linear regression model including age, sex, and blood cell type distribution as covariates was fitted, and association p-values were Bonferroni corrected. A random forest machine learning classifier was designed for prediction of disease status based on DNA methylation data. Results: We established a combined set of 4,945 shared differentially methylated CpG sites (DMCs) in SLE and pSS compared to controls. In pSS, hypomethylation at type I interferon induced genes was mainly driven by patients who were positive for Ro/SSA and/or La/SSB autoantibodies. Analysis of differential methylation between SLE and pSS identified 2,244 DMCs with a majority of sites showing decreased methylation in SLE compared to pSS. The random forest classifier demonstrated good performance in discerning between disease status with an area under the curve (AUC) between 0.83 and 0.96. Conclusions: The majority of differential DNA methylation is shared between SLE and pSS, however, important quantitative differences exist. Our data highlight neutrophil dysregulation as a shared mechanism, emphasizing the role of neutrophils in the pathogenesis of systemic autoimmune diseases. The current study provides evidence for genes and molecular pathways driving common and disease-specific pathogenic mechanisms.

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  • 106.
    Imgenberg-Kreuz, Juliana
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology.
    Leonard, Dag
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Carlsson Almlöf, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Rantapaa-Dahlqvist, S.
    Umea Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med Rheumatol, Umea, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, A.
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci, Rheumatol, Lund, Sweden.
    Jonsen, A.
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci, Rheumatol, Lund, Sweden.
    Padyukov, L.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Solna, Rheumatol Unit, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gunnarsson, I.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Solna, Rheumatol Unit, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Svenungsson, E.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Solna, Rheumatol Unit, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sjowall, C.
    Linkoping Univ, Rheumatol Div Neuro & Inflammat Sci, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Syvänen, Ann-Christine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Rönnblom, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Nordmark, Gunnel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Sandling, Johanna K.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology.
    Shared and unique patterns of DNA methylation in primary Sjogren's syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology, ISSN 0300-9742, E-ISSN 1502-7732, Vol. 47, p. 3-3Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 107.
    Imgenberg-Kreuz, Juliana
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Sandling, Johanna K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Almlöf, Jonas Carlsson
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Nordlund, Jessica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Signer, Linnea
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Norheim, Katrine B.
    Stavanger Univ Hosp, Dept Internal Med, Clin Immunol Unit, Stavanger, Norway..
    Omdal, Roald
    Stavanger Univ Hosp, Dept Internal Med, Clin Immunol Unit, Stavanger, Norway..
    Eloranta, Majia-Leena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Rönnblom, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Syvanen, Ann-Christine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Nordmark, Gunnel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Hypomethylation in Enhancer and Promoter Regions of Interferon Regulated Genes in Multiple Tissues Is Associated with Primary Sjogren's Syndrome2015In: Arthritis & Rheumatology, ISSN 2326-5191, E-ISSN 2326-5205, Vol. 67, no Suppl. 10, article id 2100Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 108.
    Imgenberg-Kreuz, Juliana
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Sandling, Johanna K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Almlöf, Jonas Carlsson
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Nordlund, Jessica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Signér, Linnea
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Norheim, Katrine Braekke
    Stavanger Univ Hosp, Dept Internal Med, Clin Immunol Unit, Stavanger, Norway.
    Omdal, Roald
    Stavanger Univ Hosp, Dept Internal Med, Clin Immunol Unit, Stavanger, Norway.
    Rönnblom, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Eloranta, Maija-Leena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Syvänen, Ann-Christine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Nordmark, Gunnel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis in multiple tissues in primary Sjögren's syndrome reveals regulatory effects at interferon-induced genes2016In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 75, no 11, p. 2029-2036Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Increasing evidence suggests an epigenetic contribution to the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, including primary Sjögren's Syndrome (pSS). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of DNA methylation in pSS by analysing multiple tissues from patients and controls.

    METHODS: Genome-wide DNA methylation profiles were generated using HumanMethylation450K BeadChips for whole blood, CD19+ B cells and minor salivary gland biopsies. Gene expression was analysed in CD19+ B cells by RNA-sequencing. Analysis of genetic regulatory effects on DNA methylation at known pSS risk loci was performed.

    RESULTS: We identified prominent hypomethylation of interferon (IFN)-regulated genes in whole blood and CD19+ B cells, including at the genes MX1, IFI44L and PARP9, replicating previous reports in pSS, as well as identifying a large number of novel associations. Enrichment for genomic overlap with histone marks for enhancer and promoter regions was observed. We showed for the first time that hypomethylation of IFN-regulated genes in pSS B cells was associated with their increased expression. In minor salivary gland biopsies we observed hypomethylation of the IFN-induced gene OAS2. Pathway and disease analysis resulted in enrichment of antigen presentation, IFN signalling and lymphoproliferative disorders. Evidence for genetic control of methylation levels at known pSS risk loci was observed.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights the role of epigenetic regulation of IFN-induced genes in pSS where replication is needed for novel findings. The association with altered gene expression suggests a functional mechanism for differentially methylated CpG sites in pSS aetiology.

