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  • 101. Johansson, MW
    et al.
    Holmblad, T
    Thörnqvist, PO
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. Jämförande fysiologi.
    Cammarata, M
    Parrinello, N
    Söderhäll, K
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. jämförande fysiologi.
    A cell-surface superoxide dismutase is a binding protein for peroxinectin, a cell-adhesive peroxidase in crayfish1999In: JOURNAL OF CELL SCIENCE, ISSN 0021-9533, Vol. 112, no 6, p. 917-925Article in journal (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Peroxinectin, a cell-adhesive peroxidase (homologous to human myeloperoxidase), from the crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus, was shown by immune-fluorescence to bind to the surface of crayfish blood cells (haemocytes). In order to identify a cell surface r

  • 102.
    Johansson, MW
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology. Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Keyser, P
    Sritunyalucksana, K
    Söderhäll, K
    Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. jämförande fysiologi.
    Crustacean haemocytes and haematopoiesis2000In: AQUACULTURE, ISSN 0044-8486, Vol. 191, no 1-3, p. 45-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Crustacean haemocytes play important roles in the host immune response including recognition, phagocytosis, melanization, cytotoxicity and cell-cell communication. Classification of the haemocyte types in decapod crustaceans is based mainly on the presenc

  • 103. Johansson, Viktoria
    et al.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. jämförande fysiologi.
    Björnsson, Björn Thrandur
    Growth hormone-induced stimulation of swimming and feeding behaviour of rainbow trout is abolished by the D-1 dopamine antagonist SCH233902005In: GENERAL AND COMPARATIVE ENDOCRINOLOGY, Vol. 141, no 1, p. 58-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of GH on various types of behaviour in fish are well documented although the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In rainbow trout, an involvement of the brain dopaminergic system in mediating the behavioural effects of GH has been indicated, as GH can alter the brain doparninergic activity. To further examine the role of the dopaminergic system in the mediation of GH effects on locomotion and foraging, GH- and sham-implanted juvenile rainbow trout were injected with the selective D, dopamine antagonist SCH23390 or vehicle. Swimming and feeding activity was then studied by direct observation. Brains were thereafter sampled and analysed for the content of serotonin, dopamine and their metabolites in the hypothalamus, optic tecturn, cerebellum, telencephalon, and brain stem. GH increased swimming activity as well as feed intake, effects which were abolished by SCH23390. By itself, the antagonist did not affect behaviour, nor did it affect the brain monoamines. In contrast, treatment with GH, with or without SCH23390, decreased the content of the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA) in the optic tecturn and the cerebellum, as well as the serotomin content (5-HT) in the optic tectum. It is concluded that the D-1 dopamine receptor of the dopaminergic system appears to be of importance in the mediation of the effects of GH on behaviour. (C) 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 104. Johansson, Viktoria
    et al.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. Jämförande fysiologi.
    Jönsson, Elisabeth
    Hall, David
    Björnsson, Björn Thrandur
    Peripherally administered growth hormone increases brain dopaminergic activity and swimming in rainbow trout.2004In: Horm Behav, ISSN 0018-506X, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 436-43Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 105. Johnsson, Jörgen
    et al.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. Jämförande Fysiologi.
    Sloman, Katherine A
    Social Interactions2006In: Behaviour and Physiology of Fish, Elsevier, Amsterdam , 2006, p. 151-197Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 106. Ju, Jin Sung
    et al.
    Cho, Mi Hyang
    Brade, Lore
    Kim, Jung Hyun
    Park, Ji Won
    Ha, Nam-Chul
    Söderhall, Irene
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Söderhall, Kenneth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Brade, Helmut
    Lee, Bok Luel
    A novel 40-kDa protein containing six repeats of an epidermal growth factor-like domain functions as a pattern recognition protein for lipopolysaccharide2006In: Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0022-1767, E-ISSN 1550-6606, Vol. 177, no 3, p. 1838-1845Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Determination of structures and functions of pattern recognition proteins are important for understanding pathogen recognition mechanisms in host defense and for elucidating the activation mechanism of innate immune reactions. In this study, a novel 40-kDa protein, named LPS recognition protein (LRP), was purified to homogeneity from the cell-free plasma of larvae of the large beetle, Holotrichia diomphalia. LRP exhibited agglutinating activities on Escherichia coli, but not on Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. This E. coli-agglutinating activity was preferentially inhibited by the rough-type LPS with a complete core oligosaccharide. LRP consists of 317 aa residues and six repeats of an epidermal growth factor-like domain-Recombinant LRP expressed in a baculovirus system also showed E. coli agglutination activity in vitro and was able to neutralize LPS by inhibition of LPS-induced IL-6 production in mouse bone marrow mast cells. Furthermore, E. coli coated with the purified LRP were more rapidly cleared in the Holotrichia larvae than only E. coli, indicating that this protein participates in the clearance of E. coli in vivo. The three amino-terminal epidermal growth factor-like domains of LRP, but not the three carboxyl epidermal growth factor-like domains, are involved in the LPS-binding activity. Taken together, this LRP functions as a pattern recognition protein for LPS and plays a role as an innate immune protein.

