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  • 101.
    Wijnhoven, T M A
    et al.
    Noncommunicable Diseases and Health Promotion, World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen Ø, Denmark.
    van Raaij, J M A
    Centre for Nutrition and Health, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, the Netherlands; Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, the Netherlands.
    Spinelli, A
    National Centre for Epidemiology, Surveillance and Health Promotion, National Institute of Health, Rome, Italy.
    Rito, A I
    Food and Nutrition Department, National Institute of Health Dr. Ricardo Jorge IP, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Hovengen, R
    Department of Health Statistics, National Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
    Kunesova, M
    Obesity Unit, Institute of Endocrinology, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Starc, G
    Faculty of Sport, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Rutter, H
    National Obesity Observatory, Oxford, UK.
    Sjöberg, A
    Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Public Health Epidemiology Unit, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Petrauskiene, A
    Academy of Medicine, Faculty of Public Health, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    O'Dwyer, U
    Department of Health and Children, Dublin, Ireland.
    Petrova, S
    Department of Food and Nutrition, National Centre of Public Health and Analysis, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Farrugia Sant'angelo, V
    Primary Health Care Department, Floriana, Malta.
    Wauters, M
    Flemish Agency for Care and Health, Flemish Ministry of Welfare, Public Health and Family, Brussels, Belgium.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Örebro universitet, Restaurang- och hotellhögskolan.
    Rubana, I-M
    Public Health Agency, Riga, Latvia.
    Breda, J
    Noncommunicable Diseases and Health Promotion, World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen Ø, Denmark.
    WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative 2008: weight, height and body mass index in 6-9-year-old children2013In: Pediatric Obesity, ISSN 2047-6302, E-ISSN 2047-6310, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 79-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    UNLABELLED: What is already known about this subject Overweight and obesity prevalence estimates among children based on International Obesity Task Force definitions are substantially lower than estimates based on World Health Organization definitions. Presence of a north-south gradient with the highest level of overweight found in southern European countries. Intercountry comparisons of overweight and obesity in primary-school children in Europe based on measured data lack a similar data collection protocol. What this study adds Unique dataset on overweight and obesity based on measured weights and heights in 6-9-year-old children from 12 European countries using a harmonized surveillance methodology. Because of the use of a consistent data collection protocol, it is possible to perform valid multiple comparisons between countries. It demonstrates wide variations in overweight and obesity prevalence estimates among primary-school children between European countries and regions.

    BACKGROUND: Nutritional surveillance in school-age children, using measured weight and height, is not common in the European Region of the World Health Organization (WHO). The WHO Regional Office for Europe has therefore initiated the WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative.

    OBJECTIVE: To present the anthropometric results of data collected in 2007/2008 and to investigate whether there exist differences across countries and between the sexes.

    METHODS: Weight and height were measured in 6-9-year-old children in 12 countries. Prevalence of overweight, obesity, stunting, thinness and underweight as well as mean Z-scores of anthropometric indices of height, weight and body mass index were calculated.

    RESULTS: A total of 168 832 children were included in the analyses and a school participation rate of more than 95% was obtained in 8 out of 12 countries. Stunting, underweight and thinness were rarely prevalent. However, 19.3-49.0% of boys and 18.4-42.5% of girls were overweight (including obesity and based on the 2007 WHO growth reference).The prevalence of obesity ranged from 6.0 to 26.6% among boys and from 4.6 to 17.3% among girls. Multi-country comparisons suggest the presence of a north-south gradient with the highest level of overweight found in southern European countries.

    CONCLUSIONS: Overweight among 6-9-year-old children is a serious public health concern and its variation across the European Region highly depends on the country. Comparable monitoring of child growth is possible across Europe and should be emphasized in national policies and implemented as part of action plans.

