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  • 101.
    Qiu, Lanxin
    et al.
    Beijing Univ Technol, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Huang, Zhuangqin
    Beijing Univ Technol, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Wirström, Niklas
    SICS Swedish ICT, Kista, Sweden.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication. SICS Swedish ICT, Kista, Sweden.
    3DinSAR: Object 3D Localization for Indoor RFID Applications2016In: IEEE RFID, 2016, p. 191-198Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    More and more objects can be identified and sensed with RFID tags. Existing schemes for 2D indoor localization have achieved impressing accuracy. In this paper we propose an accurate 3D localization scheme for objects. Our scheme leverages spatial domain phase difference to estimate the height of objects which is inspired by the phase-based Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) height determination theory. We further leverage a density-based spatial clustering method to choose the most likely position and show that it improves the accuracy. Our localization method does not need any reference tags. Only one antenna is required to move in a known way in order to construct the synthetic arrays to implement the locating system. We present experimental results from an indoor office environment with EPC C1G2 passive tags and a COTS RFID reader. Our 3D experiments demonstrate a spatial median error of 0.24 m. This novel 3D localization scheme is a simple, yet promising, solution. We believe that it is especially applicable for both portable readers and transport vehicles.

  • 102. Raza, Shahid
    et al.
    Duquennoy, Simon
    Chung, Antony
    Yazar, Dogan
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Roedig, Utz
    Securing communication in 6LoWPAN with compressed IPsec2011In: DCOSS, 2011, p. 1-8Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 103. Raza, Shahid
    et al.
    Duquennoy, Simon
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Roedig, Utz
    Demo abstract: Securing communication in 6LoWPAN with compressed IPsec2011In: DCOSS, 2011, p. 1-2Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 104.
    Raza, Shahid
    et al.
    RISE SICS, Isafjordsgatan 22, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Helgason, Tomas
    RISE SICS, Isafjordsgatan 22, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Papadimitratos, Panos
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Networked Syst Secur Grp, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication. RISE SICS, Isafjordsgatan 22, Stockholm, Sweden.
    SecureSense: End-to-End Secure Communication Architecture for the Cloud-connected Internet of Things2017In: Future generations computer systems, ISSN 0167-739X, E-ISSN 1872-7115, Vol. 77, p. 40-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) has become the de-facto web standard for the IoT. Unlike traditional wireless sensor networks, Internet-connected smart thing deployments require security. CoAP mandates the use of the Datagram TLS (DTLS) protocol as the underlying secure communication protocol. In this paper we implement DTLS-protected secure CoAP for both resource-constrained IoT devices and a cloud backend and evaluate all three security modes (pre-shared key, raw-public key, and certificate-based) of CoAP in a real cloud-connected IoT setup. We extend Sics(th)Sense- a cloud platform for the IoT- with secure CoAP capabilities, and compliment a DTLS implementation for resource-constrained IoT devices with raw-public key and certificate-based asymmetric cryptography. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first effort toward providing end-to-end secure communication between resource constrained smart things and cloud back-ends which supports all three security modes of CoAP both on the client side and the server side. SecureSense- our End-to-End (E2E) secure communication architecture for the IoT- consists of all standard-based protocols, and implementation of these protocols are open source and BSD-licensed. The SecureSense evaluation benchmarks and open source and open license implementation make it possible for future IoT product and service providers to account for security overhead while using all standardized protocols and while ensuring interoperability among different vendors. The core contributions of this paper are: (i) a complete implementation for CoAP security modes for E2E IoT security, (ii) IoT security and communication protocols for a cloud platform for the IoT, and (iii) detailed experimental evaluation and benchmarking of E2E security between a network of smart things and a cloud platform.

