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  • 101.
    Amcoff, Mirjam
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Hallsson, Lara R.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Kolm, Niclas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Male Courtship Pheromones Affect Female Behaviour in the Swordtail Characin ( Corynopoma riisei)2014In: Ethology, ISSN 0179-1613, E-ISSN 1439-0310, Vol. 120, no 5, p. 463-470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pheromones constitute an important cue used by both males and females during courtship. Here, we investigate the effect of male pheromones on female behaviour in the swordtail characin (Corynopoma riisei), a species of fish where males have a caudal pheromone gland which has been suggested to affect female behaviour during courtship. We subjected female C.riisei to male courtship pheromones and investigated the effect on both female behaviour and brain serotonergic activity levels compared to a control group. While no difference in serotonergic activity was found, the pheromone-treated females showed lower stress levels compared to the control group. Furthermore, pheromone-treated females increased locomotor activity over time, while a decrease in locomotor activity was observed in the control group. These results suggest that the male courtship pheromones may serve to reduce female stress and increase female activity, possibly to aid males in gaining access to females and facilitating sperm transfer.

  • 102.
    Amcoff, Mirjam
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Kolm, Niclas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    A test of sensory exploitation in the swordtail characin (Corynopoma riisei) based on colour matchingbetween female prey and a male ornament2014In: Environmental Biology of Fishes, ISSN 0378-1909, E-ISSN 1573-5133, Vol. 97, no 3, p. 247-254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sensory exploitation hypothesis states that pre-existing biases in female sensory systems may generate strong selection on male signals to match such biases. As environmental conditions differ between populations, sexual preferences resulting from natural selection are expected to vary as well. The swordtail characin (Corynopoma riisei) is a species in which males carry a flag-like ornament growing from the operculum that has been proposed to function as a prey mimic to attract females. Here, we investigated if female plasticity in feeding preferences is associated with plasticity in preference for an artificial male ornament in this species. Females were trained for 10 days by offering them differently coloured food items and were then tested for changes in preferences for differently coloured artificial male ornaments according to foraging experience. We found a rapid and pronounced change in female preference for the colouration of the artificial ornament according to food training. Thus our results support the possibility that sensory exploitation may act as a driving force for female preferences for male ornaments in this species.

  • 103.
    Amcoff, Mirjam
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Kolm, Niclas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Does female feeding motivation affect the response to a food-mimicking male ornament in the swordtail characin Corynopoma riisei?2013In: Journal of Fish Biology, ISSN 0022-1112, E-ISSN 1095-8649, Vol. 83, no 2, p. 343-354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Female response to various aspects of male trait morphology and the effect of female feeding motivation were investigated in the swordtail characin Corynopoma riisei, a species where males are equipped with a flag-like food-mimicking ornament that grows from the operculum. Unfed females responded more strongly to the male ornament and showed a stronger preference for larger ornaments than did fed females. Females were shown not to discriminate between artificial male ornaments of either undamaged or damaged shape.

  • 104.
    Amcoff, Mirjam
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Kolm, Niclas
    Multiple male sexual signals and female responsiveness in the swordtail characin, Corynopoma riisei2015In: Environmental Biology of Fishes, ISSN 0378-1909, E-ISSN 1573-5133, Vol. 98, no 7, p. 1731-1740Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the courtship process, multiple signals are often used between the signaller and the receiver. Here we describe female response to multiple male visual morphological and behavioural signals in the swordtail characin, Corynopoma riisei. The swordtail characin is a species in which males display several morphological ornaments as well as a rich courtship repertoire. Our results show that high courtship intensity was associated with an increased female response towards the male ornament, increased number of mating attempts and a reduction in female aggression. The morphological aspects investigated here did not seem to correlate with female response. This may indicate that, when both behaviour and morphology are considered simultaneously, courtship behaviour may have priority over morphological cues in this species.

  • 105.
    Amcoff, Mirjam
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Lindqvist, Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Kolm, Niclas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Sensory exploitation and plasticity in female mate choice in the swordtail characin2013In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 85, no 5, p. 891-898Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite extensive research in the field of sexual selection, the evolutionary origin and maintenance of preferences for sexual ornaments are still debated. Recent studies have pointed out that plasticity in mate choice might be more common than previously thought, but little is still known about the factors that affect such plasticity. The swordtail characin, Corynopoma riisei, is a tropical fish species in which males use a food-mimicking ornament to attract females. We tested whether ecological factors, more specifically prior foraging experience, can affect female preference for male ornaments. For this, we habituated females on a diet consisting of either red-coloured food or standard-coloured green food items and then we tested whether female preferences for artificially red-coloured male ornaments matched their previous foraging experience. We found a strong effect of food treatment: females trained on red food showed a stronger response to males with red-coloured ornaments than females trained on green food. Our results show that ecological variation can generate divergence of female preferences for male ornaments and that the response in preference to environmental change can be rapid if the bias is partly learnt.

  • 106.
    Ament-Velásquez, Sandra Lorena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Vogan, Aaron A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Granger-Farbos, Alexandra
    Bastiaans, Eric
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology. Laboratory of Genetics, Wageningen University & Research, Droeven-daalsesteeg 1, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Martinossi-Allibert, Ivain
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Saupe, Sven J.
    de Groot, Suzette
    Lascoux, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Debets, Alfons J. M.
    Clavé, Corinne
    Johannesson, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Allorecognition genes drive reproductive isolation in Podospora anserinaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Allorecognition, the capacity to recognize self from conspecific non-self, is likely to influence the evolution of reproductive isolation. Pre- and post-zygotic reproductive barriers can result from an overlap between the genetic basis of sexual (in)compatibility and that of the recognition of non-self. In the model fungus Podospora anserina, the loci controlling vegetative incompatibility, or het genes, are associated with various degrees of sexual incompatibilities, including female sterility, hybrid inviability, and meiotic drive. Here, we use genomic data of a natural population to explore the effects of pleiotropic allorecognition genes on reproductive isolation and genetic differentiation. We show that the het genes in P. anserina display strong signatures of balancing selection, as expected from allorecognition loci, amongst a genomewide context of extremely low genetic diversity. We determine that mating success correlates to the identity of the locus het-v, which we characterize through positional and complementation cloning, as well as site-directed mutagenesis. The epistatic interaction of het-v alleles with the unlinked het-r gene defines the boundaries of two mating groups. We confirmed a significant deficit of recombinant genotypes in the wild, demonstrating the lack of current mixing despite substrate and temporal co-occurrence. Lastly, we use individual-based simulations to show how the interaction between selfing rates, balancing selection, and pre- and postzygotic barriers can result in maintenance of reproductively isolated groups in sympatry. We conclude that the het-r/v system not only contributes to speciation, but it directly defines reproductively isolated groups by equating vegetative recognition with sexual compatibility.

  • 107. Ament-Velásquez, Sandra Lorena
    et al.
    Vogan, Aaron A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Wallerman, Ola
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Hartmann, Fanny
    Gautier, Valérie
    Silar, Philippe
    Giraud, Tatiana
    Johannesson, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    The evolution of the allorecognition gene repertoire in the Podospora anserina species complexManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Across the Tree of Life, self/non-self recognition is typically achieved through highly polymorphic loci under balancing selection. In fungi, vegetative conspecific recognition, or allorecognition, is defined by the compatibility interactions between loci known as het genes. In this study we explore the evolution of the het genes in the model fungus Podospora anserina and its closest relatives (the Podospora anserina species complex). First, we used chromosome-level genome assemblies to resolve their phylogenetic relationships. We found that the species in the complex are well defined but diversified recently and rapidly, leading to high degrees of conflict at deep branches of the phylogeny. Unlike typical orthologous genes from the complex, some allorecognition genes (het-z and het-s) show trans-species polymorphism, a hallmark of long-term balancing selection. By contrast, the het genes belonging to the HNWD family exhibit a high turn-over, with losses and duplications happening often. In particular, the species P. pseudocomata has a considerable increase of HNWD genes. Unexpectedly, we show that the HNWD paralogs have clean defined boundaries flanked by a target site duplication (TSD), implicating a DNA transposon-like mechanism in the genesis of new duplicates. Overall, our data highlights the diversity of evolutionary histories behind individual self/non-self recognition genes at short evolutionary timescales.

  • 108.
    Amininasab, Seyed Mehdi
    et al.
    Univ Groningen, Behav & Physiol Ecol, Groningen Inst Evolutionary Life Sci, POB 11103, NL-9700 CC Groningen, Netherlands.;Behbahan Khatam Alanbia Univ Technol, Dept Environm Sci, Behbahan, Iran..
    Xu, Charles C. Y.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology. Univ Groningen, Behav & Physiol Ecol, Groningen Inst Evolutionary Life Sci, POB 11103, NL-9700 CC Groningen, Netherlands..
    Kingma, Sjouke A.
    Univ Groningen, Behav & Physiol Ecol, Groningen Inst Evolutionary Life Sci, POB 11103, NL-9700 CC Groningen, Netherlands..
    Komdeur, Jan
    Univ Groningen, Behav & Physiol Ecol, Groningen Inst Evolutionary Life Sci, POB 11103, NL-9700 CC Groningen, Netherlands..
    Effect of tree logging on reproductive performance in Blue Tits (Cyanistes caeruleus)2017In: Journal of Ornithology = Journal fur Ornithologie, ISSN 0021-8375, E-ISSN 1439-0361, Vol. 158, no 1, p. 339-344Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For birds, habitat quality is largely determined by local vegetation, and reproductive performance can therefore be negatively influenced by anthropogenic activities. A tree logging event enabled us to examine the effect of removing trees of different maturities and types on the reproductive performance of Blue Tits (Cyanistes caeruleus). Against expectations, only the logging of small coniferous trees, but not larger and deciduous trees, was associated with a reduction in the number of eggs laid, whereas logging had no significant effect on lay date. Therefore, we conclude that modest logging activity has no or limited negative influence on Blue Tit reproductive performance.

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  • 109.
    Anandhi, Aavudai
    et al.
    Florida A&M Univ, Coll Agr & Food Sci, Biol Syst Engn, Tallahassee, FL 32307 USA;Florida A&M Univ, Coll Agr & Food Sci, Ctr Water Resources, Tallahassee, FL 32307 USA.
    Pierson, Don
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Frei, Allan
    CUNY, Hunter Coll, Dept Geog, New York, NY 10065 USA;CUNY, CUNY Inst Sustainable Cities, New York, NY 10065 USA.
    Evaluation of Climate Model Performance for Water Supply Studies: Case Study for New York City2019In: Journal of water resources planning and management, ISSN 0733-9496, E-ISSN 1943-5452, Vol. 145, no 8, article id 06019006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluating the suitability of data from global climate models (GCMs) for use as input in water supply models is an important step in the larger task of evaluating the effects of climate change on water resources management such as that of water supply operations. The purpose of this paper is to present the process by which GCMs were evaluated and incorporated into the New York City (NYC) water supply's planning activities and to provide conclusions regarding the overall effectiveness of the ranking procedure used in the evaluation. A suite of GCMs participating in Phase 3 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3) were evaluated for use in climate change projections in the watersheds of the NYC water supply that provide 90% of the water consumed by NYC. GCM data were aggregated using the seven land-grid points surrounding NYC watersheds, and these data with a daily timestep were evaluated seasonally using probability-based skill scores for various combinations of five meteorological variables (precipitation, average, maximum and minimum temperatures, and wind speed). These are the key variables for the NYC water supply because they affect the timing and magnitude of water, energy, sediment, and nutrient fluxes into the reservoirs as well as in simulating watershed hydrology and reservoir hydrodynamics. We attempted to choose a subset of GCMs based on the average of several skill metrics that compared baseline (20C3M) GCM results to observations. Skill metrics for the study indicate that the skill in simulating the frequency distributions of measured data is highest for temperature and lowest for wind. However, our attempts to identify the best model or subgroup of models were not successful because we found that no single model performs best when considering all of the variables and seasons.

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  • 110.
    Anderson, Jennifer L
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Nieuwenhuis, Bart P. S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology. Division of Evolutionary Biology, Faculty of Biology, Ludwig- Maximilians-Universität München.
    Johannesson, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Asexual reproduction and growth rate: independent and plastic lifehistory traits in Neurospora crassa2019In: The ISME Journal, ISSN 1751-7362, E-ISSN 1751-7370, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 780-788Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 111. Anderson, Tovi M.
    et al.
    vonHoldt, Bridgett M.
    Candille, Sophie I.
    Musiani, Marco
    Greco, Claudia
    Stahler, Daniel R.
    Smith, Douglas W.
    Padhukasahasram, Badri
    Randi, Ettore
    Leonard, Jennifer A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Bustamante, Carlos D.
    Ostrander, Elaine A.
    Tang, Hua
    Wayne, Robert K.
    Barsh, Gregory S.
    Molecular and Evolutionary History of Melanism in North American Gray Wolves2009In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 323, no 5919, p. 1339-1343Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Morphological diversity within closely related species is an essential aspect of evolution and adaptation. Mutations in the Melanocortin 1 receptor (Mc1r) gene contribute to pigmentary diversity in natural populations of fish, birds, and many mammals. However, melanism in the gray wolf, Canis lupus, is caused by a different melanocortin pathway component, the K locus, that encodes a beta-defensin protein that acts as an alternative ligand for Mc1r. We show that the melanistic K locus mutation in North American wolves derives from past hybridization with domestic dogs, has risen to high frequency in forested habitats, and exhibits a molecular signature of positive selection. The same mutation also causes melanism in the coyote, Canis latrans, and in Italian gray wolves, and hence our results demonstrate how traits selected in domesticated species can influence the morphological diversity of their wild relatives.

