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  • 101.
    Hansson, Klas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Lundin, Lars-Christer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Šimůnek, J.
    Modeling water flow patterns in flexible pavements2005In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, Vol. 1936, p. 133-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most road design models do not explicitly account for moisture transport mechanisms in roads, even though it is well known that water content plays an important part in the deterioration of roads. The Swedish National Road Administration aims to improve the current situation by supporting the development of models that eventually can provide a better and more complete description of the road and environment system. The applicability of hydrological theories and methods to the road and environment system was investigated. Particular attention was paid to flow patterns inside the road as affected by capillary barriers and generated by mechanisms of surface runoff, followed by infiltration into cracks, and the embankment. Particle tracking was used to investigate the effect of rain intensity, precipitated amount, or fracture conductivity on the flow patterns. Changes in rain intensity had a small effect on flow patterns, but velocities were higher for larger rain intensities. Both changes in precipitated amount and fracture conductivity controlled the appearance of the flow patterns, but capillary barrier effects were limited. The numerical code used proved to be mostly appropriate in describing the relevant processes.

  • 102.
    Hansson, Klas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Lundin, L-C
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Water content reflectometer application to construction materials and its relation to time domain reflectometry2006In: Vadose Zone Journal, no 5, p. 459-468Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 103.
    Hansson, Klas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. Air and Water Science.
    Šimůnek, J.
    van Genuchten, M.Th.
    Water Flow and Heat Transport in and Below Roads: Freeze/Thaw Applications2004In: International Workshop On Modeling Water Movement And Reactive Transport In Roads: February 2004 - Portsmouth, NH, USA, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 104. Harris, D.M.
    et al.
    McDonnell, Jeff
    Rodhe, Allan
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Hydrograph separation using continuous open-system isotope mixing.1995In: Water Resources Research, Vol. 31, p. 157-171Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 105. Hennemuth, Barbara
    et al.
    Rutgersson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. LUVA.
    Bumke, Karl
    Clemens, Marco
    Omstedt, Anders
    Jacob, Daniela
    Smedman, Ann-Sofi
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. LUVA.
    Net precipitation over the Baltic Sea for one year using several methods2003In: Tellus: A, Vol. 55, no 4, p. 352-367Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Precipitation and evaporation over the Baltic Sea are calculated for a one-year period from September 1998 to August 1999 by four different tools, the two atmospheric regional models HIRLAM and REMO, the oceanographic model PROBE-Baltic in combination with the SMHI (1 × 1)° database and Interpolated Fields, based essentially on ship measurements. The investigated period is slightly warmer and wetter than the climatological mean. Correlation coefficients of the differently calculated latent heat fluxes vary between 0.81 (HIRLAM and REMO) and 0.56 (SMHI/PROBE-Baltic and Interpolated Fields), while the correlation coefficients between model fluxes and measured fluxes range from 0.61 and 0.78. Deviations of simulated and interpolated monthly precipitation over the Baltic Sea are less than ±5 mm in the southern Baltic and up to 20 mm near the Finnish coast for the one-year period. The methods simulate the annual cycle of precipitation and evaporation of the Baltic Proper in a similar manner with a broad maximum of net precipitation in spring and early summer and a minimum in late summer. The annual averages of net precipitation of the Baltic Proper range from 57 mm (REMO) to 262 mm (HIRLAM) and for the Baltic Sea from 96 mm (SMHI/PROBE-Baltic) to 209 mm (HIRLAM). This range is considered to give the uncertainty of present-day determination of the net precipitation over the Baltic Sea.

  • 106.
    Herbert, Roger
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. Air and Water Science.
    Biogeochemical processes in peat under variable flow conditions2004In: Water – Rock Interactions, Taylor and Francis, London , 2004, p. 1297 – 1300-Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 107.
    Herbert, Roger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Seasonal variations in the composition of mine drainage-contaminated groundwater in Dalarna, Sweden2006In: Journal of Geochemical Exploration, ISSN 0375-6742, E-ISSN 1879-1689, Vol. 90, no 3, p. 197-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwater down-gradient from a mine rock dump in Dalarna, Sweden was sampled from the onset of snowmelt runoff (April) until October in order to investigate seasonal variations in groundwater composition. The results demonstrate that considerable variation in solute concentration (Al, Cu, Fe, SO42-, Zn) and acidity occurs in groundwater; the greatest change in solute concentrations occurs during the melting of the snow cover, when sulfide oxidation products are flushed from the rock dump. During this period, groundwater flow is concentrated near the soil surface with an estimated velocity of 1 m/day. Groundwater acidity varied by a factor of four closest to the rock dump during the sampling period, but these variations were attenuated with distance from the rock dump. Over a distance of 145 in, groundwater pH increases from 2.5 to 4.0 and acidity decreases from 3-13 to 0.8-1.1 meq/L, which is the combined effect of ferric iron precipitation and aluminosilicate weathering. As a result of flushing from the upper soil horizons, peaks in total organic carbon and ammonium concentrations in groundwater are observed at the end of snowmelt. In soils impacted by acidic surface runoff, the sequential extraction of C horizon soils indicates the accumulation of Cu in well-crystallized iron oxyhydroxides in the upper C horizon, while Cu, Fe, Ni and Zn accumulate in a well-crystallized iron oxyhydroxide hardpan that has formed 2.5m below the ground surface. Surface complexation modeling demonstrates that SO42- and Cu adsorb to the abundant iron oxyhydroxides at pH < 4, while Zn adsorption in this pH range is minimal.