  • 105.
    Raza, Shahid
    et al.
    SICS.
    Keppitiyagama, Chamath
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Security and Privacy in the IPv6-Connected Internet of Things2015In: Cyber-Physical Systems, CRC Press, 2015Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 106.
    Raza, Shahid
    et al.
    SICS Swedish ICT, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Misra, Prasant
    TATA Consultancy Serv Ltd, TCS Res & Innovat, Bangalore, Karnataka, India..
    He, Zhitao
    SICS Swedish ICT, Networked Embedded Syst Grp, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Thiemo, Voigt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication. SICS Swedish ICT, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Building the Internet of Things with bluetooth smart2017In: Ad hoc networks, ISSN 1570-8705, E-ISSN 1570-8713, Vol. 57, p. 19-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things, or the IoT, is an emerging, disruptive technology that enables physical devices to communicate across disparate networks. IP has been the de facto standard for seamless interconnectivity in the traditional Internet; and piggybacking on the success of IP, 6LoWPAN has been the first standardized technology to realize it for networks of resource-constrained devices. In the recent past Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) a.k.a Bluetooth Smart - a subset of the Bluetooth v4.0 and the latest v4.2 stack, has surfaced as an appealing alternative, with many competing advantages over available low-power communication technologies in the IoT space such as IEEE 802.15.4. However, BLE is a closed standard and lacks open hardware and firmware support, something that hinders innovation and development in this field. In this article, we aim to overcome some of the constraints in BLE's core building blocks by making three contributions: first, we present the design of a new open hardware platform for BLE; second, we provide a Contiki O.S. port for the new platform; and third, we identify research challenges and opportunities in 6LoWPAN-connected Bluetooth Smart. We believe that the knowledge and insights will facilitate IoT innovations based on this promising technology.

  • 107.
    Raza, Shahid
    et al.
    SICS Swedish ICT Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Misra, Prasant
    Indian Inst Sci, Robert Bosch Ctr Cyber Phys Syst, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.
    He, Zhitao
    SICS Swedish ICT Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication. SICS Swedish ICT Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bluetooth Smart: An Enabling Technology for the Internet of Things2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The past couple of years have seen a heightened interest in the Internet of Things (IoT), transcending industry, academia and government. As with new ideas that hold immense potential, the optimism of IoT has also exaggerated the underlying technologies well before they can mature into a sustainable ecosystem. While 6LoWPAN has emerged as a disruptive technology that brings IP capability to networks of resource constrained devices, a suitable radio technology for this device class is still debatable. In the recent past, Bluetooth Low Energy (LE) - a subset of the Bluetooth v4.0 stack -has surfaced as an appealing alternative that provides a low-power and loosely coupled mechanism for sensor data collection with ubiquitous units (e.g., smartphones and tablets). When Bluetooth 4.0 was first released, it was not targeted for IP-connected devices but for communication between two neighboring peers. However, the latest release of Bluetooth 4.2 offers features that makes Bluetooth LE a competitive candidate among the available low-power communication technologies in the IoT space. In this paper, we discuss the novel features of Bluetooth LE and its applicability in 6LoWPAN networks. We also highlight important research questions and pointers for potential improvement for its greater impact.

  • 108. Raza, Shahid
    et al.
    Shafagh, Hossein
    Hewage, Kasun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Hummen, René
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Lithe: Lightweight Secure CoAP for the Internet of Things2013In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 13, no 10, p. 3711-3720Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 109. Raza, Shahid
    et al.
    Slabbert, Adriaan
    Voigt, Thiemo
    SICS.
    Landernäs, Krister
    Design and Implementation of a Security Manager for WirelessHART Networks2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 110. Raza, Shahid
    et al.
    Slabbert, Adriaan
    Voigt, Thiemo
    SICS.
    Landernäs, Krister
    Security Considerations for the WirelessHART Protocol2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 111. Raza, Shahid
    et al.
    Trabalza, Daniele
    Voigt, Thiemo
    6LoWPAN Compressed DTLS for CoAP2012In: DCOSS, 2012, p. 287-289Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 112.
    Raza, Shahid
    et al.
    SICS.
    Wallgren, Linus
    SICS.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    SVELTE: Real-time Intrusion Detection in the Internet of Things2013In: Ad hoc networks, ISSN 1570-8705, E-ISSN 1570-8713, Vol. 11, no 8, p. 2661-2674Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Internet of Things (IoT), resource-constrained things are connected to the unreliable and untrusted Internet via IPv6 and 6LoWPAN networks. Even when they are secured with encryption and authentication, these things are exposed both to wireless attacks from inside the 6LoWPAN network and from the Internet. Since these attacks may succeed, Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) are necessary. Currently, there are no IDSs that meet the requirements of the IPv6-connected IoT since the available approaches are either customized for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) or for the conventional Internet. In this paper we design, implement, and evaluate a novel intrusion detection system for the IoT that we call SVELTE. In our implementation and evaluation we primarily target routing attacks such as spoofed or altered information, sinkhole, and selective-forwarding. However, our approach can be extended to detect other attacks. We implement SVELTE in the Contiki OS and thoroughly evaluate it. Our evaluation shows that in the simulated scenarios, SVELTE detects all malicious nodes that launch our implemented sinkhole and/or selective forwarding attacks. However, the true positive rate is not 100%, i.e., we have some false alarms during the detection of malicious nodes. Also, SVELTE's overhead is small enough to deploy it on constrained nodes with limited energy and memory capacity.