  • 112.
    Andersson, Anastasia
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Zool, Div Populat Genet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Sundbom, Marcus
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Environm Sci & Analyt Chem, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ryman, Nils
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Zool, Div Populat Genet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Laikre, Linda
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Zool, Div Populat Genet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lack of trophic polymorphism despite substantial genetic differentiation in sympatric brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations2017In: Ecology of Freshwater Fish, ISSN 0906-6691, E-ISSN 1600-0633, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 643-652Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sympatric populations occur in many freshwater fish species; such populations are typically detected through morphological distinctions that are often coupled to food niche and genetic separations. In salmonids, trophic and genetically separate sympatric populations have been reported in landlocked Arctic char, whitefish and brown trout. In Arctic char and brown trout rare cases of sympatric, genetically distinct populations have been detected based on genetic data alone, with no apparent morphological differences, that is cryptic structuring. It remains unknown whether such cryptic, sympatric structuring can be coupled to food niche separation. Here, we perform an extensive screening for trophic divergence of two genetically divergent, seemingly cryptic, sympatric brown trout populations documented to remain in stable sympatry over several decades in two interconnected, tiny mountain lakes in a nature reserve in central Sweden. We investigate body shape, body length, gill raker metrics, breeding status and diet (stomach content analysis and stable isotopes) in these populations. We find small significant differences for body shape, body size and breeding status, and no evidence of food niche separation between these two populations. In contrast, fish in the two lakes differed in body shape, diet, and nitrogen and carbon isotope signatures despite no genetic difference between lakes. These genetically divergent populations apparently coexist using the same food resources and showing the same adaptive plasticity to the local food niches of the two separate lakes. Such observations have not been reported previously but may be more common than recognised as genetic screenings are necessary to detect the structures.

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  • 113.
    Andersson, Anders F.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Pelve, Erik A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Molecular Evolution.
    Lindeberg, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Molecular Evolution.
    Lundgren, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Molecular Evolution. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology.
    Nilsson, Peter
    Bernander, Rolf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Molecular Evolution.
    Replication-biased genome organisation in the crenarchaeon Sulfolobus2010In: BMC Genomics, ISSN 1471-2164, E-ISSN 1471-2164, Vol. 11, p. 454-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Species of the crenarchaeon Sulfolobus harbour three replication origins in their single circular chromosome that are synchronously initiated during replication. Results: We demonstrate that global gene expression in two Sulfolobus species is highly biased, such that early replicating genome regions are more highly expressed at all three origins. The bias by far exceeds what would be anticipated by gene dosage effects alone. In addition, early replicating regions are denser in archaeal core genes (enriched in essential functions), display lower intergenic distances, and are devoid of mobile genetic elements. Conclusion: The strong replication-biased structuring of the Sulfolobus chromosome implies that the multiple replication origins serve purposes other than simply shortening the time required for replication. The higher-level chromosomal organisation could be of importance for minimizing the impact of DNA damage, and may also be linked to transcriptional regulation.

  • 114. Andersson, Eva
    et al.
    Sobek, Sebastian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Comparison of a mass balance and an ecosystem model approach when evaluating the carbon cycling in a lake ecosystem2006In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 35, no 8, p. 476-483Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 115. Andersson, M. S.
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    GLYCOSYLATED HEMOGLOBIN - A NEW MEASURE OF CONDITION IN BIRDS1995In: Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences, Vol. 260, no 1359, p. 299-303Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 116.
    Andersson, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Abundance data adaptation experiment2017Data set
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  • 117.
    Andersson, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Bacterial abundance data from sterilization experiment2017Data set
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  • 118.
    Andersson, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Extent and limitations of functional redundancy among bacterial communities towards dissolved organic matter2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the key processes in the carbon cycle on our planet is the degradation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in aquatic environments. The use of organic matter by bacteria links energy from DOM to higher trophic levels of the ecosystem when bacteria are consumed by other organisms. This is referred to as the microbial loop. In this thesis I examined if the communities were functionally redundant in their ability to utilize organic matter, or if variation in bacterial composition and richness is of importance. To test this overarching question several experiments were conducted that include methods such as illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene for taxonomic identification of bacterial communities, flow cytometry to follow the growth of communities and spectroscopic measurement to describe the composition of the organic matter pool. Initially we demonstrated how to optimally sterilize organic matter for experimental studies in order to preserve its natural complexity. In further experiments we found that bacterial communities are redundant in their utilization of organic matter and can maintain optimal performance towards a range of organic matter pools. Related to this we found that pre-adaptation to organic matter played a small role as communities performed equally well regardless of their environmental history. We saw a small effect of richness and composition of bacterial communities on the efficiency of organic matter use, but conclude that this is of minor importance relative to abiotic factors. Still, we also show that organic matter can put strong selection pressure on bacterial communities with regards to richness and composition. Additionally we found that the supply rate of a carbon compound greatly influenced the energy utilization of the compound, i.e. a higher growth rate can be maintained if substrate is delivered in pulses relative to a continuous flow. Finally we conclude that the variation in bacterial communities is unlikely to have a major influence on carbon cycling in boreal lakes, but to enable a finer understanding, the genetics underlying the carbon utilization needs to be further explored. 

    List of papers
    1. Effects of sterilization on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) composition and bacterial utilization of DOC from lakes
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of sterilization on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) composition and bacterial utilization of DOC from lakes
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    2018 (English)In: Aquatic Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0948-3055, E-ISSN 1616-1564, Vol. 82, no 2, p. 199-208Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Sterilization of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is an essential step in research on interactions between DOC and organisms, for example where the effect of different microbial communities on DOC is studied or vice versa. However, few studies have gone beyond acknowledging that sterilization of DOC influences its characteristics. Here, we aimed to provide further knowledge that enables scientists to better tailor their sterilization methods to their research question. To meet this aim, we conducted a sterilization experiment with DOC from 4 boreal lakes treated with 4 sterilization methods, i.e. 2 filtrations (0.2 µm, 0.1 µm) and 2 autoclaving approaches (single and double autoclaving with a single pH adjustment). Quantity and spectroscopic properties of DOC, before and after sterilization, were studied, and DOC was further tested as a substrate for bacterial growth. We found that the filtration methods better preserved the different DOC measures. In contrast, autoclaving caused major inconsistent shifts in both qualitative and quantitative measures of DOC, as well as an increase of the maximum abundance of bacteria in growth experiments. Nonetheless, there remains a trade-off between retaining the quality of DOC and achieving sterile conditions. Therefore, the sterilization method of choice should be guided by the scientific question at hand.

    Keywords
    sterilization, autoclave, filtration, dissolved organic carbon, excitation emission matrices, parallel factor analysis
    National Category
    Biological Sciences
    Research subject
    Microbiology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-331676 (URN)10.3354/ame01890 (DOI)000454321300006 ()
    Note

    Title in Thesis list of papers: Effects of sterilization on composition and bacterial utilization of dissolved organic carbon

    Available from: 2017-10-16 Created: 2017-10-16 Last updated: 2019-12-06Bibliographically approved
    2. Influence of pulsed and continuous substrate inputs on freshwater bacterial community composition and functioning in bioreactors
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of pulsed and continuous substrate inputs on freshwater bacterial community composition and functioning in bioreactors
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    2017 (English)In: Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 1462-2912, E-ISSN 1462-2920, Vol. 19, no 12, p. 5078-5087Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Aquatic environments are typically not homogenous, but characterized by changing substrate concentration gradients and nutrient patches. This heterogeneity in substrate availability creates a multitude of niches allowing bacteria with different substrate utilization strategies to hypothetically coexist even when competing for the same substrate. To study the impact of heterogeneous distribution of organic substrates on bacterioplankton, bioreactors with freshwater bacterial communities were fed artificial freshwater medium with acetate supplied either continuously or in pulses. After a month-long incubation, bacterial biomass and community-level substrate uptake rates were twice as high in the pulsed treatment compared to the continuously fed reactors even if the same total amount of acetate was supplied to both treatments. The composition of the bacterial communities emerging in the two treatments differed significantly with specific taxa overrepresented in the respective treatments. The higher estimated growth yield in cultures that received pulsed substrate inputs, imply that such conditions enable bacteria to use resources more efficiently for biomass production. This finding agrees with established concepts of basal maintenance energy requirements and high energetic costs to assimilate substrates at low concentration. Our results further imply that degradation of organic matter is influenced by temporal and spatial heterogeneity in substrate availability. 

    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-275178 (URN)10.1111/1462-2920.13979 (DOI)000418352800021 ()29124844 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 2012-3892
    Available from: 2016-02-01 Created: 2016-02-01 Last updated: 2018-01-30Bibliographically approved
    3. Response and effect interactions between bacterial communities and organic matter
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Response and effect interactions between bacterial communities and organic matter
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    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The interaction between bacteria and dissolved organic matter (DOM) is crucial for the global carbon cycling. Despite decades of research there are, however, few consistent patterns regarding the relationship between bacterial diversity and community composition and DOM. Here we hypothesized that one reason for such inconsistences among studies is that bacterial communities can adapt to a DOM source over time, whereby a change in the functioning of a community can be, at least partly, decoupled from its composition and diversity. To test this idea we performed a reciprocal transplant experiment with medium (i.e. DOM source) and bacterial communities from two boreal lakes. In this experiment the two communities were allowed to adapt to their indigenous and their foreign source of DOM over 42 days. Bacterial community composition (BCC) was measured throughout the experiment. In addition we measured the capacity of the communities to use DOM, in repeated short (5 days) separated bioassays. The results show a response of bacterial community composition to the DOM sources which was influenced by the origin of the community. In contrast, we could not show an effect of BCC on DOM-processing and functional performance. Indeed, communities of different origin processed the two DOM sources equally well even at the beginning of the experiment. This work demonstrates that the DOM pool can be a strong selective force for BCC but not vice versa. 

    National Category
    Biological Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-331696 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-10-17 Created: 2017-10-17 Last updated: 2017-10-23
    4. The relative importance of richness and BCC for DOC degradation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The relative importance of richness and BCC for DOC degradation
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of biodiversity has been of primary interest for ecologist the last 20 years, giving rise to biodiversity ecosystem function (BEF) studies. Within the traditional field of ecology reoccurring patterns have emerged but within microbial ecology the importance of species richness for functioning is still poorly understood with few consistent patterns. In this study we examined the effect of species richness for dissolved organic matter degradation in lakes. This was examined within a smaller span of species richness compared to what is typically in microbial BEF experiments. Bacterial communities of reduced species richness were exposed to a range of DOC environments to test if reduced richness changed the functioning of communities and if the effect was similar among DOC environments. This was conducted in a full factorial design of 3 levels, with 6 dilutions, 5 media and 3 inocula resulting in 90 treatments. Overall, richness and community composition appeared to have effects on DOC degradation, but these effects were minor compared to the variation caused by the different DOC sources. Further, the importance of species richness varied among media and, thus, the chemical complexity of the environment influenced the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationship. 

    National Category
    Biological Sciences
    Research subject
    Microbiology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-331693 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-10-17 Created: 2017-10-17 Last updated: 2017-10-23
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  • 119.
    Andersson, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Spectroscopic data / carbon quality measurements1987Data set
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  • 120.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Berga, Mercè
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Lindström, Eva S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Langenheder, Silke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    The spatial structure of bacterial communities is influenced by historical environmental conditions2014In: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 95, no 5, p. 1134-1140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The spatial structure of ecological communities, including that of bacteria, is often influenced by species sorting by contemporary environmental conditions. Moreover, historical processes, i.e., ecological and evolutionary events that have occurred at some point in the past, such as dispersal limitation, drift, priority effects, or selection by past environmental conditions, can be important, but are generally investigated much less. Here, we conducted a field study using 16 rock pools, where we specifically compared the importance of past vs. contemporary environmental conditions for bacterial community structure by correlating present differences in bacterial community composition among pools to environmental conditions measured on the same day, as well as to those measured 2, 4, 6, and 8 d earlier. The results prove that selection by past environmental conditions exists, since we were able to show that bacterial communities are, to a greater extent, an imprint of past compared to contemporary environmental conditions. We suggest that this is the result of a combination of different mechanisms, including priority effects that cause rapid adaptation to new environmental conditions of taxa that have been initially selected by past environmental conditions, and slower rates of turnover in community composition compared to environmental conditions.

  • 121.
    Andersson, Martin G. I.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Catalán, Núria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology. ICRA, Catalan Institute of Water Research, Girona, Spain.
    Rahman, Zeeshanur
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Delhi.
    Tranvik, Lars J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Lindström, Eva S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Effects of sterilization on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) composition and bacterial utilization of DOC from lakes2018In: Aquatic Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0948-3055, E-ISSN 1616-1564, Vol. 82, no 2, p. 199-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sterilization of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is an essential step in research on interactions between DOC and organisms, for example where the effect of different microbial communities on DOC is studied or vice versa. However, few studies have gone beyond acknowledging that sterilization of DOC influences its characteristics. Here, we aimed to provide further knowledge that enables scientists to better tailor their sterilization methods to their research question. To meet this aim, we conducted a sterilization experiment with DOC from 4 boreal lakes treated with 4 sterilization methods, i.e. 2 filtrations (0.2 µm, 0.1 µm) and 2 autoclaving approaches (single and double autoclaving with a single pH adjustment). Quantity and spectroscopic properties of DOC, before and after sterilization, were studied, and DOC was further tested as a substrate for bacterial growth. We found that the filtration methods better preserved the different DOC measures. In contrast, autoclaving caused major inconsistent shifts in both qualitative and quantitative measures of DOC, as well as an increase of the maximum abundance of bacteria in growth experiments. Nonetheless, there remains a trade-off between retaining the quality of DOC and achieving sterile conditions. Therefore, the sterilization method of choice should be guided by the scientific question at hand.

