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  • 101.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Bringselius, Louise
    Lunds universitet.
    Professionalism and organizational performance in the wake of new managerialism2015In: European Political Science Review, ISSN 1755-7739, E-ISSN 1755-7747, Vol. 7, no 4, 499-523 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With New Public Management came the idea that public organizations should be led by professional managers, rather than by professionals. This has been referred to as new managerialism. This article explores how new managerialism may affect professional autonomy in a public organization that enjoys a high – and constitutionally protected – degree of organizational autonomy. A framework distinguishing between organizational and occupational professionalism is adopted, in a 10-year case study of the Swedish National Audit Office (SNAO). The study shows how the autonomy of professionals at the SNAO was highly restricted, while management control systems were continuously expanded. At the same time, SNAO performance has been reduced. For example, the SNAO has been criticized for its high overhead costs. The study presented in this article, shows the complex interplay between professionalism, new managerialism, and organizational performance. Based on the findings from this study, the article maintains that it is equally important to consider how autonomy is distributed within agencies, as it is to consider how autonomy is distributed between the political sphere and the administration, when trying to explain organizational performance.

  • 102.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Bringselius, Louise
    Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Lunds universitet.
    The New NAO in Sweden: The Deprofessionalization of the Performance Auditor2010In: Workshop: Dysfunktioner i statsapparaten / [ed] Bo Rothstein, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 103.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Bull, Thomas
    Högsta förvaltningsdomstolen.
    Hasselberg, Ylva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Stenlås, Niklas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History.
    Professions under Siege2016In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 118, no 1, 93-126 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to analyse the effects of New Public Management (NPM) reforms on three specific professional groups. From this investigation it is clear that the assumptions inherent in the NPM reforms have resulted in a clear breach of what we theoretically refer to as the professional contract between the state and the professions. We show in this analysis that our studied professional groups have lost central aspects of their professional autonomy. We problematize the perception that an ever-increasing demand for steering and control of professionals within the public sector should be perceived as something exclusively good. In addition to the costs of monitoring, the centrally important paradox of accountability should be taken into consideration, i.e. responsible interpretation and application of external accountability demands rest on the cultivation of the virtues that support good administrative judgement, the type of judgement that is threatened by the control-schemes presented in this article.

  • 104.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Bull, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law.
    Stenlås, Niklas
    Hasselberg, Ylva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Professions under siege2009In: Uppsala Public Management Seminar: Mångvetenskapliga perspektiv på reglering, styrning och ledning av offentlig sektor, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 105.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Hermansson, Jörgen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Lena, Wängnerud
    Statsvetenskapliga institutionen, Göteborgs universitet.
    Exit riksdagen2007Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Varför lämnar riksdagspolitiker sina uppdrag? Har avhoppen blivit vanligare? Hur påverkar detta riksdagens arbete och politikens utformning?I den här boken argumenterar författarna för att avhoppen indikerar en genomgripande förändring av svensk demokrati. Från att under lång tid ha kännetecknats av att vara en utpräglad partidemokrati, håller Sverige på att omvandlas till en ublikdemokrati. Utmärkande för publikdemokratin är att den befolkas av den politiske entrprenören som politikertyp. Den politiska entreprenören ser som sin uppgift att bryta ny mark - och har, till skillnad från den trogna partiarbetaren, en egen agenda.

  • 106.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Jungar, Ann-Cathrine
    Svensk elitstyrning skapar maktlöshet2002In: DN debatt 2002-11-25Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 107.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Jungar, Ann-Cathrine
    Södertörns högskola.
    The Influence of National Parliaments over Domestic European Union Policies2009In: Scandinavian Political Studies, ISSN 0080-6757, E-ISSN 1467-9477, Vol. 32, no 4, 359-381 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we present survey results on the Swedish and Finnish parliamentarians' perceived influence over domestic decision-making in EU-matters. In the literature the parliaments in Sweden and Finland are classified as powerful parliaments that can exert considerable influence in the domestic EU policy-making. Moreover, Finland and Sweden joined the EU at the same time. Therefore the overall expectation is that the parliaments should be equally powerful. However, the results from our survey indicate a significant difference in perceived influence between the two parliaments. It is obvious that the Swedish parliamentarians perceive themselves as more marginalized in relation to the Government than the Finnish parliamentarians. After having tried different explanations we conclude that the differences can be ascribed to the parliaments' different organisational set-ups for the oversight of the Government.