  • 102.
    Wijnhoven, Trudy M A
    et al.
    Division of Noncommunicable Diseases and Life-Course, WHO Regional Office for Europe, UN City, Copenhagen, Denmark .
    van Raaij, Joop M A
    Centre for Nutrition, Prevention and Health Services, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands; Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands .
    Sjöberg, Agneta
    Department of Food and Nutrition and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Eldin, Nazih
    Health Promotion Department, Health Service Executive, Railway Street, Navan, County Meath, Ireland; National Nutrition Surveillance Centre, School of Public Health, Physiotherapy & Population Science, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin, Ireland .
    Yngve, Agneta
    Örebro universitet, Restaurang- och hotellhögskolan.
    Kunešová, Marie
    Obesity Management Centre, Institute of Endocrinology, Prague, Czech Republic .
    Starc, Gregor
    Faculty of Sport, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia .
    Rito, Ana I
    National Health Institute Doutor Ricardo Jorge, Av. Padre Cruz, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Duleva, Vesselka
    Department of Food and Nutrition, National Centre of Public Health and Analyses, Sofia, Bulgaria .
    Hassapidou, Maria
    Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Alexander Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece .
    Martos, Eva
    National Institute for Food and Nutrition Science, Budapest, Hungary .
    Pudule, Iveta
    Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, Riga, Latvia.
    Petrauskiene, Ausra
    Department of Preventive Medicine, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania .
    Sant'Angelo, Victoria Farrugia
    Primary Health Care Department, Malta .
    Hovengen, Ragnhild
    Department of Health Statistics, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
    Breda, João
    Division of Noncommunicable Diseases and Life-Course, WHO Regional Office for Europe, UN City, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: School Nutrition Environment and Body Mass Index in Primary Schools2014In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 11, no 11, p. 11261-11285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Schools are important settings for the promotion of a healthy diet and sufficient physical activity and thus overweight prevention.

    Objective: To assess differences in school nutrition environment and body mass index (BMI) in primary schools between and within 12 European countries.

    Methods: Data from the World Health Organization (WHO) European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) were used (1831 and 2045 schools in 2007/2008 and 2009/2010, respectively). School personnel provided information on 18 school environmental characteristics on nutrition and physical activity. A school nutrition environment score was calculated using five nutrition-related characteristics whereby higher scores correspond to higher support for a healthy school nutrition environment. Trained field workers measured children's weight and height; BMI-for-age (BMI/A) Z-scores were computed using the 2007 WHO growth reference and, for each school, the mean of the children's BMI/A Z-scores was calculated.

    Results: Large between-country differences were found in the availability of food items on the premises (e.g., fresh fruit could be obtained in 12%-95% of schools) and school nutrition environment scores (range: 0.30-0.93). Low-score countries (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania) graded less than three characteristics as supportive. High-score (≥0.70) countries were Ireland, Malta, Norway, Portugal, Slovenia and Sweden. The combined absence of cold drinks containing sugar, sweet snacks and salted snacks were more observed in high-score countries than in low-score countries. Largest within-country school nutrition environment scores were found in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania. All country-level BMI/A Z-scores were positive (range: 0.20-1.02), indicating higher BMI values than the 2007 WHO growth reference. With the exception of Norway and Sweden, a country-specific association between the school nutrition environment score and the school BMI/A Z-score was not observed.

    Conclusions: Some European countries have implemented more school policies that are supportive to a healthy nutrition environment than others. However, most countries with low school nutrition environment scores also host schools with supportive school environment policies, suggesting that a uniform school policy to tackle the "unhealthy" school nutrition environment has not been implemented at the same level throughout a country and may underline the need for harmonized school policies.

  • 103.
    Wijnhoven, Trudy M. A.
    et al.
    Division of Noncommunicable Diseases and Promoting Health through the Life-Course,WHO Regional Office for Europe, UNCity, Copenhagen,Denmark.
    van Raaij, Joop M. A.
    Centre for Nutrition, Prevention and Health Services, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, P.O. Bilthoven, Netherlands; Division of Human Nutrition,Wageningen University, Wageningen, Netherlands.
    Spinelli, Angela
    National Centre for Epidemiology, Surveillance and Health Promotion, National Institute of Health, Rome, Italy.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Örebro universitet, Restaurang- och hotellhögskolan.
    Lissner, Lauren
    Section for Epidemiology and Social Medicine, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Spiroski, Igor
    Department of Physiology and Monitoring of Nutrition, Institute of Public Health, Skopje, Macedonia.
    Sant'Angelo, Victoria Farrugia
    Primary Child Health, Floriana Health Centre, Floriana, Malta.
    Pérez-Farinós, Napoleón
    Spanish Agency for Consumer Affairs, Food Safety and Nutrition, Madrid, Spain.
    Martos, Éva
    National Institute of Pharmacy and Nutrition, Budapest, Hungary.
    Heinen, Mirjam
    National Nutrition Surveillance Centre, School of Public Health, Physiotherapy & Population Science, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin, Ireland.
    Kunešová, Marie
    Obesity Management Centre, Institute of Endocrinology, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Rito, Ana I.
    Instituto Nacional de Saúde Dr. Ricardo Jorge, IP, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Hovengen, Ragnhild
    Department of Health Statistics, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
    Starc, Gregor
    Faculty of Sport, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Duleva, Vesselka
    Department of Food and Nutrition, National Center of Public Health and Analyses, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Pudule, Iveta
    Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, Riga, Latvia.
    Petrauskiene, Ausra
    Department of Preventive Medicine, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Braeckevelt, Lien
    Flemish Agency for Care and Health, Flemish Ministry ofWelfare, Public Health and Family, Koning Albert II-Laan 35, Brussels, Belgium.
    Hassapidou, Maria
    Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Alexander Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Breda, João
    Division of Noncommunicable Diseases and Promoting Health through the Life-Course,WHO Regional Office for Europe, UNCity, Copenhagen,Denmark.
    van't Veer, Pieter
    Division of Human Nutrition,Wageningen University, Wageningen, Netherlands.
    WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: Impact of type of clothing worn during anthropometric measurements and timing of the survey on weight and body mass index outcome measures in 6-9-year-old children2016In: Epidemiology Research International, ISSN 2090-2972, E-ISSN 2090-2980, article id 5130317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The World Health Organization European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) conducted examinations in 6–9-year-old children from 16 countries in the first two rounds of data collection. Allowing participating countries to adhere to their local legal requirements or adapt to other circumstances required developing a flexible protocol for anthropometric procedures.