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  • 122.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Rahman, Zeeshanur
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Delhi.
    Catalán, Núria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology. Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA).
    Lindström, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    The relative importance of richness and BCC for DOC degradationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of biodiversity has been of primary interest for ecologist the last 20 years, giving rise to biodiversity ecosystem function (BEF) studies. Within the traditional field of ecology reoccurring patterns have emerged but within microbial ecology the importance of species richness for functioning is still poorly understood with few consistent patterns. In this study we examined the effect of species richness for dissolved organic matter degradation in lakes. This was examined within a smaller span of species richness compared to what is typically in microbial BEF experiments. Bacterial communities of reduced species richness were exposed to a range of DOC environments to test if reduced richness changed the functioning of communities and if the effect was similar among DOC environments. This was conducted in a full factorial design of 3 levels, with 6 dilutions, 5 media and 3 inocula resulting in 90 treatments. Overall, richness and community composition appeared to have effects on DOC degradation, but these effects were minor compared to the variation caused by the different DOC sources. Further, the importance of species richness varied among media and, thus, the chemical complexity of the environment influenced the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationship. 

  • 123.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Rahman, Zeeshanur
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Delhi.
    Catalán, Núria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology. Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA).
    Tranvik, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Langenheder, Silke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Lindström, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Response and effect interactions between bacterial communities and organic matterManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The interaction between bacteria and dissolved organic matter (DOM) is crucial for the global carbon cycling. Despite decades of research there are, however, few consistent patterns regarding the relationship between bacterial diversity and community composition and DOM. Here we hypothesized that one reason for such inconsistences among studies is that bacterial communities can adapt to a DOM source over time, whereby a change in the functioning of a community can be, at least partly, decoupled from its composition and diversity. To test this idea we performed a reciprocal transplant experiment with medium (i.e. DOM source) and bacterial communities from two boreal lakes. In this experiment the two communities were allowed to adapt to their indigenous and their foreign source of DOM over 42 days. Bacterial community composition (BCC) was measured throughout the experiment. In addition we measured the capacity of the communities to use DOM, in repeated short (5 days) separated bioassays. The results show a response of bacterial community composition to the DOM sources which was influenced by the origin of the community. In contrast, we could not show an effect of BCC on DOM-processing and functional performance. Indeed, communities of different origin processed the two DOM sources equally well even at the beginning of the experiment. This work demonstrates that the DOM pool can be a strong selective force for BCC but not vice versa. 

  • 124.
    Andersson, Matilda L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology. Uppsala University.
    Data for: Chasing away accurate results: exhaustive chase protocols underestimate maximum metabolic rate estimates in Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis2019Data set
  • 125. Andren, Cecilia M.
    et al.
    Rydin, Emil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics.
    Toxicity of inorganic aluminium at spring snowmelt-In-stream bioassays with brown trout (Salmo trutta L.)2012In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 437, p. 422-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the acid load has decreased throughout Scandinavia, acidic soils still mobilise aluminium (Al) that is harmful to brown trout. We hypothesise that there are thresholds for Al toxicity and that the toxicity can be traced from the water content to gill accumulation and the consequential physiological effects. During snowmelt, yearlings were exposed to a gradient of pH and inorganic monomeric Al (Al-i) in humic streams to study the toxic effects and mortality. Gill Al and physiological blood analyses [haemoglobin (Hb), plasma chloride (P-Cl) and glucose (Glu)] were measured. As the water quality deteriorated, Al accumulated on the gills; Hb and Glu increased; P-Cl decreased, and mortality occurred. Moribund fish had significantly increased gill Al and Hb, suggesting that respiratory disturbances contributed to mortality. Decreased P-C and plasma availability indicated an ion regulatory disturbance and possibly circulatory collapse. Al-i should be less than 20 mu g/L, and pH higher than 5.0, to sustain healthy brown trout populations. These thresholds can be used to fine-tune lime dose, as both Al-i and pH levels have to be balanced to prevent harm in the recovering aquatic biota. Although Al is tightly linked to pH, local variation in Al availability in soil and bedrock affects the Al release and subsequent toxic Al-i episodes in some catchment areas.

  • 126. Andres, J A
    et al.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Genetic divergence of the seminal signal-receptor system in houseflies: the footprints of sexually antagonistic coevolution?2001In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 268, no 1465, p. 399-405Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 127.
    Anna, Sporre
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics.
    Utvärdering av grumlighet i miljökontrollprogram för ytvatten vid konstruktionsarbeten2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It has been noticed that construction activities close to watercourses often result in turbidity values that exceed guideline values. A detailed analysis of annual reports from the Swedish infrastructure project “BanaVäg i Väst” has shown that recommended values of turbidity often are determined without consideration of natural variations in turbidity. The performance probably depends on the lack of appropriate legislation on acceptable turbidity values and on how turbidity should be monitored during construction activities. The objective of this thesis was therefore to develop a method to determine background values for turbidity as a basis for setting water system adapted reference values. In the thesis a model for turbidity was developed with agricultural area, clay content within the watershed and discharge as input variables. With the dynamic model variations in turbidity could best be explained in watercourses of watersheds less than 100 km2, but even for these watercourses the model performance remained poor. For watercourses draining larger watersheds the model performance became even poorer, most probably due to complex interactions of a variety of driving variables, of which some were not included as input variables. A recommendation is therefore a national initiative where more advanced models can be used, at least for large watercourses that are highly vulnerable, after adaption to Swedish conditions. This study clearly shows that there is an urgent need in Sweden to improve methods to monitor turbidity as well as to improve guideline values by adjusting them according to background turbidity levels.

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  • 128. Antoniazza, Sylvain
    et al.
    Kanitz, Ricardo
    Neuenschwander, Samuel
    Burri, Reto
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Gaigher, Arnaud
    Roulin, Alexandre
    Goudet, Jerome
    Natural selection in a postglacial range expansion: the case of the colour cline in the European barn owl2014In: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 23, no 22, p. 5508-5523Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gradients of variationor clineshave always intrigued biologists. Classically, they have been interpreted as the outcomes of antagonistic interactions between selection and gene flow. Alternatively, clines may also establish neutrally with isolation by distance (IBD) or secondary contact between previously isolated populations. The relative importance of natural selection and these two neutral processes in the establishment of clinal variation can be tested by comparing genetic differentiation at neutral genetic markers and at the studied trait. A third neutral process, surfing of a newly arisen mutation during the colonization of a new habitat, is more difficult to test. Here, we designed a spatially explicit approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) simulation framework to evaluate whether the strong cline in the genetically based reddish coloration observed in the European barn owl (Tyto alba) arose as a by-product of a range expansion or whether selection has to be invoked to explain this colour cline, for which we have previously ruled out the actions of IBD or secondary contact. Using ABC simulations and genetic data on 390 individuals from 20 locations genotyped at 22 microsatellites loci, we first determined how barn owls colonized Europe after the last glaciation. Using these results in new simulations on the evolution of the colour phenotype, and assuming various genetic architectures for the colour trait, we demonstrate that the observed colour cline cannot be due to the surfing of a neutral mutation. Taking advantage of spatially explicit ABC, which proved to be a powerful method to disentangle the respective roles of selection and drift in range expansions, we conclude that the formation of the colour cline observed in the barn owl must be due to natural selection.

  • 129.
    Aplin, L. M.
    et al.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England.;Univ Calif Davis, Dept Anthropol, Davis, CA 95616 USA..
    Firth, J. A.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England..
    Farine, D. R.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England.;Univ Calif Davis, Dept Anthropol, Davis, CA 95616 USA.;Smithsonian Trop Res Inst, Ancon, Italy..
    Voelkl, B.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England..
    Crates, R. A.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England..
    Culina, A.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England..
    Garroway, C. J.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England..
    Hinde, C. A.
    Wageningen Univ, Dept Anim Sci, Behav Ecol Grp, NL-6700 AP Wageningen, Netherlands..
    Kidd, L. R.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England..
    Psorakis, I.
    Univ Oxford, Math Inst, Oxford, England..
    Milligan, N. D.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England..
    Radersma, R.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England.;Lund Univ, Dept Biol, Evolutionary Ecol Unit, Lund, Sweden..
    Verhelst, B. L.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England..
    Sheldon, B. C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics. Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England..
    Consistent individual differences in the social phenotypes of wild great tits, Parus major2015In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 108, p. 117-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite growing interest in animal social networks, surprisingly little is known about whether individuals are consistent in their social network characteristics. Networks are rarely repeatedly sampled; yet an assumption of individual consistency in social behaviour is often made when drawing conclusions about the consequences of social processes and structure. A characterization of such social phenotypes is therefore vital to understanding the significance of social network structure for individual fitness outcomes, and for understanding the evolution and ecology of individual variation in social behaviour more broadly. Here, we measured foraging associations over three winters in a large PIT-tagged population of great tits, and used a range of social network metrics to quantify individual variation in social behaviour. We then examined repeatability in social behaviour over both short (week to week) and long (year to year) timescales, and investigated variation in repeatability across age and sex classes. Social behaviours were significantly repeatable across all timescales, with the highest repeatability observed in group size choice and unweighted degree, a measure of gregariousness. By conducting randomizations to control for the spatial and temporal distribution of individuals, we further show that differences in social phenotypes were not solely explained by within-population variation in local densities, but also reflected fine-scale variation in social decision making. Our results provide rare evidence of stable social phenotypes in a wild population of animals. Such stable social phenotypes can be targets of selection and may have important fitness consequences, both for individuals and for their social-foraging associates.

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  • 130. Aplin, Lucy M.
    et al.
    Farine, Damien R.
    Morand-Ferron, Julie
    Cockburn, Andrew
    Thornton, Alex
    Sheldon, Ben C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics.
    Experimentally induced innovations lead to persistent culture via conformity in wild birds2015In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 518, no 7540, p. 538-541Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In human societies, cultural norms arise when behaviours are transmitted through social networks via high-fidelity social learning'. However, a paucity of experimental studies has meant that there is no comparable understanding of the process by which socially transmitted behaviours might spread and persist in animal populations'''. Here we show experimental evidence of the establishment of foraging traditions in a wild bird population. We introduced alternative novel foraging techniques into replicated wild sub-populations of great tits (Parus major) and used automated tracking to map the diffusion, establishment and long-term persistence of the seeded innovations. Furthermore, we used social network analysis to examine the social factors that influenced diffusion dynamics. From only two trained birds in each sub-population, the information spread rapidly through social network ties, to reach an average of 75% of individuals, with a total of 414 knowledgeable individuals performing 57,909 solutions over all replicates. The sub-populations were heavily biased towards using the technique that was originally introduced, resulting in established local traditions that were stable over two generations, despite a high population turnover. Finally, we demonstrate a strong effect of social conformity, with individuals disproportionately adopting the most frequent local variant when first acquiring an innovation, and continuing to favour social information over personal information. Cultural conformity is thought to be a key factor in the evolution of complex culture in humans''. In providing the first experimental demonstration of conformity in a wild non-primate, and of cultural norms in foraging techniques in any wild animal, our results suggest a much broader taxonomic occurrence of such an apparently complex cultural behaviour.

  • 131.
    Appelgren, A.
    et al.
    Univ Lyon 1, CNRS, Dept Biometry & Evolutionary Biol, Villeurbanne, France.;Univ Bern, Inst Ecol & Evolut, Evolutionary Ecol Lab, Bern, Switzerland.;Ctr IRD, MIVEGEC UMR CNRS IRD UM 5290, Montpellier, France..
    McCoy, K. D.
    Ctr IRD, MIVEGEC UMR CNRS IRD UM 5290, Montpellier, France..
    Richner, H.
    Univ Bern, Inst Ecol & Evolut, Evolutionary Ecol Lab, Bern, Switzerland..
    Doligez, Blandine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Univ Lyon 1, CNRS, Dept Biometry & Evolutionary Biol, Villeurbanne, France.
    Relative fitness of a generalist parasite on two alternative hosts: a cross-infestation experiment to test host specialization of the hen flea Ceratophyllus gallinae (Schrank)2016In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 1091-1101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Host range is a key element of a parasite's ecology and evolution and can vary greatly depending on spatial scale. Generalist parasites frequently show local population structure in relation to alternative sympatric hosts (i.e. host races) and may thus be specialists at local scales. Here, we investigated local population specialization of a common avian nest-based parasite, the hen flea Ceratophyllus gallinae (Schrank), exploiting two abundant host species that share the same breeding sites, the great tit Parus major (Linnaeus) and the collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis (Temminck). We performed a cross-infestation experiment of fleas between the two host species in two distinct study areas during a single breeding season and recorded the reproductive success of both hosts and parasites. In the following year, hosts were monitored again to assess the long-term impact of cross-infestation. Our results partly support the local specialization hypothesis: in great tit nests, tit fleas caused higher damage to their hosts than flycatcher fleas, and in collared flycatcher nests, flycatcher fleas had a faster larval development rates than tit fleas. However, these results were significant in only one of the two studied areas, suggesting that the location and history of the host population can modulate the specialization process. Caution is therefore called for when interpreting single location studies. More generally, our results emphasize the need to explicitly account for host diversity in order to understand the population ecology and evolutionary trajectory of generalist parasites.