  • 108.
    Herbert, Roger
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. Air and Water Science.
    Surface speciation of mine tailings after sterilization treatment2004In: Abstracts of the V.M. Goldschmidt Conference, 2004, p. A137-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 109.
    Herbert, Roger B
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Ekström, Liselotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Sulfur biogeochemistry and the attenuation of metals in a natural wetland receiving mine drainage: contaminated groundwater2004In: GFF, ISSN 1103-5897, E-ISSN 2000-0863, Vol. 126, no 1, p. 165-165Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 110.
    Herbert, Roger
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. Air and Water Science.
    Ebenå, G.
    Malmström, M.
    Ferrow, E.
    Salmon, U.
    Fuchs, M.
    Quantifying the effects of mine tailings sterilization2004Report (Other scientific)
  • 111.
    Herbert, Roger
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Gleisner, Magdalena
    Variations in pore water geochemistry, density, and magnetic susceptibility in profiles from Impoundment 1, Kristineberg2005In: Proceedings, Securing the Future. Skellefteå, Sweden, 2005, p. 399-408Conference paper (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Impoundment 1 at the Kristineberg mine, northern Sweden, was remediated in 1996 with the installation of a soil cover. Since the installation of the soil cover, oxygen diffusion and water infiltration into the tailings has been greatly reduced, with a resulting decrease in sulfide oxidation in the impoundment. This study investigates the pore water chemistry below the soil cover in order to determine if the pore water composition has been affected by the cover application. In addition, this study assesses vertical variations in tailings composition, in terms of magnetic susceptibility and density, and assesses the impact of these variations on pore water composition. These parameters are studied in tailings cores collected in October 2001.

    Dissolved oxygen was analyzed in cores from an area of the Impoundment where only a single layer cover exists. Microelectrode analyses in the field showed relatively high dissolved oxygen concentrations (20 – 110 µM) below the cover in cores collected from unsaturated tailings. In saturated tailings, the dissolved oxygen concentrations were generally <2 µM.

    The results from a tailings core collected in the vicinity of the former dam wall indicate that pore water pH increases from ca. 4.2 to 6.1 over an interval of about 200 cm below the oxidation front, with the lowest pH levels closest to the oxidation front (265 cm depth). The greatest metal and sulfate concentrations are measured in the unoxidized tailings at ca. 300 cm depth, with lower concentrations at the oxidation front and at deeper intervals. Tailings density appears to increase slightly with depth, and magnetic susceptibility greatly varies, reflecting the presence of ferromagnetic mineral phases. Iron redox chemistry in the saturated tailings was investigated with the determination of Fe(II) and Fe(III) in pore water. The measured Fe(III) concentrations are high and exceed ferrihydrite solubility. Ferric iron complexation is discussed as a potential process for maintaining such high Fe(III) levels in solution.

  • 112.
    Herbert, Roger
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Höckert, Linda
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    Friis, Helen
    Jacks, Gunnar
    Mine waste stabilization with biosludge and Ca carbonate residues: Column experiments2007In: Biohydrometallury: From the single cell to the environment / [ed] Schippers A; Sand W; Glombitza F; Willscher S, 2007, Vol. 20-21, p. 291-294Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Column experiments investigated the stabilization of waste rock from Ljusnarsberg mine in Kopparberg, Sweden. In order to inhibit the generation of acidic leachate from the waste rock, biosludge and a Ca carbonate – rich residue from the paper industry were mixed with the sulfidic mine waste. The results of the column experiments indicate that the stabilization of the waste rock with the reactive amendments succeeded in maintaining a near – neutral pH in the waste rock leachate, compared to a pH 3 leachate from untreated waste rock. Copper and Zn concentrations in leachate from the untreated waste exceeded 100 mg/L, while these metals were detected at concentrations less than 0.1 and 1 mg/L, respectively, in the leachate from the treated wastes. This study indicates that the stabilization of acid – generating waste rock with biosludge and Ca carbonate residues is effective in preventing the generation of acid mine drainage; the treatment is expected to continue until the reactive amendments are exhausted.

  • 113.
    Herbert, Roger
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. Air and Water Science.
    Malmström, Maria
    Equilibrium calculations and geochemical modelling of aqueous systems using PHREEQC2004In: Mathematical modelling of groundwater flow and mass transport, Prashant Publishing Co, New Delhi , 2004, p. 253 – 268-Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 114.
    Herbert, Roger
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. Luft- och vattenlära.
    Malmström, Maria
    Ebenå, Gustav
    Salmon, Ursula
    Ferrow, Embaie
    Fuchs, Mattias
    Quantification of abiotic reaction rates in mine tailings: Evaluation of treatment methods for eliminating iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria2005In: Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 39, p. 770 – 777-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 115.
    Herbert, Roger
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. Luft-, vatten- och landskapslära.
    Schippers, Axel
    Iron isotope fractionation by biogeochemical processes in mine tailings2007In: Biohydrometallurgy: Fron the single cell to the environment, 2007, p. 237-Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 116. Hjerdt, K.N.
    et al.
    McDonnell, J.J.
    Seibert, J.
    Rodhe, Allan
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. Air and Water Science.
    A new topographic index to quantify downslope controls on local drainage2004In: Water Resources Research, ISSN 0043-1397, Vol. 40, no 5, p. W056021-W056026Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Topography is an important control on hydrological processes. One approach to quantify this control is the topographic ln(a/tan< beta >) index. This index has become widely used in hydrology, but it utilizes a relatively small portion of the information contained in a digital elevation model (DEM). One potentially important feature not considered in the implementation of the ln(a/tan< beta >) index is the enhancement or impedance of local drainage by downslope topography. This effect could be important in some terrain for controlling hydraulic gradients. We propose a new way of estimating the hydraulic gradient by calculating how far downhill (L<inf>d</inf>, [m]) a parcel of water must move in order to lose a certain amount of potential energy (d, [m]). Expressed as a gradient, tan< alpha ><inf>d</inf> = d/L<inf>d</inf>, values tend to be lower on concave slope profiles and higher on convex slope profiles compared with the local gradient, tan< beta >. We argue that the parameter d controls the deviation of hydraulic gradient from surface slope. While we determine this subjectively, landscape relief, DEM resolution, and soil transmissivity should be considered at the selection of d. We found the downslope index values to be less affected by changes in DEM resolution than local slope. Three applications are presented where the new index is shown to be useful for hydrological, geomorphological, and biogeochemical applications.