  • 108.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Karlsson, Christer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Widmalm, Sten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Replik: Skillnad på ideal och praktik2013Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 109.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Petersson, Olof
    Sverige behöver en oberoende riksrevision1999In: TLM:Thélème, ISSN 1103-8926, no 4, 27-33 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Frågan om Inga-Britt Ahlenius förordnande håller på att hamna i personfixering medan det grundläggande problemet förblir olöst: Sverige har en alltför svag granskningsmakt. Vi behöver en verkligt oberoende riksrevision. Det skriver Olof Petersson professor i statsvetenskap, och fil dr Shirin Ahlbäck expert på statlig revision.

  • 110.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Sundberg, Elin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Avkollegialiseringen av den svenska högskolan2016In: Det hotade universitetet / [ed] Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin, Bennich-Björkman, Li, Hermansson, Jörgen, Karlsson, Christer & Widmalm, Sten, Stockholm: Dialogos Förlag, 2016, 1, 45-69 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 111.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Sundberg, Elin
    Vad har hänt med det kollegiala styret?2017In: Det ostyrda universitetet?: Perspektiv på styrning, autonomi och reform av svenska lärosäten / [ed] Linda Wedlin & Josef Pallas, Stockholm: Makadam Förlag, 2017, 1, 91-119 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 112.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Widmalm, Sten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Att göra rätt - även när ingen ser på2016In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 118, no 1, 7-17 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 113.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Widmalm, Sten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    NPM på svenska2013In: Patientens pris: Ett reportage om den svenska sjukvården och marknaden / [ed] Maciej Zaremba, Stockholm: Weyler förlag , 2013, 122-153 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 114.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Widmalm, Sten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    ”Professionalism nedvärderas i den marknadsstyrda staten”2012In: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no 2012-10-26Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 115.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Wockelberg, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Constitutions and the Application of Public Management Reforms: Formulating a Research Agenda2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since constitutional aspects of public management reforms are rarely debated, scholars and politicians alike end up underestimating two fundamental problems in modern democratic political systems. The first concerns the effects that public management policies may have on power allocation within and outside the public sphere. Here the lack of critical analysis and debate concerns the fact that seemingly technical adjustments of the government’s tool box may end up changing the power allocation among actors vertically as well as horizontally. The second perspective, and the one to be discussed in this paper, concerns the reverse relationship, i.e. how constitutions influence public management policy reforms. The last decades have resulted in a global spread of ideas regarding how governments should manage public authorities and the public sector. In this paper we aim at identifying constitutional variables to explain the variation of how specific public management tools are applied in different contexts.

  • 116.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Wockelberg, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Government Steering over Two Decades: A Large-N comparison2016In: RC27 Structure and Organization of Government: Panel:  RC27.05 Out of Control or over Controlled? Incentives, Audits and New Public Management, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The post-NPM debate on government control of state authorities is un-decisive in both problem description and in terms of suggested remedies. ‘Wicked problems’ are said to call for re-integration of state executives, and for enhanced government control in order to increase coordination between public organizations. At the same time, excessive (performance) control is accused of posing a threat to professionalism in the public sector and to its problem solving capacity. In this paper we build upon Verhoest et al’s (2004) suggestion that we need to treat autonomy as a multi-dimensional phenomenon and argue the importance of adopting a nuanced analytical perspective on issues of too much or too little control. Using a unique data set containing information on nearly 20 years of governmental steering as this is expressed in yearly appropriation direction documents (N=1330) issued by the Swedish government, we a) map out how the government’s demand for performance information has developed over time, and b) as we treat performance information demands as one out of many policy instruments in a government’s toolbox we also look for specific and stable combinations of different policy instruments (represented by autonomy dimensions). Our findings show that the number of performance information indicators requested from governments in appropriation direction-documents have on a general level decreased over time. From our bivariate and multivariate analyses we have shown that any government’s inclination to e.g. demand less performance information from its state agencies in general comes with a less autonomous management model for the state agency.

