uu.seUppsala University Publications
Change search
Refine search result
123456 101 - 150 of 276
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 101.
    Hellmer, Kahl
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Söderlund, Hedvig
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Pupillometry as a Measure of Very Young Infants' Recognition Memory2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 102.
    Henriksson, Maria P.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Elwin, Ebba
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Juslin, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    What is Coded into Memory in the Absence of Outcome Feedback?2010In: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory and Cognition, ISSN 0278-7393, E-ISSN 1939-1285, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 1-16Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Although people often have to learn from environments with scarce and highly selective outcome feedback, the question of how non-feedback trials are represented in memory and affect later performance has received little attention in models of learning and decision making. In this article, the Generalized Context Model (R. M. Nosofsky, 1986) is used as a vehicle to test contrasting hypotheses about the coding of non-feedback trials. Data across 3 experiments with selective decision-contingent and selective outcome-contingent feedback provide support for the hypothesis of constructivist coding (E. Elwin, P. Juslin, H. Olsson, & T. Enkvist, 2007), according to which the outcomes on non-feedback trials are coded with the most likely outcome, as inferred by the individual. The relation to sampling-based approaches to judgment, and the adaptive significance of constructivist coding, are discussed.

  • 103.
    Holmes, Emily A.
    et al.
    Royal Holloway, University of London and University College London.
    Brewin, C R
    Hennessy, R G
    Trauma films, information processing, and intrusive memory development2004In: Journal of experimental psychology. General, ISSN 0096-3445, E-ISSN 1939-2222, Vol. 133, no 1, p. 3-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three experiments indexed the effect of various concurrent tasks, while watching a traumatic film, on intrusive memory development. Hypotheses were based on the dual-representation theory of Posttraumatic stress disorder (C. R. Brewin, T. Dalgleish, & S. Joseph, 1996). Nonclinical participants viewed a trauma film under various encoding conditions and recorded any spontaneous intrusive memories of the film over the following week in a diary. Changes in state dissociation, heart rate, and mood were also measured. As predicted, performing a visuospatial pattern tapping task at encoding significantly reduced the frequency of later intrusions, whereas a verbal distraction task increased them. Intrusive memories were largely unrelated to recall and recognition measures. Increases in dissociation and decreases in heart rate during the film were also associated with later intrusions.

  • 104.
    Holmes, Emily A.
    et al.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Psychiat, Oxford OX1 2JD, England.
    Mathews, Andrew
    Univ Calif Davis, Dept Psychol, Davis, CA 95616 USA.
    Mental imagery in emotion and emotional disorders2010In: Clinical Psychology Review, ISSN 0272-7358, E-ISSN 1873-7811, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 349-362Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mental imagery has been considered relevant to psychopathology due to its supposed special relationship with emotion, although evidence for this assumption has been conspicuously lacking. The present review is divided into four main sections: (1) First, we review evidence that imagery can evoke emotion in at least three ways: a direct influence on emotional systems in the brain that are responsive to sensory signals; overlap between processes involved in mental imagery and perception which can lead to responding "as if' to real emotion-arousing events; and the capacity of images to make contact with memories for emotional episodes in the past. (2) Second, we describe new evidence confirming that imagery does indeed evoke greater emotional responses than verbal representation, although the extent of emotional response depends on the image perspective adopted. (3) Third, a heuristic model is presented that contrasts the generation of language-based representations with imagery and offers an account of their differing effects on emotion, beliefs and behavior. (4) Finally, based on the foregoing review, we discuss the role of imagery in maintaining emotional disorders, and its uses in psychological treatment. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 105.
    Holmes, Emily A.
    et al.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Psychiat, Oxford, England.
    Mathews, Andrew
    Univ Calif Davis, Dept Psychol, Davis, CA 95616 USA.
    Mackintosh, Bundy
    Univ E Anglia, Sch Med Hlth Policy & Practice, Norwich NR4 7TJ, Norfolk, England.
    Dalgleish, Tim
    MRC Cognit & Brain Sci Unit, Emot Res Grp, Cambridge, England.
    The causal effect of mental imagery on emotion assessed using picture-word cues2008In: Emotion, ISSN 1528-3542, E-ISSN 1931-1516, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 395-409Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The hypothesis that mental imagery is more likely to elicit emotion than verbal processing of the same material was investigated in two studies. Participants saw a series of pictures, each accompanied by a word, designed to yield a negative or benign meaning when combined. Participants were either free to combine the picture and word as they wished (Experiment 1) or instructed to integrate them using either a descriptive sentence or a mental image (Experiment 2). Emotional response was consistently greater following imagery than after producing a sentence. Experiment 2 also demonstrated the causal effect of imagery on emotion and evaluative learning. Additional participants in Experiment 2 described aloud their images/sentences. Independent ratings of descriptions indicated that, as well as being more emotional, images differed from sentences elicited by identical cues by greater similarity to memories, and greater involvement of sensations and specific events. Results support the hypothesis that imagery evokes stronger affective responses than does verbal processing, perhaps because of sensitivity of emotional brain regions to imagery, the similarity of imagery to perception, and to autobiographical episodes.