  • 117.
    Hock, Regine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Kootstra, Dirk-Sytze
    Reijmer, Carleen
    Deriving glacier mass balance from accumulation area ratio on Storglaciären, Sweden2007In: Glacier Mass Balance Changes and Meltwater Discharge / [ed] Patrick Ginot & Jean-Emmanuel Sicart, Wallingford: IAHS , 2007, p. 163-170Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Glacier net mass balance, bn, tends to correlate well with accumulation area ratio (AAR). A method that substitutes the long-term bn - AAR relationship by the transient relationship, derived from repeated measurements during one ablation season, is tested on Storglaciären, a well-investigated glacier in Sweden. We use the 1946 – 2004 long-term record, transient mass balance measurements in 2004 and results from a distributed energy-balance mass-balance model. The long-term and transient relationships are in good agreement for negative and slightly positive mass balances corresponding to AAR of roughly 0.2 to 0.6 but progressively deviate from each other with increasing net balances and larger AARs. The modelling indicates that the deviation becomes smaller as winter mass balance increases. It is concluded that the transient bn,t – AARt relationship should (a) be established during a highly negative mass balance year and (b) exclude any data from the earlier part of the melt season. Deriving the relationship from mass balance modelling may provide a powerful alternative circumventing the need for a highly negative mass balance year for the transient measurements.

  • 118.
    Hock, Regine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Radic, Valentina
    Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    De Woul, Mattias
    Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Climate sensitivity of Storglaciären, Sweden: an intercomparison of mass-balance models using ERA-40 re-analysis and regional climate model data2007In: Annals of glaciology, Vol 46, 2007 / [ed] Sharp M, 2007, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 342-348Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Estimates of glacier contributions to future sea-level rise are often computed from mass-balance sensitivities derived for a set of representative glaciers. Our purpose is to investigate how mass-balance projections and sensitivities vary when using different approaches to compute the glacier mass balance. We choose Storglaciären, Sweden, as a test site and apply five different models including temperature-index and energy-balance approaches further varying in spatial discretization. The models are calibrated using daily European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts re-analysis (ERA-40) data. We compute static mass-balance sensitivities and cumulative mass balances until 2100 based on daily temperatures predicted by a regional climate model. Net mass-balance sensitivities to a +1 K perturbation and a 10% increase in precipitation spanned from −0.41 to −0.61 and from 0.19 to 0.22 m a−1, respectively. The cumulative mass balance for the period 2002-2100 in response to the climate-model predicted temperature changes varied between −81 and −92 m for four models, but was −121 m for the fully distributed detailed energy-balance model. This indicates that mass losses may be underestimated if temperature-index methods are used instead of detailed energy-balance approaches that account for the effects of temperature changes on all energy-balance components individually. Our results suggest that future glacier predictions are sensitive to the choice of the mass-balance model broadening the spectrum in uncertainties.

  • 119. Hofman, D.
    et al.
    Monte, L.
    Brittain, J.
    Boyer, P.
    Donchys, G.
    Gallego, E.
    Gheorghiu, D.
    Heling, R.
    Håkanson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. LUVA.
    Kerekes, A.
    Kocsy, G.
    Lepicard, S.
    Mirzeabassov, O.
    Smith, J.
    van der Perk, M.
    Pecha, P.
    Mieczyslaw, B.
    Slavik, O.
    Yatsalo, B.
    Zheleznyak, M.
    EC computer systems in the field of hydrological dispersion modelling and aquatic radioecological research: state of the art, end-user experiences and recommendations for improvements2005In: Evaluation and nertwork of EC-decision support systems in the field of hydrological dispersion models and of aquatic radioecological research: Assessment of environmenal models and software., 2005, p. 203-323Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 120. Holmer, Marianne
    et al.
    Håkanson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. LUVAL.
    Aquaculture and eutrophication.2008In: Assessment of climate change for the Baltic Sea basin by The BACC Author Team, Springer, Heidelberg , 2008, p. 420-423Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 121. Honda, Shunichi
    et al.
    Hylander, Lars D.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. LUVAL.
    Sakamoto, Mineshi
    Recent advances in evaluation of health effects on mercury with a special reference to methylmercury – a minireview.2006In: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine: (The Japanese Society for Hygiene), Vol. 11, p. 171–176-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mercury is a metal that has long been used because of its many advantages from the physical and chemical points of view. However, mercury is very toxic to many life forms, including humans, and mercury poisoning has repeatedly been reported. The main chemical forms of mercury are elemental mercury (Hg0), divalent mercury (Hg2+) and methylmercury (CH3-Hg+), the toxicities and metabolisms of which differ from each other. Methylmercury is converted from divalent mercury and is a wellknown neurotoxicant, having been identified as the cause of Minamata disease. It bioaccumulates in the environment and is biomagnified in the food web. Human exposure to methylmercury is mainly through fish and seafood consumption. Methylmercury easily penetrates the blood-brain barrier and causes damage to the central nervous system, particularly in fetuses. In this paper, we summarize the global mercury cycle and mercury metabolism, toxicity and exposure evaluation, and the thresholds for the onset of symptoms after exposure to different chemical forms of mercury, particularly methylmercury.