  • 117.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Wockelberg, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Interim Report on Public Administration Reform Trends and Reform Dynamics in Sweden: Snapshot and EU semester link2016Report (Other academic)
  • 118.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Wockelberg, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Mature Agencification: A Multi-Dimensional Analysis of Autonomy2015In: Shaping the Future - Re-invention or revolution?, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 119.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Wockelberg, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Nordic Administrative Heritages and Contemporary Institutional Design2016In: Nordic Administrative Reforms - Lessons for Public Management / [ed] Greve, Carsten, Lægreid, Per and Rykkja, Lise H, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016, 1, 57-78 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter addresses the degree of autonomy, politicization and coordination capacity in the Nordic countries looking at variations across Nordic countries as well as between Nordic countries and other European models. The importance of the East Nordic model is addressed, and also the ministry-agency divide. In terms of autonomy, a distinction is made between managerial autonomy and autonomy in policy-making, and policy implementation respectively. The chapter looks at the question of increased politicization, that is, the degree to which politicians accept the professional expertise of senior civil servants. The chapter also looks at coordination capacity, addressing hierarchy and network arrangements as well as the quality of coordinating along the vertical and horizontal dimension.

  • 120.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Wockelberg, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    The Politics of Public Administration Policy: Explaining and Evaluating Public Performance Management in Sweden2012In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 114, no 2, 273-281 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the project is to describe and explain the introduction and the consequences of the current management model of the public sector (management by results) from a democratic theory perspective. Firstly, our aim is to disclose the norms and values that the present model is bearer of. A first step will be to unfold what kind of values that are rewarded in the present model, and thereby also calling the attention to what values that are neglected. A point of reference for this is Elster's "three-cornered dilemma" of constitutionalism, democracy, and efficiency. This analysis of conflicting values will be made on different administrative levels, since the implications are different depending on whether we focus on government steering or the conditions of the service deliverers on the local level. Secondly, we aim to answer the question on why the model was introduced in the first place, and if this process poses any democratic challenges. Our perspective is that the introduction of this model has had far reaching effects for the work of the executive branch, and thereby has had greater constitutional implications than is generally acknowledged. Yet, we also know from earlier research that the introduction of the model was not of great political interest, but is rather the product of a limited number of top civil servants. Simply put, how come that this one particular management model is adopted, and is allowed to dominate, although it has been so highly criticized?

  • 121.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Wockelberg, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    The Public Sector and the Courts2015In: The Oxford Handbook of Swedish Politics / [ed] Jon Pierre, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recurring themes relating to the central constitutional principles of the public sector and the courts can be summarized as administrative dualism and institutional autonomy. The scope of the dual Swedish administrative model, as well as how much institutional autonomy government agencies and the courts are granted by the Constitution, has been strongly debated. These debates exemplify what we refer to as “the Swedish Constitution as a story of unresolved issues.” Paradoxically, substantial constitutional reforms in this area rarely come about due to regular constitutional reform making in Sweden. Instead, they are often the result of formally less demanding political decision making.

  • 122.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Öberg, PerOla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Glorifiering av handlingskraft tystar det förnuftiga samtalet2005In: Axess, ISSN 1651-0941, no 5Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish Social Democracy for a long time applauded the ideal that politics should be an enlightened, rational activity. Decisions should be based on knowledge and be critically re-evaluated on a continuous basis. Today respect for knowledge and for dialogue is increasingly being replaced by a stress on the ability to enforce your political will at all costs.

  • 123.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Öberg, PerOla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Kunskap och politik: Mellan kunskapsnonchalans och expertdelegation2012In: Kunskapen och makten: En antologi om gränslandet mellan forskning och offentligt beslutsfattande / [ed] Per Molander, Stockholm: Bokförlaget Atlantis, 2012, 45-74 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 124.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Öberg, PerOla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Policy and Knowledge: Ignoring Facts or Surrendering to Experts2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing interest to evaluate policies and make use of scientific evidence in politics and policy. However, the relationship between politics and knowledge is quite complex. Sometimes politicians involve policy analysts, because they want to find out “the best solution” to a policy problem. But other times they just want to find arguments for a position already decided. This is discouraging. If we want politics to take the form of enlightened understanding it is not acceptable that relevant information is totally ignored. In that case, policy analysis and evaluations might just be a play to the gallery or an empty ritual. On the other hand we do not want politicians to be like puppets on a string for experts. Results from evaluations, scientific committees or other policy analyses, should not be uncritically accepted by politicians. If so, we risk a situation where politics moves from democratic arenas to closed offices of consultants and experts. Hence, from a normative point of view, we would like decision-makers to critically reflect on relevant information, and be able to argue why they dismiss some information and make use of other. But this is not easy, and there are still a lot unknown: there is a need for better instruments for analysis of the problem and more empirical knowledge of how and when politicians navigate between ignorance and technocracy. In this article we take some steps in that direction. First, we elaborate on three basic ideal types; Ignorance, Rational deliberation and Entrusting experts. Second, we test the hypothesis that politicians will entrust experts when there is established knowledge in the field, consensus among experts, and clear politically established criteria to follow. However, the two cases examined do not confirm expected results. In a first case where we would expect decisive influence from experts, the knowledge produced was ignored. In the second case, where we expected politicians to have excellent opportunities to control decision-making, it was instead controlled by experts. This has important implications for how we look upon the relationship between politics and expertise, and for future research.