  • 106.
    Holmes, Emily
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jansson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jansson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Johnson, Valerie
    Petrie, Helen
    Report on full evaluation of prototype interfaces for the MoBIC Travel Aid: TIDE Project 1148 - MoBIC, Deliverable No. 3.31995Report (Other academic)
  • 107.
    Hovén, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Psychology in Healthcare.
    Ljungman, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Psychology in Healthcare.
    Boger, Marike
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Psychology in Healthcare.
    Ljótsson, Brjánn
    Silberleitner, Nicola
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Psychology in Healthcare.
    von Essen, Louise
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Psychology in Healthcare.
    Cernvall, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Psychology in Healthcare.
    Posttraumatic Stress in Parents of Children Diagnosed with Cancer: Hyperarousal and Avoidance as Mediators of the Relationship between Re-Experiencing and Dysphoria2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 5, article id e0155585Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Increased understanding of the relationships between different symptom clusters involved in posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) could guide empirical research and clinical practice. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether hyperarousal and avoidance mediated the relationship between re-experiencing and dysphoria in parents of children diagnosed with cancer. Methods Longitudinal data from parents of children receiving cancer therapy were used. PTSS were assessed using the PTSD Checklist Civilian Version at one week (T1), two (T2) and four months (T3) after diagnosis. Mediation analyses for multiple mediators were conducted for mothers (n = 122) and fathers (n = 121), respectively. The mediation model tested the assumption that the PTSS symptom clusters hyperarousal and avoidance mediated the relationship between re-experiencing and dysphoria. Results For fathers, none of the hypothesized mediators were significant. For mothers, hyperarousal mediated the relationship between re-experiencing and dysphoria, but avoidance did not. Conclusions Results suggest that hyperarousal is important for the development of dysphoria in mothers, supporting use of interventions targeting such symptoms in the early and ongoing period following the child's diagnosis.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 108.
    Huvila, Isto
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM.
    Ahmad, Farhan
    Abo Akad Univ, Fac Social Sci Business & Econ, Tuomiokirkontori 3, FI-20500 Turku, Finland.
    Holistic information behavior and the perceived success of work in organizations2018In: Library & Information Science Research, ISSN 0740-8188, E-ISSN 1873-1848, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 18-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surprisingly little is known about the relationship between perceived work success and information behavior. This study shows that holistic (versus organization-centric) information behavioral preferences are related to interaction and exchange oriented perceptions of the success of work. The findings were drawn from a partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) based analysis of the survey data (N = 305) collected from employees of a large multinational corporation. The findings suggest that holistic information behavior is more strongly related to social measures of success, whereas their association with quantitative measures tends to be lower. From the perspective of information behavior research, the findings suggest that holism seems to be a similar factor to, for instance, task complexity or personality, which influences human information behavior and, for instance, perceptions of relevance. From a practical perspective, the study suggests that the promotion of specific facets of measuring success and patterns of information behavior can be used to influence the orientation of working between centrifugality and openness.

  • 109.
    Ivarsson, Bodil
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Dept Cardiothorac Surg, SE-22185 Lund, Sweden.;Skane Univ Hosp, SE-22185 Lund, Sweden..
    Ekmehag, Bjorn
    Univ Uppsala Hosp, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Sjoberg, Trygve
    Lund Univ, Dept Cardiothorac Surg, SE-22185 Lund, Sweden.;Skane Univ Hosp, SE-22185 Lund, Sweden..
    Relative's experiences before and after a heart or lung transplantation2014In: Heart & Lung, ISSN 0147-9563, E-ISSN 1527-3288, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 198-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Relatives take on great responsibilities during patients' heart or lung transplant process and an understanding for their situation is required. Objective: To describe relative's experiences before and during the patient's hospital stay as well as during the first 6 months after a heart or lung transplantation. Methods: Using qualitative content analysis, 15 relatives (eight women and seven men) aged 36-65 years were interviewed within 6 months of a heart or lung transplantation. Result: Three categories that illuminate relatives' experiences have been identified: "Navigate specific circumstances," "Facilitate throughout the transplantation journey" and "Experiences of strength and weakness of information and support." The relatives reported involvement in the transplantation decision, peer support, information seeking, burden and coping. Conclusion: Greater awareness about relatives' experiences with identification of appropriate support and information exchange between health care professionals and relatives is important. This awareness could provide benefits for heart or lung transplant patients, families and health care organizations. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 110.
    Jansson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Blind people travelling in large-scale, unfamiliar envronments: Mental representations as a function of familiarity and physical range1995Report (Other academic)
  • 111.
    Jansson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Goal achievement and mental models in everyday decision making1999In: Judgment and Decision Making: Neo-Brunswikian and Process-Tracing Approaches, Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1999, p. 23-43Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 112.
    Jansson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Independent variables and individual differences in decision research: Towards the study of decision behaviours as a function of individual decision styles and task characteristics1995In: Risk Behaviour and Risk Management: Proceedings of the First International Stockholm Seminar on Risk Behaviour and Risk Management / [ed] B. Green, 1995Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 113.
    Jansson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Pathologies in dynamic decision making: Consequences or precursors of failure?1994In: Sprache & Kognition, ISSN 0253-4533, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 160-173Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 114.
    Jansson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Strategies in dynamic decision making: Does teaching heuristic strategies by instructions affect performance1995In: Contributions to Decision Making - I / [ed] Jean-Paul Caverni, Maya Bar-Hillel, F. Hutton Barron, & Helmut Jungermann, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1995, p. 213-232Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 115.
    Jansson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The pathologies are precursors of failure - a reply to Funke1995In: Sprache & Kognition, ISSN 0253-4533, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 161-169Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 116.
    Jansson, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction.
    Axelsson, Anton
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction.
    Knowledge Elicitation in Naturalistic Decision Making: Collegial Verbalisation with "Conspective Protocols"2017In: Naturalistic Decision Making and Uncertainty: Proceedings of the 13th Bi-annual International Conference on Naturalistic Decision Making / [ed] Julie Gore & Paul Ward, 2017, p. 87-93Conference paper (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 117.
    Jansson, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Erlandsson, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Recognizing complexity: A prerequisite for skilled intuitive judgments and dynamic decisions2013In: SPUDM24: Subjective Probability, Utility, and Decision Making, 2013, p. 194-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 118.
    Jansson, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Erlandsson, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Axelsson, Anton
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Collegial verbalisation — the value of an independent observer: an ecological approach2015In: Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, ISSN 1463-922X, E-ISSN 1464-536X, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 474-494Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 119.
    Jansson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Data som känns2009In: Forskning och framsteg, ISSN 0015-7937, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 58-61Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Med så kallade haptiska displayer blir det möjligt att inte bara se, utan också röra vid digitala objekt. Tekniken kan användas för att skapa hjälpmedel åt synskadade, träna kirurgiska ingrepp och för att bättre förstå hur människans känsel fungerar.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 120.
    Johansson, Niclas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Literature.
    Narcissus and Narcissism in Early Psychoanalysis: The Intertextual Dialogue between Theme and Concept2015In: The Self Industry: Therapy and Fiction / [ed] Jaroslaw Szurman, Agnieszka Wozniakowska and Krzysztof Kowalczyk-Twarowski, Katowice: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Slaskiego , 2015, p. 15-26Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 121.
    Juslin, Patrik N
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Harmat, Laszlo
    Eerola, Tuomas
    What makes music emotionally significant?: Exploring the underlying mechanisms2014In: Psychology of Music, ISSN 0305-7356, E-ISSN 1741-3087, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 599-623Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A common approach to study emotional reactions to music is to attempt to obtain direct links between musical surface features such as tempo and a listener's response. However, such an analysis ultimately fails to explain why emotions are aroused in the listener. In this article, we propose an alternative approach, which seeks to explain musical emotions in terms of a set of underlying mechanisms that are activated by different types of information in musical events. We illustrate this approach by reporting a listening experiment, which manipulated a piece of music to activate four mechanisms: brain stem reflex; emotional contagion; episodic memory; and musical expectancy. The musical excerpts were played to 20 listeners, who were asked to rate their felt emotions on 12 scales. Pulse rate, skin conductance, and facial expressions were also measured. Results indicated that target mechanisms were activated and aroused emotions largely as predicted by a multi-mechanism framework.