  • 113.
    Rohner, Christian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Raza, Shahid
    SICS Swedish ICT.
    Puccinelli, Daniele
    SUPSI, Institute for Information Systems and Networking.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Security in Visible Light Communication: Novel Challenges and Opportunities2015In: Sensors & Transducers Journal, ISSN 2306-8515, E-ISSN 1726-5479, Vol. 192, no 9, p. 9-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As LED lighting becomes increasingly ubiquitous, Visible Light Communication is attracting the interest of academia and industry as a complement to RF as the physical layer for the Internet of Things. Aside from its much greater spectral availability compared to RF, visible light has several attractive properties that may promote its uptake: its lack of health risks, its opportunities for spatial reuse, its relative immunity to multipath fading, its lack of electromagnetic interference, and its inherently secure nature: differently from RF, light does not penetrate through walls. In this paper, we outline the security implications of Visible Light Communication, review the existing contributions to this under-explored space, and survey the research opportunities that we envision for the near future. 

  • 114. Santi, Paolo
    et al.
    Nikoletseas, Sotiris E.
    Mascolo, Cecilia
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Topic 14: Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing2012In: Euro-Par, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 115.
    Soleiman, Andreas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Varshney, Ambuj
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Mottola, Luca
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Demo: Battery-free Visible Light Sensing2017In: Proc. 4th ACM Workshop on Visible Light Communication Systems, New York: ACM Press, 2017, p. 35-35Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 116.
    Soleiman, Andreas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Varshney, Ambuj
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication. RISE SICS, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Battery-free Visible Light Sensing2017In: Proceedings Of The 23rd Annual International Conference On Mobile Computing And Networking (MOBICOM '17), 2017, p. 582-584Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present our efforts to design the first Visible Light Sensing (VLS) system that consumes only tens of mu Ws of power to sense and communicate. Our system requires no modification to the existing light infrastructure and uses unmodulated ambient light as sensing medium. We achieve this by designing a sensing mechanism that uses solar cells to achieve sub-mu Ws of power consumption. Further, we devise an ultra-low power backscatter based transmission mechanism we call Scatterlight that transmits digital readings without incurring the processing and computation overhead of existing sensors. Based on these principles we build a preliminary prototype. Our initial results demonstrate its ability to sense and communicate three hand gestures at 20 mu Ws of power.

  • 117. Suarez, Pablo
    et al.
    Renmarker, Carl-Gustav
    Dunkels, Adam
    SICS.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    SICS.
    Increasing ZigBee Network Lifetime with X-MAC2008In: Proceedins of REALWSN 2008, April 2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 118. Tennakoon, Eranda
    et al.
    Madusanka, Charith
    De Zoysa, Kasun
    Keppitiyagama, Chamath
    Iyer, Venkat
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Hewage, Kasun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication. SICS Swedish ICT, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sensor-based Breakage Detection for Electric Fences2015In: Sensors Applications Symposium (SAS), IEEE, 2015, p. 137-140Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The human-elephant conflict is one of the most severe natural problems in Sri Lanka. There are rich farmlands near the elephant habitats and elephants raid these farms in search of food. This has been the main cause for nearly 70 human deaths and over 200 elephant deaths that have been recorded each year in the recent past. To manage the problem, the government has initiated projects that secure the national wildlife parks with electric fences. However, maintaining the electric fence is a challenge, because of its large perimeter and the lack of available manpower. A particular concern is that of locating faults in electric fences since these typically span a few hundred miles. Currently, park rangers are required to travel on foot to locate the faults, which could take days to complete. In this paper, we propose a novel system architecture that considerably shortens the maintenance time for electric fences, at minimal and hence affordable cost. Our architecture benefits the park rangers of the national wildlife sanctuaries to detect and repair the breakages.