  • 107. Jönsson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Johansson, Viktoria
    Björnsson, Björn Thrandur
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. jämförande fysiologi.
    Central nervous system actions of growth hormone on brain monoamine levels and behavior of juvenile rainbow trout.2003In: Horm Behav, ISSN 0018-506X, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 367-74Article in journal (Other scientific)
  • 108. Kan, Hongnan
    et al.
    Kim, Chan-Hee
    Kwon, Hyun-Mi
    Park, Ji-Won
    Roh, Kyung-Baeg
    Lee, Hanna
    Park, Bum-Joon
    Zhang, Rong
    Zhang, Jinghai
    Söderhäll, Kenneth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Ha, Nam-Chul
    Lee, Bok Luel
    Molecular control of phenoloxidase-induced melanin synthesis in an insect2008In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 283, no 37, p. 25316-25323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The melanization reaction induced by activated phenoloxidase in arthropods must be tightly controlled because of excessive formation of quinones and excessive systemic melanization damage to the hosts. However, the molecular mechanism by which phenoloxidase-induced melanin synthesis is regulated in vivo is largely unknown. It is known that the Spätzle-processing enzyme is a key enzyme in the production of cleaved Spätzle from pro-Spätzle in the Drosophila Toll pathway. Here, we provide biochemical evidence that the Tenebrio molitor Spätzle-processing enzyme converts both the 79-kDa Tenebrio prophenoloxidase and Tenebrio clip-domain SPH1 zymogen to an active melanization complex. This complex, consisting of the 76-kDa Tenebrio phenoloxidase and an active form of Tenebrio clip-domain SPH1, efficiently produces melanin on the surface of bacteria, and this activity has a strong bactericidal effect. Interestingly, we found the phenoloxidase-induced melanization reaction to be tightly regulated by Tenebrio prophenoloxidase, which functions as a competitive inhibitor of melanization complex formation. These results demonstrate that the Tenebrio Toll pathway and the melanization reaction share a common serine protease for the regulation of these two major innate immune responses.

  • 109. Kim, Chan-Hee
    et al.
    Kim, Su-Jin
    Kan, Hongnan
    Kwon, Hyun-Mi
    Roh, Kyung-Baeg
    Jiang, Rui
    Yang, Yu
    Park, Ji-Won
    Lee, Hyeon-Hwa
    Ha, Nam-Chul
    Kang, Hee Jung
    Nonaka, Masaru
    Söderhäll, Kenneth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Lee, Bok Luel
    A three-step proteolytic cascade mediates the activation of the peptidoglycan-induced toll pathway in an insect2008In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 283, no 12, p. 7599-7607Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recognition of lysine-type peptidoglycans (PG) by the PG recognition complex has been suggested to cause activation of the serine protease cascade leading to the processing of Spätzle and subsequent activation of the Toll signaling pathway. So far, two serine proteases involved in the lysine-type PG Toll signaling pathway have been identified. One is a modular serine protease functioning as an initial enzyme to be recruited into the lysine-type PG recognition complex. The other is the Drosophila Spätzle processing enzyme (SPE), a terminal enzyme that converts Spätzle pro-protein to its processed form capable of binding to the Toll receptor. However, it remains unclear how the initial PG recognition signal is transferred to Spätzle resulting in Toll pathway activation. Also, the biochemical characteristics and mechanism of action of a serine protease linking the modular serine protease and SPE have not been investigated. Here, we purified and cloned a novel upstream serine protease of SPE that we named SAE, SPE-activating enzyme, from the hemolymph of a large beetle, Tenebrio molitor larvae. This enzyme was activated by Tenebrio modular serine protease and in turn activated the Tenebrio SPE. The biochemical ordered functions of these three serine proteases were determined in vitro, suggesting that the activation of a three-step proteolytic cascade is necessary and sufficient for lysine-type PG recognition signaling. The processed Spätzle by this cascade induced antibacterial activity in vivo. These results demonstrate that the three-step proteolytic cascade linking the PG recognition complex and Spätzle processing is essential for the PG-dependent Toll signaling pathway.

  • 110. Kim, Moon Suk
    et al.
    Baek, Min Ji
    Lee, Mi Hee
    Park, Ji Won
    Lee, So Young
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. j.
    Soderhall, Kenneth
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. jämförande fysiologi.
    Lee, Bok Luel
    A new easter-type serine protease cleaves a masquerade-like protein during prophenoloxidase activation in Holotrichia diomphalia larvae.2002In: J Biol Chem, ISSN 0021-9258, Vol. 277, no 42, p. 39999-40004Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 111.
    Kim, Young-A
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. Jämförande fysiologi.
    Effector molecules of crayfish haematopoiesis and immune system2004Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 112.
    Kim, Young-A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Hematopoiesis, Kazal Inhibitors and Crustins in a Crustacean2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Hemocytes are important as storage and producers of proteins of the innate immune defence, as well as actors of the cellular immune response. Therefore the hematopoietic process is critical for survival of most invertebrates. In order to search for molecules of importance for hemocyte development in crayfish we investigated proteins in crayfish plasma, which were increased after microbial challenge. As a result we were able to identify, purify and characterize a new invertebrate cytokine named astakine, and could clearly show that this protein is important for hematopoietic development in vivo as well as in an in vitro cell culture system. Astakine contains a prokineticin (PK) domain shown for the first time in an invertebrate, however, unlike the vertebrate PKs, astakine binds to a cell surface F1 ATP synthase β subunit located on the hematopoietic tissue (hpt) cell membranes. Extracellular ATP synthases as receptors have earlier been reported in different vertebrate cells and here we show that extracellular ATP synthase β subunit acts as a receptor for an invertebrate cytokine and is involved in hematopoiesis.