    Objectives: (1) Review intercountry variation in types of clothing worn by children during weight and height measurements, clothes weight adjustments applied, timing of the survey, and duration of data collection; (2) assess the impact of the observed variation in these practices on the children’s weight or body mass index (BMI) outcome measures.

    Results: The relative difference between countries’ unadjusted and clothes-adjusted prevalence estimates for overweight was 0.3–11.5%; this figure was 1.4–33.3% for BMI-for-age Z-score values. Monthly fluctuations in mean BMI-for-age Z-score values did not show a systematic seasonal effect. The majority of the monthly BMI-for-age Z-score values did not differ statistically within a country; only 1–3 monthly values were statistically different within some countries.

    Conclusions: The findings of the present study suggest that the built-in flexibility in the COSI protocol concerning the data collection practices addressed in the paper can be kept and thus do not necessitate a revision of the COSI protocol.

  • 104.
    Wijnhoven, Trudy Ma
    et al.
    Division of Noncommunicable Diseases and Promoting Health through the Life-Course, WHO Regional Office for Europe, UN City, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    van Raaij, Joop Ma
    Centre for Nutrition, Prevention and Health Services, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands; Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Örebro universitet, Restaurang- och hotellhögskolan.
    Sjöberg, Agneta
    Department of Food and Nutrition and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kunešová, Marie
    Obesity Management Centre, Institute of Endocrinology, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Duleva, Vesselka
    Department of Food and Nutrition, National Center of Public Health and Analyses, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Petrauskiene, Ausra
    Department of Preventive Medicine, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Rito, Ana I
    National Health Institute Doutor Ricardo Jorge, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Breda, João
    Division of Noncommunicable Diseases and Promoting Health through the Life-Course, WHO Regional Office for Europe, UN City, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: health-risk behaviours on nutrition and physical activity in 6-9-year-old schoolchildren2015In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 18, no 17, p. 3108-3124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To assess to what extent eight behavioural health risks related to breakfast and food consumption and five behavioural health risks related to physical activity, screen time and sleep duration are present among schoolchildren, and to examine whether health-risk behaviours are associated with obesity.

    DESIGN: Cross-sectional design as part of the WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (school year 2007/2008). Children's behavioural data were reported by their parents and children's weight and height measured by trained fieldworkers. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were performed.

    SETTING: Primary schools in Bulgaria, Lithuania, Portugal and Sweden; paediatric clinics in the Czech Republic.

    SUBJECTS: Nationally representative samples of 6-9-year-olds (n 15 643).

    RESULTS: All thirteen risk behaviours differed statistically significantly across countries. Highest prevalence estimates of risk behaviours were observed in Bulgaria and lowest in Sweden. Not having breakfast daily and spending screen time ≥2 h/d were clearly positively associated with obesity. The same was true for eating 'foods like pizza, French fries, hamburgers, sausages or meat pies' >3 d/week and playing outside <1 h/d. Surprisingly, other individual unhealthy eating or less favourable physical activity behaviours showed either no or significant negative associations with obesity. A combination of multiple less favourable physical activity behaviours showed positive associations with obesity, whereas multiple unhealthy eating behaviours combined did not lead to higher odds of obesity.

    CONCLUSIONS: Despite a categorization based on international health recommendations, individual associations of the thirteen health-risk behaviours with obesity were not consistent, whereas presence of multiple physical activity-related risk behaviours was clearly associated with higher odds of obesity.