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  • 109.
    Imgenberg-Kreuz, Juliana
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology.
    Sandling, Johanna K.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology.
    Bjork, A.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Karolinska Univ Hosp, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nordlund, J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Kvarnstrom, M.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Karolinska Univ Hosp, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eloranta, Maija-Leena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Rönnblom, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Wahren-Herlenius, M.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Karolinska Univ Hosp, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Syvänen, Ann-Christine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Nordmark, Gunnel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Transcription profiling of peripheral B cells in antibody-positive primary Sjogren's syndrome reveals upregulated expression of CX3CR1 and a type I and type II interferon signature2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0300-9475, E-ISSN 1365-3083, Vol. 87, no 5, article id UNSP e12662Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    B cells play a key role in the pathogenesis of primary Sjogren's syndrome (pSS). The aim of this study was to analyse the transcriptome of CD19+ B cells from patients with pSS and healthy controls to decipher the B cell-specific contribution to pSS. RNA from purified CD19+ B cells from 12 anti-SSA antibody-positive untreated female patients with pSS and 20 healthy blood donors was subjected to whole transcriptome sequencing. A false discovery rate corrected significance threshold of <0.05 was applied to define differential gene expression. As validation, gene expression in B cells from 17 patients with pSS and 16 healthy controls was analysed using a targeted gene panel. RNA-sequencing identified 4047 differentially expressed autosomal genes in pSS B cells. Upregulated expression of type I and type II interferon (IFN)-induced genes was observed, establishing an IFN signature in pSS B cells. Among the top upregulated and validated genes were CX3CR1, encoding the fractalkine receptor involved in regulation of B-cell malignancies, CCL5/RANTES and CCR1. Increased expression of several members of the TNF superfamily was also identified; TNFSF4/Ox40L, TNFSF10/TRAIL, TNFSF13B/BAFF, TNFRSF17/BCMA as well as S100A8 and -A9/calprotectin, TLR7, STAT1 and STAT2. Among genes with downregulated expression in pSS B cells were SOCS1 and SOCS3, CD70 and TNFAIP3/A20. We conclude that B cells from patients with anti-SSA antibody-positive pSS display immune activation with upregulated expression of chemokines, chemokine receptors and a prominent type I and type II IFN signature, while suppressors of cytokine signalling are downregulated. This adds insight into the autoimmune process and suggests potential targets for future functional studies.

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  • 110.
    Imgenberg-Kreuz, Juliana
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Sandling, Johanna K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Carlsson Almlöf, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Omdal, Roald
    Norheim, Katrine Braekke
    Eloranta, Maija-Leena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Rönnblom, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Syvänen, Ann-Christine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Nordmark, Gunnel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Genome-Wide Analysis of DNA Methylation Profiles in Multiple Tissues in Primary Sjogren's Syndrome2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0300-9475, E-ISSN 1365-3083, Vol. 81, no 5, p. 412-412Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 111.
    Ingelsson, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Langenberg, Claudia
    Hivert, Marie-France
    Prokopenko, Inga
    Lyssenko, Valeriya
    Dupuis, Josée
    Mägi, Reedik
    Sharp, Stephen
    Jackson, Anne U.
    Assimes, Themistocles L.
    Shrader, Peter
    Knowles, Joshua W.
    Zethelius, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Abbasi, Fahim A.
    Bergman, Richard N.
    Bergmann, Antje
    Berne, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Boehnke, Michael
    Bonnycastle, Lori L.
    Bornstein, Stefan R.
    Buchanan, Thomas A.
    Bumpstead, Suzannah J.
    Böttcher, Yvonne
    Chines, Peter
    Collins, Francis S.
    Cooper, Cyrus C.
    Dennison, Elaine M.
    Erdos, Michael R.
    Ferrannini, Ele
    Fox, Caroline S.
    Graessler, Jürgen
    Hao, Ke
    Isomaa, Bo
    Jameson, Karen A.
    Kovacs, Peter
    Kuusisto, Johanna
    Laakso, Markku
    Ladenvall, Claes
    Mohlke, Karen L.
    Morken, Mario A.
    Narisu, Narisu
    Nathan, David M.
    Pascoe, Laura
    Payne, Felicity
    Petrie, John R.
    Sayer, Avan A.
    Schwarz, Peter E. H.
    Scott, Laura J.
    Stringham, Heather M.
    Stumvoll, Michael
    Swift, Amy J.
    Syvänen, Ann-Christine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine.
    Tuomi, Tiinamaija
    Tuomilehto, Jaakko
    Tönjes, Anke
    Valle, Timo T.
    Williams, Gordon H.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Barroso, Inês
    Quertermous, Thomas
    Walker, Mark
    Wareham, Nicholas J.
    Meigs, James B.
    McCarthy, Mark I.
    Groop, Leif
    Watanabe, Richard M.
    Florez, Jose C.
    Detailed physiologic characterization reveals diverse mechanisms for novel genetic Loci regulating glucose and insulin metabolism in humans2010In: Diabetes, ISSN 0012-1797, E-ISSN 1939-327X, Vol. 59, no 5, p. 1266-1275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE

    Recent genome-wide association studies have revealed loci associated with glucose and insulin-related traits. We aimed to characterize 19 such loci using detailed measures of insulin processing, secretion, and sensitivity to help elucidate their role in regulation of glucose control, insulin secretion and/or action.

    RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS

    We investigated associations of loci identified by the Meta-Analyses of Glucose and Insulin-related traits Consortium (MAGIC) with circulating proinsulin, measures of insulin secretion and sensitivity from oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs), euglycemic clamps, insulin suppression tests, or frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance tests in nondiabetic humans (n = 29,084).

    RESULTS

    The glucose-raising allele in MADD was associated with abnormal insulin processing (a dramatic effect on higher proinsulin levels, but no association with insulinogenic index) at extremely persuasive levels of statistical significance (P = 2.1 x 10(-71)). Defects in insulin processing and insulin secretion were seen in glucose-raising allele carriers at TCF7L2, SCL30A8, GIPR, and C2CD4B. Abnormalities in early insulin secretion were suggested in glucose-raising allele carriers at MTNR1B, GCK, FADS1, DGKB, and PROX1 (lower insulinogenic index; no association with proinsulin or insulin sensitivity). Two loci previously associated with fasting insulin (GCKR and IGF1) were associated with OGTT-derived insulin sensitivity indices in a consistent direction.