  • 132.
    Appelgren, Anais S. C.
    et al.
    Univ Bern, Inst Ecol & Evolut, Evolutionary Ecol Lab, Baltzerstr 6, Bern, Switzerland;Univ Lyon, CNRS, F-69000 Lyon, France;LBBE UMR 5558, Dept Biometry & Evolutionary Biol, Batiment Gregor Mendel,43 Blvd 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France;Univ Lyon 1, Dept Biometry & Evolutionary Biol, LBBE UMR 5558, Batiment Gregor Mendel,43 Blvd 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France;Univ Montpellier, Ctr IRD, Agropolis, MIVEGEC,CNRS,IRD, 911 Ave,BP 64501, F-34000 Montpellier, France.
    Saladin, Verena
    Univ Bern, Inst Ecol & Evolut, Evolutionary Ecol Lab, Baltzerstr 6, Bern, Switzerland.
    Richner, Heinz
    Univ Bern, Inst Ecol & Evolut, Evolutionary Ecol Lab, Baltzerstr 6, Bern, Switzerland.
    Doligez, Blandine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Univ Lyon, CNRS, F-69000 Lyon, France;LBBE UMR 5558, Dept Biometry & Evolutionary Biol, Batiment Gregor Mendel,43 Blvd 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France;Univ Lyon 1, Dept Biometry & Evolutionary Biol, LBBE UMR 5558, Batiment Gregor Mendel,43 Blvd 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France.
    McCoy, Karen D.
    Univ Montpellier, Ctr IRD, Agropolis, MIVEGEC,CNRS,IRD, 911 Ave,BP 64501, F-34000 Montpellier, France.
    Gene flow and adaptive potential in a generalist ectoparasite2018In: BMC Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1471-2148, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 18, article id 99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In host-parasite systems, relative dispersal rates condition genetic novelty within populations and thus their adaptive potential. Knowledge of host and parasite dispersal rates can therefore help us to understand current interaction patterns in wild populations and why these patterns shift over time and space. For generalist parasites however, estimates of dispersal rates depend on both host range and the considered spatial scale. Here, we assess the relative contribution of these factors by studying the population genetic structure of a common avian ectoparasite, the hen flea Ceratophyllus gallinae, exploiting two hosts that are sympatric in our study population, the great tit Paws major and the collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis. Previous experimental studies have indicated that the hen flea is both locally maladapted to great tit populations and composed of subpopulations specialized on the two host species, suggesting limited parasite dispersal in space and among hosts, and a potential interaction between these two structuring factors. Results: C gallinae fleas were sampled from old nests of the two passerine species in three replicate wood patches and were genotyped at microsatellite markers to assess population genetic structure at different scales (among individuals within a nest among nests and between host species within a patch and among patches). As expected, significant structure was found at all spatial scales and between host species, supporting the hypothesis of limited dispersal in this parasite. Clustering analyses and estimates of relatedness further suggested that inbreeding regularly occurs within nests. Patterns of isolation by distance within wood patches indicated that flea dispersal likely occurs in a stepwise manner among neighboring nests. From these data, we estimated that gene flow in the hen flea is approximately half that previously described for its great tit hosts. Conclusion: Our results fall in line with predictions based on observed patterns of adaptation in this host-parasite system, suggesting that parasite dispersal is limited and impacts its adaptive potential with respect to its hosts. More generally, this study sheds light on the complex interaction between parasite gene flow, local adaptation and host specialization within a single host-parasite system.

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  • 133. Arandjelovic, M.
    et al.
    Guschanski, Katerina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany.
    Schubert, G.
    Harris, T. R.
    Thalmann, O.
    Siedel, H.
    Vigilant, L.
    Two-step multiplex polymerase chain reaction improves the speed and accuracy of genotyping using DNA from noninvasive and museum samples2009In: Molecular Ecology Resources, ISSN 1755-098X, E-ISSN 1755-0998, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 28-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many studies in molecular ecology rely upon the genotyping of large numbers of low‐quantity DNA extracts derived from noninvasive or museum specimens. To overcome low amplification success rates and avoid genotyping errors such as allelic dropout and false alleles, multiple polymerase chain reaction (PCR) replicates for each sample are typically used. Recently, two‐step multiplex procedures have been introduced which drastically increase the success rate and efficiency of genotyping. However, controversy still exists concerning the amount of replication needed for suitable control of error. Here we describe the use of a two‐step multiplex PCR procedure that allows rapid genotyping using at least 19 different microsatellite loci. We applied this approach to quantified amounts of noninvasive DNAs from western chimpanzee, western gorilla, mountain gorilla and black and white colobus faecal samples, as well as to DNA from ~100‐year‐old gorilla teeth from museums. Analysis of over 45 000 PCRs revealed average success rates of > 90% using faecal DNAs and 74% using museum specimen DNAs. Average allelic dropout rates were substantially reduced compared to those obtained using conventional singleplex PCR protocols, and reliable genotyping using low (< 25 pg) amounts of template DNA was possible. However, four to five replicates of apparently homozygous results are needed to avoid allelic dropout when using the lowest concentration DNAs (< 50 pg/reaction), suggesting that use of protocols allowing routine acceptance of homozygous genotypes after as few as three replicates may lead to unanticipated errors when applied to low‐concentration DNAs.

  • 134.
    Arbuthnott, Devin
    et al.
    Univ British Columbia, Dept Zool, 4200-6270 Univ Blvd, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada.;Univ British Columbia, Biodivers Res Ctr, 4200-6270 Univ Blvd, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada..
    Mautz, Brian S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Rundle, Howard D.
    Univ Ottawa, Dept Biol, Ottawa, ON, Canada..
    Rugged fitness landscapes and by-product adaptation in experimental populations of Drosophila melanogaster2018In: Evolutionary Ecology Research, ISSN 1522-0613, E-ISSN 1937-3791, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 15-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: While the concept of the fitness landscape is central to evolutionary theory, empirical characterizations of fitness landscapes have remained difficult. Recently, a number of laboratory experiments using microbes have suggested that fitness landscapes are often rugged, though there is some variation across environments and species. However, there have been very few characterizations of fitness landscapes in sexual organisms, making it unclear whether the conclusions from studies of microbes are applicable to other groups. Questions: Are fitness landscapes smooth or rugged in simplified laboratory environments for sexual organisms? How does landscape topography influence patterns of adaptation? Methods: We conducted a series of experiments using replicate populations of Drosophila melanogaster adapted to either cadmium-or ethanol-enriched food to characterize the fitness and phenotypes of these populations in a simplified laboratory environment (ethanol-enriched media). Results: We found that replicate populations adapted to different laboratory environments have diverged phenotypically in physiology, mating behaviour, and offspring production in alternate environments. However, both ethanol-and cadmium-adapted populations show high fitness in the ethanol-enriched environment relative to their founding population, and cadmium-adapted males actually outcompete ethanol-adapted males for mates in an ethanol environment. Conclusions: Our data indicate that the simplified ethanol-enriched medium represents a rugged fitness landscape, and that alternately adapted populations occupy different fitness peaks on this landscape. Because cadmium-adapted populations were never exposed to ethanol previously, it appears that these populations adapted to ethanol as a by-product of adaptation to their cadmium-enriched environment. Therefore, even in simplified laboratory environments, we find evidence for rugged fitness landscapes, and the overlap of fitness peaks on the phenotypic landscape allowed for by-product adaptation.

  • 135. Arce, Fernando
    et al.
    Orizaola, German
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Navedo, Juan G.
    Storm petrel's breeding skipping in response to oil-spill pollution: Raising concerns over Zabala et al. (2011) methodological approach2011In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 62, no 11, p. 2576-2577Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 136. Archer, C. R.
    et al.
    Zajitschek, Felix
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Sakaluk, S. K.
    Royle, N. J.
    Hunt, J.
    Sexual selection affects the evolution of lifespan and ageing in the decorated cricket gryllodes sigillatus2012In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 66, no 10, p. 3088-3100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent work suggests that sexual selection can influence the evolution of ageing and lifespan by shaping the optimal timing and relative costliness of reproductive effort in the sexes. We used inbred lines of the decorated cricket, Gryllodes sigillatus, to estimate the genetic (co)variance between age-dependent reproductive effort, lifespan, and ageing within and between the sexes. Sexual selection theory predicts that males should die sooner and age more rapidly than females. However, a reversal of this pattern may be favored if reproductive effort increases with age in males but not in females. We found that male calling effort increased with age, whereas female fecundity decreased, and that males lived longer and aged more slowly than females. These divergent life-history strategies were underpinned by a positive genetic correlation between early-life reproductive effort and ageing rate in both sexes, although this relationship was stronger in females. Despite these sex differences in life-history schedules, age-dependent reproductive effort, lifespan, and ageing exhibited strong positive intersexual genetic correlations. This should, in theory, constrain the independent evolution of these traits in the sexes and may promote intralocus sexual conflict. Our study highlights the importance of sexual selection to the evolution of sex differences in ageing and lifespan in G. sigillatus.

  • 137.
    Arct, Aneta
    et al.
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Gronostajowa 7, PL-30387 Krakow, Poland.
    Drobniak, Szymon M.
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Gronostajowa 7, PL-30387 Krakow, Poland.
    Mellinger, Samantha
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Gronostajowa 7, PL-30387 Krakow, Poland.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Cichon, Mariusz
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Gronostajowa 7, PL-30387 Krakow, Poland.
    Parental genetic similarity and offspring performance in blue tits in relation to brood size manipulation2019In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 9, no 18, p. 10085-10091Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In birds, as in many other taxa, higher genetic similarity of mates has long been known to reduce offspring fitness. To date, the majority of avian studies have focused on examination whether the genetic similarity of social mates predicts hatching success. Yet, increased genetic similarity of mates may also reduce offspring fitness during later life stages, including the nestling period and beyond. Here, we investigated whether parental genetic similarity influences offspring performance using data from free-living blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) collected across three breeding seasons. Additionally, we tested whether brood size manipulation affects the magnitude and direction of the relationship between genetic similarity of mates and offspring performance. Sixteen microsatellite markers were used to measure genetic similarity between biological parents. We found that the genetic similarity of parents negatively affects offspring immune response and this effect was independent of the experimental brood size manipulation.

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  • 138. Arct, Aneta
    et al.
    Drobniak, Szymon M.
    Podmokla, Edyta
    Gustafson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Cichon, Mariusz
    Benefits of extra-pair mating may depend on environmental conditions-an experimental study in the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus)2013In: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, ISSN 0340-5443, E-ISSN 1432-0762, Vol. 67, no 11, p. 1809-1815Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extra-pair mating constitutes a relatively common reproductive strategy in many socially monogamous bird species. This strategy may considerably improve reproductive success of males, but female benefits from extra-pair matings still remain unclear and empirical evidence is scarce. This may be because genetic benefits of extra-pair mating are not always revealed. It is possible that they are shown only in unfavourable environmental conditions and hence problems arise with detecting differences between within- and extra-pair offspring whose performance is measured under favourable conditions. In order to test this prediction, we manipulated environmental conditions by altering brood sizes of blue tits and compared phenotypic characteristics of within- and extra-pair offspring in mixed-paternity broods. We found that extra-pair young exhibited a higher response to phytohemagglutinin in comparison to within-pair young, but this was only observed among nestlings from experimentally enlarged broods. These results indicate that genetic benefits may interact with the environment, and thus benefits of extra-pair mating are likely to become visible only when conditions are relatively unfavourable.

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    fulltext
  • 139.
    Arct, Aneta
    et al.
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Gronostajowa 7, PL-30387 Krakow, Poland..
    Sudyka, Joanna
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Gronostajowa 7, PL-30387 Krakow, Poland..
    Podmoka, Edyta
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Gronostajowa 7, PL-30387 Krakow, Poland..
    Drobniak, Szymon M.
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Gronostajowa 7, PL-30387 Krakow, Poland..
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Cichon, Mariusz
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Gronostajowa 7, PL-30387 Krakow, Poland..
    Heterozygosity-fitness correlations in blue tit nestlings (Cyanistis caeruleus) under contrasting rearing conditions2017In: Evolutionary Ecology, ISSN 0269-7653, E-ISSN 1573-8477, Vol. 31, no 5, p. 803-814Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the relation between genetic variation and fitness remains a key question in evolutionary biology. Although heterozygosity has been reported to correlate with many fitness-related traits, the strength of the heterozygosity-fitness correlations (HFCs) is usually weak and it is still difficult to assess the generality of these associations in natural populations. It has been suggested that HFCs may become meaningful only under particular environmental conditions. Moreover, existing evidence suggests that HFCs may also differ between sexes. The aim of this study was to investigate correlations between heterozygosity in neutral markers (microsatellites) and fitness-related traits in a natural population of blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus). Additionally, we tested whether sex and environmental conditions may influence the magnitude and direction of HFCs. We found a positive relationship between heterozygosity and body mass of 14 days post-hatching nestlings, but only among females. Our results suggest that the correlation between heterozygosity and nestling body mass observed among female offspring could be attributed to within-brood effects. We failed to find any evidence that environmental conditions as simulated by brood size manipulation affect HFCs.