    We also found two other groups of proteins, which were increased in plasma after microbial challenge and they were further characterized. A great number of different Kazal type proteinase inhibitors were produced by the hemocytes and this type of proteinase inhibitors have variable reactive sites determining the specificity of their inhibition. In crayfish Kazal inhibitors with similar reactive sites were found as a response to specific microorganisms suggesting that the crayfish Kazal proteinase inhibitors may provide enough variability to participate in diverse innate immune reactions against different pathogens.

    Antimicrobial peptides were synthesized by the hemocytes and were likewise released in high amount upon microbial infection and we have characterized the main group of cystein-rich crustin-like antimicrobial peptides and investigated their tissue distribution and expression pattern.

    List of papers
    1. An ancient role for a prokineticin domain in invertebrate hematopoiesis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>An ancient role for a prokineticin domain in invertebrate hematopoiesis
    Show others...
    2005 (English)In: Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0022-1767, E-ISSN 1550-6606, Vol. 174, no 10, p. 6153-6160Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Hemopoietic development requires firm control of cell proliferation and differentiation. Although recent research has revealed conserved function of transcription factors and signaling pathways regulating lineage commitment in hemopoietic development in Drosophila melanogaster and vertebrates, little is known about hemopoietic cytokines among the invertebrate phyla. In the present study, we show that differentiation and growth of hemopoietic stem cells in vitro from an invertebrate, Pacifastacus leniusculus, require an endogenous cytokine-like factor, astakine, containing a prokineticin (PK) domain. Astakine induces a strong hematopoiesis response in live animals. An astakine homologue was also found in the shrimp, Penaeus monodon. So far, PK domains are only identified in vertebrates, in which they, for example, direct angiogenic growth. Our finding of the first PK-like cytokine characterized from any invertebrate provides novel information concerning the evolution of growth factors and blood cell development.

    Keywords
    Amino Acid Sequence, Animals, Astacoidea, Base Sequence, Cell Differentiation/physiology, Cell Division/physiology, Cell Movement/physiology, Cells; Cultured, Cloning; Molecular, Cytokines/genetics/*isolation & purification/*physiology/secretion, Cytoplasmic Granules/secretion, Evolution; Molecular, Hematopoiesis/genetics/*physiology, Hematopoietic Stem Cells/cytology/physiology, Hemocytes/cytology/physiology/secretion, Molecular Sequence Data, Penaeidae, Protein Structure; Tertiary/genetics, Research Support; Non-U.S. Gov't, Sequence Homology; Amino Acid, Structural Homology; Protein, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor; Endocrine-Gland-Derived/chemistry/genetics/isolation & purification/*physiology/secretion
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-92993 (URN)15879111 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2005-04-14 Created: 2005-04-14 Last updated: 2017-12-14
    2. The β subunit of ATPsynthase is a receptor for the invertebrate prokineticin, astakine
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The β subunit of ATPsynthase is a receptor for the invertebrate prokineticin, astakine
    (English)Manuscript (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-94818 (URN)
    Available from: 2006-09-25 Created: 2006-09-25 Last updated: 2011-01-12Bibliographically approved
    3. Kazal proteinase inhibitors from the crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Kazal proteinase inhibitors from the crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-94819 (URN)
    Available from: 2006-09-25 Created: 2006-09-25 Last updated: 2011-01-12Bibliographically approved
    4. Antibacterial peptides in hemocytes and hematopoietic tissue from freshwater crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus: Characterization and expression pattern
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Antibacterial peptides in hemocytes and hematopoietic tissue from freshwater crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus: Characterization and expression pattern
    Show others...
    2007 (English)In: Developmental and Comparative Immunology, ISSN 0145-305X, E-ISSN 1879-0089, Vol. 31, no 5, p. 441-455Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A 14 amino acid residues proline/arginine-rich antibacterial peptide designated as astacidin 2 was purified and characterized from hemocytes of the freshwater crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus. Astacidin 2 has a broad range of antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The primary sequence of astacidin 2 is RPRPNYRPRPIYRP with an amidated C-terminal and the molecular mass is 1838 Da determined by mass spectrometry. Furthermore, the cDNA of three different crustin antibacterial homologs were isolated from a crayfish hemocyte EST library. RT-PCR was used to analyze the expression of the genes coding for astacidin 2 and P. leniusculus crustins (Plcrustin) 1–3 after bacterial challenge. The expression of Plcrustin1 was upregulated in both hemocytes and hematopoietic tissue after challenge with Gram-negative Escherichia coli or Acinetobacter ssp. non pathogenic bacteria as well as by a Gram negative crayfish pathogenic bacterium (Aeromonas hydrophila). The PlCrustin3 transcript was only upregulated after inoculation with the non-pathogenic Acinetobacter ssp. while there was no change in expression of Plcrustin2 or astacidin 2 following a bacterial challenge.