    CONCLUSIONS

    Genetic loci identified through their effect on hyperglycemia and/or hyperinsulinemia demonstrate considerable heterogeneity in associations with measures of insulin processing, secretion, and sensitivity. Our findings emphasize the importance of detailed physiological characterization of such loci for improved understanding of pathways associated with alterations in glucose homeostasis and eventually type 2 diabetes.

  • 112.
    Isaksson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine.
    Initiation of Autoimmunity in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The events that trigger an autoimmune disease remain largely unknown. To study these events animal models are necessary because symptoms of autoimmune diseases are preceded by a long asymptomatic period in humans.

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is the best characterized model for cell mediated autoimmunity and an animal model for the human disease multiple sclerosis. EAE is induced in rodents by immunization with myelin antigens (Ags) together with adjuvants. After immunization, T cells are primed in the periphery by Ag presenting cells and subsequently invade the central nervous system where they mediate parenchymal inflammation, resulting in demyelination and clinical symptoms of an ascending paralysis. It is now generally recognised that the main cell type mediating EAE is the T helper type 17 (Th17) cell.

    Tolerance to EAE can be attained by DNA vaccination, but how the immune response against the myelin Ags is abrogated after DNA vaccination is not known. By employing short interfering RNA technology, induction of the innate immune signalling molecule interferon (IFN) -β was found to be necessary for the protective effect of DNA vaccination in EAE. In addition, DNA vaccination inhibited subsequent autoimmune Th17 cell responses.

    The Toll-like receptors (TLRs) of the innate immune system have evolved to recognise conserved molecular structures on microbes and signalling through them almost exclusively converge on the molecule MyD88. Signalling via MyD88 was found to be required for induction of EAE since mice deficient in this molecule did not develop disease. Upstream signalling via TLR4 and TLR9 had tolerogenic properties.

    In studies of Ag presentation in EAE, two major subtypes of dendritic cells (DCs) were examined. Plasmacytoid DCs were found to have a promoting role in the induction of EAE, partly via type 1 IFNs. Myeloid DCs had a redundant role in the induction phase of EAE, neither disease severity nor encephalitogenic Th17 responses were affected by their absence during priming.

    These studies further demonstrate that the cells and molecules of the innate immune system exhibit a crucial role in controlling the adaptive immune system which mediates tissue damage in autoimmune diseases.

    List of papers
    1. Impaired autoimmune T helper 17 cell responses following DNA vaccination against rat experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impaired autoimmune T helper 17 cell responses following DNA vaccination against rat experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
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    2008 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 3, no 11, p. e3682-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that vaccination with DNA encoding the encephalitogenic peptide myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)(91-108) (pMOG) suppresses MOG(91-108)-induced rat Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model for human Multiple Sclerosis (MS). The suppressive effect of pMOG is dependent on inclusion of CpG DNA in the plasmid backbone and is associated with early induction of Interferon (IFN)-beta. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we examined the mechanisms underlying pMOG-induced protection. We found that in the DNA vaccinated cohort proinflammatory Interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-21 responses were dramatically reduced compared to in the control group, but that the expression of Foxp3 and Tumor Growth Factor (TGF)-beta1, which are associated with regulatory T cells, was not enhanced. Moreover, genes associated with Type I IFNs were upregulated. To delineate the role of IFN-beta in the protective mechanism we employed short interfering RNA (siRNA) to IFN-beta in the DNA vaccine. SiRNA to IFN-beta completely abrogated the protective effects of the vaccine, demonstrating that a local early elaboration of IFN-beta is important for EAE protection. IL-17 responses comparable to those in control rats developed in rats injected with the IFN-beta-silencing DNA vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: We herein demonstrate that DNA vaccination protects from proinflammatory Th17 cell responses during induction of EAE. The mechanism involves IFN-beta as IL-17 responses are rescued by silencing of IFN-beta during DNA vaccination.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    PLoS, 2008
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-102743 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0003682 (DOI)000265165500005 ()18997868 (PubMedID)1932-6203 (Electronic) (ISBN)
    Available from: 2009-05-12 Created: 2009-05-11 Last updated: 2012-08-01Bibliographically approved
    2. Unexpected regulatory roles of TLR4 and TLR9 in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Unexpected regulatory roles of TLR4 and TLR9 in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
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    2008 (English)In: European Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0014-2980, E-ISSN 1521-4141, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 565-575Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Innate immune mechanisms essential for priming encephalitogenic T cells in autoimmune neuroinflammation are poorly understood. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a IL-17-producing Th (Th17) cell-mediated autoimmune disease and an animal model of multiple sclerosis. To investigate how upstream TLR signals influence autoimmune T cell responses, we studied the role of individual TLR and MyD88, the common TLR adaptor molecule, in the initiation of innate and adaptive immune responses in EAE. Wild type (WT) C57BL/6, TLR-deficient and MyD88-deficient mice were immunized with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) in CFA. MyD88(-/-) mice were completely EAE resistant. Purified splenic myeloid DC (mDC) from MyD88(-/-) mice expressed much less IL-6 and IL-23, and serum and T cell IL-17 were absent. TLR4(-/-) and TLR9(-/-) mice surprisingly exhibited more severe EAE symptoms than WT mice. IL-6 and IL-23 expression by mDC and Th17 responses were higher in TLR4(-/-) mice, suggesting a regulatory role of TLR4 in priming Th17 cells. IL-6 expression by splenocytes was higher in TLR9(-/-) mice. Our data suggest that MyD88 mediates the induction of mDC IL-6 and IL-23 responses after MOG immunization, which in turn drives IL-17-producing encephalitogenic Th17 cell activation. Importantly, we demonstrate that TLR4 and TLR9 regulate disease severity in MOG-induced EAE.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-13139 (URN)10.1002/eji.200737187 (DOI)000253326100025 ()18203139 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2008-01-21 Created: 2008-01-21 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
    3. Plasmacytoid DC promote priming of autoimmune Th17 cells and EAE
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Plasmacytoid DC promote priming of autoimmune Th17 cells and EAE
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    2009 (English)In: European Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0014-2980, E-ISSN 1521-4141, Vol. 39, no 10, p. 2925-2935Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    EAE, an animal model for MS, is a Th17 and Th1-cell-mediated autoimmune disease, but the mechanisms leading to priming of encephalitogenic T cells in autoimmune neuroinflammation are poorly understood. To investigate the role of plasmacytoid DC (pDC) in the initiation of autoimmune Th17- and Th1-cell responses and EAE, we depleted pDC with anti-pDC Ag-1 (anti-PDCA1) mAb prior to immunization of C57BL/6 mice with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG). pDC-depleted mice developed less severe clinical and histopathological signs of EAE than control mice, which demonstrates a promoting role for pDC in the initiation of EAE. The levels of type I IFN were much lower in the sera from anti-PDCA1-treated mice. However, neutralization of type I IFN ameliorated the early phase of EAE but did not alter the severity of disease. Thus, only a minor part of the EAE-promoting effect of pDC appears to be mediated by IFN-alpha/beta secretion. The numbers of MOG-specific Th17 cells, but not Th1 cells, were lower in spleen from anti-PDCA1-treated mice compared with controls. In contrast, pDC depletion a week after MOG immunization resulted in more severe clinical signs of EAE. In conclusion, we demonstrate that pDC promote initiation of MOG-induced Th17-cell responses and EAE.