  • 122.
    Hou, Xiaolin
    et al.
    Rise National Laboratory, NUK-202, Technical University of Denmark.
    Aldahan, Ala
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Neilsen, Sven
    Rise National Laboratory, NUK-202, Technical University of Denmark.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Ion Physics.
    Nies, Hartmut
    Bundesamt fuer Seeschiffahrt und Hydrographie.
    Hedfors, Jim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Speciation of I-129 and I-127 in seawater and implications for sources and transport pathways in the North Sea2007In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 41, no 17, p. 5993-5999Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surface seawater samples collected from the North Sea and English Channel were analyzed for total 129I and 127I, as well as for iodide and iodate. Relatively high 129I concentrations (2−3 × 1011 atoms/L) were observed in the northern part of the English Channel and in the southeastern North Sea. The atomic ratio of 129I/127I decreases from the eastern (1.0−1.9 × 10-6) to the western (4−6 × 10-8) parts of the North Sea and from the northeastern (1.5 × 10-6) to southwestern (1−5 × 10-8) parts of the English Channel. The ratios of iodide to iodate are 0.1−0.5 and 0.5−1.6 for 127I and 129I, respectively, in open seawaters, whereas these ratios range from 0.6 to 1.3 and 0.8 to 2.2, respectively, in coastal waters. The results suggest that (1) imprints of the La Hague facility dominates the 129I distribution in the surface water of the North Sea, (2) reduction of iodate to iodide is relatively fast during the transport to the European continental coast, (3) oxidation of newly produced 129I- to 129IO3- is insignificant during water exchange between the coastal area and open sea, (4) reduction of iodate and oxidation of iodide in the open sea seems to be a slow process.

  • 123. Huss, Matthias
    et al.
    Bauder, Andreas
    Werder, Mauro
    Funk, Martin
    Hock, Regine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Glacier-dammed lake outburst events of Gornersee, Switzerland2007In: Journal of Glaciology, ISSN 0022-1430, E-ISSN 1727-5652, Vol. 53, no 181, p. 189-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gornersee is an ice marginal lake, which drains almost every year subglacially within a few days. We present an analysis of the lake outburst events between 1950 and 2005, as well as results of detailed field investigations related to the lake drainage in 2004 and 2005. The latter included measurements of lake geometry, water pressure in nearby boreholes, and glacier surface motion. A distributed temperature-index melt model coupled to a linear-reservoir runoff model is used to calculate hourly discharge from the catchment of Gornergletscher in order to distinguish between the melt-precipitation component and the outburst component of the discharge hydrograph. In this way, drainage volume and timing are determined. There is a clear trend since 1950 for the outburst flood to occur earlier in the melt season, though lacking any relation to lake discharge volumes. Peak discharges from the lake lie significantly below the values obtained with the empirical relation proposed by Clague and Mathews (1973). The shapes of the 2004 and 2005 lake outflow hydrographs differ substantially, thereby suggesting different drainage mechanisms. From water balance onsiderations we infer a leakage of the glacier-dammed lake starting one week prior to the lake outburst in 2005. During the drainage events up to 50% of lake water is temporarily stored in the glacial system causing substantial uplifts of the glacier surface.

  • 124.
    Hylander, Lars
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Brassebiffen orsakar skövling av regnskog!2005Other (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 125.
    Hylander, Lars
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Tandläkarnas avloppsvatten måste bli fritt från amalgam.2005Other (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 126.
    Hylander, Lars D.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. Luft- och vattenlära (LUVA).
    Långt kvar till en kvicksilversäker natur.2006In: Giftfri miljö - utopi eller verklig chans?, Formas, Stockholm, Sweden. , 2006, p. s. 91-102 av 318Chapter in book (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Kvicksilver har inga positiva biologiska funktioner och alla dess former är giftiga. Det gäller att så fort som möjligt slå sista spiken i kvicksilvrets kista. En miljö utan kvicksilverutsläpp är ett villkor för vår fortsatta existens på jorden, skriver Lars Hylander. Kvicksilveranvändning bör förbjudas helt, och det kvicksilver som redan finns i tänder och produkter ska samlas in. Det uppsamlade kvicksilvret måste slutförvaras på en säker plats utom räckhåll för biologiskt liv.