    Keywords
    Antibacterial protein, Proline-rich peptide, Astacidin 2, Crustin, Carcinin, Crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus, Innate immunity
    National Category
    Biological Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-19137 (URN)10.1016/j.dci.2006.08.002 (DOI)000244674500002 ()17049601 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2008-05-15 Created: 2008-05-15 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
  • 113.
    Kim, Young-A
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Cerenius, Lage
    Liu, Haipeng
    Söderhäll, Irene
    Söderhäll, Kenneth
    Kazal proteinase inhibitors from the crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculusManuscript (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 114.
    Kim, Young-A
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Söderhäll, Irene
    Lee, Bok Luel
    Söderhäll, Kenneth
    The β subunit of ATPsynthase is a receptor for the invertebrate prokineticin, astakineManuscript (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 115. Korayem, Ahmed
    et al.
    Hauling, Thomas
    Lesch, Christine
    Fabbri, Marco
    Lindgren, Malin
    Loseva, Olga
    Schmidt, Otto
    Dushay, Mitchell
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Theopold, Ulrich
    Evidence for an immune function of lepidopteran silk proteins2007In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 352, no 2, p. 317-322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hemolymph coagulation stops bleeding and protects against infection. Clotting factors include both proteins that are conserved during evolution as well as more divergent proteins in different species. Here we show that several silk proteins also appear in the clot of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella. RT-PCR analysis reveals that silk proteins are expressed in immune tissues and induced upon wounding in both Galleria and Ephestia kuehniella, a second pyralid moth. Our results support the idea that silk proteins were co-opted for immunity and coagulation during evolution.

  • 116. Larson, Earl T
    et al.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. Jämförande fysiologi.
    Mayer, Ian
    Lepage, Olivier
    Summers, Cliff H
    Överli, öyvind
    Social stress affects circulating melatonin levels in rainbow trout.2004In: Gen Comp Endocrinol, ISSN 0016-6480, Vol. 136, no 3, p. 322-7Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 117. Lee, Mi Hee
    et al.
    Osaki, Tsukasa
    Lee, Joo Young
    Baek, Min Ji
    Zhang, Rong
    Park, Ji Won
    Kawabata, Shun-ichiro
    Söderhäll, Kenneth
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. jämförande fysiologi.
    Lee, Bok Luel
    Peptidoglycan recognition proteins involved in 1,3-beta-D-glucan-dependent prophenoloxidase activation system of insect.2004In: J Biol Chem, ISSN 0021-9258, Vol. 279, no 5, p. 3218-27Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 118.
    Lee, So Young
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. Jämförande fysiologi.
    Lee, Bok Luel
    Söderhäll, Kenneth
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. Jämförande fysiologi.
    Processing of an antibacterial peptide from hemocyanin of the freshwater crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus.2003In: J Biol Chem, ISSN 0021-9258, Vol. 278, no 10, p. 7927-33Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 119.
    Lee, So Young
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. Jämförande fysiologi.
    Lee, Bok Luel
    Söderhäll, Kenneth
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. Jämförande fysiologi.
    Processing of crayfish hemocyanin subunits into phenoloxidase.2004In: Biochem Biophys Res Commun, ISSN 0006-291X, Vol. 322, no 2, p. 490-6Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 120.
    Lee, So Young
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. Jämförande fysiologi.
    Söderhäll, Kenneth
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. Jämförande fysiologi.
    Early events in crustacean innate immunity.2002In: Fish Shellfish Immunol, ISSN 1050-4648, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 421-37Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 121. Lee, SY
    et al.
    Söderhäll, K
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. Jämförande fysiologi.
    Characterization of a pattern recognition protein, a masquerade-like protein, in the freshwater crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus2001In: JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY, ISSN 0022-1767, Vol. 166, no 12, p. 7319-7326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A multifunctional masquerade-like protein has been isolated, purified, and characterized from hemocytes of the freshwater crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus. It was isolated by its Escherichia coli binding property, and it binds to formaldehyde-treated Gr

  • 122. Lee, SY
    et al.
    Wang, RG
    Söderhäll, K
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. Jämförande fysiologi.
    A lipopolysaccharide- and beta-1,3-glucan-binding protein from hemocytes of the freshwater crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus - Purification, characterization, and cDNA cloning2000In: JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY, ISSN 0021-9258, Vol. 275, no 2, p. 1337-1343Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A lipopolysaccharide- and beta-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP) was isolated and characterized from blood cells (hemocytes) of the freshwater crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus. The LGBP was purified by chromatography on Blue-Sepharose and phenyl-Sepharos

  • 123.
    Lepage, O
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology. Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Overli, O
    Petersson, E
    Jarvi, T
    Winberg, S
    Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. jämförande fysiologi.
    Differential stress coping in wild and domesticated sea trout2000In: BRAIN BEHAVIOR AND EVOLUTION, ISSN 0006-8977, Vol. 56, no 5, p. 259-268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Offspring of wild and sea-ranched [domesticated) sea trout (Salmo trutta) originating from the same river, were reared under identical hatchery conditions from the time of fertilization. At one year of age individual fish were exposed to two standardized