  • 105.
    Wolf, Alexandra
    et al.
    Institute for Nutritional Sciences, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria .
    Yngve, Agneta
    Department of Biosciences, Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Elmadfa, Ibrahim
    Institute for Nutritional Sciences, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; University of Vienna, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Vienna, Austria.
    Poortvliet, Eric
    Department of Biosciences, Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Ehrenblad, Bettina
    Department of Biosciences, Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen
    Community Nutrition Unit, Bilbao, Spain .
    Thórsdóttir, Inga
    Unit for Nutrition Research, Landspitali University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland; Department of Food Science, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland .
    Haraldsdóttir, Jóhanna
    Research Department of Human Nutrition, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Copenhagen, Denmark .
    Brug, Johannes
    Department of Public Health, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands .
    Maes, Lea
    Department of Public Health, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Vaz de Almeida, Maria Daniel
    Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal .
    Krølner, Rikke
    Department of Social Medicine, Institute of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark .
    Klepp, Knut-Inge
    Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway .
    Fruit and vegetable intake of mothers of 11-year-old children in nine European countries: the Pro Children Cross-sectional Survey2005In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 49, no 4, p. 246-254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare fruit and vegetable intakes of mothers of 11-year-old children across Europe.

    METHODS: Cross-sectional surveys were carried out in 9 European countries in October/November 2003. Self-administered questionnaires assessing fruit and vegetable consumption were used for data collection. The current paper presents dietary intake data obtained by a precoded 24-hour recall and a food frequency questionnaire.

    RESULTS: The consumption levels of fruit and vegetables (without fruit juice) were in line with World Health Organization recommendations of > or =400 g/day for only 27% of all participating mothers. Based on both instruments, the Pro Children results showed comparatively high average fruit intake levels in Portugal, Denmark and Sweden (211, 203 and 194 g/day) and the lowest intake in Iceland (97 g/day). High vegetable intake levels were found in Portugal and Belgium (169 and 150 g/day), the lowest in Spain (88 g/day). A south-north gradient could not be observed in the Pro Children study.

    CONCLUSION: Fruit and vegetable intakes are low in mothers of 11-year-olds across Europe. Especially vegetable consumption can be regarded as marginal in most of the studied European countries. A high percentage of mothers indicated to eat fruit and vegetables less than once a day. The results have shown that national and international interventions are necessary to promote fruit and especially vegetable consumption in the European population of mothers.

  • 106.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Unit for Public Health Nutrition, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A historical perspective of the understanding of the link betwen diet and coronary heart disease2009In: American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, ISSN 1559-8276, E-ISSN 1559-8284, Vol. 1S, p. 35S-38SArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of the understanding of the underlying causes of coronary heart disease has undergone several stages. Ecological studies, such as the Seven Countries’ Study, showed a possible relationship between mortality in coronary heart disease and intake of saturated fats. The investigated area with the lowest rates of cardiovascular disease was the island of Crete, Greece. A discussion soon started to evolve around the Mediterranean diet, which at the time consisted mainly of foods of vegetable origin, olive oil, and cereals of unrefined nature. Several clinical trials have been undertaken since then, including the Lyon Heart Diet Study, in which it was clearly shown that both mortality and morbidity in coronary heart disease were substantially lowered by Mediterranean food compared with controls. Dean Ornish proved that an extreme regimen actually could reduce already exist-ing sclerotic plaques, while the Women’s Health Initiative study showed that a more modest diet change did not cause the intended reduction in heart disease in middleaged women. Another prospective study of a similar age group of women showed that a diet with a low glycemic load provided a good reduction in coronary heart disease. Multiple studies of different components of food have shown no positive result, pointing at the whole diet rather than its components of nutrients as being of importance. Today, the experts agree on the optimal diet to prevent not only heart disease but also cancer forms and other chronic disease such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. This diet consists of a lot of fruit and vegetables, lots of fish, less salt and sugar, more unrefined cereals, beans, and nuts. Going from a general notion of Mediterranean food to testing that food in clinical settings and testing nutrients as preventative agents, it can be concluded that a generally healthy lifestyle, including a healthy diet, appropriate amounts of physical activity, good sleep, and less stress, is the way to a heart-healthy life