  • 125.
    Ahlroos Källhed, Ivar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Bridging the integration gap: The relationship between women's employment, childcare costs and integration policies2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is an unexplained gap in employment between native-born and foreign-born women in most European countries and it is not evident how it can be closed. This essay studies some possible explanations of the gap by looking at the effect of childcare costs and integration policies, through regression analysis. The individual effects are not significant, but the results do however give some indication that the degree of integration policies in a country can change the effect of welfare policies such as childcare.

  • 126.
    Ahlskog, Rafael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Democracy and vaccination uptake - a complex friendshipManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Democracies are generally thought to be better able to handle the provision of public goods than non-democracies. However, vaccines are a type of public good where we might expect this dynamic not to apply. Generally, a high vaccination uptake is net-profitable for the state above a certain level of national wealth, given losses of tax income to disease and health care expenditures. At the same time, democracies may be suspected to be less likely to use coercive means to achieve the goal of high uptake. This leads to the hypothesis that at least among rich countries, democracies may fare worse in terms of vaccination uptake.

    In this paper, I test this proposal using a cross-country panel of WHO uptake data. I test both traditional panel models, as well as an IV-approach using regional democratization waves as an instrument for own-country democracy. With both approaches, the theoretical prediction appears to hold up: rich non-democracies do indeed achieve higher uptake than rich democracies.

  • 127.
    Ahlskog, Rafael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Essays on the collective action dilemma of vaccination2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Vaccines famously possess positive externalities that make them susceptible to the collective action dilemma: when I get vaccinated, I protect not only myself, but also those who I might otherwise have infected. Thus, some people will have an incentive to free ride on the immunity of others. In a population of rational agents, the critical level of vaccination uptake required for herd immunity will therefore be difficult to attain in the long run, which poses difficulties for disease eradication.

    In this doctoral dissertation, I explore different implications of the collective action dilemma of vaccination, and different ways of ameliorating it. First: given that coercion or force could solve the dilemma, and democracies may be less likely to engage in policies that violate the physical integrity of citizens, democracies may also be at a disadvantage compared to non-democracies when securing herd immunity. In essay I, I show that this is, empirically, indeed the case. Barring the use of extensive coercion therefore necessitates other solutions.

    In essay II, I highlight the exception to individual rationality found in other-regarding motivations such as altruism. Our moral psychology has likely evolved to take other's welfare into account, but the extent of our prosocial motivations vary: a wider form of altruism that encompasses not just family or friends, but strangers, is likely to give way to a more narrow form when humans pair-bond and have children. This dynamic is shown to apply to the sentiments underlying vaccination behavior as well: appeals to the welfare of society of getting vaccinated have positive effects on vaccination propensity, but this effect disappears in people with families and children. On this demographic, appeals to the welfare of close loved ones instead appears to have large effects.

    In essay III, I investigate whether the prosocial motivations underlying vaccination behavior are liable to be affected by motivation crowding - that is, whether they are crowded out when introducing economic incentives to get vaccinated. I find that on average, economic incentives do not have adverse effects, but for a small minority of highly prosocially motivated people, they might.

    List of papers
    1. Money for nothing?: Motivation crowding and economic rationality in the vaccination decision.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Money for nothing?: Motivation crowding and economic rationality in the vaccination decision.
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Vaccines famously possess public goods characteristics that make them vulnerable to the collective action dilemma. Economists have posited a simple way of solving the problem -- economic incentives. However, results from studies on motivation crowding suggest that extrinsic incentives can crowd out intrinsic motivation and therefore backfire. This study investigates if vaccines are subject to motivation crowding using two sets of survey experiments. It is found that in the aggregate, introducing economic incentives has positive effects on vaccination propensity. However, for a subset of highly intrinsically motivated individuals, the effect of introducing economic incentives could be negative. Further, the distinction between pure and impure public goods seems to be driving this dynamic.