  • 124. Lepage, O
    et al.
    Tottmar, O
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Winberg, S
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. Jämförande fysiologi.
    Elevated dietary intake of L-tryptophan counteracts the stress-induced elevation of plasma cortisol in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).2002In: Journal of Experimental Biology, Vol. 205, p. 3679-3687Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 125.
    Lepage, Olivier
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Dietary L-Tryptophan Suppresses Aggression and Stress Responsiveness in Juvenile Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): The Role of Brain Serotonin and Plasma Melatonin2004Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed L-tryptophan (TRP) supplemented feed for 7 days show a suppression of aggressive behaviour along with a reduction in post-stress plasma cortisol levels. However, 3 days of elevated dietary TRP does not have any effects on either aggressive behaviour or post-stress plasma cortisol levels. The effects of TRP on aggression and stress responsiveness could be related to elevated brain serotonergic activity, TRP being the precursor of serotonin (5-HT). However, 5-HT is, in turn, the precursor of melatonin (ME) and we found that elevated dietary intake of TRP results in an increase in daytime plasma levels of ME. Elevated plasma ME concentrations in rainbow trout fed TRP supplemented feed appear to be of gastrointestinal origin. ME has been suggested to have inhibitory effects on aggressive behaviour and to act as a glucocorticoid antisecretagogue. However, we found that exogenuos ME did not affect aggressive behaviour or post-stress plasma cortisol in rainbow trout. Instead, the effects of TRP on aggressive behaviour and plasma cortisol were mimicked by treatment with the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor, citalopram, suggesting that the effects of TRP are mediated by a stimulation of brain 5-HT activity and not by increased ME synthesis and secretion. However, the slow time-course of the effects of TRP on aggressive behaviour and plasma cortisol suggests that effects on 5-HT receptors mechanism are likely to be involved.

    List of papers
    1. Suppression of aggression in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by dietary L-tryptophan
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Suppression of aggression in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by dietary L-tryptophan
    2001 (English)In: The journal of experimental biology, ISSN 0022-0949, Vol. 204, no 22, p. 3867-3876Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-92137 (URN)
    Available from: 2004-09-17 Created: 2004-09-17 Last updated: 2009-04-03Bibliographically approved
    2. Elevated dietary intake of L-tryptophan counteracts the stress-induced elevation of plasma cortisol in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Elevated dietary intake of L-tryptophan counteracts the stress-induced elevation of plasma cortisol in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
    2002 (English)In: The journal of experimental biology, ISSN 0022-0949, Vol. 205, no 23, p. 3679-3687Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-92138 (URN)
    Available from: 2004-09-17 Created: 2004-09-17 Last updated: 2009-04-03Bibliographically approved
    3. Time course of the effect of dietary L-tryptophan on plasma cortisol levels in rainbow trout Onchorhynchus mykiss
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Time course of the effect of dietary L-tryptophan on plasma cortisol levels in rainbow trout Onchorhynchus mykiss
    2003 (English)In: The journal of experimental biology, ISSN 0022-0949, Vol. 206, no 20, p. 3589-3599Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-92139 (URN)
    Available from: 2004-09-17 Created: 2004-09-17 Last updated: 2009-04-03Bibliographically approved
    4. Tryptophan affects both gastrointestinal melatonin production and interrenal activity in stressed and non-stressed rainbow trout
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tryptophan affects both gastrointestinal melatonin production and interrenal activity in stressed and non-stressed rainbow trout
    (English)Manuscript (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-92140 (URN)
    Available from: 2004-09-17 Created: 2004-09-17 Last updated: 2010-01-14Bibliographically approved
    5. Serotonin but not melatonin, plays a role in shaping dominant-subordinate relationships and aggression in rainbow trout
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Serotonin but not melatonin, plays a role in shaping dominant-subordinate relationships and aggression in rainbow trout
    (English)Manuscript (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-92141 (URN)
    Available from: 2004-09-17 Created: 2004-09-17 Last updated: 2010-01-14Bibliographically approved
  • 126.
    Lepage, Olivier
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Larson, Earl T.
    Mayer, Ian
    Winberg, Svante
    Serotonin but not melatonin, plays a role in shaping dominant-subordinate relationships and aggression in rainbow troutManuscript (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 127.
    Lepage, Olivier
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. jämförande fysiologi.
    Larson, Earl T
    Mayer, Ian
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. jämförande fysiologi.
    Serotonin, but not melatonin, plays a role in shaping dorninant-subordinate relationships and aggression in rainbow trout2005In: HORMONES AND BEHAVIOR, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 233-242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to clarify to what extent the effects of elevated dietary L-tryptophan (Trp) on aggressive behavior and stress responsiveness in rainbow trout are mediated by circulating melatonin and central serotonin (5-HT), respectively. Isolated rainbow trout were paired for I It a day for 7 days in order to create fish with experience of being dominant and subordinate. Following this week, the fish were tested for aggressive behavior using a resident-intruder test after which they were subjected to one of four treatments: (1) tryptophan, (2) the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram, (3) melatonin, and (4) no treatment (controls). After 7 days of treatment, the fish were subjected to a second resident-intruder test. Trp-supplemented feed resulted in a suppression of aggressive behavior in fish with experience of being dominant. Moreover, fish fed Trp-supplemented feed, regardless of social experience, also displayed lower plasma cortisol levels than controls. These effects of elevated dietary Trp were closely mimicked by citalopram treatment, whereas exogenous melatonin had no effect on either aggressive behavior or plasma cortisol. Thus, the effect of elevated dietary Trp on aggressive behavior and stress responses does not appear to be mediated by melatonin even though elevated dietary intake of Trp resulted in an increase in plasma melatonin concentrations.