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  • 140. Armbruster, W. Scott
    et al.
    Hansen, Thomas F.
    Pélabon, Christophe
    Pérez-Barrales, Rocio
    Maad, Johanne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    The adaptive accuracy of flowers: measurement and microevolutionary patterns2009In: Annals of Botany, ISSN 0305-7364, E-ISSN 1095-8290, Vol. 103, no 9, p. 1529-1545Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 141.
    Arndt, D. S.
    et al.
    NOAA NESDIS Natl Ctr Environm Informat, Asheville, NC 28801 USA.
    Blunden, J.
    NOAA NESDIS Natl Ctr Environm Informat, Asheville, NC 28801 USA.
    Dunn, R. J. H.
    Met Off Hadley Ctr, Exeter, Devon, England.
    Aaron-Morrison, Arlene P.
    Trinidad & Tobago Meteorol Serv, Piarco, Trinid & Tobago.
    Abdallah, A.
    Agence Natl Aviat Civile & Meteorol, Moroni, Comoros.
    Ackerman, Steven A.
    Univ Wisconsin, CIMSS, Madison, WI USA.
    Adler, Robert
    Univ Maryland, College Pk, MD USA.
    Alfaro, Eric J.
    Univ Costa Rica, Ctr Geophys Res, San Jose, Costa Rica;Univ Costa Rica, Sch Phys, San Jose, Costa Rica.
    Allan, Richard P.
    Univ Reading, Reading, Berks, England.
    Allan, Rob
    Met Off Hadley Ctr, Exeter, Devon, England.
    Alvarez, Luis A.
    Inst Hidrol Meteorol & Estudios Ambientales Colom, Bogota, Colombia.
    Alves, Lincoln M.
    Inst Nacl Pesquisas Espaciais, Ctr Ciencias Sistema Terrestre, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Amador, Jorge A.
    Univ Costa Rica, Ctr Geophys Res, San Jose, Costa Rica;Univ Costa Rica, Sch Phys, San Jose, Costa Rica.
    Andreassen, L. M.
    Norwegian Water Resources & Energy Directorate, Sect Glaciers Ice & Snow, Oslo, Norway.
    Arce, Dayana
    Univ Costa Rica, Ctr Geophys Res, San Jose, Costa Rica;Univ Costa Rica, Sch Phys, San Jose, Costa Rica.
    Argueez, Anthony
    NOAA NESDIS Natl Ctr Environm Informat, Asheville, NC 28801 USA.
    Arndt, Derek S.
    NOAA NESDIS Natl Ctr Environm Informat, Asheville, NC 28801 USA.
    Arzhanova, N. M.
    Russian Inst Hydrometeorol Informat, Obninsk, Russia.
    Augustine, John
    NOAA OAR Earth Syst Res Lab, Boulder, CO USA.
    Awatif, E. M.
    Egyptian Meteorol Author, Cairo Numer Weather Predict, Dept Seasonal Forecast & Climate Res, Cairo, Egypt.
    Azorin-Molina, Cesar
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Earth Sci, Reg Climate Grp, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Baez, Julian
    Direcc Meteorol & Hidrol DINAC, Asuncion, Paraguay.
    Bardin, M. U.
    Islamic Republ Iran Meteorol Org, Tehran, Iran.
    Barichivich, Jonathan
    Ctr Climate & Resilience Res, Santiago, Chile;Pontificia Univ Catolica Valparaiso, Inst Geog, Valparaiso, Chile;Univ Austral Chile, Inst Conservac Biodiversidad & Terr, Valdivia, Chile.
    Baringer, Molly O.
    NOAA OAR Atlantic Oceanog & Meteorol Lab, Miami, FL 33149 USA.
    Barreira, Sandra
    Argentine Naval Hydrog Serv, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.
    Baxter, Stephen
    NOAA NWS Climate Predict Ctr, College Pk, MD USA.
    Beck, H. E.
    Princeton Univ, Dept Civil & Environm Engn, Princeton, NJ 08536 USA.
    Becker, Andreas
    Deutsch Wetterdienst, Global Precipitat Climatol Ctr, Offenbach, Germany.
    Bedka, Kristopher M.
    NASA Langley Res Ctr, Hampton, VA USA.
    Behrenfeld, Michael J.
    Oregon State Univ, Corvallis, OR USA.
    Bell, Gerald D.
    NOAA NWS Climate Predict Ctr, College Pk, MD USA.
    Belmont, M.
    Seychelles Natl Meteorol Serv, Pointe Larue, Mahe, Seychelles.
    Benedetti, Angela
    European Ctr Medium Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, Berks, England.
    Bernhard, G. H.
    Biospher Instruments, San Diego, CA USA.
    Berrisford, Paul
    European Ctr Medium Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, Berks, England.
    Berry, David I.
    Natl Oceanog Ctr, Southampton, Hants, England.
    Bettolli, Maria L.
    Univ Buenos Aires, Fac Ciencias Exactas & Nat, Dept Ciencias Atmosfera & Oceanos, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.
    Bhatt, U. S.
    Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Geophys Inst, Fairbanks, AK USA.
    Bidegain, Mario
    Inst Uruguayo Meteorol, Montevideo, Uruguay.
    Biskaborn, B.
    Alfred Wegener Inst, Helmholtz Ctr Polar & Marine Res, Potsdam, Germany.
    Bissolli, Peter
    Deutscher Wetterdienst, WMO RA VI Reg Climate Ctr Network, Offenbach, Germany.
    Bjerke, J.
    Norwegian Inst Nat Res, Tromso, Norway.
    Blake, Eric S.
    NOAA NWS Natl Hurricane Ctr, Miami, FL USA.
    Blunden, Jessica
    Bosilovich, Michael G.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Global Modeling & Assimilat Off, Greenbelt, MD USA.
    Boucher, Olivier
    CNRS UPMC, Inst Pierre Simon Laplace, Paris, France.
    Boudet, Dagne
    Inst Meteorol Cuba, Climate Ctr, Havana, Cuba.
    Box, J. E.
    Geol Survey Denmark & Greenland, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Boyer, Tim
    NOAA NESDIS Natl Ctr Environm Informat, Asheville, NC 28801 USA.
    Braathen, Geir O.
    WMO Atmospher Environm Res Div, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Brimelow, Julian
    Environm & Climate Change Canada, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
    Bromwich, David H.
    Ohio State Univ, Byrd Polar & Climate Res Ctr, Columbus, OH USA.
    Brown, R.
    Environm & Climate Change Canada, Climate Res Div, Montreal, PQ, Canada.
    Buehler, S.
    Univ Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
    Bulygina, Olga N.
    Russian Inst Hydrometeorol Informat, Obninsk, Russia.
    Burgess, D.
    Geol Survey Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
    Calderon, Blanca
    Univ Costa Rica, Ctr Geophys Res, San Jose, Costa Rica.
    Camargo, Suzana J.
    Columbia Univ, Lamont Doherty Earth Observ, Palisades, NY USA.
    Campbell, Jayaka D.
    Univ West Indies, Dept Phys, Kingston, Jamaica.
    Cappelen, J.
    Danish Meteorol Inst, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Caroff, P.
    RSMC La Reunion, Meteo France, La Reunion, France.
    Carrea, Laura
    Univ Reading, Dept Meteorol, Reading, England.
    Carter, Brendan R.
    NOAA OAR Pacific Marine Environm Lab, Seattle, WA USA;Univ Washington, Joint Inst Study Atmosphere & Ocean, Seattle, WA USA.
    Chambers, Don P.
    Univ S Florida, Coll Marine Sci, St Petersburg, FL USA.
    Chandler, Elise
    Bur Meteorol, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Cheng, Ming-Dean
    Natl Taiwan Univ, Taipei, Taiwan;Cent Weather Bur, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Christiansen, Hanne H.
    Univ Ctr Svalbard, Dept Geol, Longyearbyen, Norway.
    Christy, John R.
    Univ Alabama Huntsville, Huntsville, AL USA.
    Chung, Daniel
    Vienna Univ Technol, Dept Geodesy & Geoinformat, Vienna, Austria.
    Chung, E. -S
    Clem, Kyle R.
    Victoria Univ Wellington, Sch Geography Environm & Earth Sci, Wellington, New Zealand.
    Coelho, Caio A. S.
    CPTEC INPE, Ctr Weather Forecasts & Climate Studies, Cachoeira Paulista, Brazil.
    Coldewey-Egbers, Melanie
    German Aerosp Ctr DLR Oberpfaffenhofen, Wessling, Germany.
    Colwell, Steve
    British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, England.
    Cooper, Owen R.
    Univ Colorado Boulder, Cooperat Inst Res Environm Sci, Boulder, CO USA;NOAA OAR Earth Syst Res Lab, Boulder, CO USA.
    Copland, L.
    Univ Ottawa, Dept Geography, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
    Cross, J. N.
    NOAA OAR Pacific Marine Environm Lab, Seattle, WA USA.
    Crouch, Jake
    NOAA NESDIS Natl Ctr Environm Informat, Asheville, NC 28801 USA.
    Cutie, Virgen
    Inst Meteorol Cuba, Climate Ctr, Havana, Cuba.
    Davis, Sean M.
    Univ Colorado Boulder, Cooperat Inst Res Environm Sci, Boulder, CO USA.
    de Eyto, Elvira
    Marine Inst, Newport, Ireland.
    de Jeu, Richard A. M.
    VanderSat BV, Haarlem, Netherlands.
    de Laat, Jos
    Royal Netherlands Meteorol Inst KNMI, De Bilt, Netherlands.
    DeGasperi, Curtis L.
    King Cty Water & Land Resources Div, Seattle, WA USA.
    Degenstein, Doug
    Univ Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.
    Demircan, M.
    Turkish State Meteorol Serv, Ankara, Turkey.
    Derksen, C.
    Environm & Climate Change Canada, Climate Res Div, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Di Girolamo, Larry
    Univ Illinois, Urbana, IL USA.
    Diamond, Howard J.
    NOAA OAR Air Resources Lab, Silver Spring, MD USA.
    Dindyal, S.
    Mauritius Meteorological Serv, Vacoas, Mauritius.
    Dlugokencky, Ed J.
    NOAA OAR Earth Syst Res Lab, Boulder, CO USA.
    Dohan, Kathleen
    Earth & Space Res, Seattle, WA USA.
    Dokulil, Martin T.
    Univ Innsbruck, Res Inst Limnology, Mondsee, Austria.
    Dolman, A. Johannes
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Earth Sci Earth & Climate Cluster, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Domingues, Catia M.
    Univ Tasmania, Inst Marine & Antarctic Studies, Hobart, Tas, Australia;Antarctic Climate & Ecosyst Cooperat Res Ctr, Hobart, Tas, Australia.
    Donat, Markus G.
    Univ New S Wales, Climate Change Res Ctr, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Dong, Shenfu
    Cooperat Inst Marine & Atmospher Sci, Miami, FL USA.
    Dorigo, Wouter A.
    Vienna Univ Technol, Dept Geodesy & Geoinformat, Vienna, Austria.
    Drozdov, D. S.
    Earth Cryosphere Inst, Tumen, Russia;Tyumen State Oil & Gas Univ, Tyumen, Russia.
    Dunn, Robert J. H.
    Duran-Quesada, Ana M.
    Univ Costa Rica, Ctr Geophys Res, San Jose, Costa Rica;Univ Costa Rica, Sch Phys, San Jose, Costa Rica.
    Dutton, Geoff S.
    Univ Colorado Boulder, Cooperat Inst Res Environm Sci, Boulder, CO USA.
    ElKharrim, M.
    Direction Meteorol Natl Maroc, Rabat, Morocco.
    Elkins, James W.
    Epstein, H. E.
    Univ Virginia, Dept Environm Sci, Charlottesville, VIRGINIA.
    Espinoza, Jhan C.
    Inst Geofisico Peru, Lima, Peru.
    Etienne-LeBlanc, Sheryl
    Meteorol Dept St Maarten, St Maarten, Netherlands.
    Famiglietti, James S.
    CALTECH, Jet Propulsion Lab, Pasadena, CA USA.
    Farrell, S.
    Univ Maryland, Earth Syst Sci Interdiscipl Ctr, College Pk, MD USA.
    Fateh, S.
    Islamic Republic Iranian Meteorol, Tehran, Iran.
    Fausto, R. S.
    Geolog Survey Denmark & Greenland, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Feely, Richard A.
    Feng, Z.
    FCSD ASGC Pacific Northwest Natl Lab, Richland, WA USA.
    Fenimore, Chris
    Fettweis, X.
    Univ Liege, Liege, Belgium.
    Fioletov, Vitali E.
    Flannigan, Mike
    Univ Alberta, Dept Renewable Resources, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
    Flemming, Johannes
    European Ctr Medium Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, Berks, England.
    Fogt, Ryan L.
    Ohio Univ, Dept Geography, Athens, Ohio.
    Folland, Chris
    Met Off Hadley Ctr, Exeter, Devon, England;Univ Southern Queensland, Int Ctr Appl Climate Sci, Toowoomba, Queensland, Australia;Univ East Anglia, Sch Environm Sci, Norwich, England.
    Fonseca, C.
    Inst Meteorol Cuba, Climate Ctr, Havana, Cuba.
    Forbes, B. C.
    Univ Lapland, Arctic Ctr, Rovaniemi, Finland.
    Foster, Michael J.
    Univ Wisconsin, CIMSS, Madison, WI USA.
    Francis, S. D.
    Nigerian Meteorol Agcy, Natl Weather Forecast & Climate Res Ctr, Abuja, Nigeria.
    Franz, Bryan A.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA.
    Frey, Richard A.
    Univ Wisconsin, CIMSS, Madison, WI USA.
    Frith, Stacey M.
    Sci Syst & Appl Inc, Greenbelt, MD USA;NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA.
    Froidevaux, Lucien
    CALTECH, Jet Propulsion Lab, Pasadena, CA USA.
    Ganter, Catherine
    Bur Meteorol, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Gerland, S.
    Norwegian Polar Res Inst, Fram Ctr, Tromso, Norway.
    Gilson, John
    Univ Calif San Diego, Scripps Inst Oceanog, La Jolla, CA USA.
    Gobron, Nadine
    European Commiss, Joint Res Ctr, Ispra, Italy.
    Goldenberg, Stanley B.
    Goni, Gustavo
    Gonzalez, Idelmis T.
    Inst Meteorol Cuba, Climate Ctr, Havana, Cuba.
    Goto, A.
    Japan Meteorol Agcy, Tokyo, Japan.
    Greenhough, Marianna D.
    Environm & Climate Change Canada, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
    Grooss, J. -U
    Gruber, Alexander
    Guard, Charles
    NOAA NWS Weather Forecast Off, Mangilao, GU USA.
    Gupta, S. K.
    Sci Syst & Applicat Inc, Hampton, VA USA.
    Gutierrez, J. M.
    CSIC Univ Cantabria, Inst Fis Cantabria, Santander, Spain.
    Haas, C.
    York Univ, Earth & Space Sci & Engn, Toronto, ON, Canada;Alfred Wegener Inst, Bremerhaven, Germany.
    Hagos, S.
    Pacific Northwest Natl Lab, FCSD ASGC Climate Phys Grp, Richland, WA USA.
    Hahn, Sebastian
    Haimberger, Leo
    Univ Vienna, Dept Meteorol & Geophys, Vienna, Austria.
    Hall, Brad D.
    Halpert, Michael S.
    Hamlington, Benjamin D.
    Old Dominion Univ, Ctr Coastal Phys Oceanography, Norfolk, VA USA.
    Hanna, E.
    Univ Sheffield, Dept Geography, Sheffield, S Yorkshire, England.
    Hanssen-Bauer, I
    Norwegian Meteorol Inst, Blindern, Oslo, Norway.
    Hare, Jon
    NOAA NMFS Northeast Fisheries Sci Ctr, Woods Hole, MA USA.
    Harris, Ian
    Univ East Anglia, Natl Ctr Atmospheric Sci, Norwich, NY USA;Univ East Anglia, Climatic Res Unit, Sch Environm Sci, Norwich, NY USA.
    Heidinger, Andrew K.
    NOAA NESDIS STAR Univ Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI USA.
    Heim, Richard R., Jr.
    NOAA NESDIS Natl Ctr, Asheville, NC USA.
    Hendricks, S.
    Alfred Wegener Inst, Bremerhaven, Germany.
    Hernandez, Marieta
    Climate Ctr, Inst Meteorol, Havana, Cuba.
    Hernandez, Rafael
    Inst Nacl Meteorol & Hidrolog Venezuela, Caracas, Venezuela.
    Hidalgo, Hugo G.
    Ho, Shu-peng
    Univ Corp Atmospheric Res, COSMIC Project Off, Boulder, CO USA.
    Hobbs, William R.
    Univ Tasmania, Antarctic Climate & Ecosystems, Hobart, Australia.
    Huang, Boyin
    Huelsing, Hannah K.
    SUNY Albany, Albany, NY USA.
    Hurst, Dale F.
    Ialongo, I.
    Finnish Meteorolog Inst, Helsinki, Finland.
    Ijampy, J. A.
    Nigerian Meteorol Agcy, Abuja, Nigeria.
    Inness, Antje
    European Ctr Medium Range, Reading, Berks, England.
    Isaksen, K.
    Norwegian Meteorolog Inst, Oslo, Norway.
    Ishii, Masayoshi
    Japan Meteorolog Agcy, Climat Res Dept, Meteorolog Res Inst, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Jevrejeva, Svetlana
    Jimenez, C.
    Estellus, Paris, France;PSL Res Univ, LERMA, Observatoire Paris, Paris, France.
    Xiangze, Jin
    John, Viju
    Met Off Hadley Ctr, Exeter, Devon, England;EUMETSAT, Darmstadt, Germany.
    Johns, William E.
    Rosenstiel Sch Marine & Atmospher Sci, Miami, FL USA.
    Johnsen, B.
    Norwegian Radiat Protect Authority, Osteras, Norway.
    Johnson, Bryan
    NOAA OAR Earth System Res Lab, Global Monitoring Div, Boulder, CO USA;Univ Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO USA.
    Johnson, Gregory C.
    Johnson, Kenneth S.
    Monterey Bay Aquarium Res Inst, Moss Landing, CA USA.
    Jones, Philip D.
    Univ East Anglia, Climat Res Unit, Sch Environm Sci, Norwich, England.
    Jumaux, Guillaume
    Meteo France, Direct Interreg Ocean Indien, St Denis, Reunion, France.
    Kabidi, Khadija
    Direct Meteorolog Natl Maroc, Rabat, Morocco.
    Kaiser, J. W.
    Max Planck Inst Chem, Mainz, Germany.
    Kass, David
    California Inst Technol, Jet Propulsion Lab, Pasadena, CA USA.
    Kato, Seiji
    Kazemi, A.
    Islamic Republic Iran Meteorolog Org, Tehran, Iran.
    Kelem, G.
    Ethiopian Meteorolog Agcy, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Keller, Linda M.
    Univ Wisconsin Madison, Dept Atmospheric & Oceanic Sci, Madison, WI USA.
    Kelly, B. P.
    Ctr Blue Economy, Middlebury Inst Int Studies, Monterey, CA USA;Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Int Arctic Res Ctr, Fairbanks, AK USA;Study Environm Arctic Change SEARCH, Fairbanks, AK USA.
    Kendon, Mike
    Met Off Hadley Ctr, Exeter, Devon, England.
    Kennedy, John
    Kerr, Kenneth
    Trinidad & Tobago Meteorol Serv, Piarco, Trinid & Tobago.
    Kholodov, A. L.
    Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Geophys Inst, Fairbanks, AK USA.
    Khoshkam, Mahbobeh
    Islamic Republ Iran Meteorol Org, Tehran, Iran.
    Killick, Rachel
    Met Off Hadley Ctr, Exeter, Devon, England.
    Kim, Hyungjun
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Ind Sci, Tokyo 1138654, Japan.
    Kim, S. -J
    Kimberlain, Todd B.
    NOAA NWS Natl Hurricane Ctr, Miami, FL USA.
    Klotzbach, Philip J.
    Colorado State Univ, Dept Atmospher Sci, Ft Collins, CO USA.
    Knaff, John A.
    NOAA NESDIS Ctr Satellite Applicat & Res, Ft Collins, CO USA.
    Kochtubajda, Bob
    Environm & Climate Change Canada, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
    Kohler, J.
    Norwegian Polar Res Inst, Tromso, Norway.
    Korhonen, Johanna
    Finnish Environm Inst SYKE, Freshwater Ctr, Helsinki, Finland.
    Korshunova, Natalia N.
    World Data Ctr, All Russian Res Inst Hydrometeorol Informat, Obninsk, Russia.
    Kramarova, Natalya
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Sci Syst & Applicat Inc, Greenbelt, MD USA.
    Kratz, D. P.
    NASA Langley Res Ctr, Hampton, VA USA.
    Kruger, Andries
    South African Weather Serv, Pretoria, South Africa.
    Kruk, Michael C.
    NOAA NESDIS Natl Environm Informat, ERT Inc, Asheville, NC USA.
    Krumpen, T.
    Alfred Wegener Inst, Bremerhaven, Germany.
    Lakatos, M.
    Hungarian Meteorol Serv, Climatol Div, Budapest, Hungary.
    Lakkala, K.
    Finnish Meteorol Inst, Arctic Res Ctr, Sodankyla, Finland.
    Lanckmann, J. -P
    Lander, Mark A.
    Univ Guam, Mangilao, GU USA.
    Landschuetzer, Peter
    Max Planck Inst Meteorol, Hamburg, Germany.
    Landsea, Chris W.
    NOAA NWS Natl Hurricane Ctr, Miami, FL USA.
    Lankhorst, Matthias
    Univ Calif San Diego, Scripps Inst Oceanog, La Jolla, CA USA.
    Lantz, Kathleen
    Univ Colorado Boulder, Cooperat Inst Res Environm Sci, Boulder, CO USA;NOAA OAR Earth Syst Res Lab, Boulder, CO USA.
    Lazzara, Matthew A.
    Univ Wisconsin, Space Sci & Engn Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Madison Area Tech Coll, Dept Phys Sci, Sch Arts & Sci, Madison, WI USA.
    Leuliette, Eric
    NOAA, NWS NCWCP Lab Satellite Altimetry, College Pk, MD USA.
    Lewis, Stephen R.
    Open Univ, Sch Phys Sci, Fac Sci Technol Engn & Math, Milton Keynes, Bucks, England.
    L'Heureux, Michelle
    NOAA NWS Climate Predict Ctr, College Pk, MD USA.
    Lieser, Jan L.
    Univ Tasmania, Antarctic Climate & Ecosyst Cooperat Res Ctr, Hobart, Tas, Australia.
    Lin, I-I
    Natl Taiwan Univ, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Liu, Hongxing
    Univ Cincinnati, Dept Geog, Cincinnati, OH 45221 USA.
    Liu, Yinghui
    Univ Wisconsin, CIMSS, Madison, WI USA.
    Locarnini, Ricardo
    NOAA NESDIS Natl Ctr Environm Informat, Silver Spring, MD USA.
    Loeb, Norman G.
    NASA Langley Res Ctr, Hampton, VA USA.
    Long, Craig S.
    NOAA NWS Natl Ctr Environm Predict, College Pk, MD USA.
    Loranty, M.
    Colgate Univ, Dept Geog, Hamilton, NY USA.
    Lorrey, Andrew M.
    Natl Inst Water & Atmospher Res Ltd, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Loyola, Diego
    German Aerosp Ctr DLR Oberpfaffenhofen, Wessling, Germany.
    Lu, Mong-Ming
    Natl Taiwan Univ, Taipei, Taiwan;Cent Weather Bur, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Lumpkin, Rick
    NOAA OAR Atlantic Oceanog & Meteorol Lab, Miami, FL 33149 USA.
    Luo, Jing-Jia
    Australian Bur Meteorol, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Luojus, K.
    Finnish Meteorolog Inst, Helsinki, Finland.
    Lyman, John M.
    NOAA OAR Pacific Marine Environm Lab, Seattle, WA USA;Univ Hawaii, Joint Inst Marine & Atmospher Res, Honolulu, HI USA.
    Macara, Gregor
    Natl Inst Water & Atmospher Res, Wellington, New Zealand.
    Macdonald, Alison M.
    Woods Hole Oceanog Inst, Woods Hole, MA USA.
    Macias-Fauria, M.
    Univ Oxford, Sch Geog & Environm, Oxford, England.
    Malkova, G. V.
    Earth Cryosphere Inst, Tumen, Russia;Tyumen State Oil & Gas Univ, Tyumen, Russia.
    Manney, G.
    New Mexico Inst Mining & Technol, Socorro, NM USA;NorthWest Res Ass, Socorro, NM USA.
    Marchenko, S. S.
    Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Geophys Inst, Fairbanks, AK USA.
    Marengo, Jose A.
    Ctr Nacl Monitoramento Alertas Desastres Nat, Cachoeira Paulista, SP, Brazil.
    Marra, John J.
    NOAA NESDIS Natl Ctr Environm Informat, Asheville, NC 28801 USA.
    Marszelewski, Wlodzimierz
    Nicolaus Copernicus Univ, Dept Hydrol & Water Management, Torun, Poland.
    Martens, B.
    Univ Ghent, Lab Hydrol & Water Management, Ghent, Belgium.
    Martinez-Gueingla, Rodney
    Ctr Int Invest Fenomeno El Nino, Guayaquil, Ecuador.
    Massom, Robert A.
    Univ Tasmania, Antarctic Climate & Ecosystems Cooperat Res Ctr, Hobart, Tas, Australia;Univ Tasmania, Australian Antarctic Div, Hobart, Tas, Australia.
    Mathis, Jeremy T.
    NOAA, OAR Arctic Res Program, Silver Spring, MD USA.
    May, Linda
    Ctr Ecol & Hydrol, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Mayer, Michael
    Univ Vienna, Dept Meteorol & Geophys, Vienna, Austria.
    Mazloff, Matthew
    Univ Calif San Diego, Scripps Inst Oceanog, La Jolla, CA USA.
    McBride, Charlotte
    South African Weather Serv, Pretoria, South Africa.
    McCabe, M. F.
    King Abdullah Univ Sci & Technol, Div Biol & Environm Sci & Engn, Water Desalinat & Reuse Ctr, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia.
    McCarthy, Gerard
    Natl Oceanog Ctr, Southampton, Hants, England.
    McCarthy, M.
    Met Off Hadley Ctr, Exeter, Devon, England.
    McDonagh, Elaine L.
    McGree, Simon
    Bur Meteorol, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    McVicar, Tim R.
    CSIRO Land & Water Flagship, Canberra, ACT, Australia;Australian Res Council, Ctr Excellence Climate Syst Sci, Sydney, NSW, Australia;Australian Capital Territory, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Mears, Carl A.
    Remote Sensing Syst, Santa Rosa, CA USA.
    Meier, W.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA.
    Mekonnen, A.
    North Carolina A&T State Univ, Dept Energy & Environm Syst, Greensboro, NC USA.
    Menezes, V. V.
    Woods Hole Oceanog Inst, Woods Hole, MA USA.
    Mengistu Tsidu, G.
    Botswana Int Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Earth & Environm Sci, Palapye, Botswana;Addis Ababa Univ, Dept Phys, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Univ Reading, Natl Ctr Earth Observat, Reading RG6 2AH, Berks, England.