    Keywords
    Autoimmunity, DC, EAE/MS, T cells, Type I IFN
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-108362 (URN)10.1002/eji.200839179 (DOI)000271151000030 ()19637225 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2009-09-16 Created: 2009-09-16 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    4. Conditional DC depletion does not affect priming of encephalitogenic Th cells in EAE
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conditional DC depletion does not affect priming of encephalitogenic Th cells in EAE
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    2012 (English)In: European Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0014-2980, E-ISSN 1521-4141, Vol. 42, no 10, p. 2555-2563Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    EAE, an animal model for multiple sclerosis, is a Th17- and Th1-cell-mediated auto-immune disease, but the mechanisms leading to priming of encephalitogenicTcells in autoimmune neuroinflammation are poorly understood. To investigate the role of dendritic cells (DCs) in the initiation of autoimmuneTh17- andTh1-cell responses andEAE, we used mice transgenic for a simian diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) expressed under the control of the murineCD11c promoter (CD11c-DTRmice onC57BL/6 background).EAEwas induced by immunization with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) protein in CFA. DCs were depleted on the day before and 8 days afterMOG immunization. The mean clinicalEAEscore was only mildly reduced inDC-depleted mice when DCs were ablated beforeEAEinduction. The frequency of activatedTh cells was not altered, andMOG-inducedTh17 orTh1-cell responses were not altered, in the spleens ofDC-depleted mice. Similar results were obtained ifDCswere ablated the first 10 days afterMOGimmunization with repeatedDCdepletions. Unexpectedly, transient depletion of DCs did not affect priming or differentiation of MOG-inducedTh17 andTh1-cell responses or the incidence ofEAE. Thus, the mechansim of priming ofTh cells inEAEremains to be elucidated.

    National Category
    Immunology in the medical area
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-173266 (URN)10.1002/eji.201142239 (DOI)000309610200004 ()22806332 (PubMedID)
    Note

    De två första författarna delar förstaförfattarskapet.

    Available from: 2012-04-23 Created: 2012-04-21 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
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  • 113.
    Jacobsson, Josefin A
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Axelsson, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine.
    Lannfelt, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Schiöth, Helgi B
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Fredriksson, Robert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    The common FTO variant rs9939609 is not associated with BMI in a longitudinal study on a cohort of Swedish men born 1920-19242009In: BMC Medical Genetics, ISSN 1471-2350, E-ISSN 1471-2350, Vol. 10, no 131, p. 131-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Common FTO (fat mass and obesity associated) gene variants have recently been strongly associated with body mass index and obesity in several large studies. Here we set out to examine the association of the FTO variant rs9939609 with BMI in a 32 year follow up study of men born 1920-1924. Moreover, we analyzed the effect of physical activity on the different genotypes. METHODS: The FTO rs9936609 was genotyped using an Illumina golden gate assay. BMI was calculated using standard methods and body fat was estimated by measuring skinfold thickness using a Harpenden caliper. Physical activity was assessed using a four question medical questionnaire. RESULTS: FTO rs9939609 was genotyped in 1153 elderly Swedish men taking part of a population-based cohort study, the ULSAM cohort. The risk of obesity and differences in BMI according to genotype at the ages of 50, 60, 70, 77 and 82 were investigated. We found no increased risk of obesity and no association with BMI at any age with the FTO rs9939609 variant. We found however interaction between physical activity at the age of 50 years and genotype on BMI levels (p = 0.039) and there was a clear trend towards larger BMI differences between the TT and AA carriers as well as between AT and AA carriers in the less physically active subjects. CONCLUSION: Here we found that the well established obesity risk allele for a common variant in FTO does not associate with increased BMI levels in a Swedish population of adult men which reached adulthood before the appearance of today's obesogenic enviroment. There is an interaction between physical activity and the effect of the FTO genotype on BMI levels suggesting that lack of physical activity is a requirement for an association of FTO gene variants to obesity.