  • 119. Trabalza, Daniele
    et al.
    Raza, Shahid
    SICS.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    INDIGO: Secure CoAP for Smartphones- Enabling E2E Secure Communication in the 6Io2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 120.
    Tsiftes, Nicolas
    et al.
    SICS.
    Dunkels, Adam
    SICS.
    He, Zhitao
    SICS.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    SICS.
    Enabling Large- Scale Storage in Sensor Networks with the Coffee File System2009In: Proceedings of the 8th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks (IPSN 2009), San Francisco, USA, April 2009, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 121.
    Tsiftes, Nicolas
    et al.
    SICS.
    Dunkels, Adam
    SICS.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology.
    Efficient Sensor Network Reprogramming through Compression of Executable Modules2008In: Proceedings of Fifth Annual IEEE Communications Society Conference on Sensor, Mesh and Ad Hoc Communications and Networks (SECON 2008): June 16-20, 2008, San Francisco, California, USA. 2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 122.
    Tsiftes, Nicolas
    et al.
    RISE SICS, Box 1263, SE-16429 Kista, Sweden.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication. RISE SICS, Box 1263, SE-16429 Kista, Sweden.
    Velox VM: A safe execution environment for resource-constrained IoT applications2018In: Journal of Network and Computer Applications, ISSN 1084-8045, E-ISSN 1095-8592, Vol. 118, p. 61-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present Velox, a virtual machine architecture that provides a safe execution environment for applications in resource-constrained IoT devices. Our goal with this architecture is to support developers in writing and deploying safe IoT applications, in a manner similar to smartphones with application stores. To this end, we provide a resource and security policy framework that enables fine-grained control of the execution environment of IoT applications. This framework allows device owners to configure, e.g., the amount of bandwidth, energy, and memory that each IoT application can use. Velox's features also include support for high-level programming languages, a compact bytecode format, and preemptive multi-threading. In the context of IoT devices, there are typically severe energy, memory, and processing constraints that make the design and implementation of a virtual machine with such features challenging. We elaborate on how Velox is implemented in a resource-efficient manner, and describe our port of Velox to the Contiki OS. Our experimental evaluation shows that we can control the resource usage of applications with a low overhead. We further show that, for typical I/O-driven IoT applications, the CPU and energy overhead of executing Velox bytecode is as low as 1-5% compared to corresponding applications compiled to machine code. Lastly, we demonstrate how application policies can be used to mitigate the possibility of exploiting vulnerable applications.

  • 123.
    Tsiftes, Nicolas
    et al.
    RISE SICS.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Velox VM: A safe execution environment for resource-constrained IoT applications2018In: Journal of Network and Computer Applications, ISSN 1084-8045, E-ISSN 1095-8592, Vol. 18, p. 61-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present Velox, a virtual machine architecture that provides a safe execution environment for applications in resource-constrained IoT devices. Our goal with this architecture is to support developers in writing and deploying safe IoT applications, in a manner similar to smartphones with application stores. To this end, we provide a resource and security policy framework that enables fine-grained control of the execution environment of IoT applications. This framework allows device owners to configure, e.g., the amount of bandwidth, energy, and memory that each IoT application can use. Velox's features also include support for high-level programming languages, a compact bytecode format, and preemptive multi-threading.

    In the context of IoT devices, there are typically severe energy, memory, and processing constraints that make the design and implementation of a virtual machine with such features challenging. We elaborate on how Velox is implemented in a resource-efficient manner, and describe our port of Velox to the Contiki OS. Our experimental evaluation shows that we can control the resource usage of applications with a low overhead. We further show that, for typical I/O-driven IoT applications, the CPU and energy overhead of executing Velox bytecode is as low as 1–5% compared to corresponding applications compiled to machine code. Lastly, we demonstrate how application policies can be used to mitigate the possibility of exploiting vulnerable applications.

  • 124.
    Varshney, Ambuj
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Harms, Oliver
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Pérez Penichet, Carlos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Rohner, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Hermans, Frederik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    LoRea: A backscatter architecture that achieves a long communication range2017In: Proc. 15th ACM Conference on Embedded Network Sensor Systems, New York: ACM Press, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is the long-standing assumption that radio communication in the range of hundreds of meters needs to consume mWs of power at the transmitting device. In this paper, we demonstrate that this is not necessarily the case for some devices equipped with backscatter radios. We present LoRea an architecture consisting of a tag, a reader and multiple carrier generators that overcomes the power, cost and range limitations of existing systems such as Computational Radio Frequency Identification (CRFID). LoRea achieves this by: First, generating narrow-band backscatter transmissions that improve receiver sensitivity. Second, mitigating self-interference without the complex designs employed on RFID readers by keeping carrier signal and backscattered signal apart in frequency. Finally, decoupling carrier generation from the reader and using devices such as WiFi routers and sensor nodes as a source of the carrier signal. An off-the-shelf implementation of LoRea costs 70 USD, a drastic reduction in price considering commercial RFID readers cost 2000 USD. LoRea's range scales with the carrier strength, and proximity to the carrier source and achieves a maximum range of 3.4 km when the tag is located at 1m distance from a 28 dBm carrier source while consuming 70 mu W at the tag. When the tag is equidistant from the carrier source and the receiver, we can communicate upto 75m, a significant improvement over existing RFID readers.

  • 125.
    Varshney, Ambuj
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Mottola, Luca
    SICS Swedish ICT, Sweden and Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Carlsson, Mats
    SICS Swedish ICT, Sweden.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Directional Transmissions and Receptions for High-throughput Bulk Forwarding in Wireless Sensor Networks2015In: Proceedings of the 13th ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, 2015, p. 351-364Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present DPT: a wireless sensor network protocol for bulk traffic that uniquely leverages electronically switchable directional (ESD) antennas. Bulk traffic is found in several scenarios and supporting protocols based on standard antenna technology abound. ESD antennas may improve performance in these scenarios; for example, by reducing channel contention as the antenna can steer the radiated energy only towards the intended receivers, and by extending the communication range at no additional energy cost. The corresponding protocol support, however, is largely missing. DPT addresses precisely this issue. First, while the network is quiescent, we collect link metrics across all possible antenna configurations. We use this information to formulate a constraint satisfaction problem (CSP) that allows us to find two multi-hop disjoint paths connecting source and sink, along with the corresponding antenna configurations. Domain-specific heuristics we conceive ameliorate the processing demands in solving the CSP, improving scalability. Second, the routing configuration we obtain is injected back into the network. During the actual bulk transfer, the source funnels data through the two paths by quickly alternating between them. Packet forwarding occurs deterministically at every hop. This allows the source to implicitly "clock" the entire pipeline, sparing the need of proactively synchronizing the transmissions across the two paths. Our results, obtained in a real testbed using 802.15.4-compliant radios and custom ESD antennas we built, indicate that DPT approaches the maximum throughput supported by the link layer, peaking at 214 kbit/s in the settings we test.

  • 126.
    Varshney, Ambuj
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Mottola, Luca
    SICS Swedish ICT, Sweden and Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Coordination of Wireless Sensor Networks using Visible Light2015In: SenSys '15 Proceedings of the 13th ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, 2015, p. 421-422Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless sensor networks are often deployed indoors where artificial lighting is present. Indoor lighting is increasingly being composed of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) that offer the ability to precisely control the intensity and the frequency of the light carrier. This can be used to coordinate wireless sensor networks (WSN). The periodic variations in the light intensity can synchronise the clocks on the sensor nodes, while the ability to modulate the light carrier enables the transmission of control information like channel assignment or transmission schedules.We present Guidelight, a simple mechanism that uses controlled fluctuations in the light intensity to coordinate sensor nodes. Guidelight can wake-up or time synchronise sensor nodes or even send small bits of control information to them. All of these have separate dedicated solutions in WSN. Guidelight aims to provide a single solution to all these problems. Our initial experiments demonstrate the ability of Guidelight to trigger sensor nodes. We demonstrate Guidelight is able to trigger sensor nodes selectively at a mean error of 21 μ s.

  • 127.
    Varshney, Ambuj
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Perez Penichet, Carlos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Rohner, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Demo: LoRea: A backscatter architecture that achieves a long communication range2017In: Proc. 15th ACM Conference on Embedded Network Sensor Systems, New York: ACM Press, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present LoRea an architecture consisting of a backscatter tag, a reader and multiple carrier generators that overcomes the power, cost and range limitations of existing backscatter systems such as Computational Radio Frequency Identification (CRFID). LoRea achieves this by: First, generating narrow-band backscatter transmissions. Second, by mitigating self-interference without the complex designs employed on RFID readers by keeping carrier signal and backscattered signal apart in frequency. Finally, by decoupling carrier generation from the reader and using devices such as WiFi routers and sensor nodes as a source of the carrier signal. LoRea's communication range scales with the carrier strength, and proximity to the carrier source and achieves a maximum range of 3.4 km when the tag is located 1 m from the carrier source while consuming 70 mu Ws at the backscatter tag. We present various ultra-low power and long-range features of the LoRea architecture.

  • 128.
    Varshney, Ambuj
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Pérez Penichet, Carlos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Rohner, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Towards wide-area backscatter networks2017In: Proc. 4th ACM Workshop on Hot Topics in Wireless, New York: ACM Press, 2017, p. 49-53Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 129.
    Varshney, Ambuj
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Soleiman, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Mottola, Luca
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Battery-free Visible Light Sensing2017In: Proc. 4th ACM Workshop on Visible Light Communication Systems, New York: ACM Press, 2017, p. 3-8Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 130.
    Varshney, Ambuj
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Mottola, Luca
    Directional Transmissions and Receptions for Burst Forwarding using Disjoint Paths2014In: Proc. 13th International Symposium on Information Processing in Sensor Networks, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2014, p. 307-308Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bulk data transmission is an important traffic pattern of many sensor network applications. These applications deliver large amounts of sensed data to a sink node for further processing. Most of the existing bulk data transmission protocols use a single flow of communication. This is inefficient as the radio at the source node is transmitting and the sink node is receiving packets for only half of the duration of the burst. We show in this paper that reduced contention because of directional communication enables us to construct node disjoint paths from the source to the sink node using only one wireless channel. This allows us to forward subsequent packets in the burst on the disjoint paths which maximises the radio transmit and receive time at the source and the sink node respectively. We demonstrate that this doubles the sink throughput as compared to a single flow of communication.

  • 131.
    Varshney, Ambuj
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. SICS Swedish ICT, Kista.
    Mottola, Luca
    SICS Swedish ICT, Kista and Politecnico di Milano,Italy.
    Directional transmissions and receptions for high throughput burst forwarding2013In: Proceedings of the 11th ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, 2013, p. 50-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many sensor network applications generate large amounts of sensed data. These often need to be delivered reliably to the sink node for further processing. In such applications, high communication throughput allows for more data to be sensed. Intra-path interference is a problem in reliable forwarding of data and affects the end-to-end throughput. We show that using antennas that allow directional transmissions and receptions significantly reduces intra-path interference and enables high throughput forwarding of packet bursts over multiple hops using only one wireless channel.

  • 132.
    Varshney, Ambuj
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. SICS Swedish ICT.
    Mottola, Luca
    SICS Swedish ICT.
    Using Directional Transmissions and Receptions to Reduce Contention in Wireless Sensor Networks2014In: Real-World Wireless Sensor Networks, 2014, p. 205-213Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronically Switched Directional (ESD) antennas allow software-based control of the direction of maximum antenna gain. ESD antennas are feasible for wireless sensor network. Existing studies with these antennas focus only on controllable directional transmissions. These studies demonstrate reduced contention and increased range of communication with no energy penalty. Unlike existing literature, in this chapter we experimentally explore controllable antenna directionality at both sender and receiver. One key outcome of our experiments is that directional transmissions and receptions together considerably reduce channel contention. As a result, we can significantly reduce intra-path interference.

  • 133.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Bor, Martin
    Lancaster University.
    Roedig, Utz
    Lancaster University.
    Alonso, Juan
    Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Argentina.
    Mitigating Inter-network Interference in LoRa Networks2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 134.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    et al.
    SICS.
    Dunkels, AdamSICS.Marron, Pedro José
    REALWSN 2008: Proceedings of the 2008 Workshop on Real-World Wireless Sensor Networks2008Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 135.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    et al.
    SICS.
    Eriksson, Joakim
    SICS.
    Österlind, Fredrik
    SICS.
    Sauter, Robert
    Aschenbruck, Nils
    Marron, Pedro
    Reynolds, Vinny
    Shu, Lei
    Visser, Otto
    Koubaa, Anis
    Köpke, Andreas
    Towards comparable simulations of cooperating objects and wireless sensor networks2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 136.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Gunningberg, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Adaptive Resource-based Web Server Admission Control2002In: 7th IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communication, 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Web servers must be protected from overload since server overload leads to low server throughput and increased response times experienced by the clients. Server overload occurs when one or more server resources are overutilized. We present an adaptive architecture that performs admission control based on the expected resource consumption of requests. By dynamically setting the maximum rate of accepted requests, we avoid overutilization of the critical resources. We also provide mechanisms for service differentiation. We present our admission control architecture and experiments that show that it can sustain low response times and high throughput for premium clients even during high load.

  • 137.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Gunningberg, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Dealing with Memory-Intensive Web Requests2001Report (Other academic)
  • 138.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Gunningberg, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Handling Multiple Bottlenecks in Web Servers Using Adaptive Inbound Controls2002In: Seventh International Workshop on Protocols for High-Speed Networks (PfHSN 2002), 2002Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 139.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Hewage, Kasun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Alm, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Logopedi.
    Smartphone Support for Persons Who Stutter2014In: Proc. 13th International Symposium on Information Processing in Sensor Networks, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2014, p. 293-294Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stuttering is a very complex speech disorder that affects around 0.7% of adults while around 5% of the population have stuttered at some point. A large percentage of the affected people tend to speak more fluently when their own speech is played back to their ear with some type of alteration. While this has been done with special devices, smartphones can be used for this purpose. We report on our initial experiences on building such an application and demonstrate problems with delay caused by the lack of real-time support for audio playback in the Android operating system. We also discuss ideas for future work to improve app support for people who stutter.

  • 140. Voigt, Thiemo
    et al.
    Hjort, Klas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Materials Science. Materialvetenskap.
    Båmstedt, U.
    Sensor Networking in Aquatic enviroments-Experiences and New Challanges2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 141.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Mottola, Luca
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science.
    Hewage, Kasun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Understanding link dynamics in wireless sensor networks with dynamically steerable directional antennas2013In: Wireless Sensor Networks: EWSN 2013, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, p. 115-130Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By radiating the power in the direction of choice, electronically-switched directional (ESD) antennas can reduce network contention and avoid packet loss. There exists some ESD antennas for wireless sensor networks, but so far researchers have mainly evaluated their directionality. There are no studies regarding the link dynamics of ESD antennas, in particular not for indoor deployments and other scenarios where nodes are not necessarily in line of sight. Our long-term experiments confirm that previous findings that have demonstrated the dependence of angle-of-arrival on channel frequency also hold for directional transmissions with ESD antennas. This is important for the design of protocols for wireless sensor networks with ESD antennas: the best antenna direction, i.e., the direction that leads to the highest packet reception rate and signal strength at the receiver, is not stable but varies over time and with the selected IEEE 802.15.4 channel. As this requires protocols to incorporate some form of adaptation, we present an intentionally simple and yet efficient mechanism for selecting the best antenna direction at run-time with an energy overhead below 2 standard omni-directional transmissions.

  • 142. Voigt, Thiemo
    et al.
    Rohner, ChristianUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Computer Systems.
    Proceedings of the REALWSN'05: Workshop on Real-World Wireless Sensor Networks2005Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 143.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Själander, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Hermans, Frederik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Jimborean, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Hagersten, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Gunningberg, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Kaxiras, Stefanos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Approximation: A New Paradigm also for Wireless Sensing2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 144. Voigt, Thiemo
    et al.
    Voigt, ThiemoSICS.Yu, Yang
    4th International Conference on Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems (DCOSS): Proceedings for Work-in-Progress, Poster, and Demo Papers2008Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 145.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    et al.
    SICS.
    Österlind, Fredrik
    SICS.
    CoReDac: Collision-free command-response data collection2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 146.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    et al.
    SICS.
    Österlind, Fredrik
    SICS.
    Dunkels, Adam
    SICS.
    Improving sensor network robustness with multi-channel convergecast2008In: Proceedings of the 2nd ERCIM Workshop on e-Mobility, Tampere, Finland, May 2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 147. Wallgren, Linus
    et al.
    Raza, Shahid
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Routing Attacks and Countermeasures in the RPL-Based Internet of Things2013In: International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, ISSN 1550-1329, E-ISSN 1550-1477, p. 794326-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks (RPL) is a novel routing protocol standardized for constrained environments such as 6LoWPAN networks. Providing security in IPv6/RPL connected 6LoWPANs is challenging because the devices are connected to the untrusted Internet and are resource constrained, the communication links are lossy, and the devices use a set of novel IoT technologies such as RPL, 6LoWPAN, and CoAP/CoAPs. In this paper we provide a comprehensive analysis of IoT technologies and their new security capabilities that can be exploited by attackers or IDSs. One of the major contributions in this paper is our implementation and demonstration of well-known routing attacks against 6LoWPAN networks running RPL as a routing protocol. We implement these attacks in the RPL implementation in the Contiki operating system and demonstrate these attacks in the Cooja simulator. Furthermore, we highlight novel security features in the IPv6 protocol and exemplify the use of these features for intrusion detection in the IoT by implementing a lightweight heartbeat protocol.

  • 148.
    Wei, Bo
    et al.
    University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia and CSIRO, Brisbane, Australia and SICS, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Varshney, Ambuj
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Patwari, Neal
    University of Utah, Salt Lake City and Xandem Technology, Salt Lake City.
    Hu, Wen
    University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia and CSIRO, Brisbane, Australia and SICS, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Chou, Chun Tung
    University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.
    dRTI: Directional Radio Tomographic Imaging2015In: Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks, 2015, p. 166-177Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Radio tomographic imaging (RTI) enables device free localisation of people and objects in many challenging environments and situations. Its basic principle is to detect the changes in the statistics of radio signals due to the radio link obstruction by people or objects. However, the localisation accuracy of RTI suffers from complicated multipath propagation behaviours in radio links. We propose to use inexpensive and energy efficient electronically switched directional (ESD) antennas to improve the quality of radio link behaviour observations, and therefore, the localisation accuracy of RTI. We implement a directional RTI (dRTI) system to understand how directional antennas can be used to improve RTI localisation accuracy. We also study the impact of the choice of antenna directions on the localisation accuracy of dRTI and propose methods to effectively choose informative antenna directions to improve localisation accuracy while reducing overhead. Furthermore, we analyse radio link obstruction performance in both theory and simulation, as well as false positives and false negatives of the obstruction measurements to show the superiority of the directional communication for RTI. We evaluate the performance of dRTI in diverse indoor environments and show that dRTI significantly outperforms the existing RTI localisation methods based on omni-directional antennas.

  • 149.
    Wirström, Niklas
    et al.
    SICS.
    Misra, Prasant
    SICS.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    SICS.
    Poster Abstract: Spray, Embracing Multimodality2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 150.
    Wirström, Niklas
    et al.
    SICS.
    Misra, Prasant
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Spray: A Multi-Modal Localization System for Stationary Sensor Network Deployment2014In: 2014 11TH IEEE/IFIP ANNUAL CONFERENCE ON WIRELESS ON-DEMAND NETWORK SYSTEMS AND SERVICES (IEEE/IFIP WONS 2014), IEEE , 2014, p. 25-32Conference paper (Refereed)
1234 101 - 150 of 160
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