  • 127.
    Hylander, Lars D.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. Luft- och vattenlära (LUVA).
    Släng inte fosforn i sjön!2006In: Forskningsnytt om økologisk landbruk i Norden., no 3, p. 4-6Article in journal (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    KRAV motverkar ett uthålligt samhälle genom nuvarande förbud mot kretslopp av avlopp. Beslutet är dessutom inte baserat på vetenskapliga kriterier. Detta bör ändras nu när nästan 1/10 av Sveriges avlopp nu ses över och många tvingas investera stora belopp i anläggningar för behandling av avloppsvattnet. Låt oss då se till att lösningen blir kretsloppsanpassad istället för ”ekologisk” enligt byråkraternas definition.

  • 128.
    Hylander, Lars D.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. Luft- och vattenlära (LUVA).
    Goodsite, Michael E.
    Environmental costs of mercury pollution.2006In: Sci. Total Environ., Vol. 368, p. 352-370Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mercury (Hg) has been used for millennia in many applications, primarily in artisanal mining and as an electrode in the chlor–alkali industry. It is anthropogenically emitted as a pollutant from coal fired power plants and naturally emitted, primarily from volcanoes. Its unique chemical characteristics enable global atmospheric transport and it is deposited after various processes, ultimately ending up in one of its final sinks, such as incorporated into deep sediment or bioaccumulated, primarily in the marine environment. All forms of Hg have been established as toxic, and there have been no noted biological benefits from the metal.

    Throughout time, there have been notable incidents of Hg intoxication documented, and the negative health effects have been documented to those chronically or acutely exposed. Today, exposure to Hg is largely diet or occupationally dependent, however, many are exposed to Hg from their amalgam fillings. This paper puts a tentative monetary value on Hg polluted food sources in the Arctic, where local, significant pollution sources are limited, and relates this to costs for strategies avoiding Hg pollution and to remediation costs of contaminated sites in Sweden and Japan. The case studies are compiled to help policy makers and the public to evaluate whether the benefits to the global environment from banning Hg and limiting its initial emission outweigh the benefits from its continued use or lack of control of Hg emissions. The cases we studied are relevant for point pollution sources globally and their remediation costs ranged between 2500 and 1.1 million US$ kg−1 Hg isolated from the biosphere. Therefore, regulations discontinuing mercury uses combined with extensive flue gas cleaning for all power plants and waste incinerators is cost effective.

  • 129.
    Hylander, Lars D.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Gröhn, Janina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Tropp, Magdalena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Vikström, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Wolpher, Henriette
    de Castro E Silva, Edinaldo
    Meili, Markus
    Oliveira, Lázaro J.
    Fish mercury increase in Lago Manso, a new hydroelectric reservoir in tropical Brazil2006In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 81, no 2, p. 155-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been frequently demonstrated that mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish rise in newly constructed hydroelectric reservoirs in the Northern Hemisphere. In the present work, we studied whether similar effects take place also in a tropical upland reservoir during impoundment and discuss possible causes and implications. Total Hg concentrations in fish and several soil and water parameters were determined before and after flooding at Rio Manso hydroelectric power plant in western Brazil. The Hg concentrations in soil and sediment were within the background levels in the region (22-35 ng g(-1) dry weight). There was a strong positive correlation between Hg and carbon and sulphur in sediment. Predatory fish had total Hg concentrations ranging between 70 and 210 ng g(-1) f.w. 7 years before flooding and between 72 and 755 ng g(-1) f.w. during flooding, but increased to between 216 and 938 ng g(-1) f.w. in the piscivorous and carnivorous species Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, cachara, and Salminus brasiliensis, dourado, 3 years after flooding. At the same time, concentrations of organic carbon in the water increased and oxygen concentrations decreased, indicating increased decomposition and anoxia as contributing to the increased Hg concentrations in fish. The present fish Hg concentrations in commonly consumed piscivorous species are a threat to the health of the population dependent on fishing in the dam and downstream river for sustenance. Mercury exposure can be reduced by following fish consumption recommendations until fish Hg concentrations decrease to a safe level.

  • 130.
    Hylander, Lars D.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. hydro.
    Kietlińska, Agnieszka
    Renman, Gunno
    Simán, Gyula
    Phosphorus retention in filter materials for wastewater treatment and its subsequent suitability for plant production2006In: Bioresource Technology, Vol. 97, no 7, p. 914-921Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Constructed sand filter beds are advantageous for the treatment of wastewater in areas with a low population density. Phosphorus- sorbing materials with additional beneficial characteristics may be used instead of sand. This study aimed at determining and comparing phosphorus (P) retention capacities of amorphous and crystalline blast furnace slags, limestone, opoka, Polonite and sand, for filtering domestic wastewater through columns over a period of 67 weeks. The P-enriched filter materials were subsequently tested for their fertilizer effectiveness in a pot experiment where barley was cultivated. Polonite, i.e. calcinated bedrock opoka, was most effective in removing P. This occurred at a relatively high hydraulic conductivity that reduced the risk of clogging.

    Barley grown in two types of slag, with a grain size of 0.25–4 mm, was most effective in dry matter production followed by Polonite. Fine-grained slags and Polonite were suggested as most suited of the investigated materials to recycle P back to agriculture.