  • 114.
    Jacobsson, Josefin A.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Sällman Almén, Markus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Benedict, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Hedberg, Lilia A.
    Michaëlsson, Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Brooks, Samantha
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Kullberg, Joel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Axelsson, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine.
    Johansson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Ahlström, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Fredriksson, Robert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Detailed Analysis of Variants in FTO in Association with Body Composition in a Cohort of 70-Year-Olds Suggests a Weakened Effect among Elderly2011In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, no 5, p. e20158-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

     The rs9939609 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the fat mass and obesity (FTO) gene has previously been associated with higher BMI levels in children and young adults. In contrast, this association was not found in elderly men. BMI is a measure of overweight in relation to the individuals' height, but offers no insight into the regional body fat composition or distribution.

    Objective

    To examine whether the FTO gene is associated with overweight and body composition-related phenotypes rather than BMI, we measured waist circumference, total fat mass, trunk fat mass, leg fat mass, visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue, and daily energy intake in 985 humans (493 women) at the age of 70 years. In total, 733 SNPs located in the FTO gene were genotyped in order to examine whether rs9939609 alone or the other SNPs, or their combinations, are linked to obesity-related measures in elderly humans.

    Design

    Cross-sectional analysis of the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) cohort.

    Results

     Neither a single SNP, such as rs9939609, nor a SNP combination was significantly linked to overweight, body composition-related measures, or daily energy intake in elderly humans. Of note, these observations hold both among men and women.

    Conclusions

    Due to the diversity of measurements included in the study, our findings strengthen the view that the effect of FTO on body composition appears to be less profound in later life compared to younger ages and that this is seemingly independent of gender.

  • 115. Jiao, Hong
    et al.
    Arner, Peter
    Dickson, Suzanne L.
    Vidal, Hubert
    Mejhert, Niklas
    Henegar, Corneliu
    Taube, Magdalena
    Hansson, Caroline
    Hinney, Anke
    Galan, Pilar
    Simon, Chantal
    Silveira, Angela
    Benrick, Anna
    Jansson, John-Olov
    Bouloumie, Anne
    Langin, Dominique
    Laville, Martine
    Debard, Cyrille
    Axelsson, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Rydén, Mikael
    Kere, Juha
    Dahlman-Wright, Karin
    Hamsten, Anders
    Clement, Karine
    Dahlman, Ingrid
    Genetic Association and Gene Expression Analysis Identify FGFR1 as a New Susceptibility Gene for Human Obesity2011In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 96, no 6, p. E962-E966Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Previous studies suggest a role for fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) in the regulation of energy balance. Objective: Our objective was to investigate whether FGFR1 is an obesity gene by genetic association and functional studies. Design: The study was designed to genotype common FGFR1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in large cohorts, confirm significant results in additional cohorts, and measure FGFR1 expression in human adipose tissue and in rodent hypothalamus. Setting: General community and referral centers for specialized care was the setting for the study. Participants: We genotyped FGFR1 SNP in 2438 obese and 2115 lean adults and 985 obese and 532 population-based children. Results were confirmed in 928 obese and 2738 population-based adults and 487 obese and 441 lean children. Abdominal sc adipose tissue was investigated in 202 subjects. We also investigated diet-induced, obese fasting, and fed rats. Main Outcome Measures: We analyzed the association between FGFR1 SNP and obesity. In secondary analyses, we related adipose FGFR1 expression to genotype, obesity, and degree of fat cell differentiation and related hypothalamic FGFR1 to energy balance. Results: FGFR1 rs7012413*T was nominally associated with obesity in all four cohorts; metaanalysis odds ratio = 1.17 (95% confidence interval = 1.10-1.25), and P = 1.8 x 10(-6), which was P = 7.0 x 10(-8) in the recessive model. rs7012413*T was associated with FGFR1 expression in adipose tissue (P < 0.0001). In this organ, but not in skeletal muscle, FGFR1 mRNA (P < 0.0001) and protein (P < 0.05) were increased in obesity. In rats, hypothalamic expression of FGFR1 declined after fasting (P < ]0.001) and increased after diet-induced obesity (P < 0.05). Conclusions: FGFR1 is a novel obesity gene that may promote obesity by influencing adipose tissue and the hypothalamic control of appetite.

  • 116. Jiao, Hong
    et al.
    Arner, Peter
    Hoffstedt, Johan
    Brodin, David
    Dubern, Beatrice
    Czernichow, Sebastien
    van't Hooft, Ferdinand
    Axelsson, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Pedersen, Oluf
    Hansen, Torben
    Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.
    Hebebrand, Johannes
    Kere, Juha
    Dahlman-Wright, Karin
    Hamsten, Anders
    Clement, Karine
    Dahlman, Ingrid
    Genome wide association study identifies KCNMA1 contributing to human obesity2011In: BMC Medical Genomics, ISSN 1755-8794, E-ISSN 1755-8794, Vol. 4, p. 51-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Recent genome-wide association (GWA) analyses have identified common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with obesity. However, the reported genetic variation in obesity explains only a minor fraction of the total genetic variation expected to be present in the population. Thus many genetic variants controlling obesity remain to be identified. The aim of this study was to use GWA followed by multiple stepwise validations to identify additional genes associated with obesity. Methods: We performed a GWA analysis in 164 morbidly obese subjects (BMI: body mass index > 40 kg/m(2)) and 163 Swedish subjects (> 45 years) who had always been lean. The 700 SNPs displaying the strongest association with obesity in the GWA were analyzed in a second cohort comprising 460 morbidly obese subjects and 247 consistently lean Swedish adults. 23 SNPs remained significantly associated with obesity (nominal P< 0.05) and were in a step-wise manner followed up in five additional cohorts from Sweden, France, and Germany together comprising 4214 obese and 5417 lean or population-based control individuals. Three samples, n = 4133, were used to investigate the population-based associations with BMI. Gene expression in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in relation to obesity was investigated for 14 adults. Results: Potassium channel, calcium activated, large conductance, subfamily M, alpha member (KCNMA1) rs2116830*G and BDNF rs988712*G were associated with obesity in five of six investigated case-control cohorts. In meta-analysis of 4838 obese and 5827 control subjects we obtained genome-wide significant allelic association with obesity for KCNMA1 rs2116830*G with P = 2.82 x 10(-10) and an odds ratio (OR) based on cases vs controls of 1.26 [95% C. I. 1.12-1.41] and for BDNF rs988712*G with P = 5.2 x 10(-17) and an OR of 1.36 [95% C. I. 1.20-1.55]. KCNMA1 rs2116830*G was not associated with BMI in the population-based samples. Adipose tissue (P = 0.0001) and fat cell (P = 0.04) expression of KCNMA1 was increased in obesity. Conclusions: We have identified KCNMA1 as a new susceptibility locus for obesity, and confirmed the association of the BDNF locus at the genome-wide significant level.