    Menzel, W. Paul
    Univ Wisconsin, Space Sci & Engn Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Merchant, Christopher J.
    Meredith, Michael P.
    British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, England.
    Merrifield, Mark A.
    Univ Hawaii, Joint Inst Marine & Atmospher Res, Honolulu, HI USA.
    Minnis, Patrick
    NASA Langley Res Ctr, Hampton, VA USA.
    Miralles, Diego G.
    Univ Ghent, Lab Hydrol & Water Management, Ghent, Belgium.
    Mistelbauer, T.
    Earth Observing Data Ctr GmbH, Vienna, Austria.
    Mitchum, Gary T.
    Univ S Florida, Coll Marine Sci, St Petersburg, FL USA.
    Mitro, Srkani
    Meteorol Serv Suriname, Paramaribo, Surinam.
    Monselesan, Didier
    CSIRO Oceans & Atmos, Hobart, Tas, Australia.
    Montzka, Stephen A.
    NOAA OAR Earth Syst Res Lab, Boulder, CO USA.
    Mora, Natalie
    Univ Costa Rica, Ctr Geophys Res, San Jose, Costa Rica;Univ Costa Rica, Sch Phys, San Jose, Costa Rica.
    Morice, Colin
    Met Off Hadley Ctr, Exeter, Devon, England.
    Morrow, Blair
    Environm & Climate Change Canada, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
    Mote, T.
    Univ Georgia, Dept Geog, Athens, GA 30602 USA.
    Mudryk, L.
    Environm & Climate Change Canada, Climate Res Div, Montreal, PQ, Canada.
    Muehle, Jens
    Univ Calif San Diego, Scripps Inst Oceanog, La Jolla, CA USA.
    Mullan, A. Brett
    Natl Inst Water & Atmospher Res Ltd, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Mueller, R.
    Forschungszentrum Julich, Julich, Germany.
    Nash, Eric R.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Sci Syst & Applicat Inc, Greenbelt, MD USA.
    Nerem, R. Steven
    Univ Colorado Boulder, Cooperat Inst Res Environm Sci, Boulder, CO USA.
    Newman, Louise
    Univ Tasmania, Inst Marine & Antarctic Studies, SOOS Int Project Off, Hobart, Tas 7001, Australia.
    Newman, Paul A.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA.
    Nieto, Juan Jose
    Ctr Int Invest Fenomeno El Nino, Guayaquil, Ecuador.
    Noetzli, Jeannette
    WSL Inst Snow & Avalanche Res, Davos, Switzerland.
    O'Neel, S.
    USGS, Alaska Sci Ctr, Anchorage, AK USA.
    Osborn, Tim J.
    Univ East Anglia, Climatic Res Unit, Sch Environm Sci, Norwich, NY USA.
    Overland, J.
    NOAA OAR Pacific Marine Environm Lab, Seattle, WA USA.
    Oyunjargal, Lamjav
    Natl Agcy Meteorol, Inst Meteorol & Hydrol, Hydrol & Environ Monitoring, Ulaanbaatar, Mongol Peo Rep.
    Parinussa, Robert M.
    VanderSat BV, Haarlem, Netherlands.
    Park, E-hyung
    Korea Meteorol Adm, Seoul, South Korea.
    Pasch, Richard J.
    NOAA NWS Natl Hurricane Ctr, Miami, FL USA.
    Pascual-Ramirez, Reynaldo
    Natl Meteorol Serv Mexico, Mexico City, DF, Mexico.
    Paterson, Andrew M.
    Ontario Ministry Environ & Climate Change, Dorset Environ Sci Ctr, Dorset, ON, Canada.
    Pearce, Petra R.
    Natl Inst Water & Atmospher Res Ltd, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Pellichero, V.
    Sorbonne Univ, LOCEAN IPSL, CNRS IRD MNHN, Paris, France.
    Pelto, Mauri S.
    Nichols Coll, Dudley, MA USA.
    Peng, Liang
    Univ Corp Atmospheric Res, COSMIC Project Off, Boulder, CO USA.
    Perkins-Kirkpatrick, Sarah E.
    Univ New S Wales, Climate Change Res Ctr, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Perovich, D.
    Dartmouth Coll, Thayer Sch Eng, Hanover, NH USA;USACE, ERDC, Cold Reg Res & Engn Lab, Hanover, NH USA.
    Petropavlovskikh, Irina
    NOAA OAR Earth System Res Lab, Global Monitoring Div, Boulder, CO USA;Univ Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO USA.
    Pezza, Alexandre B.
    Greater Wellington Reg Council, Wellington, New Zealand.
    Phillips, C.
    Univ Wisconsin Madison, Dept Atmospheric & Oceanic Sci, Madison, WI USA.
    Phillips, David
    Environm & Climate Change Canada, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
    Phoenix, G.
    Univ Sheffield, Dept Anim & Plant Sci, Sheffield S10 2TN, S Yorkshire, England.
    Pinty, Bernard
    European Commiss, Joint Res Ctr, Ispra, Italy.
    Pitts, Michael C.
    NASA Langley Res Ctr, Hampton, VA USA.
    Pons, M. R.
    Agencia Estatal Meteorol, Santander, Spain.
    Porter, Avalon O.
    Cayman Isl Natl Weather Serv, Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands.
    Quintana, Juan
    Direcc Meteorol Chile, Santiago, Chile.
    Rahimzadeh, Fatemeh
    Atmospher Sci & Meteorol Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.
    Rajeevan, Madhavan
    Minist Earth Sci, Earth System Sci Org, New Delhi, India.
    Rayner, Darren
    Natl Oceanog Ctr, Southampton, Hants, England.
    Raynolds, M. K.
    Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Inst Arct Biol, Fairbanks, AK 99701 USA.
    Razuvaev, Vyacheslav N.
    All Russian Res Inst Hydrometeorol Informat, Obninsk, Russia.
    Read, Peter
    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Oxford OX1 2JD, England.
    Reagan, James
    Univ Maryland, Earth Syst Sci Interdiscipl Ctr, College Pk, MD USA;NOAA NESDIS Natl Ctr Environm Informat, Silver Spring, MD USA.
    Reid, Phillip
    CAWRC, Hobart, Tas, Australia;Australian Bur Meteorol, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Reimer, Christoph
    Vienna Univ Technol, Dept Geodesy & Geoinformat, Vienna, Austria;EODC, Vienna, Austria.
    Remy, Samuel
    CNRS UPMC, Inst Pierre Simon Laplace, Paris, France.
    Renwick, James A.
    Victoria Univ Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand.
    Revadekar, Jayashree V.
    Indian Inst Trop Meteorol, Pune, Maharashtra, India.
    Richter-Menge, J.
    Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK USA.
    Rimmer, Alon
    Israel Oceanog & Limnol Res, Yigal Allon Kinneret Limnol Lab, Migdal, Israel.
    Robinson, David A.
    Rutgers State Univ, Dept Geog, Piscataway, NJ 08855 USA.
    Rodell, Matthew
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Hydrol Sci Lab, Greenbelt, MD USA.
    Rollenbeck, Ruetger
    Univ Marburg, Fac Geog, Lab Climatol Remote Sensing, Marburg, Germany.
    Romanovsky, Vladimir E.
    Tyumen State Univ, Tyumen, Russia;Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Geophys Inst, Fairbanks, AK USA.
    Ronchail, Josyane
    Univ Paris Diderot, Lab LOCEAN IPSL, Paris, France.
    Roquet, F.
    Stockholm Univ MISU, Dept Meteorol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rosenlof, Karen H.
    NOAA OAR Earth Syst Res Lab, Boulder, CO USA.
    Roth, Chris
    Univ Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.
    Rusak, James A.
    Ontario Ministry Environ & Climate Change, Dorset Environ Sci Ctr, Dorset, ON, Canada.
    Sallee, Jean-Bapiste
    Sorbonne Univ, LOCEAN IPSL, CNRS IRD MNHN, Paris, France;British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, England.
    Sanchez-Lugo, Ahira
    NOAA NESDIS Natl Ctr Environm Informat, Silver Spring, MD USA.
    Santee, Michelle L.
    NASA Jet Propuls Lab, Pasadena, CA USA.
    Sarmiento, Jorge L.
    Princeton Univ, Atmospher & Ocean Sci Program, Princeton, NJ USA.
    Sawaengphokhai, P.
    Sci Syst & Appl Inc, Greenbelt, MD USA.
    Sayouri, Amal
    Direct Meteorolog Natl Maroc, Rabat, Morocco.
    Scambos, Ted A.
    Univ Colorado Boulder, Natl Snow & Ice Data Ctr, Boulder, CO USA.
    Schemm, Jae
    NOAA NWS Climate Predict Ctr, College Pk, MD USA.
    Schladow, S. Geoffrey
    Univ Calif Davis, Tahoe Environm Res Ctr, Davis, CA USA.
    Schmid, Claudia
    NOAA OAR Atlantic Oceanog & Meteorol Lab, Miami, FL 33149 USA.
    Schmid, Martin
    Swiss Federal Inst Aquat Sci & Technol, Eawag, Kastanienbaum, Switzerland.
    Schoeneich, P.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Inst Geog Alpine, Grenoble, France.
    Schreck, Carl J., III
    N Carolina State Univ, Cooperat Inst Climate & Satellites, Asheville, NC USA.
    Schuur, Ted
    No Arizona Univ, Ctr Ecosystem Sci & Soc, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 USA.
    Selkirk, H. B.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Univ Space Res Assoc, Greenbelt, MD USA.
    Send, Uwe
    Univ Calif San Diego, Scripps Inst Oceanog, La Jolla, CA USA.
    Sensoy, Serhat
    Turkish State Meteorol Serv, Ankara, Turkey.
    Sharp, M.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Earth & Atmospher Sci, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
    Shi, Lei
    NOAA NESDIS Natl Ctr Environm Informat, Silver Spring, MD USA.
    Shiklomanov, Nikolai I.
    George Washington Univ, Dept Geog, Washington, DC 20052 USA.
    Shimaraeva, Svetlana V.
    Irkutsk State Univ, Inst Biol, Irkutsk 664003, Russia.
    Siegel, David A.
    Univ Calif Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA USA.
    Signorini, Sergio R.
    Sci Applicat Int Corp, Beltsville, MD USA.
    Silov, Eugene
    Irkutsk State Univ, Inst Biol, Irkutsk 664003, Russia.
    Sima, Fatou
    Dept Water Resources, Div Meteorol, Banjul, Gambia.
    Simmons, Adrian J.
    European Ctr Medium Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, Berks, England.
    Smeed, David A.
    Natl Oceanog Ctr, Southampton, Hants, England.
    Smeets, C. J. P. P.
    Univ Utrecht, Inst Marine & Atmospher Res Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Smith, Adam
    NOAA NESDIS Natl Ctr Environm Informat, Silver Spring, MD USA.
    Smith, Sharon L.
    Nat Resources Canada, Geol Survey Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
    Soden, B.
    Univ Miami, Rosenstiel Sch Marine & Atmospher Sci, Miami, FL USA.
    Spence, Jaqueline M.
    Meteorol Serv, Kingston, Jamaica.
    Srivastava, A. K.
    Indian Meteorol Dept, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.
    Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.
    NASA Langley Res Ctr, Hampton, VA USA.
    Stammerjohn, Sharon
    Univ Colorado Boulder, Inst Arctic & Alpine Res, Boulder, CO USA.
    Steinbrecht, Wolfgang
    German Weather Serv DWD, Hohenpeissenberg, Germany.
    Stella, Jose L.
    Serv Meteorol Nacl, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.
    Stennett-Brown, Roxann
    Univ West Indies, Dept Phys, Kingston, Jamaica.
    Stephenson, Tannecia S.
    Univ West Indies, Dept Phys, Kingston, Jamaica.
    Strahan, Susan
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Univ Space Res Assoc, Greenbelt, MD USA.
    Streletskiy, Dimitri A.
    George Washington Univ, Dept Geog, Washington, DC 20052 USA.
    Sun-Mack, Sunny
    Sci Syst & Appl Inc, Greenbelt, MD USA.
    Swart, Sebastiaan
    CSIR Southern Ocean Carbon & Climate Observ, Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    Sweet, William
    NOAA NOS Ctr Operat Oceanog Products & Serv, Silver Spring, MD USA.
    Tamar, Gerard
    Grenada Airports Author, St Georges, Grenada.
    Taylor, Michael A.
    Univ West Indies, Dept Phys, Kingston, Jamaica.
    Tedesco, M.
    NASA Goddard Inst Space Studies, New York, NY USA;Columbia Univ, Lamont Doherty Earth Observ, Palisades, NY USA.
    Thoman, R. L.
    NOAA Natl Weather Serv, Fairbanks, AK USA.
    Thompson, L.
    Simon Fraser Univ, Dept Earth Sci, Burnaby, BC, Canada.
    Thompson, Philip R.
    Univ Hawaii, Joint Inst Marine & Atmospher Res, Honolulu, HI USA.
    Timmermans, M. -L
    Timofeev, Maxim A.
    Irkutsk State Univ, Inst Biol, Irkutsk 664003, Russia.
    Tirnanes, Joaquin A.
    Univ Santiago Compostela, Lab Syst, Technol Res Inst, Santiago De Compostela, Spain.
    Tobin, Skie
    Bur Meteorol, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Trachte, Katja
    Philipps Univ, Lab Climatol & Remote Sensing, Marburg, Germany.
    Trewin, Blair C.
    Australian Bur Meteorol, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Trotman, Adrian R.
    Caribbean Inst Meteorol & Hydrol, Bridgetown, Barbados.
    Tschudi, M.
    Univ Colorado Boulder, Aerospace Engn Sci, Boulder, CO USA.
    Tweedy, Olga
    Johns Hopkins Univ, Baltimore, MD USA.
    van As, D.
    Geol Survey Denmark & Greenland, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    van de Wal, R. S. W.
    Univ Utrecht, Inst Marine & Atmospher Res Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    van der Schalie, Robin
    VanderSat BV, Haarlem, Netherlands.
    van der Schrier, Gerard
    Royal Netherlands Meteorol Inst KNMI, De Bilt, Netherlands.
    van der Werf, Guido R.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Fac Earth & Life Sci, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    van Meerbeeck, Cedric J.
    Caribbean Inst Meteorol & Hydrol, Bridgetown, Barbados.
    Velicogna, I.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Irvine, CA 92717 USA.
    Verburg, Piet
    Natl Inst Water & Atmospher Res, Wellington, New Zealand.
    Vieira, G.
    Univ Lisbon, Inst Geog & Ordenamento Territorio, P-1699 Lisbon, Portugal.
    Vincent, Lucie A.
    Environm & Climate Change Canada, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Voemel, Holger
    Natl Ctr Atmospher Res, Earth Observing Lab, Boulder, CO USA.
    Vose, Russell S.
    NOAA NESDIS Natl Ctr Environm Informat, Silver Spring, MD USA.
    Wagner, Wolfgang
    Vienna Univ Technol, Dept Geodesy & Geoinformat, Vienna, Austria.
    Wahlin, Anna
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Earth Sci, Reg Climate Grp, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Walker, D. A.
    Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Inst Arct Biol, Fairbanks, AK 99701 USA.
    Walsh, J.
    Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Int Arctic Res Ctr, Fairbanks, AK USA.
    Wang, Bin
    Univ Hawaii, SOEST, Dept Meteorol, Honolulu, HI USA;IPRC, Honolulu, HI USA.
    Wang, Chunzai
    South China Sea Inst Oceanol, State Key Lab Trop Oceanog, Guangzhou, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Junhong
    SUNY Albany, Albany, NY USA.
    Wang, Lei
    Louisiana State Univ, Dept Geog & Anthropol, Baton Rouge, LA USA.
    Wang, M.
    Univ Washington, Joint Inst Study Atmosphere & Ocean, Seattle, WA USA.
    Wang, Sheng-Hung
    Ohio State Univ, Byrd Polar & Climate Res Ctr, Columbus, OH USA.
    Wanninkhof, Rik
    NOAA OAR Atlantic Oceanog & Meteorol Lab, Miami, FL 33149 USA.
    Watanabe, Shohei
    Univ Calif Davis, Tahoe Environm Res Ctr, Davis, CA USA.
    Weber, Mark
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology. Univ Bremen, Bremen, Germany..
    Weller, Robert A.
    Woods Hole Oceanog Inst, Woods Hole, MA USA.
    Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.
    Whitewood, Robert
    Environm & Climate Change Canada, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Wiese, David N.
    CALTECH, Jet Propulsion Lab, Pasadena, CA USA.
    Wijffels, Susan E.
    CSIRO Oceans & Atmos, Hobart, Tas, Australia.
    Wilber, Anne C.
    Sci Syst & Appl Inc, Greenbelt, MD USA.
    Wild, Jeanette D.
    NOAA Climate Predict Ctr, INNOVIM, College Pk, MD USA.
    Willett, Kate M.
    Met Off Hadley Ctr, Exeter, Devon, England.
    Willie, Shem
    St Lucia Meteorol Serv, St Lucia, Qld, Australia.
    Willis, Josh K.
    CALTECH, Jet Propulsion Lab, Pasadena, CA USA.
    Wolken, G.
    Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Int Arctic Res Ctr, Fairbanks, AK USA.
    Wong, Takmeng
    NASA Langley Res Ctr, Hampton, VA USA.
    Wood, E. F.
    Princeton Univ, Dept Civil & Environm Engn, Princeton, NJ 08536 USA.
    Woolway, R. Iestyn
    Univ Reading, Dept Meteorol, Reading RG6 2AH, Berks, England.
    Wouters, B.
    Univ Bristol, Sch Geog Sci, Bristol BS8 1TH, Avon, England.
    Xue, Yan
    NOAA NWS Natl Ctr Environm Predict, College Pk, MD USA.
    Yim, So-Young
    Korea Meteorol Adm, Seoul, South Korea.
    Yin, Xungang
    NOAA NESDIS Natl Environm Informat, ERT Inc, Asheville, NC USA.
    Yu, Lisan
    Woods Hole Oceanog Inst, Woods Hole, MA USA.
    Zambrano, Eduardo
    Ctr Int Invest Fenomeno El Nino, Guayaquil, Ecuador.
    Zhang, Huai-Min
    NOAA NESDIS Natl Ctr Environm Informat, Asheville, NC 28801 USA.
    Zhang, Peiqun
    Beijing Climate Ctr, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Zhao, Guanguo
    Univ Illinois, Urbana, IL USA.
    Zhao, Lin
    Cold & Arid Reg Environm & Engn Res Inst, Lanzhou, Peoples R China.
    Ziemke, Jerry R.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA;Morgan State Univ, Goddard Earth Sci Technol & Res, Baltimore, MD USA.
    Zilberman, Nathalie
    Univ Calif San Diego, Scripps Inst Oceanog, La Jolla, CA USA.
    State of the Climate in 20162017In: Bulletin of The American Meteorological Society - (BAMS), ISSN 0003-0007, E-ISSN 1520-0477, Vol. 98, no 8, p. S1-S280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2016, the dominant greenhouse gases released into Earth's atmosphere-carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide-continued to increase and reach new record highs. The 3.5 +/- 0.1 ppm rise in global annual mean carbon dioxide from 2015 to 2016 was the largest annual increase observed in the 58-year measurement record. The annual global average carbon dioxide concentration at Earth's surface surpassed 400 ppm (402.9 +/- 0.1 ppm) for the first time in the modern atmospheric measurement record and in ice core records dating back as far as 800000 years. One of the strongest El Nino events since at least 1950 dissipated in spring, and a weak La Nina evolved later in the year. Owing at least in part to the combination of El Nino conditions early in the year and a long-term upward trend, Earth's surface observed record warmth for a third consecutive year, albeit by a much slimmer margin than by which that record was set in 2015. Above Earth's surface, the annual lower troposphere temperature was record high according to all datasets analyzed, while the lower stratospheric temperature was record low according to most of the in situ and satellite datasets. Several countries, including Mexico and India, reported record high annual temperatures while many others observed near-record highs. A week-long heat wave at the end of April over the northern and eastern Indian peninsula, with temperatures surpassing 44 degrees C, contributed to a water crisis for 330 million people and to 300 fatalities. In the Arctic the 2016 land surface temperature was 2.0 degrees C above the 1981-2010 average, breaking the previous record of 2007, 2011, and 2015 by 0.8 degrees C, representing a 3.5 degrees C increase since the record began in 1900. The increasing temperatures have led to decreasing Arctic sea ice extent and thickness. On 24 March, the sea ice extent at the end of the growth season saw its lowest maximum in the 37-year satellite record, tying with 2015 at 7.2% below the 1981-2010 average. The September 2016 Arctic sea ice minimum extent tied with 2007 for the second lowest value on record, 33% lower than the 1981-2010 average. Arctic sea ice cover remains relatively young and thin, making it vulnerable to continued extensive melt. The mass of the Greenland Ice Sheet, which has the capacity to contribute similar to 7 m to sea level rise, reached a record low value. The onset of its surface melt was the second earliest, after 2012, in the 37-year satellite record. Sea surface temperature was record high at the global scale, surpassing the previous record of 2015 by about 0.01 degrees C. The global sea surface temperature trend for the 21st century-to-date of +0.162 degrees C decade(-1) is much higher than the longer term 1950-2016 trend of +0.100 degrees C decade(-1). Global annual mean sea level also reached a new record high, marking the sixth consecutive year of increase. Global annual ocean heat content saw a slight drop compared to the record high in 2015. Alpine glacier retreat continued around the globe, and preliminary data indicate that 2016 is the 37th consecutive year of negative annual mass balance. Across the Northern Hemisphere, snow cover for each month from February to June was among its four least extensive in the 47-year satellite record. Continuing a pattern below the surface, record high temperatures at 20-m depth were measured at all permafrost observatories on the North Slope of Alaska and at the Canadian observatory on northernmost Ellesmere Island. In the Antarctic, record low monthly surface pressures were broken at many stations, with the southern annular mode setting record high index values in March and June. Monthly high surface pressure records for August and November were set at several stations. During this period, record low daily and monthly sea ice extents were observed, with the November mean sea ice extent more than 5 standard deviations below the 1981-2010 average. These record low sea ice values contrast sharply with the record high values observed during 2012-14. Over the region, springtime Antarctic stratospheric ozone depletion was less severe relative to the 1991-2006 average, but ozone levels were still low compared to pre-1990 levels. Closer to the equator, 93 named tropical storms were observed during 2016, above the 1981-2010 average of 82, but fewer than the 101 storms recorded in 2015. Three basins-the North Atlantic, and eastern and western North Pacific-experienced above-normal activity in 2016. The Australian basin recorded its least active season since the beginning of the satellite era in 1970. Overall, four tropical cyclones reached the Saffir-Simpson category 5 intensity level. The strong El Nino at the beginning of the year that transitioned to a weak La Nina contributed to enhanced precipitation variability around the world. Wet conditions were observed throughout the year across southern South America, causing repeated heavy flooding in Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Wetter-than-usual conditions were also observed for eastern Europe and central Asia, alleviating the drought conditions of 2014 and 2015 in southern Russia. In the United States, California had its first wetter-than-average year since 2012, after being plagued by drought for several years. Even so, the area covered by drought in 2016 at the global scale was among the largest in the post-1950 record. For each month, at least 12% of land surfaces experienced severe drought conditions or worse, the longest such stretch in the record. In northeastern Brazil, drought conditions were observed for the fifth consecutive year, making this the longest drought on record in the region. Dry conditions were also observed in western Bolivia and Peru; it was Bolivia's worst drought in the past 25 years. In May, with abnormally warm and dry conditions already prevailing over western Canada for about a year, the human-induced Fort McMurray wildfire burned nearly 590000 hectares and became the costliest disaster in Canadian history, with $3 billion (U.S. dollars) in insured losses.