  • 128.
    Lepage, Olivier
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Larson, Earl T.
    Mayer, Ian
    Winberg, Svante
    Tryptophan affects both gastrointestinal melatonin production and interrenal activity in stressed and non-stressed rainbow troutManuscript (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 129.
    Lepage, Olivier
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. jämförande fysiologi.
    Larson, Earl T
    Mayer, Ian
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. jämförande fysiologi.
    Tryptophan affects both gastrointestinal melatonin production and interrenal activity in stressed and nonstressed rainbow trout2005In: Tryptophan affects both gastrointestinal melatonin production and interrenal activity in stressed and nonstressed rainbow trout, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 264-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that elevated dietary levels of l-tryptophan (Trp) result in elevated plasma levels of melatonin and that this increase in plasma melatonin concentration is caused by elevated melatonin production and secretion by the gastro-intestinal-tract (GIT). Feeding juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Trp-supplemented feed for 7 days resulted in elevated daytime plasma levels of melatonin and reduced poststress plasma cortisol concentrations. Nighttime plasma melatonin concentrations were, however, not affected by elevated dietary Trp. Moreover, stress caused a reduction in daytime plasma levels of melatonin in fish fed Trp-supplemented feed, an effect that was counteracted by treatment with an alpha-receptor antagonist. These results clearly suggest that elevated dietary intake of Trp results in an increase in the GIT production of melatonin in rainbow trout. A suggestion that was further supported by the results from an in vitro experiment demonstrating that addition of Trp to the incubation medium stimulates melatonin production and release by incubated rainbow trout GIT. The results from this study led us to suggest a possible mechanism for melatonin in mediating the effects of elevated dietary Trp on poststress plasma cortisol concentrations and aggressive behavior in rainbow trout.

  • 130.
    Lepage, Olivier
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Tottmar, Olof
    Winberg, Svante
    Elevated dietary intake of L-tryptophan counteracts the stress-induced elevation of plasma cortisol in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)2002In: The journal of experimental biology, ISSN 0022-0949, Vol. 205, no 23, p. 3679-3687Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 131. Lepage, Olivier
    et al.
    Va­lchez, Inmaculada Molina
    Pottinger, Tom G
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. jämförande fysiologi.
    Time-course of the effect of dietary L-tryptophan on plasma cortisol levels in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.2003In: J Exp Biol, ISSN 0022-0949, Vol. 206, no Pt 20, p. 3589-99Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 132.
    Lepage, Olivier
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Vílchez, Inmaculada Molina
    Pottinger, Tom G.
    Winberg, Svante
    Time course of the effect of dietary L-tryptophan on plasma cortisol levels in rainbow trout Onchorhynchus mykiss2003In: The journal of experimental biology, ISSN 0022-0949, Vol. 206, no 20, p. 3589-3599Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 133. Lesch, Christine
    et al.
    Goto, Akira
    Lindgren, Malin
    Bidla, Gawa
    Dushay, Mitchell S
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Theopold, Ulrich
    A role for Hemolectin in coagulation and immunity in Drosophila melanogaster2007In: Developmental and Comparative Immunology, ISSN 0145-305X, E-ISSN 1879-0089, Vol. 31, no 12, p. 1255-1263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hemolectin has been identified as a candidate clotting factor in Drosophila. We reassessed the domain structure of Hemolectin (Hml) and propose that instead of C-type lectin domains, the two discoidin domains are most likely responsible for the protein's lectin activity. We also tested Hml's role in coagulation and immunity in Drosophila. Here we describe the isolation of a new hml allele in a forward screen for coagulation mutants, and our characterization of this and two other hml alleles, one of which is a functional null. While loss of Hml had strong effects on larval hemolymph coagulation ex vivo, mutant larvae survived wounding. Drosophila thus possesses redundant hemostatic mechanisms. We also found that loss of Hml in immune-handicapped adults rendered them more sensitive to Gram(-) bacteria infection. This demonstrates an immunological role of this clotting protein and reinforces the importance of the clot in insect immunity.

  • 134. Liang, Z
    et al.
    Sottrup-Jensen, L
    Aspan, A
    Hall, M
    Söderhäll, K
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. jämförande fysiologi.
    Pacifastin, a novel 155-kDa heterodimeric proteinase inhibitor containing a unique transferrin chain.1997In: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, ISSN 0027-8424, Vol. 94, no 13, p. 6682-7Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 135. LIANG, ZC
    et al.
    SODERHALL, K
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. Jämförande fysiologi.
    ISOLATION OF CDNA-ENCODING A NOVEL SERPIN OF CRAYFISH HEMOCYTES1995In: COMPARATIVE BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY B-BIOCHEMISTRY & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, ISSN 0305-0491, Vol. 112, no 2, p. 385-391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have cloned a serpin-type proteinase inhibitor from a crayfish hemocyte cDNA library. The deduced amino acid sequence consists of 429 amino acids with a putative signal peptide of 21 amino acids, The mature protein has a calculated molecular mass of 45