    National Category
    Political Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-311019 (URN)
    Available from: 2016-12-20 Created: 2016-12-20 Last updated: 2016-12-20
    2. When is blood thicker than water?: Variations of other-regard in the vaccination decision.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>When is blood thicker than water?: Variations of other-regard in the vaccination decision.
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Social proximity and kinship have been shown to heavily influence our tendency to altruistic behavior. Evidence about group formation, the development of prosocial motivation during adolescence as well as on both endocrinological and psychological mechanisms involved in prosociality also highlight the likely inherently parochial character of human altruism. Meanwhile, other-regarding motivations can play a central role in vaccination behavior. It is not well-understood, however, what types of other-regard are involved, and what role they play.

    In this study, I use a 2x2 factor survey experiment to investigate the differing effects of narrow (family-oriented) versus wide (purely altruistic) other-regard. I find that stimulating either of these types of other-regard leads to increases in vaccination propensity. However, the effects differ markedly between types of subjects: subjects in a settled family constellation display large effects of narrow, but not wide, other-regard, whereas others display the opposite. Wide other-regard therefore appears to be crowded out by narrow when humans enter pair-bonding. To maintain sufficient vaccination uptake, this distinction should be taken into consideration when designing messages to the public.

    National Category
    Political Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-311018 (URN)
    Available from: 2016-12-20 Created: 2016-12-20 Last updated: 2016-12-20
    3. Democracy and vaccination uptake - a complex friendship
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Democracy and vaccination uptake - a complex friendship
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Democracies are generally thought to be better able to handle the provision of public goods than non-democracies. However, vaccines are a type of public good where we might expect this dynamic not to apply. Generally, a high vaccination uptake is net-profitable for the state above a certain level of national wealth, given losses of tax income to disease and health care expenditures. At the same time, democracies may be suspected to be less likely to use coercive means to achieve the goal of high uptake. This leads to the hypothesis that at least among rich countries, democracies may fare worse in terms of vaccination uptake.

    In this paper, I test this proposal using a cross-country panel of WHO uptake data. I test both traditional panel models, as well as an IV-approach using regional democratization waves as an instrument for own-country democracy. With both approaches, the theoretical prediction appears to hold up: rich non-democracies do indeed achieve higher uptake than rich democracies.

    National Category
    Political Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-311017 (URN)
    Available from: 2016-12-20 Created: 2016-12-20 Last updated: 2016-12-20
  • 128.
    Ahlskog, Rafael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Money for nothing?: Motivation crowding and economic rationality in the vaccination decision.Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Vaccines famously possess public goods characteristics that make them vulnerable to the collective action dilemma. Economists have posited a simple way of solving the problem -- economic incentives. However, results from studies on motivation crowding suggest that extrinsic incentives can crowd out intrinsic motivation and therefore backfire. This study investigates if vaccines are subject to motivation crowding using two sets of survey experiments. It is found that in the aggregate, introducing economic incentives has positive effects on vaccination propensity. However, for a subset of highly intrinsically motivated individuals, the effect of introducing economic incentives could be negative. Further, the distinction between pure and impure public goods seems to be driving this dynamic.

  • 129.
    Ahlskog, Rafael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    When is blood thicker than water?: Variations of other-regard in the vaccination decision.Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Social proximity and kinship have been shown to heavily influence our tendency to altruistic behavior. Evidence about group formation, the development of prosocial motivation during adolescence as well as on both endocrinological and psychological mechanisms involved in prosociality also highlight the likely inherently parochial character of human altruism. Meanwhile, other-regarding motivations can play a central role in vaccination behavior. It is not well-understood, however, what types of other-regard are involved, and what role they play.

    In this study, I use a 2x2 factor survey experiment to investigate the differing effects of narrow (family-oriented) versus wide (purely altruistic) other-regard. I find that stimulating either of these types of other-regard leads to increases in vaccination propensity. However, the effects differ markedly between types of subjects: subjects in a settled family constellation display large effects of narrow, but not wide, other-regard, whereas others display the opposite. Wide other-regard therefore appears to be crowded out by narrow when humans enter pair-bonding. To maintain sufficient vaccination uptake, this distinction should be taken into consideration when designing messages to the public.