  • 142. Arndt, D. S.
    et al.
    Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Bettio, L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    INTRODUCTION: Lake surface temperature in State of the Climate in 20182019In: Bulletin of The American Meteorological Society - (BAMS), ISSN 0003-0007, E-ISSN 1520-0477, Vol. 100, no 9, p. S1-+Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 143. Arnegard, Matthew E.
    et al.
    McGee, Matthew D.
    Matthews, Blake
    Marchinko, Kerry B.
    Conte, Gina L.
    Kabir, Sahriar
    Bedford, Nicole
    Bergek, Sara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Chan, Yingguang Frank
    Jones, Felicity C.
    Kingsley, David M.
    Peichel, Catherine L.
    Schluter, Dolph
    Genetics of ecological divergence during speciation2014In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 511, no 7509, p. 307-311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecological differences often evolve early in speciation as divergent natural selection drives adaptation to distinct ecological niches, leading ultimately to reproductive isolation. Although this process is a major generator of biodiversity, its genetic basis is still poorly understood. Here we investigate the genetic architecture of niche differentiation in a sympatric species pair of threespine stickleback fish by mapping the environment-dependent effects of phenotypic traits on hybrid feeding and performance under semi-natural conditions. We show that multiple, unlinked loci act largely additively to determine position along the major niche axis separating these recently diverged species. We also find that functional mismatch between phenotypic traits reduces the growth of some stickleback hybrids beyond that expected from an intermediate phenotype, suggesting a role for epistasis between the underlying genes. This functional mismatch might lead to hybrid incompatibilities that are analogous to those underlying intrinsic reproductive isolation but depend on the ecological context.