  • 136. Lilley, J H
    et al.
    Hart, D
    Panyawachira, V
    Kanchanakhan, S
    Chinabut, S
    Söderhäll, Kenneth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Cerenius, Lage
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Molecular characterization of the fish-pathogenic fungus Aphanomyces invadans.2003In: Journal of Fish Diseases, ISSN 0140-7775, E-ISSN 1365-2761, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 263-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aphanomyces invadans (Saprolegniaceae) is a peronosporomycete fungus associated with the serious fish disease, epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS), also known as mycotic granulomatosis. In this study, interspecific relationships were examined between A. invadans isolates and other aquatic animal pathogenic Saprolegniaceae, and saprophytic Saprolegniaceae from EUS-affected areas. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms and sequences of ribosomal DNA confirmed that A. invadans is distinct from all other species studied. A sequence from the internal transcribed spacer region ITS1, unique to A. invadans, was used to design primers for a PCR-based diagnostic test. Intraspecific relationships were also examined by random amplification of polymorphic DNA using 20 isolates of A. invadans from six countries. The isolates showed a high degree of genetic homogeneity using 14 random ten-mer primers. This provides evidence that the fungus has spread across Asia in one relatively rapid episode, which is consistent with reports of outbreaks of EUS. Physiological distinctions between A. invadans and other Aphanomyces species based on a data set of 16 growth parameters showed remarkable taxonomic congruence with the molecular phylogeny.

  • 137. Lilley, JH
    et al.
    Cerenius, Lage
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Söderhäll, Kenneth
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    RAPD evidence for the origin of crayfish plague outbreaks in Britain1997In: Aquaculture, ISSN 0044-8486, E-ISSN 1873-5622, Vol. 157, no 3-4, p. 181-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     

    Two isolates of Aphanomyces astaci obtained from diseased white-clawed crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes) in Herefordshire, England were compared against representative isolates of three groups of the fungus found in Sweden and one from Spain by means of random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The English isolates proved to be very similar to a Swedish strain which is considered to have been introduced from North America with shipments of the signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) from 1970 onwards, and has since spread to indigenous populations of noble crayfish (Astacus astacus). This strain has not been found to be involved in recent incidences of crayfish plague in Turkey and Spain. It is therefore most likely that at least some of the outbreaks of crayfish plague in England resulted from imports of P. leniusculus from northern Europe after 1970, or directly from North America.

  • 138. Lilley, JH
    et al.
    Hart, D
    Richards, RH
    Roberts, RJ
    Cerenius, Lage
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Söderhäll, Kenneth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Pan-Asian spread of single fungal clone results in large scale fish kills1997In: The Veterinary Record, ISSN 0042-4900, E-ISSN 2042-7670, Vol. 140, no 25, p. 653-654Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 139.
    Lin, Xionghui
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Hematopoiesis in a Crustacean2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Hemocytes (blood cells) play an important role in the immune response in invertebrates, and thus the regulation of hemocyte homeostasis (hematopoiesis) is essential for the host survival against pathogens. Astakine 1, a homologue to vertebrate prokineticins, was first identified in the freshwater crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus as a cytokine, and was found to be necessary for new hemocyte synthesis and release in vivo, and also to induce spreading and proliferation of Hematopoietic tissue cells (Hpt cells, precursor of hemocytes) in vitro. The work of this thesis is aimed to further our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in astakine 1 induced hematopoiesis.

    Crayfish transglutaminase (Tgase) has been identified in the hemocytes, and is essential for the coagulation reaction. Interestingly this enzyme is exceedingly abundant in the Hpt cells, and the spreading of Hpt cells induced by astakine 1 was accompanied by sequential loss of TGase activity from the surface of these cells. This loss of TGase activity may be an important effect of astakine 1, resulting in recruiting new hemocytes into the circulatory system. Although astakine 1 contain a prokineticin domain, it lacks the conserved N-terminal AVIT motif present in its vertebrate homologues. This motif is important for vertebrate prokineticins to interact with their receptors, indicating a different receptor interaction for crayfish astakine 1. Astakine 1 was indeed found to interact with a completely different receptor, the β-subunit of ATP synthase, on a portion of Hpt cells, and subsequently block its extracellular ATP formation. Surface ATP synthase has been reported on numerous mammalian cells, but now for the first time in an invertebrate. The activity of ATP synthase on the Hpt cells may be important for the survival and proliferation of Hpt cells, but the underlying mechanisms remain further study. With the finding of a second type of astakine in crayfish, invertebrate astakines can be divided into two groups: astakine 1 and astakine 2. The properties of astakine 2 are different from those of astakine 1 both in structure and function. In primary cell culture of Hpt cells, only astakine 1 can promote proliferation as well as differentiation into semigranular cells, whereas astakine 2 may play a potential role in the maturation of granular cells. Moreover, a novel cysteine rich protein, Pacifastacus hematopoiesis factor (PHF), was found to be one target gene of astakine 1 in Hpt cells. Down regulation of PHF results in increased apoptosis in Hpt cells in vitro, and in vivo silencing PHF leads to a severe loss of hemocytes in the animal. Therefore astakine 1 acquires the anti-apoptosis ability by inducing its downstream gene PHF in the Hpt cells. With its ability to promote the survival, proliferation and differentiation of Hpt cells, astakine 1 is proven to be an important hematopoietic growth factor.