  • 131.
    Hylander, Lars D.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Lindvall, Anders
    Foundation for Metal Biology, Öfre Slottsgatan 16A, S-753 12 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Gahnberg, Lars
    Public Dental Health Service, County of Uppsala, Ulleråkersvägen 21, S-750 17 Uppsala, Sweden.
    High mercury emissions from dental clinics despite amalgam separators2006In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 362, no 1-3, p. 74-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mercury (Hg) as amalgam has been used as a dental filling material for more than 150 years. Thereby, dentists and their patients have been directly exposed to Hg, and the public and the environment indirectly exposed via Hg emissions from incinerators and Hg in waste water from households and dental clinics. Due to the toxic properties of Hg and bioaccumulation in biota of Hg emitted via dental clinic waste water, amalgam separators were introduced in Sweden in the 1980s. Although these amalgam separators in the certification process are required to remove at least 95% of incoming Hg in a standardized laboratory test, their efficiency in practical use has not been properly investigated. Here we present actual Hg emissions via waste water from 12 dental clinics equipped with the same type of amalgam separator based on sedimentation. All waste water was collected for four consecutive working days, initially at ordinary operating conditions and a second time after a thorough revision and cleaning of the discharge system. The results indicate that mercury emissions from dental clinics can be reduced by an improved design of the discharge system, a sensible use of high pressure water cleaning, and regular maintenance, including replacement of amalgam separators and filters at certain intervals. The study also indicates that banning Hg in dentistry is the one long-term way to stop Hg emissions from dental amalgam.

  • 132.
    Hylander, Lars D.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. Luft- och vattenlära (LUVA).
    Lindvall, Anders N.
    Dental amalgam – the most important point source of mercury pollution in Swedish soils.2006In: Abstracts of Eighth International Conference on Mercury as a Global Pollutant, 2006, p. 574-Conference paper (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Mercury (Hg) as amalgam has been used as a dental filling material for more than 150 years. Thereby, Hg emits into wastewater from households and dental clinics and into air

    from incinerators and cremation furnaces. Soil and sediment get contaminated via atmospheric deposition and when spreading wastewater sludge as a soil conditioner or at improper dumping in land fills. Banning Hg in dentistry is the only long-term way to stop Hg emissions from dental amalgam. Even with a ban for dental amalgam, immediate actions are needed to reduce emissions from the 1300—2200 tonnes of Hg inserted in EU

    citizens (15 countries). These ongoing emissions from dental clinics and cremation furnaces could be efficiently controlled with available technology, while emissions from abrasion due to every day chewing cannot be hindered without large monetary costs. We present actual, national Hg emissions from dental clinics and crematoria in Sweden and compare these emissions with calculated emissions if best available technologies were to

    be used. Both technical and economic aspects are addressed. In conclusion, Hg emissions from crematoria could be practically eliminated with only marginal costs, while Hg emissions from dental clinics in Sweden could and must be reduced by more than an order of magnitude to obtain wastewater sludge with Hg levels acceptable in a sustainable context.

  • 133.
    Hylander, Lars D.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. Luft- och vattenlära (LUVA).
    Lindvall, Anders N.
    How to combat mercury emissions from dental clinics.2006In: DENTALTRIBUNE Asia Pacific Edition: Science & Research, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 30-31Article in journal (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Metallic mercury released into aquatic environments is transformed into methyl mercury. This is accumulated in fish, often reaching hazardous levels in top predators such as shark, tuna, northern pike and perch requiring fish consumption advisories for populations at risk. Since sizable amounts of metallic mercury are released from dental offices each year into the waste water systems, many countries now require amalgam separators to be installed. In Sweden the efficiency of this environmental protection is supposed to be 99 %, as stated by the manufacturers. Recent investigations, though, have pointed out that the efficiency of the most commonly used separators of sedimentary type is far less. But there are ways to greatly improve the efficiency.

  • 134.
    Hylander, Lars D.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. Luft- och vattenlära (LUVA).
    Lindvall, Anders N.
    Uhrberg, Roland
    Gahnberg, Lars
    Lindh, Ulf
    Buswell, Terry
    Mercury recovery in situ of four different dental amalgam separators.2006In: CleanMed Europe 29-31 May 2006 Stockholm: The International Healthcare Congress on Sustainable Products and Practices., 2006Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Dental clinics are the largest point source of mercury to the waste-water. Part of this mercury enters directly the surface waters, where it may get methylated to methyl mercury, enters the fish and hampers the mental development of the fetus of pregnant women eating mercury contaminated fish. Another part of the mercury will remain in the sludge, thereby prohibiting its use as a fertilizer. A third reason is that toxic heavy metals such as mercury and silver may disturb the biologic step in the waste-water treatment plant.

    Amalgam separators are used to physically remove dental amalgam from waste water in dental clinics. They are thereby supposed to reduce mercury (Hg) emissions to the municipal waste water system to acceptable levels.

    We here present results from a comparative study in situ of three amalgam separators available on the market, all with a claimed efficiency of 99% according to Danish and ISO protocols, and using sedimentation as the principle of separation. We also present corresponding data for an investigational prototype of an improved separator.

    The obtained efficiency of the three commercial separators is far below what is stated by the manufacturer and by authorities assumed to be the efficiency in clinical conditions. They reduced Hg emissions by 79 – 91%, leaving an average Hg content in

    outgoing waste water of 1.5 mg L_1. However, the prototype separator participating in this study retained 99.9% of the waste water Hg emissions, leaving an average Hg content in outgoing waste water of 0.004 mg L_1. Physical restrictions prohibit

    sedimentary type separators to recover the Hg fractions causing the largest damages in wastewater treatment plants. This fraction is not considered in the ISO protocol for testing amalgam separators, which therefore needs to be revised.