  • 107. Yngve, Agneta
    A new academic year2008In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 11, no 9, p. 875-876Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 108.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Biosci & Nutr, S-10401 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Challenges for Public Health Nutrition are immense: to be a good public health nutrition leader requires networking and collaboration2006In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 9, no 5, p. 535-537Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 109.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics. Karolinska Institutet.
    Editorial - The Santa Body Size Index (SBSI)2007In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 10, no 12, p. 1415-1416Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 110.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Food and drink marketing to children: a continuing scandal2007In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 10, no 10, p. 971-972Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 111.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Handbook of publishing 20182018Report (Other academic)
  • 112.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Handbook of publishing 2019: Department of food studies, nutrition and dietetics2019Report (Other academic)
  • 113.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Publiceringshandbok 20182018Report (Other academic)
  • 114.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Publiceringshandbok 2019: Institutionen för Kostvetenskap2019Report (Other academic)
  • 115.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Biosci & Nutr, S-10401 Stockholm, Sweden.
    The Santa saga: RUT YACH. A random uncontrollable tribulation. One year blow-up2008In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 11, no 12, p. 1203-1203Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 116.
    Yngve, Agneta
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Biosci Novum, Unit Prevent Nutr, Stockholm, Sweden.
    De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse
    Univ Ghent, Dept Movement & Sport Sci, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Wolf, Alexandra
    Austrian Agcy Hlth & Food Safety, Vienna, Austria.
    Grjibovski, Andrej
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Biosci Novum, Unit Prevent Nutr, Stockholm, Sweden; Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Div Epidemiol, Oslo, Norway.
    Brug, Johannes
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam Med Ctr, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Due, Pernille
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Social Med, DK-1168 Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Ehrenblad, Bettina
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Biosci Novum, Unit Prevent Nutr, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Elmadfa, Ibrahim
    Univ Vienna, Inst Nutr Sci, A-1010 Vienna, Austria.
    Franchini, Bela
    Univ Porto, Fac Nutr & Food Sci, Oporto, Portugal.
    Klepp, Knut-Inge
    Univ Oslo, Dept Nutr, Fac Med, N-0316 Oslo, Norway.
    Poortvliet, Eric
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Biosci Novum, Unit Prevent Nutr, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rasmussen, Mette
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Social Med, DK-1168 Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Thorsdottir, Inga
    Landspitali Univ Hosp, Unit Nutr Res, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Perez Rodrigo, Carmen
    Community Nutr Unit, Bilbao, Spain.
    Differences in prevalence of overweight and stunting in 11-year olds across Europe: The Pro Children Study2008In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 126-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To assess country differences in prevalence of overweight, obesity, underweight and stunting in the Pro Children Survey.Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted in a random sample of schools in nine European countries in 2003. The subjects were 8317 11-year-old children from Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Iceland, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain and Sweden. Parents reported height and weight of the children, and BMI values were analysed using the US Centers of Disease Control and Prevention and the International Obesity Task Force reference populations. Continuous variables were compared with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Games-Howell post hoc tests. Categorical variables were analysed using chi-square tests.Results: The prevalence of overweight + obesity varied between the countries from 8.6% to 30.6% and 5.9% to 26.5%, respectively, depending on the reference population, with the lowest prevalence in Dutch girls, the highest in Portuguese boys. Obesity prevalence varied from 1.1% (Dutch and Danish girls) to 10.7% (Portuguese boys) and from 0.3% (Dutch girls) to 6.2% (Portuguese boys), respectively. Portugal and Spain had the highest prevalence of overweight and obesity for both genders. The ranking of the countries according to overweight and obesity prevalence was roughly the same, independent of reference population. The prevalence of underweight varied from 2.3% (Swedish boys) to 12.3% (Belgian boys), using the American reference population. The proportion of stunted children was highest in Portugal, Spain and Belgium.Conclusions: The highest levels of overweight, obesity and stunting in the pro children material are found in Portugal and Spain.