  • 122.
    Juslin, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The availability heuristic2013In: The Encyclopedia of the Mind / [ed] H. Pashler, Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 2013Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 123.
    Juslin, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    WInman, Anders
    PERSSON, T
    Can overconfidence be used as an indicator of reconstructive rather than retrieval processes?1995In: COGNITION, ISSN 0010-0277, Vol. 54, no 1, p. 99-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a recent paper Wagenaar (1988) suggested that overconfidence can be used as an indicator of reconstructive processes which allow responses based on inference to be distinguished from responses based on retrieval. The ecological models (Bjorkman, in pr

  • 124.
    Juvrud, Joshua
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rennels, Jennifer L.
    Univ Nevada, Dept Psychol, Las Vegas, NV 89154 USA.
    Kayl, Andrea J.
    Univ Nevada, Dept Psychol, Las Vegas, NV 89154 USA.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Herlitz, Agneta
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Div Psychol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Attention during Visual Preference Tasks: Relation to Caregiving and Face Recognition2019In: Infancy, ISSN 1525-0008, E-ISSN 1532-7078, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 356-367Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research examined how caregiver experience (female primary caregiver or distributed caregiving with mom and dad) influenced 10-, 14-, and 16-month-olds' visual preferences and attention toward internal facial features of female-male face pairs, and how these behaviors related to novelty preferences in a face recognition task and speed and accuracy on a visual search task. In the visual preference task, infants visually preferred male faces, regardless of caregiver experience. Despite similarities in visual preferences, infants' attention toward females and males' internal facial features was related for infants with distributed caregiving only. Infants' performance across face processing tasks most often correlated for those with female primary caregivers. Results further our understanding of how infants with female primary caregivers display specialized processing of female faces, and how infants with distributed caregiving show similarities in their attention to female and male facial features.

  • 125.
    Jöreskog, Karin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Disability Research.
    Lindstedt, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Research in Disability and Habilitation.
    Adolfsson, Päivi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Research in Disability and Habilitation.
    Janeslätt, Gunnel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Research in Disability and Habilitation. Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Experiences of the parenting sole and support in mothers with cognitive limitations who have children in placement2018In: JARID: Journal of applied research in intellectual disabilities, ISSN 1360-2322, E-ISSN 1468-3148, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 624-624Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 126. Kallioinen, Petter
    et al.
    Olofsson, Jonas
    Nakeva von Mentzer, Cecilia
    Department of Behavioral Sciences and Learning, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linkoping University, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Magnus
    Ors, Marianne
    Sahlén, Birgitta
    Lyxell, Björn
    Engström, Elisabet
    Uhlén, Inger
    Semantic Processing in Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children: Large N400 Mismatch Effects in Brain Responses, Despite Poor Semantic Ability2016In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, article id 1146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 127.
    Kaukua, Jari
    Uppsala University, Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study (SCAS).
    Self, Agent, Soul: Abū al-Barakāt al-Baghdādī’s Critical Reception of Avicennian Psychology2016In: Subjectivity and Selfhood in Medieval and Early Modern Philosophy, New York: Springer International Publishing , 2016, p. 75-89Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigatesAbū al-Barakāt al-Baghdādī’s critical reception and development of an Avicennian argument that hinges on the intuitive evidence provided by our awareness of ourselves. According to the argument, each of us is indubitably aware of enduring as a single subject and agent behind the constantly varying stream of experience and action. On the basis of this intuitive certainty Avicenna concludes that the human soul is similarly one. By introducing problematic acts related to the Peripatetic concept of soul, such as digestion and growth,  Abū al-Barakāt suggests that if we want to save the argumentative power of the relevant phenomena, we must revise the Avicennian concept of self-awareness.

  • 128.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    ICT as a horsefly2012In: Critique, Democracy and Philosophy in 21st Century Information Society: Towards Critical Theories of Social Media / [ed] Christian Fuchs, 2012, p. 38-38Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The way we solve problems and make decisions has been at the focus of philosophy. Since ancient times the issue has been how to think in the right way. Skills, abilities, methods and processes have been investigated. According to Platon philosophers do not have the right answers but they can find the right answers. They have the skills and they can use the right tools to discard false ideas (aporia). Philosophers think and act in a democratic way among themselves. But anybody who has the ability to philosophize, to think self-critically, systematically, scientifically, i.e. has the Aristotelian virtue of phronesis or the Kantian skill of autonomy, and acts according to this, belongs to a democracy together with other like people. Unfortunately, this is not the only definition of democracy. Although democracy itself is a process, the common sense definition is either result oriented or focused on formalistic aspects, or a combination of both. The first means that societies providing high living standards, security, tolerance, good environment and other goods are called democratic. The second definition is based on the existence of certain procedures, institutions, roles and processes, like elections. The presence of formal procedures is sufficient for a democracy definition. But if democracy is a process neither the result of it nor its formal surface characteristics should have the highest significance. Maintaining and running the democratic process is the important aspect as well as the conditions supporting it. By saying this we are back to the philosophical discussion. In essence democracy is dialog between people. That means that people search for solutions to their problems by thinking together with others. But that presupposes that each person has a dialog with himself and that each person starts with the position that own ideas and beliefs need to be better (aporia). This makes it possible to listen to others. Each participant in a democratic process, or a dialog, feels always the need of other participants because he is expecting them to help him and together with other able people find a better idea (phronesis, autonomy).ICT can contribute to this process by making information accessible and therefore facilitating citizens’ participation in political decision making. It can support openness and by that invite people to be more aware and active. Furthermore, it can support horizontal communication among citizens. Issues that are of interest to few people or to people that for some reason have difficulties to contact each other by traditional means may be neglected in the political process even though they are important. ICT can easily overcome such difficulties and provide a powerful tool to connect, inform and coordinate people’s actions. Most important, ICT can support self-critical and systematic thinking, which is the base for successful democratic dialog. ICT systems are currently used to create aporia and to stimulate autonomy during a process of problem solving and decision making. Advanced games simulate the complexity of reality in micro worlds, broadening the spectrum of opportunities and possibilities to support dialog.