    List of papers
    1. Transglutaminase activity in the hematopoietic tissue of a crustacean, Pacifastacus leniusculus, importance in hemocyte homeostasis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Transglutaminase activity in the hematopoietic tissue of a crustacean, Pacifastacus leniusculus, importance in hemocyte homeostasis
    2008 (English)In: BMC immunology, ISSN 1471-2172, Vol. 9, no 58, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Transglutaminases (TGases) form a group of enzymes that have many different substrates and among the most well known are fibrin for Factor XIIIa and the clotting protein in crustaceans. We also found that TGase is an abundant protein in the hematopoietic tissue (Hpt) cells of crayfish and hence we have studied the possible function of this enzyme in hematopoiesis. RESULTS: TGase is one of the most abundant proteins in the Hpt and its mRNA expression as well as enzyme activity is very high in the Hpt cells, lesser in the semi-granular hemocytes and very low in the granular cells. In cultured hematopoietic tissues, high activity was present in cells in the centre of the tissue, whereas cells migrating out of the tissue had very low TGase activity. RNAi experiments using dsRNA for TGase completely knocked down the transcript and as a result the cell morphology was changed and the cells started to spread intensely. If astakine, a cytokine directly involved in hematopoiesis, was added the cells started to spread and adopt a morphology similar to that observed after RNAi of TGase. Astakine had no effect on TGase expression, but after a prolonged incubation for one week with this invertebrate cytokine, TGase activity inside and outside the cells was completely lost. Thus it seems as if astakine addition to the Hpt cells and RNAi of TGase in the cell culture will lead to the same results, i.e. loss of TGase activity in the cells and they start to differentiate and spread. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that TGase is important for keeping the Hpt cells in an undifferentiated stage inside the hematopoietic tissue and if expression of TGase mRNA is blocked the cells start to differentiate and spread. This shows a new function for transglutaminase in preventing hematopoietic stem cells from starting to differentiate and migrate into the hemolymph, whereas their proliferation is unaffected. Astakine is also important for the hematopoiesis, since it induces hemocyte synthesis in the Hpt but now we also show that it in some unknown way participates in the differentiation of the Hpt cells.

    National Category
    Immunology
    Research subject
    Immunology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-87490 (URN)10.1186/1471-2172-9-58 (DOI)000260740500001 ()18840279 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2008-12-22 Created: 2008-12-19 Last updated: 2011-12-04
    2. Identification and properties of a receptor for the invertebrate cytokine astakine, involved in hematopoiesis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Identification and properties of a receptor for the invertebrate cytokine astakine, involved in hematopoiesis
    Show others...
    2009 (English)In: Experimental Cell Research, ISSN 0014-4827, E-ISSN 1090-2422, Vol. 315, no 7, p. 1171-1180Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We have recently isolated an invertebrate cytokine from a freshwater crayfish, which we named astakine 1. Interestingly this protein is expressed exclusively in hemocytes and hematopoietic tissue and is essential for the release of new hemocytes into the open circulatory system of these animals. This astakine has a prokineticin (PK) domain but lacks the N-terminal AVIT amino acids and hence receptor binding may differ from vertebrate PKs. Accordingly, here we report that a receptor for astakine 1 on hematopoietic tissue (Hpt) cells is identical to the beta-subunit of F1ATP synthase. In this study we have used several different methods to clearly demonstrate that ATP-synthase is located on the plasma membrane of a subpopulation of Hpt cells and there may function as a receptor for astakine, whereas mature blood cells (hemocytes) do not have any ATP-synthase on the outside of their plasma membranes. Our results clearly show that ATP synthase beta subunits are present on the cell surface of Hpt cells and highlight the need for more detailed studies on intracellular traffic connections between mitochondria and other membrane compartments.

    Keywords
    Astakine, ATP synthase, Prokineticin, Receptor, Invertebrate, Hematopoiesis
    National Category
    Biological Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-105738 (URN)10.1016/j.yexcr.2009.01.001 (DOI)000265126900008 ()19353765 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2009-06-08 Created: 2009-06-08 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    3. Invertebrate astakines - regulators of differentiation in hematopoietic tissues
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Invertebrate astakines - regulators of differentiation in hematopoietic tissues
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Hematopoiesis is the process by which hemocytes mature and subsequently enter the circulation. Vertebrate prokineticins are known to take part in this process, as are the invertebrate prokineticin domain proteins, astakines. In Pacifastacus leniusculus astakine 1 is essential for the release of new hemocytes into the open circulatory system of these animals. In addition to astakine 1 we have now cloned a homologue of astakine 1 with an insert of 13 amino acids, named astakine 2. Common to both crustacean astakines is the lack of the N-terminal AVIT amino acids present in vertebrate PKs, and hence receptor binding differs from that of vertebrate PKs. Now we have found astakine-like sequences in 19 different invertebrate species and the sequences show that some motifs are conserved among invertebrate groups.

    Previously we showed that astakine 1 is directly involved in hematopoiesis and now we show that astakine 1 and astakine 2 have different roles in hemocyte lineage differentiation and that astakine 1 specifically induce differentiation along the semigranular cell lineage. Further we discuss the impact of the putative structure of different astakines in comparison with the vertebrate prokineticins.

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Keywords
    astatakine, hematopoiesis, prokineticin, cytokine, invertebrate, innate immunity
    National Category
    Immunology
    Research subject
    Biology with specialization in Comparative Physiology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-120996 (URN)
    Available from: 2010-03-18 Created: 2010-03-17 Last updated: 2010-03-19
    4. EVOLUTION OF HEMATOPOIESIS: AN ASTAKINE INDUCED NOVEL HEMATOPOIETIC FACTOR
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>EVOLUTION OF HEMATOPOIESIS: AN ASTAKINE INDUCED NOVEL HEMATOPOIETIC FACTOR