    Abolishing the use of dental amalgam and cleaning the tubing systems is the most efficient long-term solution to reduce Hg emissions from dental clinics. Until then, Hg emissions originating from placing, polishing or removing existing amalgam fillings, should be counteracted by the use of low-emission amalgam separators, already on the market or presently being developed for use alone or together with sedimentary type amalgam separators.

  • 135.
    Hylander, Lars D.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Lindvall, Anders
    Uhrberg, Roland
    Gahnberg, Lars
    Lindh, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Enheten för metallbiologisk forskning.
    Mercury recovery in situ of four different dental amalgam separators2006In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 366, no 1, p. 320-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Amalgam separators are used to physically remove dental amalgam from waste water in dental clinics. They are thereby supposed to reduce mercury (Hg) emissions to the municipal waste water system to acceptable levels. We here present results from a comparative study in situ of three amalgam separators available on the market, all with a claimed efficiency of 99% according to Danish and ISO protocols, and using sedimentation as the principle of separation. We also present corresponding data for an investigational prototype of an improved separator. The obtained efficiency of the three commercial separators is far below what is stated by the manufacturer and by authorities assumed to be the efficiency in clinical conditions. They reduced Hg emissions by 79 - 91%, leaving an average Hg content in outgoing waste water of 1.5 mg L(-1). However, the prototype separator participating in this study retained 99.9% of the waste water Hg emissions, leaving an average Hg content in outgoing waste water of 0.004 mg L(-1). Physical restrictions prohibit sedimentary type separators to recover the Hg fractions causing the largest damages in wastewater treatment plants. This fraction is not considered in the ISO protocol for testing amalgam separators, which therefore needs to be revised. Abolishing the use of dental amalgam and cleaning the tubing systems is the most efficient long-term solution to reduce Hg emissions from dental clinics. Until then, Hg emissions originating from placing, polishing or removing existing amalgam fillings, should be counteracted by the use of low-emission amalgam separators, already on the market or presently being developed for use alone or together with sedimentary type amalgam separators.

  • 136.
    Hylander, Lars D.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. Luft- och vattenlära (LUVA).
    Plath, David
    Microscopy and certification as tools for environmentally benign, mercury-free small-scale gold mining.2006In: Science of the Total Environment, no 368, p. 371-383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small-scale gold miners lose annually 500–700 tonnes of mercury when amalgamating gold with mercury and subsequent burning. So far, mercury-free alternatives have been demanding more skill, time, or capital investments and the interest from the miners to reduce the mercury emissions has been limited. Recent development of mercury free methods, an increasing mercury price, and increased awareness of health and environmental damages caused by mercury is changing the attitudes. This trend could be spurred by certification of gold with added value due to clean production methods. Our objectives are to present a method to distinguish gold recovered without using mercury or harmful chemicals such as cyanide. Thereby, this gold could be certified and thus obtain a higher market price. The method is based on inspection of the gold grain surfaces with a light microscope. This method separated natural gold grains from gold recovered by amalgamation or cyanidation. The method also demonstrated different characteristics of gold grains from different gold fields and a basis for a catalogue with photomicrographs of gold grains from different gold fields has been established and partly presented in this article. In conclusion, studies of gold grains with a light microscope and photo documentation is an inexpensive but reliable method to distinguish environment-friendly recovered gold, which could be used for certification to get a higher market price.

  • 137.
    Hylander, Lars D.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Plath, David
    Miranda, Conrado R.
    Lücke, Sofie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Öhlander, Jenny
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Rivera, Ana T.F.
    Comparison of different gold recovery methods with regard to pollution control and efficiency2007In: Clean - Soil, Air, Water, ISSN 1863-0650, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 52-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This case study performed at the largest gold mining village in the Philippines compares four methods for gold recovery: amalgamation, cyanide leaching, a shaking sluice, and Cleangoldm sluices. The results show that a combination of manual panning or Cleangoldm sluices followed by cyanidation is the best solution under present conditions, followed by cyanidation alone. Based on the knowledge obtained, remarks on suitable policy actions, which may be applied also in other gold fields, are made.

  • 138.
    Hylander, Lars D.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. Luft- och vattenlära (LUVA).
    Simán, Gyulá
    Phosphorus fractionation in soils and wastewater sorbent materials as an indicator of material specific and storage-dependent availability.2006In: Commun. in Soil Sci. Plant Anal., Vol. 37, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wastewater treatment with reactive filters and recycling the phosphorus (P)-saturated materials as fertilizers in plant production is a suitable concept for a sustainable society. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the ability of the Hedley P fractionation scheme to separate different P fractions, including inorganic and organic P, in soils and sorbent materials used to reduce the P content of waste water. An additional aim was to determine changes in P fractions after storage for 8 months under different humidity regimes. This was to evaluate whether extractability of P is dependent on storage conditions between sorption of P and the subsequent use of the sorbent materials as P fertilizers. This study is the first one showing that in sorbent materials used for treatment of wastewater, the Hedley fractionation scheme separated Ca phosphates in the HC1 extract from Al and Fe phosphates in the NaOH extract. The different fractions could also be used to characterize soils of different origins, to separate liming treatments, and to approximately document soil P fertility, but could not assess differences in soil P status caused by different P fertilization in a single year. No significant influence of moisture regimes during storage on resin-exchangeable P was detected. This increases the suitability of the studied sorbent materials for recycling P from wastewater to agricultural crops, because it indicates that plant availability of sorbed P does not change drasticaIly during the studied storage conditions.