  • 129.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    The concept of education in the Piagetian theory of moral development1989In: Psychologika Themata, ISSN 1106-1634, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 11-17Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 130.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Laaksoharju, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Training and supporting education in sustainability by the use of an ICT tool2012In: New technologies, education for sustainable development and critical pedagogy / [ed] Vassilios Makrakis and Nelly Kostoulas-Makrakis, Rethymnon, Greece: ICTeESD, University of Crete , 2012, p. 225-231Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we will present ColLab, a collaborative computerized tool to facilitate dialogue about concrete issues in sustainability. The tool is powerful in stimulating the inquiry in complex issues by constantly forcing the user to shift focus between the particular and the holistic. The design of the tool is theoretically founded in philosophy and knowledge about the psychological mechanisms, like cognitive biases, that are involved in decision making. It is based on the assumption that people are not making judgments in isolation, but rather in social settings. The main advantage with such a tool is that it supplies a shared platform in which an analysis can evolve organically, even in collaboration with competing parties. It is suitable for using in learning environments and for educational purposes as well as for formulation of sustainability policies.

  • 131.
    Kayhan, Ezgi
    et al.
    Max Planck Inst Human Cognit & Brain Sci, Leipzig, Germany; Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindskog, Marcus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Infants distinguish between two events based on their relative likelihood2018In: Child Development, ISSN 0009-3920, E-ISSN 1467-8624, Vol. 89, no 6, p. e507-e519Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Likelihood estimations are crucial for dealing with the uncertainty of life. Here, infants' sensitivity to the difference in likelihood between two events was investigated. Infants aged 6, 12, and 18 months (N = 75) were shown animated movies of a machine simultaneously drawing likely and unlikely samples from a box filled with different colored balls. In different trials, the difference in likelihood between the two samples was manipulated. The infants' looking patterns varied as a function of the magnitude of the difference in likelihood and were modulated by the number of items in the samples. Looking patterns showed qualitative similarities across age groups. This study demonstrates that infants' looking responses are sensitive to the magnitude of the difference in likelihood between two events.

  • 132.
    Keshvari, Shaiyan
    et al.
    Baylor Coll Med, Dept Neurosci, Houston, TX 77030 USA.
    Van den Berg, Ronald
    Baylor Coll Med, Dept Neurosci, Houston, TX 77030 USA.
    Ma, Wei Ji
    Baylor Coll Med, Dept Neurosci, Houston, TX 77030 USA.
    No evidence for an item limit in change detection2013In: PloS Computational Biology, ISSN 1553-734X, E-ISSN 1553-7358, Vol. 9, no 2, article id e1002927Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Change detection is a classic paradigm that has been used for decades to argue that working memory can hold no more than a fixed number of items (“item-limit models”). Recent findings force us to consider the alternative view that working memory is limited by the precision in stimulus encoding, with mean precision decreasing with increasing set size (“continuous-resource models”). Most previous studies that used the change detection paradigm have ignored effects of limited encoding precision by using highly discriminable stimuli and only large changes. We conducted two change detection experiments (orientation and color) in which change magnitudes were drawn from a wide range, including small changes. In a rigorous comparison of five models, we found no evidence of an item limit. Instead, human change detection performance was best explained by a continuous-resource model in which encoding precision is variable across items and trials even at a given set size. This model accounts for comparison errors in a principled, probabilistic manner. Our findings sharply challenge the theoretical basis for most neural studies of working memory capacity.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 133.
    Keshvari, Shaiyan
    et al.
    Baylor Coll Med, Dept Neurosci, Houston, TX 77030 USA.
    Van den Berg, Ronald
    Baylor Coll Med, Dept Neurosci, Houston, TX 77030 USA.
    Ma, Wei Ji
    Baylor Coll Med, Dept Neurosci, Houston, TX 77030 USA.
    No evidence for an item limit in change detection2013In: PloS Computational Biology, ISSN 1553-734X, E-ISSN 1553-7358, Vol. 9, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Change detection is a classic paradigm that has been used for decades to argue that working memory can hold no more than a fixed number of items ("item-limit models"). Recent findings force us to consider the alternative view that working memory is limited by the precision in stimulus encoding, with mean precision decreasing with increasing set size ("continuous-resource models"). Most previous studies that used the change detection paradigm have ignored effects of limited encoding precision by using highly discriminable stimuli and only large changes. We conducted two change detection experiments (orientation and color) in which change magnitudes were drawn from a wide range, including small changes. In a rigorous comparison of five models, we found no evidence of an item limit. Instead, human change detection performance was best explained by a continuous-resource model in which encoding precision is variable across items and trials even at a given set size. This model accounts for comparison errors in a principled, probabilistic manner. Our findings sharply challenge the theoretical basis for most neural studies of working memory capacity.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 134.
    Keshvari, Shaiyan
    et al.
    Baylor Coll Med, Dept Neurosci, Houston, TX 77030 USA.
    Van den Berg, Ronald
    Baylor Coll Med, Dept Neurosci, Houston, TX 77030 USA.
    Ma, Wei Ji
    Baylor Coll Med, Dept Neurosci, Houston, TX 77030 USA.
    Probabilistic computation in human perception under variability in encoding precision2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 6, article id e40216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A key function of the brain is to interpret noisy sensory information. To do so optimally, observers must, in many tasks, take into account knowledge of the precision with which stimuli are encoded. In an orientation change detection task, we find that encoding precision does not only depend on an experimentally controlled reliability parameter (shape), but also exhibits additional variability. In spite of variability in precision, human subjects seem to take into account precision near-optimally on a trial-to-trial and item-to-item basis. Our results offer a new conceptualization of the encoding of sensory information and highlight the brain's remarkable ability to incorporate knowledge of uncertainty during complex perceptual decision-making.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 135.
    Kim, Yunhwan
    et al.
    Karlstad Univ, Ctr Res Child & Adolescent Mental Hlth, Univ Gatan 2, SE-65188 Karlstad, Sweden.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Parent-youth discussions about politics from age 13 to 282019In: Journal of applied developmental psychology, ISSN 0193-3973, E-ISSN 1873-7900, Vol. 62, p. 249-259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been commonly assumed that post-adolescent youth have fewer political discussions with parents than do adolescents, due to transitional events in young adulthood and the emergence of new age-appropriate socializing agents, like peers, colleagues, and romantic partners. We proposed a contrasting view that post-adolescent youth have more frequent political discussions with parents due to their increased political interest over time. Using an accelerated longitudinal design (n = 4286), we found that neither transitional events nor political discussions with other socializing agents decreased political discussions with parents. The long-term developmental trajectories for political discussions with parents and youth's own political interest showed a linear increase from adolescence to young adulthood. Cross-lagged models showed that youth's political interest positively predicted political discussions with parents over time and vice-versa. These findings indicate a need to see political discussions with parents as a parent-youth bidirectional process.