  • 117.
    Johansson, Åsa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Eriksson, Niclas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Becker, Richard C.
    Storey, Robert F.
    Himmelmann, Anders
    Hagström, Emil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Varenhorst, Christoph
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Axelsson, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine.
    Barratt, Bryan J.
    James, Stefan K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Katus, Hugo A.
    Steg, Philippe Gabriel
    Syvänen, Ann-Christine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Siegbahn, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Coagulation and inflammation science.
    NLRC4 Inflammasome Is an Important Regulator of Interleukin-18 Levels in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes Genome-Wide Association Study in the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes Trial (PLATO)2015In: Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics, ISSN 1942-325X, E-ISSN 1942-3268, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 498-506Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Interleukin 18 (IL-18) promotes atherosclerotic plaque formation and is increased in patients with acute coronary syndromes. However the relative contribution of genetic variants to the IL-18 levels has not been fully determined. Methods and Results Baseline plasma IL-18 levels were measured in 16633 patients with acute coronary syndrome, of whom 9340 had genetic data that passed genotype quality control. A 2-stage genome-wide association study was performed, followed by combined analyses using >10 million genotyped or imputed genetic markers. Single nucleotide polymorphisms at 3 loci (IL18, NLRC4, and MROH6) were identified (P<3.15x10(-8)) in the discovery cohort (n=3777) and replicated in the remaining patients (n=5563). In the pooled data (discovery+replication cohort), 7 independent associations, in 5 chromosomal regions, were associated with IL-18 levels (minimum P=6.99x10(-72)). Six single nucleotide polymorphisms are located in predicted promoter regions of which one disrupts a transcription factor binding site. One single nucleotide polymorphism in NLRC4 is a rare missense variant, predicted to be deleterious to the protein. Altogether, the identified genetic variants explained 8% of the total variation in IL-18 levels in the cohort. Conclusions Our results show that genetic variants play an important role in determining IL-18 levels in patients with acute coronary syndrome and we have identified genetic variants located in the IL-18 gene (IL18) or close to genes that are involved in procaspase-1 activation (NLRC4 and CARD16, CARD17, and CARD18). These associations also highlight the importance of the NLRC4 inflammasome for IL-18 production in acute coronary syndrome patients.

  • 118.
    Johansson, Åsa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Eriksson, Niclas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Lindholm, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Varenhorst, Christoph
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    James, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Syvänen, Ann-Christine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine.
    Axelsson, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine.
    Siegbahn, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Coagulation and inflammation science.
    Barratt, Bryan J.
    AstraZeneca R&D, Alderley Pk SK10 4TF, Cheshire, England..
    Becker, Richard C.
    Acad Hlth Ctr, Div Cardiovasc Hlth & Dis, Heart Lung & Vasc Inst, Cincinnati, OH 45267 USA..
    Himmelmann, Anders
    AstraZeneca Res & Dev, S-43150 Molndal, Sweden..
    Katus, Hugo A.
    Univ Klinikum Heidelberg, Med Klin, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Steg, Philippe Gabriel
    INSERM, Unite 1148, F-75019 Paris, France.;Hop Bichat Claude Bernard, AP HP, Dept Hosp Univ FIRE, F-75018 Paris, France.;Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, F-75013 Paris, France.;Royal Brompton Hosp, ICMS, NHLI Imperial Coll, London SW3 6NP, England..
    Storey, Robert F.
    Univ Sheffield, Dept Cardiovasc Sci, Sheffield S10 2RX, S Yorkshire, England..
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Genome-wide association and Mendelian randomization study of NT-proBNP in patients with acute coronary syndrome2016In: Human Molecular Genetics, ISSN 0964-6906, E-ISSN 1460-2083, Vol. 25, no 7, p. 1447-1456Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is a strong predictor of mortality in coronary artery disease and is widely employed as a prognostic biomarker. However, a causal relationship between NT-proBNP and clinical endpoints has not been established. We have performed a genome-wide association and Mendelian randomization study of NT-proBNP. We used a discovery set of 3740 patients from the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial, which enrolled 18 624 patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). A further set of 5492 patients, from the same trial, was used for replication. Genetic variants at two novel loci (SLC39A8 and POC1B/GALNT4) were associated with NT-proBNP levels and replicated together with the previously known NPPB locus. The most significant SNP (rs198389, pooled P = 1.07 x 10(-15)) in NPPB interrupts an E-box consensus motif in the gene promoter. The association in SLC39A8 is driven by a deleterious variant (rs13107325, pooled P = 5.99 x 10(-10)), whereas the most significant SNP in POC1B/GALNT4 (rs11105306, pooled P = 1.02 x 10(-16)) is intronic. The SLC39A8 SNP was associated with higher risk of cardiovascular (CV) death (HR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.08-1.79, P = 0.0095), but the other loci were not associated with clinical endpoints. We have identified two novel loci to be associated with NT-proBNP in patients with ACS. Only the SLC39A8 variant, but not the NPPB variant, was associated with a clinical endpoint. Due to pleotropic effects of SLC39A8, these results do not suggest that NT-proBNP levels have a direct effect on mortality in ACS patients. PLATO Clinical Trial Registration: ; NCT00391872.