  • 144. Arnold, M. C.
    et al.
    Bier, R. L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Lindberg, T. T.
    Bernhardt, E. S.
    Di Giulio, R. T.
    Biofilm mediated uptake of selenium in streams with mountaintop coal mine drainage2017In: Limnologica, ISSN 0075-9511, E-ISSN 1873-5851, Vol. 65, p. 10-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Selenium (Se) may cause reproductive toxicity, yet the characteristics of Se bioaccumulation in aquatic food webs are understudied. Stream biofilms were grown in two reaches of Mud River, West Virginia (WV), including one downstream of a coal mine complex and an adjacent, unmined watershed. Mined stream biofilms contained significantly higher Se concentrations compared to unmined biofilms. An inverse relationship between water Se concentrations and biofilm accumulation factors was observed; mined-stream biofilms had an average bioconcentration factor (BCF) of 688 ± 350 fold while unmined-stream biofilms had an average BCF of 14505 ± 2700 fold.

  • 145.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Assortative mating by fitness and sexually antagonistic genetic variation2011In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 65, no 7, p. 2111-2116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent documentations of sexually antagonistic genetic variation in fitness have spurred an interest in the mechanisms that may act to maintain such variation in natural populations. Using individual-based simulations, I show that positive assortative mating by fitness increases the amount of sexually antagonistic genetic variance in fitness, primarily by elevating the equilibrium frequency of heterozygotes, over most of the range of sex-specific selection and dominance. Further, although the effects of assortative mating by fitness on the protection conditions of polymorphism in sexually antagonistic loci were relatively minor, it widens the protection conditions under most reasonable scenarios (e. g., under heterozygote superiority when fitness is averaged across the sexes) but can also somewhat narrow the protection conditions under other circumstances. The near-ubiquity of assortative mating in nature suggests that it may contribute to upholding standing sexually antagonistic genetic variation in fitness.

  • 146.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Comment on "Bateman in Nature: Predation on Offspring Reduces the Potential for Sexual Selection"2013In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 340, no 6132, p. 549-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 147.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Comparative evidence for the evolution of genitalia by sexual selection1998In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 393, no 6687, p. 784-786Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 148.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Cryptic female choice2014In: The Evolution of Insect Mating Systems / [ed] D. Shuker and L. Simmons, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014, p. 204-220Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 149.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Editorial rejects?: Novelty, schnovelty!2013In: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, ISSN 0169-5347, E-ISSN 1872-8383, Vol. 28, no 8, p. 448-449Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Because many journals are currently increasing the rate of pre-peer-review editorial rejects, the editorial criteria upon which such decisions are based are very important. Here, I spotlight 'novelty' as a criterion and argue that it is a very problematic decisive factor at this stage of the editorial process.

  • 150.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Mixed Models Offer No Freedom from Degress Of Freedom2020In: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, ISSN 0169-5347, E-ISSN 1872-8383, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 329-335Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Statistics matter greatly in biology, whether we like it or not. As a discipline with an empirical inclination, we are faced with data every day and we rely on inferential statistical models to make sense of it and to provide us with novel insights. Much of the time, the growing level of complexity and sophistication of the models we put to use in ecology and evolution have led to more appropriate analyses of our data. However, this is not always the case. Here, I draw attention to a classic flaw in inferential statistics that has resurfaced in a new flavor as a result of increased reliance on complex linear mixed models -the multifaceted and disturbingly persistent problem of pseudoreplication.

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