  • 136.
    Koch, Benjamin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stapel, Janny
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The role of head and hand movements for infants' predictions of others' actions2019In: Psychological Research, ISSN 0340-0727, E-ISSN 1430-2772, Vol. 83, no 6, p. 1269-1280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In everyday life, both the head and the hand movements of another person reveal the other's action target. However, studies on the development of action prediction have primarily included displays in which only hand and no head movements were visible. Given that infants acquire in their first year both the ability to follow other's gaze and the ability to predict other's reaching actions, the question is whether they rely mostly on the hand or the head when predicting other's manual actions. The current study aimed to provide an answer to this question using a screen-based eye tracking setup. Thirteen-month-old infants observed a model transporting plastic rings from one side of the screen to the other side and place them on a pole. In randomized trials the model's head was either visible or occluded. The dependent variable was gaze-arrival time, which indicated whether participants predicted the model's action targets. Gaze-arrival times were not found to be different when the head was visible or rendered invisible. Furthermore, target looks that occurred after looks at the hand were found to be predictive, whereas target looks that occurred after looks at the head were reactive. In sum, the study shows that 13-month-olds are capable of predicting an individual's action target based on the observed hand movements but not the head movements. The data suggest that earlier findings on infants' action prediction in screen-based tasks in which often only the hands were visible may well generalize to real-life settings in which infants have visual access to the actor's head.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 137.
    Kochukhova, Olga
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rosander, Kerstin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Integrated global motion influences smooth pursuit in infants2008In: Journal of Vision, ISSN 1534-7362, E-ISSN 1534-7362, Vol. 8, no 11, p. 16-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smooth pursuit eye movements (SP) were studied in 5- and 9-month-old infants and adults in response to a rhombusoscillating horizontally behind three spatially separated vertical occluders. During motion, the rhombus vertices were nevervisible. Thus the perception of the global motion of the rhombus required integration of its moving visible segments. Wetested whether infants were able to use such perceived global motion for SP in two different occluder conditions; one inwhich the occluder was clearly visible to the observer and one in which it was invisible. In adults, the presence of a visibleoccluder hiding the vertices of the rhombus strongly facilitates the perception of the global motion. It was found that adultsand 9-month-olds performed significantly more horizontal SP in the presence of a visible occluder but not 5-month-olds.Furthermore, this tendency was strengthened over single trials, and this temporal pattern was very similar in all age groups.In the invisible occluder condition both adults and infants tracked the segments of the rhombus primarily with vertical SP. Itwas concluded that the ability to integrate moving object fragments into perceived global motion and use that to regulate SPdevelops into adult performance by 9 months of age.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 138.
    Korpela, Kalevi M.
    et al.
    Univ Tampere, Fac Social Sci, Psychol, Tampere, Finland.
    Pasanen, Tytti
    Univ Tampere, Fac Social Sci, Psychol, Tampere, Finland.
    Repo, Veera
    Univ Tampere, Fac Social Sci, Psychol, Tampere, Finland.
    Hartig, Terry
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Staats, Henk
    Leiden Univ, Inst Psychol, Leiden, Netherlands.
    Mason, Michael
    Univ Tennessee, Coll Social Work, Ctr Behav Hlth Res, Knoxville, TN USA.
    Alves, Susana
    Cankaya Univ, Dept Architecture, Ankara, Turkey.
    Fornara, Ferdinando
    Univ Cagliari, Dept Psychol, Cagliari, Italy.
    Marks, Tony
    Univ New England, Sch Behav Cognit & Social Sci, Armidale, NSW, Australia.
    Saini, Sunil
    Indian Assoc Hlth Res & Welf, Hisar, Haryana, India.
    Scopelliti, Massimiliano
    Libera Univ Maria Ss Assunta, Dept Human Studies, Rome, Italy.
    Soares, Ana L.
    Univ Tecn Lisboa, Inst Super Agron, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Stigsdotter, Ulrika K.
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Geosci & Nat Resource Management, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Thompson, Catharine Ward
    Univ Edinburgh, OPENspace Res Ctr, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Environmental Strategies of Affect Regulation and Their Associations With Subjective Well-Being2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental strategies of affect regulation refer to the use of natural and urban socio-physical settings in the service of regulation. We investigated the perceived use and efficacy of environmental strategies for regulation of general affect and sadness, considering them in relation to other affect regulation strategies and to subjective well-being. Participants from Australia, Finland, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, India, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Sweden (N = 507) evaluated the frequency of use and perceived efficacy of affect regulation strategies using a modified version of the Measure of Affect Regulation Styles (MARS). The internet survey also included the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), emotional well-being items from the RAND 36-Item Health Survey, and a single-item measure of perceived general health. Environmental regulation formed a separate factor of affect regulation in the exploratory structural equation models (ESEM). Although no relations of environmental strategies with emotional well-being were found, both the perceived frequency of use and efficacy of environmental strategies were positively related to perceived health. Moreover, the perceived efficacy of environmental strategies was positively related to life satisfaction in regulating sadness. The results encourage more explicit treatment of environmental strategies in research on affect regulation.

  • 139.
    Larm, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalen University, Box 883, S-72123 Västerås, Sweden.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    The role of online social network chatting for alcohol use in adolescence: Testing three peer-related pathways in a Swedish population-based sample2017In: Computers in human behavior, ISSN 0747-5632, E-ISSN 1873-7692, Vol. 71, p. 284-290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to examine whether online social network chatting (OSNC) is related to any of three peer-related pathways to alcohol use among adolescents including a stress-exposure pathway, a peer status pathway and a social context pathway. A survey was distributed to a Swedish population based sample of 2439 boys and girls 15-16 years old enrolled in the 9th grade of primary school. Indirect effects, moderating effects, and gender differences were analysed. The results exposed a robust positive association between OSNC and alcohol use, but also that OSNC accounted for one-fifth of the association between the peer status pathway and alcohol use. A positive association between the stress exposure pathway and alcohol use was found that was weaker among adolescents who scored high on OSNC whereas a positive association between the social context pathway and alcohol use also was found that was stronger among adolescents who scored high on OSNC. Consequently, OSNC may contribute differently to alcohol use depending on which peer-related pathway that the adolescent follows. The robust positive association between OSNC and alcohol use that remained when the three peer-related pathways were accounted for also indicates that this association is accounted for by other factors.