  • 119. Jonsson, Erik G.
    et al.
    Saetre, Peter
    Vares, Maria
    Andreou, Dimitrios
    Larsson, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine.
    Timm, Sally
    Rasmussen, B
    Djurovic, Srdjan
    Melle, Ingrid
    Andreassen, A
    Agartz, Ingrid
    Werge, Thomas
    Hall, Håkan
    Terenius, Lars
    DTNBP1, NRG1, DAOA, DAO and GRM3 Polymorphisms and Schizophrenia: An Association Study2009In: Neuropsychobiology, ISSN 0302-282X, E-ISSN 1423-0224, Vol. 59, no 3, p. 142-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Several studies of the dystrobrevin-binding protein 1 gene (DTNBP1), neuregulin 1 (NRG1), D-amino-acid oxidase (DAO), DAO activator (DAOA, G72), and metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 (GRM3) genes have suggested an association between variants of these genes and schizophrenia. Methods: In a replication attempt, single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the DTNBP1, NRG1, DAO, DAOA, and GRM3 genes were analyzed in three independent Scandinavian schizophrenia case-control samples. Results: One DTNBP1 and three GRM3 single-nucleotide polymorphisms showed nominal significant associations to the disease. However, after correction for multiple testing, there were no statistically significant allele, genotype or haplotype case-control differences. Conclusions: The present Scandinavian results do not verify previous associations between the analyzed DTNBP1, NRG1, DAO, DAOA, and GRM3 gene polymorphisms and schizophrenia. Additional studies and meta-analyses are warranted to shed further light on these relationships. Copyright (C) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel

  • 120.
    Kaleviste, Epp
    et al.
    Univ Tartu, Inst Biomed & Translat Med, Dept Biomed, Tartu, Estonia.
    Saare, Mario
    Univ Tartu, Inst Biomed & Translat Med, Dept Biomed, Tartu, Estonia.
    Leahy, Timothy Ronan
    Our Ladys Childrens Hosp, Dept Paediat Immunol & Infect Dis, Dublin, Ireland.
    Bondet, Vincent
    Inst Pasteur, INSERM, U1223, Immunobiol Dendrit Cells Unit, Paris, France.
    Duffy, Darragh
    Inst Pasteur, INSERM, U1223, Immunobiol Dendrit Cells Unit, Paris, France.
    Mogensen, Trine H.
    Aarhus Univ Hosp, Dept Infect Dis, Aarhus, Denmark;Aarhus Univ, Dept Biomed, Aarhus, Denmark;Aarhus Univ, Dept Clin Med, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Jörgensen, Sofie E.
    Aarhus Univ, Dept Biomed, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Nurm, Helke
    Tallinn Childrens Hosp, Dept Emergency Care & Acute Infect, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Ip, Winnie
    Great Ormond St Hosp Sick Children, London, England;UCL Great Ormond St Inst Child Hlth, London, England.
    Davies, E. Graham
    Great Ormond St Hosp Sick Children, London, England;UCL Great Ormond St Inst Child Hlth, London, England.
    Sauer, Sascha
    Max Planck Inst Mol Genet, Otto Warburg Lab, Berlin, Germany;Max Delbruck Ctr Mol Med, BIMSB, BIH, Lab Funct Genom Nutrigen & Syst Biol, Berlin, Germany.
    Syvänen, Ann-Christine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Milani, Lili
    Univ Tartu, Estonian Genome Ctr, Tartu, Estonia.
    Peterson, Pärt
    Univ Tartu, Inst Biomed & Translat Med, Dept Biomed, Tartu, Estonia.
    Kisand, Kai
    Univ Tartu, Inst Biomed & Translat Med, Dept Biomed, Tartu, Estonia.
    Interferon signature in patients with STAT1 gain-of-function mutation is epigenetically determined2019In: European Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0014-2980, E-ISSN 1521-4141, Vol. 49, no 5, p. 790-800Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    STAT1 gain-of-function (GOF) variants lead to defective Th17 cell development and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC), but frequently also to autoimmunity. Stimulation of cells with STAT1 inducing cytokines like interferons (IFN) result in hyperphosphorylation and delayed dephosphorylation of GOF STAT1. However, the mechanism how the delayed dephosphorylation exactly causes the increased expression of STAT1-dependent genes, and how the intracellular signal transduction from cytokine receptors is affected, remains unknown. In this study we show that the circulating levels of IFN-alpha were not persistently elevated in STAT1 GOF patients. Nevertheless, the expression of interferon signature genes was evident even in the patient with low or undetectable serum IFN-alpha levels. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments revealed that the active chromatin mark trimethylation of lysine 4 of histone 3 (H3K4me3), was significantly enriched in areas associated with interferon-stimulated genes in STAT1 GOF cells in comparison to cells from healthy donors. This suggests that the chromatin binding of GOF STAT1 variant promotes epigenetic changes compatible with higher gene expression and elevated reactivity to type I interferons, and possibly predisposes for interferon-related autoimmunity. The results also suggest that epigenetic rewiring may be responsible for treatment failure of Janus kinase 1/2 (JAK1/2) inhibitors in certain patients.