  • 130.
    Ajpe, Karina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Vedung, Evert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Information som styrinstrument: bränsle- och miljödeklaration för nya personbilar (Information as a policy instrument: the fuel and environment declaration for new cars)1997Report (Other academic)
  • 131.
    Akill Ali, Refka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Islamiska staten: En studie av Islamiska staten i förhållande till begreppet stat2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie syftar till att undersöka huruvida Islamiska staten kännetecknar en stat. Detta kommer att undersökas utifrån berättelser från källor som har befunnit sig nära Islamiska statens territorium. Det finns idag olika uppfattningar kring vilka Islamiska staten är och vad de vill – om de endast är en beväpnad politisk rörelse eller en rörelse som har lyckats bygga upp ett territorium med statsliknande organ. De berättelser som kommer att ligga i fokus i denna studie har tagits från tidningen Dabiq som är en av Islamiska statens tidningar, befintliga intervjuer från människor som har befunnit sig inom Islamiska statens territorium men även rapporter från internationella organisationer. Som hjälpmedel har studien valt att utgå från Barry Buzans teori om statsbildning. Denna teori behandlar tre kriterier av vad som utgör en stat; statens idé, statens institutionella uttryck samt statens fysiska bas. Denna teori kommer att fungera som ett verktyg för att granska och sammanställa den empiri som har valts. Studien kommer att utgå från en kvalitativ textanalys där de berättelserna som har valts om Islamiska staten prövas mot begreppet stat såsom det definieras av Barry Buzan. Resultatet visar på att Islamiska staten inte utgör en stat utifrån de berättelser som analyserats.  

  • 132.
    Albin, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Young, Ariel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Setting the Table for Success - or Failure?: Agenda Management in the WTO2012In: International Negotiation, ISSN 1382-340X, E-ISSN 1571-8069, Vol. 17, no 1, 37-64 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How does the agenda management process influence the effectiveness of multilateral trade talks in the World Trade Organization (WTO)? How can the all-important agenda be shaped so as to enhance the prospects of an agreement being reached? How the agenda is managed directly affects the negotiation process which follows and the eventual outcome. Yet researchers have paid little attention to the particular dynamics and challenges of agenda management in large-scale multilateral negotiations, and actual practice points to several weaknesses. This article proposes that the complexity of the agenda in multilateral talks needs to be managed and reduced in procedurally just ways if a successful outcome (agreement) is to result. It develops an analytical framework of agenda management in multilateral negotiations and conducts a structured focused comparison to explain the differences in outcomes of two rounds of WTO negotiations: the failure of the 2003 Cancún Ministerial Conference and the success of the 2004 Geneva negotiations in reaching an agreement. The findings support the proposition that a successful outcome depends in part on reducing agenda complexity and that this needs to be achieved in procedurally acceptable (if not just) ways.

  • 133.
    Albrecht, Frederike
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Government Accountability and Natural Disasters: The Impact of Natural Hazard Events on Political Trust and Satisfaction with Governments in EuropeIn: Risk, Hazards & Crisis in Public Policy, ISSN 1944-4079, E-ISSN 1944-4079Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 134.
    Albrecht, Frederike
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Natural hazard events and social capital: the social impact of natural disastersIn: Disasters. The Journal of Disaster Studies, Policy and Management, ISSN 0361-3666, E-ISSN 1467-7717Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 135.
    Albrecht, Frederike
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Perceptions of Successful and Failed Disaster Management in the Media: A Comparative Analysis of News Media Coverage following Natural DisastersManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 136.
    Albrecht, Frederike
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    The Social and Political Impact of Natural Disasters: Investigating Attitudes and Media Coverage in the Wake of Disasters2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural disasters are social and political phenomena. Social structures create vulnerability to natural hazards and governments are often seen as responsible for the effects of disasters. Do social trust, political trust, and government satisfaction therefore generally change following natural disasters? How can media coverage explain change in political attitudes? Prior research suggests that these variables are prone to change, but previous studies often focus on single cases, whereas this dissertation adopts a broader approach, examining multiple disasters. It investigates the social and political impact of natural disasters by examining their effect on social and political attitudes and by exploring media coverage as a mechanism underlying political consequences.

    The results reveal that natural disasters may have a comparatively frequent, although small and temporary, effect on social trust. Substantial effects are less likely. Social trust was found to decrease significantly when disasters cause nine or more fatalities (Paper I). Political attitudes were expected to be prone to change after natural disasters, but Paper II illustrates that political trust and government satisfaction among citizens are generally hardly affected by these events. Finally, media framing and the political claims of actors explained the variation in political consequences after disasters of similar severity. Paper III also illustrates the importance of the political context of natural disasters, as their occurrence can be strategically exploited by actors to further criticism towards the government in politically tense situations.

    This dissertation contributes to existing disaster research by investigating more cases than disaster studies typically do. It also uses a systematic case selection process, and a quantitative approach with a, for disaster research, unique research design. Hence, it offers methodological nuance to existing studies. A broader analysis, factoring in the variation of disaster severity and the increased number of cases offers new answers and tests assumptions about underlying patterns. The main contribution of this thesis is that it examines how common political and social effects of disasters are. Furthermore, this dissertation contributes to existing disasters research by emphasizing contextual and explanatory factors, e.g., properties of disasters and the political context that affects the media coverage of natural disasters.

    List of papers
    1. Natural hazard events and social capital: the social impact of natural disasters
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Natural hazard events and social capital: the social impact of natural disasters
    (English)In: Disasters. The Journal of Disaster Studies, Policy and Management, ISSN 0361-3666, E-ISSN 1467-7717Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
    National Category
    Political Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-320615 (URN)10.1111/disa.12246 (DOI)
    Available from: 2017-04-23 Created: 2017-04-23 Last updated: 2017-09-21
    2. Government Accountability and Natural Disasters: The Impact of Natural Hazard Events on Political Trust and Satisfaction with Governments in Europe
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Government Accountability and Natural Disasters: The Impact of Natural Hazard Events on Political Trust and Satisfaction with Governments in Europe
    (English)In: Risk, Hazards & Crisis in Public Policy, ISSN 1944-4079, E-ISSN 1944-4079Article in journal (Other academic) Epub ahead of print
    National Category
    Political Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-320616 (URN)10.1002/rhc3.12122 (DOI)
    Available from: 2017-04-23 Created: 2017-04-23 Last updated: 2017-09-21
    3. Perceptions of Successful and Failed Disaster Management in the Media: A Comparative Analysis of News Media Coverage following Natural Disasters
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Perceptions of Successful and Failed Disaster Management in the Media: A Comparative Analysis of News Media Coverage following Natural Disasters
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Political Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-320618 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-04-23 Created: 2017-04-23 Last updated: 2017-04-23
  • 137.
    Al-Dahlaki, Tiba
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Voting of foreign-born citizens in Sweden: A case study of naturalized Swedish citizens and the motives behind their non-voting in the general election events in Sweden.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The voting turnouts in Sweden has been increasing through the years, as there are more people that are willing to vote for a candidate or a political party during the general election events. However, despite the increase of voter turnouts during elections, there is a decrease in the voting of one group in the Swedish society and are the foreign-born citizens, i.e. immigrants. It has been observed that immigrants, with naturalized Swedish citizenship and born in another country than Sweden, vote less in the general election events in Sweden than others, e.g. home-born citizens. The low voting of immigrants has been an issue for a while, and it was noticed that the numbers of immigrants that vote is becoming less with each general election event. Therefore, this thesis investigated the reasons behind the non-voting of immigrants in Sweden, by interviewing six Iraqi-born immigrants with naturalized Swedish citizenship that did not vote for at least two general events, and examined the reasons and motives behind their non-voting. 

  • 138.
    Algotsson, Karl-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Arbetsdomstolen, EU och den tilltagande rättsrötan2010In: Tiden, ISSN 0040-6759, no 4, 20- p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 139.
    Algotsson, Karl-Göran
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Demokratins problem på 2000-talet2003In: Alf Ross, Varför demokrati?,, Santerus förlag, Stockholm , 2003, 235-255 p.Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 140.
    Algotsson, karl-Göran
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Fackliga stridsåtgärder: grundläggande rättigheter eller handelshinder?2008In: Statsvetare ifrågasätter: Uppsalamiljön vid tiden för professorsskiftet den 31 mars 2008, 2008, 16- p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 141.
    Algotsson, Karl-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    From Majoritarian Democracy to Vertical Separation of Powers: Sweden and the European Union2001In: Scandinavian Political Studies, ISSN 0080-6757, Vol. 24, no 1, 51-65 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The key problem in constitutional politics in the established democracies may be said to pertain to finding the right balance between majoritarian democracy, constitutionalism and effective decision making. From that perspective this essay examines the Swedish polity before and after the accession to the European Union in 1995. From 1917 onwards majoritarian democracy and parliamentarism were the praxis of the Swedish polity. But this mode of goverment was not written into the 1809 Instrument of Government, which was characterised by the separation of powers between the king and the parliament. It was first in the new Instrument of Government, adopted in 1973–74, that the praxis of majoritarian democracy and parliamentarism was codified. But in the 1990s a new form of dualism was introduced into the Swedish polity as a result of the country’s accession to the European Union. On the one hand, there is an Instrument of Government characterised by the principle of majoritarian democratic rule. On the other, accession to the EU involves a vertical separation of powers on a major scale. Two conflicting fundamental elements, majoritarian democracy and vertical separation of powers, are currently incorporated in the Swedish polity.

  • 142.
    Algotsson, Karl-Göran
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Grundläggande fri- och rättigheter2003In: Svensk Författningspolitik, SNS förlag, Stockholm , 2003, 28-48 p.Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 143.
    Algotsson, Karl-Göran
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Grundläggande rättigheter eller handelshinder?: Den svenska debatten om EU, föreningsfriheten och rätten till fackliga stridsåtgärder2008Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 144.
    Algotsson, Karl-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Lagrådet, rättsstaten och demokratin1999In: Politik och juridik: Grundlagen inför 2000-talet : fakulteternas symposium för rektor Stig Strömholm, Uppsala: Iustus förlag, 1999, 37-57 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 145.
    Algotsson, Karl-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Lagrådets politiska betydelse2009In: Svensk Juristtidning, ISSN 0039-6591, no 2, 165- p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 146.
    Algotsson, Karl-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Sveriges författning efter EU-anslutningen2000Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Boken är en systematisk genomgång av de idéer och politiska krafter som format vår nuvarande grundlag. Författaren analyserar den författningspolitiska debatten och granskar det rättsläge som uppstått efter vårt lands anslutning till EU. Den stora frågan är hur Sverige har lyckats tillgodose kraven på konstitutionalism, demokrati och effektivitet.

  • 147.
    Algotsson, Karl-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Äganderätt och demokrati: Svensk grundlagsdebatt under 1990-talet2001Book (Other academic)
  • 148.
    Ali Akbar, Avin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Förverkligandet av Barnkonventionen: En jämförande analys av två kommuners mål och medel för implementeringen av barnets rätt till delaktighet2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the light of the Convention on the Rights of the Child gaining legal status in Sweden this thesis examines the implementation of the convention on a municipal level, specifically the implementation of Article 12 and children’s right to participate in all matters affecting them. With this purpose objectives and means are examined and compared between two municipalities: the municipality of Uppsala and the municipality of Örebro. By creating a frame of analysis based on previous research and theory on children’s participation, a text analysis has been conducted on key municipal policy documents and a case study has been conducted of municipal channels for participation. In conclusion the implementation of Article 12 differs between the municipalities where the responsibility to realize children’s right to participate is a shared responsibility in Örebro municipality in comparison to Uppsala municipality where the responsibility lies with some departments. In Örebro municipality children’s participation is often defined as a right while it in Uppsala municipality often is defined as an instrument to reach other goals. The case study emphasizes the importance of critically examining who actually participates in initiatives for children’s participation, who has power over the agenda and with what effects. For the realization of children’s right to participate initiatives must be inclusive, important and with clear intentions and effects.

  • 149.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Palme, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Avslutning: Framtidsstudier på agendan2012In: Att utforska framtiden: Valda perspektiv / [ed] Susanne Alm, Joakim Palme och Erik Westholm, Stockholm: Dialogos Förlag, 2012, 235-246 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 150.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Institutet för Framtidsstudier.
    Palme, JoakimUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Fjorton perspektiv på framtiden: Samhälls- och humanvetenskapliga framtidsstudier2008Collection (editor) (Other academic)
1234567 101 - 150 of 2641
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