  • 140.
    Lau-Zhu, Alex
    et al.
    Univ Cambridge, MRC, Cognit & Brain Sci Unit, Sch Clin Med, Cambridge, England;Kings Coll London, Dev Psychiat Ctr, Inst Psychiat Psychol & Neurosci, De Crespigny Pk P080, London SE5 8AF, England.
    Henson, Richard N.
    Univ Cambridge, MRC, Cognit & Brain Sci Unit, Sch Clin Med, Cambridge, England.
    Holmes, Emily A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Univ Cambridge, MRC, Cognit & Brain Sci Unit, Sch Clin Med, Cambridge, England;Karolinska Inst, Div Psychol, Dept Clin Neurosci, Solna, Sweden;Univ Oxford, Dept Psychiat, Oxford, England.
    Intrusive Memories and Voluntary Memory of a Trauma Film: Differential Effects of a Cognitive Interference Task After Encoding2019In: Journal of experimental psychology. General, ISSN 0096-3445, E-ISSN 1939-2222, Vol. 148, no 12, p. 2154-2180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Methods to reduce intrusive memories (e.g., of traumatic events) should ideally spare voluntary memory for the same event (e.g., to report on the event in court). Single-trace memory accounts assume that interfering with a trace should impact both its involuntary and voluntary expressions, whereas separate-trace accounts assume these two can dissociate, allowing for selective interference. This possibility was investigated in 3 experiments. Nonclinical participants viewed a trauma film followed by an interference task (Tetris game-play after reminder cues). Next, memory for the film was assessed with various measures. The interference task reduced the number of intrusive memories (diary-based, Experiments 1 and 2), but spared performance on well-matched measures of voluntary retrieval-free recall (Experiment 1) and recognition (Experiments 1 and 2)-challenging single-trace accounts. The interference task did not affect other measures of involuntary retrieval-perceptual priming (Experiment 1) or attentional bias (Experiment 2). However, the interference task did reduce the number of intrusive memories in a laboratory-based vigilance-intrusion task (Experiments 2 and 3), irrespective of concurrent working memory load during intrusion retrieval (Experiment 3). Collectively, results reveal a robust dissociation between intrusive and voluntary memories, having ruled out key methodological differences between how these two memory expressions are assessed, namely cue overlap (Experiment 1), attentional capture (Experiment 2), and retrieval load (Experiment 3). We argue that the inability of these retrieval factors to explain the selective interference is more compatible with separate-trace than single-trace accounts. Further theoretical developments are needed to account for this clinically important distinction between intrusive memories and their voluntary counterpart.

  • 141.
    Li, Jingguang
    et al.
    Dali Univ, Coll Educ, Dali, Peoples R China.
    Zhou, Xinlin
    Beijing Normal Univ, IDG McGovern Inst Brain Res, State Key Lab Cognit Neurosci & Learning, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Lindskog, Marcus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Editorial: Approximate Number System and Mathematics2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 2084Article in journal (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 142.
    Lindberg, Lene
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Fransson, Mari
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Forslund, Tommie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Springer, Lydia
    Uppsala Cty Council, SUF Resource Ctr, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Maternal Sensitivity in Mothers with Mild Intellectual Disabilities is Related to Experiences of Maltreatment and Predictive of Child Attachment: A Matched-Comparison Study2017In: JARID: Journal of applied research in intellectual disabilities, ISSN 1360-2322, E-ISSN 1468-3148, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 445-455Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Scientific knowledge on the quality of caregiving/maternal sensitivity among mothers with mild intellectual disabilities (ID) is limited and subject to many methodological shortcomings, but seems to suggest that these mothers are less sensitive than mothers without intellectual disabilities.

    Methods: In this matched-comparison study (N=48), the present authors observed maternal sensitivity for 20min in four different laboratory play situations. The study also included semi-structured interviews to assess maternal experiences of maltreatment and child attachment.

    Results: The present authors found significantly lower sensitivity among mothers with intellectual disabilities than among a comparison group of mothers without intellectual disabilities. Among mothers with intellectual disabilities, low sensitivity was related to maternal experiences of maltreatment and predictive of disorganized child attachment. In the comparison group, high maternal sensitivity was related to partner presence and social support, and predictive of child intelligence.

    Conclusions: The present authors highlight the importance of attending to intellectual disabilities mothers' history of receiving care to understand their capacity for giving adequate care.

  • 143.
    Lindgren, Josefin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology. Leibniz Ctr Gen Linguist ZAS, Berlin, Germany.
    Comprehension and production of narrative macrostructure in Swedish: A longitudinal study from age 4 to 72019In: First language, ISSN 0142-7237, E-ISSN 1740-2344, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 412-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports results from a longitudinal study from age 4 to 7 of comprehension and production of narrative macrostructure in Swedish monolingual children (N = 17). Baby Birds/Baby Goats from the Multilingual Assessment Instrument for Narratives (LITMUS-MAIN) were used to elicit narratives and ask comprehension questions at age 4;4, 5;10 and 7;4. Results showed a steep development from age 4;4 to 5;10 in both comprehension and production of macrostructure, but only some further development in comprehension to age 7;4. For the measures studied, children seem to reach a plateau around age 6. Consistent differences between comprehension and production (higher scores in comprehension) and between stories (higher scores on Baby Goats) were found across time points.