  • 139.
    Hylander, Lars
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Gelius, Ulrik
    Physics, Department of Physics. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. Elektronspektroskopi, molekyl- och ytfysik (Fysik I).
    ESCA – a new analytical method for studying soil particle surfaces.2005In: Focus on Soils Symposium 14—16 September 2005 in Uppsala, ‘Managing Soils for the Future’, 2005, p. 83-Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 140.
    Hylander, Lars
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Lindvall, Anders
    Dental amalgam – the most important point source of mercury pollution in Swedish soils.2005In: Focus on Soils Symposium 14—16 September 2005 in Uppsala, ‘Managing Soils for the Future’, 2005Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 141.
    Håkanson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    A data reduction exercise to detect threshold samples for regression models to predict key water variables2007In: International review of hydrobiology, ISSN 1434-2944, E-ISSN 1522-2632, Vol. 92, no 1, p. 84-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inherent uncertainties in empirical data limit our understanding of interrelationships among variables and constrain our possibilities to identify critical thresholds as well as our possibilities to develop practically useful predictive models for water management. This work concerns key water variables for water management and the first aim is to utilize a very comprehensive set of data set for Ringkobing Fjord, Denmark. The paper first presents the methods and data used, then a reference regression for chlorophyll, coefficients of variation (CV = SD/MV; MV = mean value; SD = standard deviation) for a variety of water variables and how these CV-values influence n, the number of data used to determine coastal area characteristic mean or median values (note that the interest here is not on the conditions in sampling bottle but on the conditions in entire coastal areas, the ecosystem perspective). The main part of the work presents a data reduction exercise including a definition of an error function where the focus is on "large N", i.e., the number of data in a regression. The results are summarized in a diagram relating the error in the regression to different water variables with different inherent CVs in rivers, lakes and coastal areas. Given the inherently high CV-values of many of these water variables, more samples than generally taken in most regular monitoring programs are needed if scientific unassailable conclusions are to be made concerning interrelationships among the variables and to produce scientifically meaningful information to detect critical ecosystem changes and threshold values.

  • 142.
    Håkanson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. LUVA.
    A dynamic model for suspended particulate matter (SPM) in rivers.2006In: Global Ecol. Biogeogr., no 15, p. 93-107Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 143.
    Håkanson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. LUVA.
    A new dynamic model for suspended particulate matter (SPM) in lakes2005In: Internat. Rev. Hydrobiol., Vol. 90, p. 603-636Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 144.
    Håkanson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. LUVAL.
    A review of uncertainties in empirical data for operational effect variables and abiotic variables including thresholds for predictive power and practical use.: Deliverable D2.3.2.2007Report (Other scientific)
  • 145.
    Håkanson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    A revised dynamic model for suspended particulate matter (SPM) in coastal areas2006In: Aquatic geochemistry, ISSN 1380-6165, E-ISSN 1573-1421, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 327-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a general, process-based model for suspended particulate matter (SPM) in defined coastal areas (the ecosystem scale). The model is based on ordinary differential equations and the calculation time (dt) is 1 month to reflect seasonal variations. The model has been tested using data from 17 Baltic coastal areas of different character and shown to predict mean monthly SPM-concentrations in water and Secchi depth (a measure of water clarity) very well (generally within the uncertainty bands given by the empirical data). The model is based on processes regulating inflow, outflow and internal fluxes. The separation between the surface-water layer and the deep-water layer is not done in the traditional manner from water temperature data but from sedimentological criteria (from the wave base which regulates where wind/wave-induced resuspension occurs). The model calculates the primary production of SPM (within the coastal areas), resuspension, sedimentation, mixing, mineralization and retention of SPM. The SPM-model is simple to apply in practice since all driving variables may be readily accessed from maps or regular monitoring programs. The model has also been extensively tested by means of sensitivity and uncertainty tests and the most important factor regulating model predictions of SPM-concentrations in coastal water is generally the value used for the SPM-concentration in the sea outside the given coastal area. The obligatory driving variables include four morphometric parameters (coastal area, section area, mean and maximum depth), latitude (to predict surface water and deep water temperatures, stratification and mixing), salinity, chlorophyll and the Secchi depth or SPM-concentration in the sea outside the given coastal area. Many of the structures in the model are general and could potentially be used for coastal areas other than those included in this study, e.g., for open coasts, estuaries or areas influenced by tidal variations.

  • 146.
    Håkanson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. LUVA.
    Changes to lake ecosystem structure resulting from fish cage farm emissions.2005In: Lakes & Reservoirs: Research and Management, Vol. 10, p. 71-80Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 147.
    Håkanson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Dagens fiskeripolitik leder till katastrof.2006Other (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 148.
    Håkanson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. LUVAL.
    Djupt enfaldig plan för Östersjön. UNT-debatt, 2007-11-28.2007Other (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 149.
    Håkanson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. LUVA.
    Extended worksheets for case-study areas and variables, including sampling frequency, number of sites and analyzed variables -– a general protocol including methodological aspects related to variations and uncertainties in empirical data needed to run and validate predictive models in coastal management.: Deliverable D2.3.1.2006Report (Other scientific)
  • 150.
    Håkanson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Helhetssyn krävs för fisket.2006Other (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
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