  • 117.
    Yngve, Agneta
    et al.
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekelund, Ulf
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Social Marketing in Public Health Nutriton: also for Nordic countries?2001In: Physical activity: a part of healthy eating? : report from a Nordic Seminar, Lahti, Finland, February 2000 / [ed] Mikael Fogelholm, København, 2001, p. 79-87Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 118.
    Yngve, Agneta
    et al.
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekelund, Ulf
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Social Marketing in Public Health Nutriton: also for Nordic countries?2001In: Physical activity: a part of healthy eating? : report from a Nordic Seminar, Lahti, Finland, February 2000 / [ed] Mikael Fogelholm, København, 2001, p. 79-87Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 119.
    Yngve, Agneta
    et al.
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Novum, Huddinge, Sweden .
    Hambraeus, Leif
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Novum, Huddinge, Sweden .
    Lissner, Lauren
    Department of Community Medicine and Public Health, Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Serra Majem, Lluis
    Department of Clinical Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain; Sociedad Espanola de Nutricion Comunitaria (Spanish Society of Public Health Nutrition), Spain .
    Vaz de Almeida, Maria Daniel
    Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Porto, Portugal; Portuguese Society for Nutrition and Food Sciences, Porto, Portugal .
    Berg, Christina
    Department of Home Economics, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden .
    Hughes, Roger
    School of Public Health (Gold Coast), Griffith University, QLD, Australia .
    Cannon, Geoffrey
    World Health Policy Forum Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
    Thorsdottir, Inga
    Unit for Nutrition Research, Landspitali-University Hospital, Iceland; University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland .
    Kearney, John
    Department of Biological Sciences, Dublin Institute of Technology, Dublin, Ireland .
    Gustafsson, Jan-Åke
    Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Novum, Huddinge, Sweden .
    Rafter, Joseph
    Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Novum, Huddinge, Sweden .
    Elmadfa, Ibrahim
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Vienna, Austria .
    Kennedy, Nick
    Department of Clinical Medicine, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland .
    The Women's Health Initiative. What is on trial: nutrition and chronic disease? Or misinterpreted science, media havoc and the sound of silence from peers?2006In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 269-272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first results of the Women's Health Initiative dietary intervention trial were published in the USA in February. This is a colossal intervention designed to see if diets lower in fat and higher in fruits, vegetables and grains than is usual in high-income countries reduce the incidence of breast cancer, colorectal cancer, heart disease and other chronic diseases, in women aged 50-79 years. As interpreted by US government media releases, the results were unimpressive. As interpreted by a global media blitz, the results indicate that food and nutrition has little or nothing to do with health and disease. But the trial was in key respects not reaching its aims, was methodologically controversial, and in any case has not produced the reported null results. What should the public health nutrition profession do about such messes?

  • 120.
    Yngve, Agneta
    et al.
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Kylberg, Elisabeth
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Breast-feeding in Europe - rationale and prevalence, challenges and possibilities for promotion2001In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 4, no 6A, p. 1353-1355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The status reports and other information collected showed that interpretation of the data on breast-feeding prevalence and duration collected at national or regional level within European countries is difficult, since this information is not collected in every country or it is gathered under different criteria. However, there seem to be vast differences in prevalence of breast-fed children and breast-feeding duration between European countries and possibly within countries. There is a need to establish monitoring systems enabling comparability of data between countries. Assessing determinants for breast-feeding is required as well. There are a number of important consensus documents supporting breast-feeding action. These documents are related to either one or more of the following categories: health benefits of breast-feeding; recommendations regarding breast-feeding duration and exclusiveness; providing guidance on breast-feeding promotion. Current recommendation is exclusive breast-feeding for 6 months.

  • 121.
    Yngve, Agneta
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Margetts, Barrie
    University of Southampton, United Kingdom.
    Building centres of excellence, and a new approach to food guides2009In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 589-590Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 122.
    Yngve, Agneta
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Restaurang- och hotellhögskolan.
    Margetts, Barrie
    Hughes, Roger
    Tseng, Marilyn
    Editorial on the occasion of the International Congress of Nutrition. World hunger: A good fight or a losing cause?2009In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 12, no 10, p. 1685-1686Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 123.
    Yngve, Agneta
    et al.
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sjoström, Michael
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekelund, Ulf
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin.
    Effect of monitor placement and of activity setting on the MTI accelerometer output2003In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 320-326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To examine the effect of monitor placement (hip vs back) and of activity setting (treadmill vs track) on the output from the Manufacturing Technology Inc. (MTI), activity monitor (model WAM 7164).

    METHODS: In a laboratory study, 28 subjects (14 men, 14 women) walked at a normal pace, walked at a fast pace, and jogged at a comfortable pace on an indoor track. These activities were repeated on a treadmill using the individual speeds from the track locomotion. Oxygen uptake was measured simultaneously using a portable metabolic system. One activity monitor was worn on the hip and one on the lower back. In a field study, 34 subjects (18 men, 16 women) each wore two monitors (hip and low back placement) for seven consecutive days. In the laboratory study, ANOVA showed significant effects of placement ( P = 0.009) and setting ( P < 0.001), indicating that activity counts differ between different body sites and different settings (track vs treadmill). Gross energy expenditure predictive equations were developed and thereafter evaluated in the field study. Time spent at moderate and vigorous intensity of physical activity was 38% and 85% ( P < 0.001) higher when calculated from the treadmill-based equations as compared to the track-based equations. Free-living physical activity estimates were not affected by the placement.

    CONCLUSION: The relationship between activity counts and energy expenditure during laboratory locomotion is placement and setting-specific. When habitual physical activity is assessed in free-living subjects, the treadmill derived relationship between energy expenditure and activity counts may overestimate time spent at moderate intensity of physical activity, whereas the placement of the monitor does not influence on the interpretation of the data.