  • 144.
    Lindskog, Marcus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Att spela på konjunktioner: en studie av hur feedback påverkar konjunktionsfel2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie undersöker hur antalet konjunktionsfel påverkas av feedback av varierande komplexitet. Ett konjunktionsfel uppstår när en sammansatt händelse A&B bedöms som mer sannolik än någon av de ingående händelserna A eller B. Ett datorbaserat experiment med 45 deltagare fördelade på tre betingelser (Singel, Trippel, Mix) kördes. I en träningsfas bedömde deltagarna utgången på spelkuponger innehållande en fotbollsmatch (Singel), tre fotbollsmatcher (Trippel) eller både en och tre fotbollsmatcher (Mix) och fick feedback på bedömningarna. I en testfas gjorde alla deltagarna bedömningar av sannolikheten för vinst på spelkuponger med en eller tre fotbollsmatcher. Resultaten visar på att en komplex feedback, av både komponenter och konjunktioner, reducerar proportionen konjunktionsfel mer än feedback av bara komponenter eller konjunktioner. Dock är konjunktionsfelet robust, trots att försöksdeltagare får feedback och har kunskap om sannolikheter för konjunktioner och komponenter.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 145.
    Lindskog, Marcus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Is the Intuitive Statistician Eager or Lazy?: Exploring the Cognitive Processes of Intuitive Statistical Judgments2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerical information is ubiquitous and people are continuously engaged in evaluating it by means of intuitive statistical judgments. Much research has evaluated if people’s judgments live up to the norms of statistical theory but directed far less attention to the cognitive processes that underlie the judgments.

    The present thesis outlines, compares, and tests two cognitive models for intuitive statistical judgments, summarized in the metaphors of the lazy and eager intuitive statistician. In short, the lazy statistician postpones judgments to the time of a query when the properties of a small sample of values retrieved from memory serve as proxies for population properties. In contrast, the eager statistician abstracts summary representations of population properties online from incoming data.

    Four empirical studies were conducted. Study I outlined the two models and investigated whether an eager or a lazy statistician best describes how people make intuitive statistical judgments. In general the results supported the notion that people spontaneously engage in a lazy process. Under certain specific conditions, however, participants were able to induce abstract representations of the experienced data. Study II and Study III extended the models to describe naive point estimates (Study II) and inference about a generating distribution (Study III). The results indicated that both the former and the latter type of judgment was better described by a lazy than an eager model. Finally, Study IV, building on the support in Studies I-III, investigated boundary conditions for a lazy model by exploring if statistical judgments are influenced by common memory effects (primacy and recency). The results indicated no such effects, suggesting that the sampling from long-term memory in a lazy process is not conditional on when the data is encountered.

    The present thesis makes two major contributions. First, the lazy and eager models are first attempts at outlining a process model that could possibly be applied for a large variety of statistical judgments. Second, because a lazy process imposes boundary conditions on the accuracy of statistical judgments, the results suggest that the limitations of a lazy intuitive statistician would need to be taken into consideration in a variety of situations.

    List of papers
    1. Calculate or wait: Is man an eager or a lazy intuitive statistician?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Calculate or wait: Is man an eager or a lazy intuitive statistician?
    2013 (English)In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592X, Vol. 25, no 8, p. 994-1014Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Research on people’s ability to act as intuitive statisticians has mainly focused on the accuracy of estimates of central tendency and variability. In this paper, we investigate two hypothesised cognitive processes by which people make judgements of distribution shape. The first claims that people spontaneously induce abstract representations of distribution properties from experience, including about distribution shape. The second process claims that people construct beliefs about distribution properties post hoc by retrieval from long-term memory of small samples from the distribution, implying format dependence with accuracy that differs depending on judgement format. Results from two experiments confirm the predicted format dependence, suggesting that people are often constrained by the post hoc assessment of distribution properties by sampling from long-term memory. The results, however, also suggest that, although post hoc sampling from memory seems to be the default process, under certain predictable circumstances people do induce abstract representations of distribution shape.

    Keywords
    Intuitive statistics, Numerical cognition, Sampling model
    National Category
    Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-209392 (URN)10.1080/20445911.2013.841170 (DOI)000326868000009 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council
    Available from: 2013-10-18 Created: 2013-10-18 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    2. Naïve Point Estimation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Naïve Point Estimation
    2013 (English)In: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory and Cognition, ISSN 0278-7393, E-ISSN 1939-1285, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 782-800Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The capacity of short-term memory is a key constraint when people make online judgments requiringthem to rely on samples retrieved from memory (e.g., Dougherty & Hunter, 2003). In this article, theauthors compare 2 accounts of how people use knowledge of statistical distributions to make pointestimates: either by retrieving precomputed large-sample representations or by retrieving small samplesof similar observations post hoc at the time of judgment, as constrained by short-term memory capacity(the naı¨ve sampling model: Juslin, Winman, & Hansson, 2007). Results from four experiments supportthe predictions by the naı¨ve sampling model, including that participants sometimes guess values thatthey, when probed, demonstrably know have the lowest probability of occurring. Experiment 1 alsodemonstrated the operations of an unpredicted recognition-based inference. Computational modeling alsoincorporating this process demonstrated that the data from all 4 experiments were better predicted byassuming a post hoc sampling process constrained by short-term memory capacity than by assumingabstraction of large-sample representations of the distribution.

    Keywords
    point estimation, sampling model, intuitive statistics
    National Category
    Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-183145 (URN)10.1037/a0029670 (DOI)000318455900010 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Research CouncilRiksbankens Jubileumsfond
    Available from: 2012-10-23 Created: 2012-10-23 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
    3. Where did that come from?: Identifying the source of a sample
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Where did that come from?: Identifying the source of a sample
    2015 (English)In: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, ISSN 1747-0218, E-ISSN 1747-0226, Vol. 68, no 3, p. 499-522Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Keywords
    Intuitive statistics, sample, inference, naïve intuitive statistician, naïve sampling model
    National Category
    Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-211503 (URN)10.1080/17470218.2014.959534 (DOI)000349472400007 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council
    Available from: 2013-11-25 Created: 2013-11-25 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    4. Are all Data Created Equal?: Exploring Some Boundary Conditions for a Lazy Intuitive Statistician
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Are all Data Created Equal?: Exploring Some Boundary Conditions for a Lazy Intuitive Statistician
    2014 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 5, p. e97686-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The study investigated potential effects of the presentation order of numeric information on retrospective subjective judgments of descriptive statistics of this information. The studies were theoretically motivated by the assumption in the naive sampling model of independence between temporal encoding order of data in long-term memory and retrieval probability (i.e. as implied by a "random sampling'' from memory metaphor). In Experiment 1, participants experienced Arabic numbers that varied in distribution shape/variability between the first and the second half of the information sequence. Results showed no effects of order on judgments of mean, variability or distribution shape. To strengthen the interpretation of these results, Experiment 2 used a repeated judgment procedure, with an initial judgment occurring prior to the change in distribution shape of the information half-way through data presentation. The results of Experiment 2 were in line with those from Experiment 1, and in addition showed that the act of making explicit judgments did not impair accuracy of later judgments, as would be suggested by an anchoring and insufficient adjustment strategy. Overall, the results indicated that participants were very responsive to the properties of the data while at the same time being more or less immune to order effects. The results were interpreted as being in line with the naive sampling models in which values are stored as exemplars and sampled randomly from long-term memory.