  • 121. Kanoni, Stavroula
    et al.
    Nettleton, Jennifer A.
    Hivert, Marie-France
    Ye, Zheng
    van Rooij, Frank J. A.
    Shungin, Dmitry
    Sonestedt, Emily
    Ngwa, Julius S.
    Wojczynski, Mary K.
    Lemaitre, Rozenn N.
    Gustafsson, Stefan
    Anderson, Jennifer S.
    Tanaka, Toshiko
    Hindy, George
    Saylor, Georgia
    Renstrom, Frida
    Bennett, Amanda J.
    van Duijn, Cornelia M.
    Florez, Jose C.
    Fox, Caroline S.
    Hofman, Albert
    Hoogeveen, Ron C.
    Houston, Denise K.
    Hu, Frank B.
    Jacques, Paul F.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Liu, Yongmei
    McKeown, Nicola
    Ordovas, Jose
    Pankow, James S.
    Sijbrands, Eric J. G.
    Syvänen, Ann-Christine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine.
    Uitterlinden, Andre G.
    Yannakoulia, Mary
    Zillikens, M. Carola
    Wareham, Nick J.
    Prokopenko, Inga
    Bandinelli, Stefania
    Forouhi, Nita G.
    Cupples, L. Adrienne
    Loos, Ruth J.
    Hallmans, Goran
    Dupuis, Josee
    Langenberg, Claudia
    Ferrucci, Luigi
    Kritchevsky, Stephen B.
    McCarthy, Mark I.
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Borecki, Ingrid B.
    Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.
    Orho-Melander, Marju
    Siscovick, David S.
    Meigs, James B.
    Franks, Paul W.
    Dedoussis, George V.
    Total zinc intake may modify the glucose-raising effect of a zinc transporter (SLC30A8) variant: a 14-cohort meta-analysis2011In: Diabetes, ISSN 0012-1797, E-ISSN 1939-327X, Vol. 60, no 9, p. 2407-2416Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE

    Many genetic variants have been associated with glucose homeostasis and type 2 diabetes in genome-wide association studies. Zinc is an essential micronutrient that is important for beta-cell function and glucose homeostasis. We tested the hypothesis that zinc intake could influence the glucose-raising effect of specific variants.

    RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS

    We conducted a 14-cohort meta-analysis to assess the interaction of 20 genetic variants known to be related to glycemic traits and zinc metabolism with dietary zinc intake (food sources) and a 5-cohort meta-analysis to assess the interaction with total zinc intake (food sources and supplements) on fasting glucose levels among individuals of European ancestry without diabetes.

    RESULTS

    We observed a significant association of total zinc intake with lower fasting glucose levels (beta-coefficient +/- SE per 1 mg/day of zinc intake: -0.0012 +/- 0.0003 mmol/L, summary P value = 0.0003), while the association of dietary zinc intake was not significant. We identified a nominally significant interaction between total zinc intake and the SLC30A8 rs11558471 variant on fasting glucose levels (beta-coefficient +/- SE per A allele for 1 mg/day of greater total zinc intake: -0.0017 +/- 0.0006 mmol/L, summary interaction P value = 0.005); this result suggests a stronger inverse association between total zinc intake and fasting glucose in individuals carrying the glucose-raising A allele compared with individuals who do not carry it. None of the other interaction tests were statistically significant.

    CONCLUSIONS

    Our results suggest that higher total zinc intake may attenuate the glucose-raising effect of the rs11558471 SLC30A8 (zinc transporter) variant. Our findings also support evidence for the association of higher total zinc intake with lower fasting glucose levels.

  • 122. Karlsson, Robert
    et al.
    Graae, Lisette
    Lekman, Magnus
    Wang, Dai
    Favis, Reyna
    Axelsson, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine.
    Galter, Dagmar
    Belin, Andrea Carmine
    Paddock, Silvia
    MAGI1 Copy Number Variation in Bipolar Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia2012In: Biological Psychiatry, ISSN 0006-3223, E-ISSN 1873-2402, Vol. 71, no 10, p. 922-930Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Bipolar affective disorder (BPAD) and schizophrenia (SZ) are devastating psychiatric disorders that each affect about 1% of the population worldwide. Identification of new drug targets is an important step toward better treatment of these poorly understood diseases.

    Methods: Genome-wide copy number variation (CNV) was assessed and variants were ranked by co-occurrence with disease in 48 BPAD families. Additional support for involvement of the highest-ranking CNV from the family-based analysis in psychiatric disease was obtained through analysis of 4084 samples with BPAD, SZ, or schizoaffective disorder. Finally, a pooled analysis of in-house and published datasets was carried out including 10,925 cases with BPAD, SZ, or schizoaffective disorder and 16,747 controls.

    Results: In the family-based analysis, an approximately 200 kilobase (kb) deletion in the first intron of the MAGI1 gene was identified that segregated with BPAD in a pedigree (six out of six affected individuals; parametric logarithm of the odds score = 1.14). In the pooled analysis, seven additional insertions or deletions over 100 kb were identified in MAGI1 in cases, while only two such CNV events were identified in the same gene in controls (p = .023; Fisher's exact test). Because earlier work had identified a CNV in the close relative MAGI2 in SZ, the study was extended to include MAGI2. In the pooled analysis of MAGI2, two large deletions were found in cases, and two duplications were detected in controls.

    Conclusions: Results presented herein provide further evidence for a role of MAGI1 and MAGI2 in BPAD and SZ etiology.

  • 123.
    Kiialainen, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Karlberg, Olof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine.
    Ahlford, Annika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Sigurdsson, Snaevar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Syvänen, Ann-Christine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine.
    Performance of Microarray and Liquid Based Capture Methods for Target Enrichment for Massively Parallel Sequencing and SNP Discovery2011In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, no 2, p. e16486-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]