  • 124.
    Yngve, Agneta
    et al.
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden .
    Sjöström, Michael
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; Department of Physical Education and Health, University of Örebro, Örebro, Sweden .
    Breastfeeding determinants and a suggested framework for action in Europe2001In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 4, no 2B, p. 729-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a background paper for the EURODIET initiative. A number of international initiatives and documents were identified, such as the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative, the International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes and a number of consensus reports from professional groups, that propose ways forward for breastfeeding promotion. These point at a range of initiatives on different levels. The determinants for successful breastfeeding have to be identified. They can be categorised into five groups; socio-demographic, psycho-social, health care related, community- and policy attributes. A framework for future breastfeeding promoting efforts on European level is suggested, within which these determinants are considered. A common surveillance system needs to be built in Europe, where determinants of breastfeeding are included. There is also a need for a surveillance system which makes it possible to use the collected data on local level, not only on national and supranational level. Combined with a thorough review of the effectiveness of already existing breastfeeding promotion programmes, a co-ordinated EU-EFTA action plan on breastfeeding should be formulated and implemented within a few years. Urgent action could take place in parallel, especially targeting young, low-income, less educated mothers.

  • 125.
    Yngve, Agneta
    et al.
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Sjöström, Michael
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Breastfeeding in countries of the European Union and EFTA: current and proposed recommendations, rationale, prevalence, duration and trends2001In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 4, no 2B, p. 631-645Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recommendations suggest exclusive breast feeding for at least the first 4 to 6 months after birth. Paradoxically, an overwhelming proportion of breast feeding (BF) data in Europe refers to all BF, i.e. not only exclusive but also partial BF (including formula, juices, water, sweetened water etc). This makes it difficult to estimate to what extent the recommendations are met. There is currently strong evidence for recommending exclusive breast feeding for at least 6 months. Exclusive BF has progressively gained scientific support. Prevention of infections, allergies and chronic diseases and a favourable cognitive development are highlighted in the recent scientific literature. Further long-term studies on the effects of BF on prevention of chronic disease in the adult are needed. Great differences exist in BF prevalence and duration both within and between European countries. Trends point towards higher prevalence and duration, with some exceptions. Young mothers breast feed less than older mothers; single and/or less educated mothers breast feed less than married mothers with more education. However, inefficient and unreliable monitoring systems prevail, and the data are scarce, not only on exclusive BF but also on demographic, socio-economic, psychosocial and medical determinants of BF patterns. National BF coordinators have not been appointed in many countries, and only every second country has promotion of BF incorporated into their national plan of action for nutrition.

    Conclusions: Efficient surveillance systems, comparable across Europe and using common definitions and methodology, need to be developed. These should include determinants of breast feeding. A European consensus conference should urgently be organised, in which strategies for successful promotion of exclusive BF should be particularly considered. There is now strong evidence for a recommendation to breast feed exclusively for about 6 months, which is more than the duration recommended previously.

  • 126.
    Yngve, Agneta
    et al.
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; Department of Physical Education and Health, University of Örebro, Örebro, Sweden:.
    Warm, Daniel
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; Institue of Human Nutrition, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.
    Margetts, Barrie
    Institue of Human Nutrition, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.
    Rodrigo, Carmen Pérez
    Community Nutrition Unit, Department of Public Health, Bilbao, Spain.
    Nissinen, Aulikki
    Department of Community Health and General Practice, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland.
    Effective promotion of healthy nutrition and physical activity in Europe requires skilled and competent people: European Master's Programme in Public Health Nutrition1999In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 2, no 3A, p. 449-452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scientists in basic research and epidemiology deliver messages to policy makers. Effective population based strategies then require people trained and competent in the discipline of Public Health Nutrition (PHN). Since 1997, a European Master's Programme in PHN has been undergoing planning and implementation with the aid of funding from the European Commission (DGV). PHN is used as a broad term covering Nutrition and Physical Activity as well as Health Promotion and Disease Prevention.

    The partners in this project are academic departments from 17 countries. The students will undertake core modules and electives for a year and a half, followed by a research project for six months. In order to set up formalised procedures for the evaluation of the quality assurance of individual modules from across Europe, a quality assurance system has been set up.

    The academic year 1999-2000 will allow an opportunity for Universities and Institutes to start new modules, to develop other modules, assess the movement of students between modules, tackle funding issues and allow further marketing of the programme. Future activities include strengthening of the European Network for Public Health Nutrition (ENPHN), the establishment of a consortium with universities, the co-ordination of programme activities with other European Master's Programmes in Public Health, and the incorporation of new Member States from Eastern Europe.

    We can look forward to a new brand of professionals, who are truly European in their training, but who also have an integrated view of nutrition and physical activity, health promotion and disease prevention and who are prepared for policy making, action planning, implementation and evaluation.

  • 127.
    Yngve, Agneta
    et al.
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences at Novum, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Strindlund, Åsa
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences at Novum, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences at Novum, Huddinge, Sweden.
    The development of a European master programme in public health nutrition2003In: Forum of nutrition, ISSN 1660-0347, Vol. 56, p. 135-136Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 128.
    Yngve, Agneta
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Biosci & Nutr, Unit Publ Hlth Nutr, S-10401 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Thulin, Susanna
    A European network for public health nutrition: The EUNUTNET project2007In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 51, p. 321-322Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 129.
    Yngve, Agneta
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Biosci & Nutr, S-10401 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tseng, Marilyn
    Haapala, Irja
    Hodge, Allison
    A robust and knowledgeable workforce is essential for public health nutrition policy implementation2012In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 15, no 11, p. 1979-1980Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 130.
    Yngve, Agneta
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Novum, Dept Biosci & Nutr, SE-14183 Huddinge, Sweden.
    Tseng, Marilyn
    Hodge, Allison
    Haapala, Irja
    McNeill, Geraldine
    World Nutrition 2012-a global Public Health Nutrition opportunity2012In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 567-567Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 131.
    Yngve, Agneta
    et al.
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden .
    Warm, D
    Institute of Human Nutrition, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom.
    Landman, J
    Queen Margaret University College, Edinburgh, United Kingdom; Nutrition Society, London, United Kingdom .
    Sjöström, M
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge, Sweden; Department of Physical Education and Health, University of Örebro, Sweden.
    A european master's programme in public health nutrition2001In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 4, no 6A, p. 1389-1391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effective population-based strategies require people trained and competent in the discipline of Public Health Nutrition. Since 1997, a European Master's Programme in Public Health Nutrition has been undergoing planning and implementation, by establishing initial quality assurance systems with the aid of funding from the European Commission (DG SANCO/F3). Partners from 17 European countries have been involved in the process. A European Network of Public Health Nutrition has been developed and accredited by the European Commission.

  • 132.
    Yngve, Agneta
    et al.
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition/Biosciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden;.
    Wolf, Alexandra
    nstitute for Nutritional Sciences, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Poortvliet, Eric
    Department of Biosciences, Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Elmadfa, Ibrahim
    nstitute for Nutritional Sciences, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Brug, Johannes
    Department of Public Health, Erasmus University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Ehrenblad, Bettina
    Department of Biosciences, Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Franchini, Bela
    Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Haraldsdóttir, Jóhanna
    Research Department of Human Nutrition, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Krølner, Rikke
    Department of Social Medicine, Institute of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Maes, Lea
    Department of Public Health, Ghent University, Ghent , Belgium.
    Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen
    Community Nutrition Unit, Bilbao, Spain.
    Sjoström, Michael
    Department of Biosciences, Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Thórsdóttir, Inga
    Unit for Nutrition Research, Landspitali University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland; Department of Food Science, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Klepp, Knut-Inge
    Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway .
    Fruit and vegetable intake in a sample of 11-year-old children in 9 European countries: the pro children cross-sectional survey2005In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 49, no 4, p. 236-245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: An adequate fruit and vegetable intake provides essential nutrients and nutritive compounds and is considered an important part of a healthy lifestyle. No simple instrument has been available for the assessment of fruit and vegetable intake as well as its determinants in school-aged children applicable in different European countries. Within the Pro Children Project, such an instrument has been developed. This paper describes the cross-sectional survey in 11-year-olds in 9 countries.

    METHODS: The cross-sectional survey used nationally, and in 2 countries regionally, representative samples of schools and classes. The questionnaires, including a precoded 24-hour recall component and a food frequency part, were completed in the classroom. Data were treated using common syntax files for portion sizes and for merging of vegetable types into four subgroups.

    RESULTS: The results show that the fruit and vegetable intake in amounts and choice were highly diverse in the 9 participating countries. Vegetable intake was in general lower than fruit intake, boys consumed less fruit and vegetables than girls did. The highest total intake according to the 24-hour recall was found in Austria and Portugal, the lowest in Spain and Iceland.

    CONCLUSION: The fruit and vegetable intake in 11-year-old children was in all countries far from reaching population goals and food-based dietary guidelines on national and international levels.

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