    National Category
    Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-211504 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0097686 (DOI)000339614800063 ()24834913 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council
    Available from: 2013-11-25 Created: 2013-11-25 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 146.
    Lindskog, Marcus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Lazy Intuitive Statistician: Influence of Data Representation and Retrieval Processes on Intuitive Statistical Judgment2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Intuitive statistical judgments are an integral part of people’s everyday life and a long line of research has investigated the extent to which man lives up to the norms of statistical theory when performing such judgments. A recent account of intuitive statistical judgments, summarized in the metaphor of the naïve intuitive statistician (K. Fiedler & P. Juslin, 2006), has suggested that people base judgments on small samples, which they have an ability to veridically record but an inability to evaluate the representativeness of.

    The present thesis builds on research concerning the naïve intuitive statistician and investigates how representation and memory retrieval of numerical information influences intuitive statistical judgments. Two studies were conducted. Study I introduced two possible accounts of how numerical information is represented and retrieved. The first possibility suggests that information is stored as exemplars and that estimates of statistical properties are calculated on small samples drawn from memory at the time of a query. The second possibility suggests that numerical information is stored as abstract summary statistics calculated at the time of exposure. The distinction was summarized in the metaphor of a lazy vs. an eager intuitive statistician. Study II extended the findings of Study I by investigating how point estimates of unknown quantities are formed from knowledge of statistical properties of a numerical variable. More specifically, a model of naïve point estimation based on the naïve sampling model (P., Juslin, A., Winman, & P., Hansson, 2007) was introduced to predict participants’ distribution of point estimates.

    In general, the results from both studies support the idea that people spontaneously act as lazy intuitive statisticians that record numerical information in a raw format during exposure and postpone evaluation of statistical properties until they are requested to do so. Under certain fairly predictable and limited circumstances, however, participants were able to form abstract representations of statistical properties. The results of Study II support the predictions by the model of naïve point estimation, including a novel phenomenon where participants give point estimates which they know, when probed otherwise, have a low probability of occurring.

    The findings of the two studies extend previous research concerning people’s ability to be intuitive statisticians by not only measuring how accurate the knowledge of properties of numerical variable is but by also describing how such knowledge is represented. The model of naïve point estimation contributes to the existing body of research by describing how people perform one type of intuitive statistical inference, point estimation, and shows how statistical properties of the underlying distribution influences the pattern of responses. The model also suggests novel explanations to results showing that people seem to have implicit expectations that distributions are normal.

  • 147.
    Lindskog, Marcus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Where did that come from?: Identifying the source of a sample2015In: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, ISSN 1747-0218, E-ISSN 1747-0226, Vol. 68, no 3, p. 499-522Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 148.
    Lindskog, Marcus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kerimi, Neda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Winman, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Juslin, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A Swedish validation of the Berlin Numeracy test2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 56, no 2, p. 132-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research has highlighted the importance of considering an individual’s level of numeracy, that is their numerical abilities, in a vast variety of judgment and decision making tasks. To accurately evaluate the influence of numeracy requires good and valid measures of the construct. In the present study we validate a Swedish version of the Berlin Numeracy Test (Cokely, Galesic, Schulz, Ghazal & Garcia-Retamero, 2012). The validation was car- ried out on both a student sample and a sample representative of the Swedish population. The Swedish BNT showed sound psychometrical properties in both samples. Further, in both samples the BNT had satisfactory convergent and discriminant validity when correlating with other measures of numeracy, while not being significantly related to measures of personality. With respect to predictive validity the results indicated divergent patterns in the two samples. In the student sample, participants scoring highest on the BNT outperformed those in the other three levels, which did not differ in performance. In contrast, in the population sample participants scoring lowest on the BNT performed worse than those in the other three levels, which did not differ in performance. Taken together, however, the results suggest that the Swedish version of the BNT should be considered a valid measure of numeracy in both Swedish student and population representative samples.

  • 149.
    Lindskog, Marcus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Winman, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Are all Data Created Equal?: Exploring Some Boundary Conditions for a Lazy Intuitive Statistician2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 5, p. e97686-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study investigated potential effects of the presentation order of numeric information on retrospective subjective judgments of descriptive statistics of this information. The studies were theoretically motivated by the assumption in the naive sampling model of independence between temporal encoding order of data in long-term memory and retrieval probability (i.e. as implied by a "random sampling'' from memory metaphor). In Experiment 1, participants experienced Arabic numbers that varied in distribution shape/variability between the first and the second half of the information sequence. Results showed no effects of order on judgments of mean, variability or distribution shape. To strengthen the interpretation of these results, Experiment 2 used a repeated judgment procedure, with an initial judgment occurring prior to the change in distribution shape of the information half-way through data presentation. The results of Experiment 2 were in line with those from Experiment 1, and in addition showed that the act of making explicit judgments did not impair accuracy of later judgments, as would be suggested by an anchoring and insufficient adjustment strategy. Overall, the results indicated that participants were very responsive to the properties of the data while at the same time being more or less immune to order effects. The results were interpreted as being in line with the naive sampling models in which values are stored as exemplars and sampled randomly from long-term memory.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 150.
    Lindskog, Marcus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Winman, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    No evidence of learning in non-symbolic numerical tasks: A comment on Park & Brannon (2014)2016In: Cognition, ISSN 0010-0277, E-ISSN 1873-7838, Vol. 150, p. 243-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two recent studies - one of which was published in this journal - claimed to have found that learning on a non-symbolic arithmetic task improved performance on a symbolic arithmetic task (Park & Brannon, 2013, 2014). This finding has potentially far-reaching implications, because it would constitute evidence for a causal link between the Approximate Number System (ANS) and symbolic-math ability. Here, we argue that, due to the methodology used in both studies, the interpretation of data in terms of an improvement in ANS performance is problematic. We provide arguments and simulations showing that the trends in the data are similar to what one would expect for a non-learning observer. We discuss the implications for the original interpretation in terms of causality between non-symbolic and symbolic arithmetic performance.

123456 101 - 150 of 276
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf