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  • 101. Andersson, E.
    et al.
    Enander, J.
    Andren, P.
    Hedman, E.
    Ljotsson, B.
    Hursti, Timo
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Bergstrom, J.
    Kaldo, V.
    Lindefors, N.
    Andersson, G.
    Ruck, C.
    Internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a randomized controlled trial2012Inngår i: Psychological Medicine, ISSN 0033-2917, E-ISSN 1469-8978, Vol. 42, nr 10, s. 2193-2203Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but access to CBT is limited. Internet-based CBT (ICBT) with therapist support is potentially a more accessible treatment. There are no randomized controlled trials testing ICBT for OCD. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of ICBT for OCD in a randomized controlled trial.

    Method. Participants (n=101) diagnosed with OCD were randomized to either 10 weeks of ICBT or to an attention control condition, consisting of online supportive therapy. The primary outcome measure was the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) administered by blinded assessors.

    Results. Both treatments lead to significant improvements in OCD symptoms, but ICBT resulted in larger improvements than the control condition on the YBOCS, with a significant between-group effect size (Cohen's d) of 1.12 (95% CI 0.69-1.53) at post-treatment. The proportion of participants showing clinically significant improvement was 60% (95% CI 46-72) in the ICBT group compared to 6% (95% CI 1-17) in the control condition. The results were sustained at follow-up.

    Conclusions. ICBT is an efficacious treatment for OCD that could substantially increase access to CBT for OCD patients. Replication studies are warranted.

  • 102.
    Andersson, Ellen
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Sjökvist, Tora
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Closing in on social anxiety: Investigating social anxiety, personality, affectivity, and social distance2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 103.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hedman, Erik
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wadstrom, Olle
    Psykologinsats, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Boberg, Julia
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Andersson, Emil Yaroslav
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Axelsson, Erland
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bjureberg, Johan
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hursti, Timo
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ljotsson, Brjann
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Internet-Based Extinction Therapy for Worry: A Randomized Controlled Trial2017Inngår i: Behavior Therapy, ISSN 0005-7894, E-ISSN 1878-1888, Vol. 48, nr 3, s. 391-402Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Worry is a common phenotype in both psychiatric patients and the normal population. Worry can be seen as a covert behavior with primary function to avoid aversive emotional experiences. Our research group has developed a treatment protocol based on an operant model of worry, where we use exposure -based strategies to extinguish the catastrophic worry thoughts. The aim of this study was to test this treatment delivered via the Internet in a large-scale randomized controlled trial. We randomized 140 high-worriers [PSWQ]) to either Internet-based extinction therapy (IbET) or to a waiting-list condition (WL). Results showed that IbET was superior to WL with an overall large between-group effect size of d 1.39 (95% confidence interval [1.04,1.73]) on the PSWQ. In the IbET group, 58% were classified as responders. The corresponding figure for WL participants was 7%. IbET was also superior to the WL on secondary outcome measures of anxiety, depression, meta-cognitions, cognitive avoidance, and quality of life. Overall treatment results were maintained for the IbET group at 4- and 12-month follow-up. The results from this trial are encouraging as they indicate that worry can be targeted with an accessible and novel intervention for worry. Replication trials with active control group are needed.

  • 104. Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Holmes, Emily A.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Psychology, Karolinska institute, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Kavanagh, David
    Innovations in digital interventions for psychological trauma: harnessing advances in cognitive science.2018Inngår i: mHealth, ISSN 2306-9740, Vol. 4, artikkel-id 47Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A range of digital psychological interventions have demonstrated a positive impact on trauma-related problems in controlled trials, but there is room for further improvements in their form, reach and impact. Most to date have been adaptions of established face-to-face treatments. In this paper, we highlight a complementary emerging route to their development, which draws on advances in cognitive science theory and research and applies them to clinical contexts. Three examples are given regarding laboratory research with potential applications to digital interventions for trauma-related mental health problems: a digital game to reduce intrusive memories of trauma, novel cognitive techniques for worry, and digitally supported mental imagery to enhance motivation for functional behavior change. Much of this research is still at an early stage, meriting a balance of optimism and caution. However, even if only a few digital applications of cognitive science constitute substantial improvements to complement current treatments, their potential for large-scale use at low unit cost may provide significant benefits across populations.

  • 105.
    Andersson, G.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Carlbring, P.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ström, L.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Kaldo-Sandström, V.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ekselius, L.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap.
    Treatment of mental disorders via the Internet2002Inngår i: European psychiatry, ISSN 0924-9338, E-ISSN 1778-3585, Vol. 17, nr S1, s. 69-70Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 106.
    Andersson, G. E. T.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Hirvelä, C
    Fredriksson, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Changes in cerebral blood flow during cognitive distraction in tinnitus patients2002Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 107.
    Andersson, G., Lindvall, N., Hursti, T., & Carlbring, P
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Hypersensitivity to sound (hyperacusis). A prevalence study conducted via the Internet and post2002Inngår i: International Journal of Audiology, Vol. 41, s. 545-554Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 108. Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Airikka, L
    Buhrman, Monica
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Dimensions of perfectionism and tinnitus distress2005Inngår i: Psychology, Health & Medicine, ISSN 1354-8506, E-ISSN 1465-3966, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 78-87Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 109.
    Andersson, Gerhard and Hägnebo, Christina
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Hearing Impairment, Coping Strategies, and Anxiety Sensitivity2003Inngår i: Journal of clinical Psychology in medical Settings, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 35-38Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 110. Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Bergman Nordgren, Lise
    Buhrman, Monica
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Carlbring, Per
    Psychological treatments for depression delivered via the Internet and supported by a clinician: an update2014Inngår i: Spanish Journal of Clinical Psychology, Vol. 19, s. 217-225Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 111. Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Carlbring, Per
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Therapist Experience and Knowledge Acquisition in Internet-Delivered CBT for Social Anxiety Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial2012Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, nr 5, s. e37411-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Guided internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) has been tested in several trials on social anxiety disorder (SAD) with moderate to large effects. The aims of this study were threefold. First, to compare the effects of ICBT including online discussion forum with a moderated online discussion forum only. Second, to investigate if knowledge about SAD increased following treatment and third to compare the effects of inexperienced versus experienced therapists on patient outcomes. Methods: A total of 204 participants with a primary diagnosis of SAD were included and randomized to either guided ICBT or the control condition. ICBT consisted of a 9-week treatment program which was guided by either psychology students at MSc level (n=6) or by licensed psychologists with previous experience of ICBT (n=7). A knowledge test dealing with social anxiety was administered before and after treatment. Measures of social anxiety and secondary outcomes dealing with general anxiety, depression, and quality of life were administered before and after treatment. In addition, a 1-year follow-up was conducted on the treated individuals. Results: Immediately following treatment, the ICBT group showed superior outcome on the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale self-report version with a between group posttreatment Hedges g effect size of g=0.75. In addition, significant differences on all the secondary outcomes were observed. Gains were well maintained one year later. Knowledge, as assessed by the knowledge test, increased following treatment with little gain in the control group. Therapist experience did not result in different outcomes, but experienced therapists logged in less frequently compared to the inexperienced therapists, suggesting that they needed less time to support patients. Discussion: We conclude that guided ICBT reduce symptoms of SAD, increase knowledge about SAD and that therapist experience does not make a difference apart from the finding that experienced therapist may require less time to guide patients.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 112.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Linkoping Univ, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm Univ, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Holmes, Emily A.
    MRC Cognit & Brain Sci Unit, Cambridge, England.
    Special Issue in Honour of Lars-Goran Ost2013Inngår i: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, ISSN 1650-6073, E-ISSN 1651-2316, Vol. 42, nr 4, s. 259-259Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 113.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Carlbring, Per
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Kaldo-Sandström, V.
    Larsen, H-C.
    LIndström, M.
    Sandström, S.
    Förekomst av tinnitus i Sverige2002Inngår i: Läkaresällskapets Rikstämma 27-29 november 2002, 2002, Vol. 111, s. 130-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 114. Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Edsjö, Lisa
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Westin, Vendela
    Tinnitus and short-term serial recall in stable versus intermittent masking conditions2009Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 50, nr 5, s. 517-522Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The relation between tinnitus and short-term memory performance in varying background sounds is not well understood. In the present study a sample of 18 persons with tinnitus completed a serial recall test in three conditions, silence, masking and intermittent masking. The performance of a matched control group without tinnitus was also investigated. Based on the literature on the "irrelevant sound effect" we expected that the tinnitus group would perform worse during intermittent masking and that they would score lower overall compared to the control group. Results revealed no statistically significant differences between the groups, nor any group interaction within sound conditions for the serial recall test. Groups did however differ regarding subjective measures of concentration problems, anxiety and depression. Results are discussed in relation to thought suppression and distraction from tinnitus.

  • 115.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Behav Sci & Learning, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden;Linkoping Univ, Swedish Inst Disabil Res, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden;Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Psychiat Sect, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Holmes, Emily A.
    MRC Cognit & Brain Sci Unit, Cambridge, England.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lars-Goran Ost2013Inngår i: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, ISSN 1650-6073, E-ISSN 1651-2316, Vol. 42, nr 4, s. 260-264Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Lars-Goran ost is one of the most eminent clinical researchers in the field of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) and a founder of CBT in Sweden. He has recently retired from his position as professor in clinical psychology at Stockholm University, Sweden. In this paper, we sketch a brief description of the body of work by ost. Examples of his innovative and pioneering new treatment methods include the one-session treatment for specific phobias, as well as applied relaxation for a range of anxiety disorders and health conditions. While ost remains active in the field, he has contributed significantly to the development and dissemination of CBT in Sweden as well as in the world.

  • 116. Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Johansson, Carina
    Uppsala universitet.
    Nordlander, Annette
    Asmundson, Gordon J. G.
    Chronic Pain in Older Adults: A Controlled Pilot Trial of a Brief Cognitive-Behavioural Group Treatment2012Inngår i: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, ISSN 1352-4658, E-ISSN 1469-1833, Vol. 40, nr 2, s. 239-244Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Chronic pain is a common condition among older adults. While cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) has been tested in numerous studies on adults and children there are fewer studies on older persons. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a six-session CBT group treatment for older persons with chronic pain. As a secondary aim we investigated whether treatment credibility was associated with outcome. Method: We included 21 persons (mean age = 72.0 years) who were randomly allocated to either a waitlist condition or treatment consisting of applied relaxation, with the addition of problem solving, assertiveness, communication strategies, sleep management, and relapse prevention. Results: Few statistically significant effects were found on measures of pain, mood, anxiety, and quality of life; however, a significant treatment effect with a between group effect size of d = 1.0 was observed with respect to perceived ability to function despite the discomfort of pain. Conclusion: The study provides some preliminary support for the use of group-based CBT with a focus on applied relaxation for older adults with chronic pain.

  • 117.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lyttkens L,
    A meta-analytic review of psychological treatments for tinnitus1999Inngår i: British Journal of Audiology, Vol. 33, s. 201-210Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Meta-analysis is a technique of combining results from different trials in order to obtain estimates of effects across studies. Meta-analysis has yet rarely been used in audiological research. The aim of this paper was to conduct a meta-analysis on psycho

  • 118.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    McKenna, Laurence
    Tinnitus masking and depression1998Inngår i: Audiology, ISSN 0020-6091, Vol. 37, s. 174-182Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study 30 patients with annoying tinnitus completed tinnitus matchings and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). A cluster analysis revealed three clusters of patients. Cluster one had relatively low depression and average results on tinnitus pa

  • 119. Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Paxling, Björn
    Wiwe, Maria
    Vernmark, Kristofer
    Felix, Christina Bertholds
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lundborg, Lisa
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Cuijpers, Pim
    Carlbring, Per
    Therapeutic alliance in guided internet-delivered cognitive behavioural treatment of depression, generalized anxiety disorder and social anxiety disorder2012Inngår i: Behaviour Research and Therapy, ISSN 0005-7967, E-ISSN 1873-622X, Vol. 50, nr 9, s. 544-50Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Guided internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) has been found to be effective in several controlled trials, but the mechanisms of change are largely unknown. Therapeutic alliance is a factor that has been studied in many psychotherapy trials, but the role of therapeutic alliance in ICBT is less well known. The present study investigated early alliance ratings in three separate samples. Participants from one sample of depressed individuals (N = 49), one sample of individuals with generalized anxiety disorder (N = 35), and one sample with social anxiety disorder (N = 90) completed the Working Alliance Inventory (WAI) modified for ICBT early in the treatment (weeks 3-4) when they took part in guided ICBT for their conditions. Results showed that alliance ratings were high in all three samples and that the WAI including the subscales of Task, Goal and Bond had high internal consistencies. Overall, correlations between the WAI and residualized change scores on the primary outcome measures were small and not statistically significant. We conclude that even if alliance ratings are in line with face-to-face studies, therapeutic alliance as measured by the WAI is probably less important in ICBT than in regular face-to-face psychotherapy.

  • 120. Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Waara, Johan
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Jonsson, Ulf
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatri.
    Malmaeus, Fredrik
    Carlbring, Per
    Ost, Lars-Goran
    Internet-Based Exposure Treatment Versus One-Session Exposure Treatment of Snake Phobia: A Randomized Controlled Trial2013Inngår i: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, ISSN 1650-6073, E-ISSN 1651-2316, Vol. 42, nr 4, s. 284-291Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the authors compared guided Internet-delivered self-help with one-session exposure treatment (OST) in a sample of snake phobic patients. A total of 30 patients were included following a screening on the Internet and a structured clinical interview. The Internet treatment consisted of four weekly text modules which were presented on a web page, a video in which exposure was modelled, and support provided via Internet. The OST was delivered in a three-hour session following a brief orientation session. The main outcome was the behavioural approach test (BAT), and as secondary measures questionnaires measuring anxiety symptoms and depression were used. Results showed that the groups did not differ at post-treatment or follow-up, with the exception of a significant interaction for the BAT in favour of the OST. At post-treatment, 61.5% of the Internet group and 84.6% of the OST group achieved a clinically significant improvement on the BAT. At follow-up, the corresponding figures were 90% for the Internet group and 100% for the OST group (completer sample). Within-group effect sizes for the Snake Phobia Questionnaire were large (d=1.63 and d=2.31 for the Internet and OST groups, respectively, at post-treatment). It is concluded that guided Internet-delivered exposure treatment is a potential treatment option in the treatment of snake phobia, but that OST probably is better.

  • 121. Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Waara, Johan
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Jonsson, Ulf
    Malmaeus, Fredrik
    Carlbring, Per
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Internet-Based Self-Help Versus One-Session Exposure in the Treatment of Spider Phobia: A Randomized Controlled Trial2009Inngår i: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, ISSN 1650-6073, E-ISSN 1651-2316, Vol. 38, nr 2, s. 114-120Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors compared guided Internet-delivered self-help with one session of live-exposure treatment in a sample of spider-phobic patients. A total of 30 patients were included following screening on the Internet and a structured clinical interview. The Internet treatment consisted of five weekly text modules, which were presented on a web page, a video in which exposure was modelled, and support provided via Internet. The live-exposure treatment was delivered in a 3-hr session following a brief orientation session. The main outcome measure was the behavioural approach test (BAT), and as secondary measures the authors used questionnaires measuring anxiety symptoms and depression. Results showed that the groups did not differ at posttreatment or follow-up, with the exception of the proportion showing clinically significant change on the BAT. At posttreatment 46.2% of the Internet group and 85.7% in the live-exposure group achieved this change. At follow-up the corresponding figures were 66.7% for the Internet group and 72.7% for the live treatment. Within-group effect sizes for the spider phobia questionnaire were large (d = 1.84 and 2.58 for the Internet and live-exposure groups, respectively, at posttreatment). The authors conclude that guided Internet-delivered exposure treatment is a promising new approach in the treatment of spider phobia.

  • 122.
    Andersson, Isabell
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Modes of Apprehension, and Indicators thereof, in Visual Discrimination of Relative Mass2009Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Perception is a fundamental function because it allows organisms to be in contact with the environment and adjust to environmental conditions. Humans also possess higher intellectual functions, which allow for elaborate handling of perceptually obtained information. The thesis concerns a distinction between an inferential ("cognitive") mode and a (direct-)perceptual mode of apprehension, and a notion of perceptual skill acquisition as a transition from the inferential to the perceptual mode. The mode distinction and the mode-transition model was formulated by Runeson, Juslin, and Olsson (2000) within the ecological direct-perception framework (Gibson, 1966, 1979).

    The modes of apprehension were investigated in an experimental paradigm that concerned visual perception of the relative mass of two colliding objects. The relative mass is specified by an optical variable in the collision movement pattern, which observers may pick up while functioning in the perceptual mode. However, novices often rely on other, nonspecifying, optical variables that may constitute cues that are used in the inferential mode (Runeson et al., 2000).

    Four tentative mode indicators were employed: participants' realism of confidence, introspective mode reports, amplitudes of brain event-related potentials, and response times. Generally, the results did not support the mode-transition model of skill acquisition. Furthermore, results suggested that reliance both on the specifying and nonspecifying variables might have occurred either in the inferential or in the perceptual mode. However, the mode indicators may not have captured mode as intended. For instance, the discriminability of used optical variables, and not the mode of apprehension, may have affected both amplitudes of event-related potentials and mode reports.

    It is argued that the mode-transition model and the distinction between two modes of apprehension should be further investigated employing other methodologies, and, furthermore, that the mode distinction has a place within an ecological framework.

    Delarbeid
    1. Achievement of Specificational Information Usage with True and False Feedback in Learning a Visual Relative-Mass Discrimination Task
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Achievement of Specificational Information Usage with True and False Feedback in Learning a Visual Relative-Mass Discrimination Task
    2007 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, ISSN 0096-1523, E-ISSN 1939-1277, Vol. 33, nr 1, s. 163-182Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Participants' usage of informational variables in learning visual relative-mass discrimination in collisions was tracked by means of PROBIT correlations. Four groups received feedback that was true or accorded with either of three non-specificational cue variables. A majority in each group adopted the feedback but several participants defied the false feedback. Unlike in previous research, the fit to data of the relative-mass invariant could not be bettered by post hoc linear combinations of the cues. Discriminability was lower in the use of the invariant. Analytic complexity was rejected as an explanation for discriminability differences. A "smart mechanism" for pickup of the relative-mass invariant was developed as an extension of G. Johansson's (1950/1994) vector model.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    American Psychological Association (APA), 2007
    Emneord
    perceptual skill acquisition, invariant usage, false feedback, smart mechanisms, Johansson's vector model
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Psykologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-17939 (URN)10.1037/0096-1523.33.1.16 (DOI)000243768800012 ()
    Prosjekter
    Riksbankens Jubileumsfond (RJ)Vetenskapsrådet (VR)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2007-03-05 Laget: 2007-03-05 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-08bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Realism of confidence, modes of apprehension, and variable-use in visual discrimination of relative mass
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Realism of confidence, modes of apprehension, and variable-use in visual discrimination of relative mass
    2008 (engelsk)Inngår i: Ecological psychology, ISSN 1040-7413, E-ISSN 1532-6969, Vol. 20, nr 1, s. 1-31Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In dynamic event perception, one issue is whether direct perception or cue-based inferences explains learning and performance. For visual discrimination of relative mass of colliding objects, Runeson, Juslin, and Olsson (2000) found that observers change from an inferential to a direct-perceptual mode of apprehension during practice, as indicated by lower confidence in their judgments. Unlike Runeson et al. (2000), we scored confidence against the variables used in individual blocks and analyzed collision-subsets, thereby counteracting inflated confidence scores. A majority of 40 novice participants used a nonspecifying variable and functioned inferentially, as indicated by realistic confidence. Five novices used the mass-ratio invariant and were overconfident therein. Ten participants received feedback based on the most-used nonspecifying variable. Despite feedback suggesting specificity of the variable, they continued to use the variable inferentially. After practice based on the invariant, 7 out of 10 used the invariant. An unexpected  dearth of underconfidence for invariant usage is explained by fluctuations in variable usage. Methodological problems in the use of confidence as a mode indicator are discussed.

    Emneord
    perception, perceptual skill acquisition, modes of apprehension, learning
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Psykologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-106162 (URN)10.1080/10407410701766601 (DOI)000253314800001 ()
    Prosjekter
    The Bank of Sweden Centennial Foundation (RJ)The Swedish Research Council (VR)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2009-06-16 Laget: 2009-06-16 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-13bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Phenomenological Reports, Response Times, and Event-Related Potentials pertaining to Mode of Apprehension in Visual Discrimination of Relative Mass
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Phenomenological Reports, Response Times, and Event-Related Potentials pertaining to Mode of Apprehension in Visual Discrimination of Relative Mass
    (engelsk)Manuskript (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Psykologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-108233 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2009-09-09 Laget: 2009-09-09 Sist oppdatert: 2011-02-17bibliografisk kontrollert
    4. Realism of confidence and phenomenological reports are not congruent indicators of mode of apprehension in visual discrimination of relative mass
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Realism of confidence and phenomenological reports are not congruent indicators of mode of apprehension in visual discrimination of relative mass
    2009 (engelsk)Inngår i: Ecological psychology, ISSN 1040-7413, E-ISSN 1532-6969, Vol. 21, nr 3, s. 218-244Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In visual judgments of relative mass of colliding objects observers may function in either a perceptual or an inferential mode of apprehension (Runeson, Juslin, & Olsson, 2000). This finding was based on participants’ over/underconfidence in their judgments. Also phenomenological mode reports, for which participants indicated whether they “saw” or “inferred” the relative mass in each trial, have been used as mode indicators (Andersson, Kreegipuu, Allik, & Runeson, 2009). The present study showed that over/underconfidence and mode reports are not congruent as mode indicators: in Experiments 1 and 2, participants’ over/ underconfidence was about the same in “saw” and “inferred” trials. Furthermore, in Experiment 3, unexpectedly judgments of relative exit-speed did not engender underconfidence. Hence, one or both indicators do not well enough distinguish the modes of apprehension.

    Emneord
    perception, modes of apprehension, skill acquisition, learning
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Psykologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-106166 (URN)10.1080/10407410903058260 (DOI)000269343300002 ()
    Prosjekter
    The Swedish Research Council (VR)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2009-06-16 Laget: 2009-06-16 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-13bibliografisk kontrollert
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 123.
    Andersson, Isabell E. K.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Realism of confidence and phenomenological reports are not congruent indicators of mode of apprehension in visual discrimination of relative mass2009Inngår i: Ecological psychology, ISSN 1040-7413, E-ISSN 1532-6969, Vol. 21, nr 3, s. 218-244Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In visual judgments of relative mass of colliding objects observers may function in either a perceptual or an inferential mode of apprehension (Runeson, Juslin, & Olsson, 2000). This finding was based on participants’ over/underconfidence in their judgments. Also phenomenological mode reports, for which participants indicated whether they “saw” or “inferred” the relative mass in each trial, have been used as mode indicators (Andersson, Kreegipuu, Allik, & Runeson, 2009). The present study showed that over/underconfidence and mode reports are not congruent as mode indicators: in Experiments 1 and 2, participants’ over/ underconfidence was about the same in “saw” and “inferred” trials. Furthermore, in Experiment 3, unexpectedly judgments of relative exit-speed did not engender underconfidence. Hence, one or both indicators do not well enough distinguish the modes of apprehension.

  • 124.
    Andersson, Isabell E. K.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Runeson, Sverker
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Realism of confidence, modes of apprehension, and variable-use in visual discrimination of relative mass2008Inngår i: Ecological psychology, ISSN 1040-7413, E-ISSN 1532-6969, Vol. 20, nr 1, s. 1-31Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In dynamic event perception, one issue is whether direct perception or cue-based inferences explains learning and performance. For visual discrimination of relative mass of colliding objects, Runeson, Juslin, and Olsson (2000) found that observers change from an inferential to a direct-perceptual mode of apprehension during practice, as indicated by lower confidence in their judgments. Unlike Runeson et al. (2000), we scored confidence against the variables used in individual blocks and analyzed collision-subsets, thereby counteracting inflated confidence scores. A majority of 40 novice participants used a nonspecifying variable and functioned inferentially, as indicated by realistic confidence. Five novices used the mass-ratio invariant and were overconfident therein. Ten participants received feedback based on the most-used nonspecifying variable. Despite feedback suggesting specificity of the variable, they continued to use the variable inferentially. After practice based on the invariant, 7 out of 10 used the invariant. An unexpected  dearth of underconfidence for invariant usage is explained by fluctuations in variable usage. Methodological problems in the use of confidence as a mode indicator are discussed.

  • 125.
    Andersson, Isabell
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Kreegipuu, Kairi
    University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Allik, Juri
    University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Runeson, Sverker
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Phenomenological Reports, Response Times, and Event-Related Potentials pertaining to Mode of Apprehension in Visual Discrimination of Relative MassManuskript (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 126.
    Andersson, Kerstin
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Reactions to novelties: Developmental aspects1999Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The present thesis considers different aspects of infants' and children's reactions to novelties, that is, unfamiliar persons, objects, and situations. In Study I, the developmental phenomenon stranger wariness was investigated from a temperamental perspective. Stranger wariness at age 10 months was found to be marginally predicted by 5-month individual variation in reactions to frustration, to sensory stimulation, and to novelties and to be predictive of 2-year social inhibition. These results indicate that 10-month stranger wariness does not only reflect a developmental transition but also an individual disposition to be responsive to social novelties.

    In line with what has been suggested for the behavioral inhibition construct, Study II showed that 2-year-olds' reactions to social and non-social novelties should be considered as belonging to one construct. Furthermore, the relations within and between latency, negative/inhibited and positive/approaching reactions to social and non-social novelties were found to be very similar, implying that identifying children as uninhibited means that they are disposed not only towards lack of negative/inhibited reactions, but also towards approaching/positive reactions when confronted with novelties.

    Study III concerned preschool social inhibition in relation to attachment security and social experiences in terms non-parental care. The relative contributions of the three variables to school-age social competence with peers and social self-esteem were also investigated. It was found that attachment security and social inhibition were unrelated to each other and that they made significant independent contributions to the explanation of social competence, whereas social self-esteem was only predicted by preschool social inhibition.

  • 127.
    Andersson, Linus
    et al.
    Umea Univ, Dept Psychol, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Umea Univ, Dept Integrat Med Biol, Umea, Sweden;Umea Univ, Umea Ctr Funct Brain Imaging, Umea, Sweden.
    Stillesjö, Sara
    Umea Univ, Dept Psychol, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden;Umea Univ, Dept Integrat Med Biol, Umea, Sweden;Umea Univ, Umea Ctr Funct Brain Imaging, Umea, Sweden.
    Juslin, Peter
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umea Univ, Dept Integrat Med Biol, Umea, Sweden;Umea Univ, Umea Ctr Funct Brain Imaging, Umea, Sweden;Umea Univ, Dept Radiat Sci, Umea, Sweden.
    Wirebring, Linnea Karlsson
    Umea Univ, Dept Psychol, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden;Umea Univ, Dept Integrat Med Biol, Umea, Sweden;Umea Univ, Umea Ctr Funct Brain Imaging, Umea, Sweden.
    Neurocognitive processes underlying heuristic and normative probability judgments2020Inngår i: Cognition, ISSN 0010-0277, E-ISSN 1873-7838, Vol. 196, artikkel-id 104153Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Judging two events in combination (A&B) as more probable than one of the events (A) is known as a conjunction fallacy. According to dual-process explanations of human judgment and decision making, the fallacy is due to the application of a heuristic, associative cognitive process. Avoiding the fallacy has been suggested to require the recruitment of a separate process that can apply normative rules. We investigated these assumptions using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during conjunction tasks. Judgments, whether correct or not, engaged a network of brain regions identical to that engaged during similarity judgments. Avoidance of the conjunction fallacy additionally, and uniquely, involved a fronto-parietal network previously linked to supervisory, analytic control processes. The results lend credibility to the idea that incorrect probability judgments are the result of a representativeness heuristic that requires additional neurocognitive resources to avoid.

  • 128.
    Andersson, Patric
    et al.
    Stockholm Sch Econ, Dept Mkt & Strategy, S-11383 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Nilsson, Håkan
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Do Bettors Correctly Perceive Odds?: Three Studies of How Bettors Interpret Betting Odds as Probabilistic Information2015Inngår i: Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, ISSN 0894-3257, E-ISSN 1099-0771, Vol. 28, nr 4, s. 331-346Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on three studies investigating how accurately bettors (=people who regularly bet on sports events) interpret the probabilistic information implied by betting odds. All studies were based on data collected by web surveys prompting a total of 186 experienced bettors to convert sets of representative odds into frequency judgments. Bayesian statistical methods were used to analyze the data. From the results, the following conclusions were made: (i) On the whole, the bettors produced well-calibrated judgments, indicating that they have realistic perceptions of odds. (ii) Bettors were unable to consciously adjust judgments for different margins. (iii) Although their interval judgments often covered the estimates implied by the odds, the bettors tended to overestimate the variation of expected profitable bets between months. The results are consistent with prior research showing that people tend to make accurate probability judgments when faced with tasks characterized by constant and clear feedback.

  • 129.
    Andersson, Patrik
    et al.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, Division of MSI, Linköping, Sweden.
    Alm, Torbjörn
    Perception aspects on perspective aircraft displays2003Inngår i: Displays (Guildford), ISSN 0141-9382, E-ISSN 1872-7387, Vol. 24, nr 1, s. 1-13Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents two experiments in the area of perspective aircraft displays. The research focus was to explore the possibilities to understand symbolic and symbol relations in the 3D environment. In the first experiment the subjects' ability to distinguish between five different aircraft symbol shapes were investigated together with the perception of their heading in the 3D space. The perspective used in this experiment was egocentric. In the second experiment the judgment of the spatial relation between an own-ship symbol and a target symbol was investigated. Thus, in this case, the perspective was exocentric and two aspect angles were used for the camera position. Both experiments were carried out in non-dynamic scenarios. The display character was topographic with a superposed grid at the ground surface. The overall conclusion from the experiments is that judgment of direction in 3D presentations is very difficult in these static scenarios. Symbol recognition of 3D pictorial symbols is problematic for complicated symbol shapes as well, depending on different appearances for various symbol headings in the 3D space. 

  • 130.
    Andersson, Patrik
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Readability of vertically vibrating aircraft displays1999Inngår i: Displays (Guildford), ISSN 0141-9382, E-ISSN 1872-7387, Vol. 20, nr 1, s. 23-30Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Vibrations pose a problem to the visual system. The vibrations in aircraft are mainly vertical and cause reading errors when the pilots read the instruments. In three experiments, reading capability was tested during vertical vibration of modern military aircraft, using symbols presented on a computer monitor. The results showed that complexity of symbols have a significant effect on the performance. The orientations of symbols were also of importance for their readability. Indexes made up of horizontally oriented lines were found to be especially difficult to read during vertical vibration. Orienting them 45° up or down improved readability in a significant way. The size of the symbols was found to be of importance especially when they were horizontally oriented.

  • 131.
    Andersson, Sanna
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Gerbrand, Anton
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Låt inte stress hindra dig!: Hur övningar i perspektivtagande inspirerade av ACT kan öka psykologisk flexibilitet i arbetslivet samt minska stressresponsens skadeverkningar2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Stressade medarbetare kostar pengar, sänker produktivitet och bidrar till ohälsa. Genom perspektivtagande kan vi ändra förhållningssätt till vårt psykologiska innehåll. ”Självet-som-kontext” ingår i ”psykologisk flexibilitet” och innebär att ta perspektiv till sitt psykologiska innehåll. ”Prosocialt hjälpbeteende” är att ta ett nytt perspektiv till andra. Vår studie undersöker om interventioner i självet-som-kontext och prosocialt hjälpbeteende har effekt på psykologisk flexibilitet i arbetslivet, självupplevd stress samt självet-som-kontext. Även sambandet mellan beroendevariablerna undersöktes. Vi använde en mixad AB-design med intervention. Resultatet visade på minskad självupplevd stress (p=.005) utan effekt av interventionerna (p=.771). Vi fann skillnad mellan interventionerna på psykologisk flexibilitet i arbetslivet (p=.037), men förändringen var inte signifikant (p=.597) Effektstorleken för samtliga skillnader var låg (η2p = .1). Samtliga beroendevariabler korrelerar signifikant (p=<.001).

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    lat_inte_stress_hindra_dig_2014
  • 132.
    Andréasson, Per
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Emotional Empathy, Facial Reactions, and Facial Feedback2010Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The human face has a fascinating capability to express emotions. The facial feedback hypothesis suggests that the human face not only expresses emotions but is also able to send feedback to the brain and modulate the ongoing emotional experience. It has furthermore been suggested that this feedback from the facial muscles could be involved in empathic reactions. This thesis explores the concept of emotional empathy and relates it to two aspects concerning activity in the facial muscles. First, do people high versus low in emotional empathy differ in regard to in what degree they spontaneously mimic emotional facial expressions? Second, is there any difference between people with high as compared to low emotional empathy in respect to how sensitive they are to feedback from their own facial muscles? Regarding the first question, people with high emotional empathy were found to spontaneously mimic pictures of emotional facial expressions while people with low emotional empathy were lacking this mimicking reaction. The answer to the second question is a bit more complicated. People with low emotional empathy were found to rate humorous films as funnier in a manipulated sulky facial expression than in a manipulated happy facial expression, whereas people with high emotional empathy did not react significantly. On the other hand, when the facial manipulations were a smile and a frown, people with low as well as high emotional empathy reacted in line with the facial feedback hypothesis. In conclusion, the experiments in the present thesis indicate that mimicking and feedback from the facial muscles may be involved in emotional contagion and thereby influence emotional empathic reactions. Thus, differences in emotional empathy may in part be accounted for by different degree of mimicking reactions and different emotional effects of feedback from the facial muscles.

    Delarbeid
    1. Emotional empathy and facial reactions to facial expressions
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Emotional empathy and facial reactions to facial expressions
    2011 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Psychophysiology, ISSN 0269-8803, E-ISSN 2151-2124, Vol. 25, nr 1, s. 26-31Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates whether people High in emotional empathy are more facially reactive than are people Low in emotional empathy when exposed to pictures of angry and happy facial expressions. Facial electromyographic activity was measured from the corrugator and the zygomatic muscle regions. In accordance with the predictions, the High empathic group reacted with larger corrugator activity to angry as compared to happy faces and with larger zygomatic activity to happy faces. However, the Low empathic group did not differentiate between the angry and happy stimuli at all. The High empathic group, as compared to the Low empathic group, also rated the angry faces as expressing more anger and the happy faces as being happier. It is concluded that high empathic people are particularly sensitive in reacting with facial reactions to facial expressions and that this ability is accompanied by a higher level of empathic accuracy.

    Emneord
    emotion, facial expressions, facial reactions, facial EMG, emotional accuracy
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Psykologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-126763 (URN)10.1027/0269-8803/a000029 (DOI)000287021500004 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2010-06-24 Laget: 2010-06-24 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-12bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Emotional Empathy and Facial Feedback
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Emotional Empathy and Facial Feedback
    2008 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of nonverbal behavior, ISSN 0191-5886, E-ISSN 1573-3653, Vol. 32, nr 4, s. 215-224Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We studied if emotional empathy is related to sensitivity to facial feedback. The participants, 112 students, rated themselves on the questionnaire measure of emotional empathy (QMEE) and were divided into one high and one low empathic group. Facial expressions were manipulated to produce a happy or a sulky expression. During the manipulation, participants rated humorous films with respect to funniness. These ratings were the dependent variable. No main effect of facial expression was found. However, a significant interaction between empathy and condition indicated that the high as compared to the low empathic group rated the films as being funnier in a happy condition and a tendency to be less funny in a sulky condition. On the basis of the present results we suggest emotional empathy to be one important and previously ignored factor to explain individual differences in effects of facial feedback.

    Emneord
    Emotion, Emotional empathy, Facial expression, Facial feedback
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-17859 (URN)10.1007/s10919-008-0052-z (DOI)000259863300003 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2008-09-08 Laget: 2008-09-08 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-08bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Emotional empathy, facial manipulations and facial feedback
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Emotional empathy, facial manipulations and facial feedback
    (engelsk)Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig) Submitted
    Abstract [en]

    People with a low but not people with a high degree of emotional empathy have been found to rate humorous films as funnier in a sulky versus a happy facial manipulation, in contrast to what the facial feedback hypothesis predicts (Andréasson & Dimberg, 2008). Experiment 1 replicated this finding with people with extra ordinary high or low degree of emotional empathy. Interestingly, when the facial manipulations were a smile versus a frown, as in experiment 2, people with low as well as high emotional empathy reacted as predicted by the facial feedback hypothesis. In conclusion, emotional empathy is suggested to be related to effects of facial feedback in some facial manipulations but not in others.

    Emneord
    Emotional empathy, facial feedback, facial expression, emotion, empathy
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Psykologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-126767 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2010-06-24 Laget: 2010-06-24 Sist oppdatert: 2011-02-25bibliografisk kontrollert
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 133.
    Andréasson, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Dimberg, Ulf
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Emotional Empathy and Facial Feedback2008Inngår i: Journal of nonverbal behavior, ISSN 0191-5886, E-ISSN 1573-3653, Vol. 32, nr 4, s. 215-224Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied if emotional empathy is related to sensitivity to facial feedback. The participants, 112 students, rated themselves on the questionnaire measure of emotional empathy (QMEE) and were divided into one high and one low empathic group. Facial expressions were manipulated to produce a happy or a sulky expression. During the manipulation, participants rated humorous films with respect to funniness. These ratings were the dependent variable. No main effect of facial expression was found. However, a significant interaction between empathy and condition indicated that the high as compared to the low empathic group rated the films as being funnier in a happy condition and a tendency to be less funny in a sulky condition. On the basis of the present results we suggest emotional empathy to be one important and previously ignored factor to explain individual differences in effects of facial feedback.

  • 134.
    Andréasson, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Dimberg, Ulf
    Emotional empathy, facial manipulations and facial feedbackArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    People with a low but not people with a high degree of emotional empathy have been found to rate humorous films as funnier in a sulky versus a happy facial manipulation, in contrast to what the facial feedback hypothesis predicts (Andréasson & Dimberg, 2008). Experiment 1 replicated this finding with people with extra ordinary high or low degree of emotional empathy. Interestingly, when the facial manipulations were a smile versus a frown, as in experiment 2, people with low as well as high emotional empathy reacted as predicted by the facial feedback hypothesis. In conclusion, emotional empathy is suggested to be related to effects of facial feedback in some facial manipulations but not in others.

  • 135.
    Annas, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ekselius, L
    von, Knorring L
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Effects of personality on skin conductance habituation.1996Inngår i: Psychophysiology, 1996, Vol. 33, nr Aug., s. 19-Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 136.
    Annas, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Genetic influences on classical conditioning.1995Inngår i: Psychophysiology, 1995, Vol. 32, s. 16-Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 137.
    Annas, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Genetic influences on classical-conditioning1995Inngår i: PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, ISSN 0048-5772 [Natvet], Vol. 32, s. S16, Suppl 1-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 138.
    Annas, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Genetic influences on the skin conductance orienting reaction to fear-relevant and -irrelevant stimuli.1996Inngår i: Psychophysiology, 1996, Vol. 33, nr Aug., s. 19-Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 139.
    Annas, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Garpenstrand, H
    Ekblom, J
    Oreland, L
    Fredrikson, Mats
    The D4DR gene and platelet MAO are markers for human fear conditioning.1997Inngår i: Psychophysiology, 1997, Vol. 34, nr August, s. 18-Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 140. Appel, L
    et al.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Winqvist, I
    Michelgård, Åsa
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Bani, M
    Långström, B
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Enhanced amygdalar NK1-receptor availability in patients with social anxiety disorder.2007Inngår i: Biological Psychiatry, 2007, s. 147-Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 141.
    Appel, Lieuwe
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för onkologi, radiologi och klinisk immunologi.
    Michelgård, Åsa
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Psykiatri, Akademiska sjukhuset.
    Linnman, Claes
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Fernandez, Manuel
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Psykiatri, Akademiska sjukhuset.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Langström, Bengt
    von Knorring, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Psykiatri, Akademiska sjukhuset.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Altered NK1-receptor availability in patients with post traumatic stress disorder2009Inngår i: [Biological Psychiatry 2009, 65(8), Suppl. 1, 118S, no. 394], 2009, s. 118S-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that can develop after one or more traumatic events causing extreme stress or grave physical harm. The neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor is the primary receptor for substance P (SP); a neuropeptide suggested being involved in anxiety and depression. The present study investigated differences in NK1-receptor availability between PTSD patients and healthy controls, using positron emission tomography (PET). Methods: Eleven male refugee patients (age: 41±10) with DSM-IV defined PTSD and nine healthy male control subjects (age: 33±10) were investigated using the PET-tracer [11C]GR205171, supplied by Uppsala Imanet. GR205171 is a highly selective NK1-receptor antagonist. Scans were performed during 60 minutes in the resting state. Parametric images were generated using the graphical reference Patlak method assuming irreversible binding of [11C]GR205171 from 20-60 minutes and having cerebellum as reference region. Exploratory whole brain analyses were performed using the statistical parametric mapping (SPM2) software. Results: PTSD patients had lower [11C]GR205171 binding compared to controls, in frontal cortical clusters encompassing bilaterally insula and left Brodmann area 11, reflecting lower NK1-receptor availability. No areas were found in which PTSD patients had higher [11C]GR205171 binding. Conclusions: This is the first study reporting differences in NK1-receptor availability in PTSD patients relative to controls. A tentative conclusion is that PTSD patients have a down regulation of the NK1-receptor system, which could be either a risk factor or due to emotional trauma processing.

  • 142.
    Araya, T
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The recall of stereotypes: The effects of incidentally activated directed forgetting instructions2003Inngår i: Experimental Psychology, ISSN 1618-3169, Vol. 50, nr 4, s. 247-256Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on the automotive model (J. A. Bargh, 1990) and the directed forgetting paradigm, the present study investigated whether incidentally activated forget and remember cues can lead to similar effects as explicitly given instructions. To this end, the p

  • 143.
    Araya, T
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Akrami, N
    Ekehammar, B
    Forgetting Congruent and Incongruent Stereotypical Information2003Inngår i: The Journal of Social Psychology, ISSN 0022-4545, nr 143, s. 433-449Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In two studies, we investigated the directed forgetting effects of stereotypically congruent, incongruent, and irrelevant information, studied after that in-group (Swedish) and out-group (immigrant) social categories had been subliminally primed. Based on

  • 144.
    Araya, T
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Akrami, N
    Ekehammar, B
    Hedlund, L-E
    Reducing Prejudice through Priming of Control-related Words2002Inngår i: Experimental Psychology, Vol. 29, nr 3, s. 222-227Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the effect of incidentally presented constructs that imply self-control on activated stereotypes associated with immigrants. To activate immigrant stereotypes, participants responded to a scale that measures people’s prejudice toward immig

  • 145.
    Araya, T
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ekehammar, B
    Akrami, N
    Remembering things that never occurred: The effects of to-be-forgotten stereotypical information2003Inngår i: Experimental Psychology, Vol. 51, nr 1, s. 27-32Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Participants, 68 female and male non-psychology university students, studied stereotypical and non-stereotypical words either with an initially activated social category (immigrant prime) or with no social category (neutral prime). They were then instruct

  • 146.
    Araya, Tadesse
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Stereotypes: Suppression, Forgetting, and False Memory2003Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents four studies investigating (1) whether incidentally primed control-related words can attenuate the impact of activated stereotypes on subsequent evaluation of a target person, (2) the impact of motivated forgetting on the recall of stereotypically congruent and incongruent information, and (3) the impact of a directed forgetting instruction on the false recall and recognition of nonpresented stereotypical information.

    In three experiments, Study I showed that participants initially primed with the social category, immigrant, and subsequently primed with words that were evocative of control or self-control made less negative impression of a target displaying ambiguous behaviors than participants not exposed to such words.

    Study II, using a directed-forgetting paradigm, demonstrated in two experiments that participants subliminally primed with Swedish facial photographs who later studied stereotypically incongruent words roughly recalled an equal number of items regardless of the forget or remember instructions.

    Study III showed that participants primed with the social category, immigrant and then studied a list of stereotypically related and unrelated words falsely recognized more nonpresented stereotypical words when they were furnished with a forget than a remember instruction. Similarly, Study IV (Experiment 2) demonstrated that participants primed with the social category, immigrant, but not with a neutral category, falsely recalled more nonpresented stereotypical words when their cognitive capacity was depleted through a concurrent memory load task.

    The thesis presents a review and a discussion of some of the theoretical underpinnings of the extant literature on stereotyping and intergroup relations and of the social implications of the present findings.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 147.
    Araya, Tadesse
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    When tolerance leads to intolerance: accessibility effects on social judgment2009Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 50, nr 4, s. 325-331Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the effects of unobtrusively primed constructs that were evocative of tolerance (e.g., tolerant, nonprejudiced) on subsequent task performances and found, contrary to our expectation, contrast effects in the judgment of an ambiguous behavioral description (Study 1 and 2). Suspecting that these results might be the outcome of social-comparison processes, in Study 3, we attempted to corroborate our findings by providing the participants with either an explicit or implicit comparison standard. The results showed that the participants who were provided with the implicit comparison standard evaluated the target behavior as more intolerant as compared to those with the explicit or no comparison standard. The results are discussed in relation to the moderating role of automatic social-comparison processes in the incidence of assimilation and contrast effects and the reduction of prejudice.

  • 148.
    Arble, Eamonn
    et al.
    Wayne State Univ, Dept Psychol, 71 W Warren Ave, Detroit, MI 48202 USA..
    Arnetz, Bengt
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap. Michigan State Univ, Coll Human Med, Dept Family Med, 788 Serv Rd,Rm B106D, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA.
    A Model of First-responder Coping: An Approach/Avoidance Bifurcation2017Inngår i: Stress and Health, ISSN 1532-3005, E-ISSN 1532-2998, Vol. 33, nr 3, s. 223-232Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The work of first responders is fraught with numerous stressors, ranging from potentially traumatic critical incidents to institutional strains. The severity and pervasiveness of these difficulties prompt a necessary consideration of the coping methods employed by first responders. The present study developed an empirical model of first-responder coping strategies, based upon a nationally representative survey sample of 6240 first responders. Participants were drawn from Swedish first responders in the following occupations: coast guard, customs control, military, emergency medical services, fire department and police services. In the final model, exposure to stress related to well-being through several indirect paths that in sum accounted for the original direct relationship between these constructs. These several indirect paths were classified theoretically as either approach or avoidance coping behaviours or subsequent health outcomes. In general, approach coping behaviours were related to better well-being; and avoidance was related to a decrease in the outcome. The size of the present sample, as well as the diverse nature of the included first responders, suggests that the resulting model may offer a unique insight into potentially adaptive pathways for first-responder coping.

  • 149. Arditi, A.
    et al.
    Holmes, Emily A.
    Whitehouse, R.
    Interactive tactile maps, visual disability and accessibility of building interiors.1999Inngår i: Visual Impairment Research, Vol. 1, s. 11-21Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 150.
    Arnberg, Filip
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Kunskapscentrum för katastrofpsykiatri. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Psykiatri, Akademiska sjukhuset.
    Long-Term Posttraumatic Stress in Survivors from Disasters and Major Accidents2012Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Disasters and major accidents are a significant cause of distress worldwide. High levels of posttraumatic stress can become chronic after severe and prolonged psychological trauma, raising concerns about the extent of adverse long-term consequences after single events. The present thesis aimed to describe the course and burden of posttraumatic stress in survivors from a ferry disaster in the Baltic Sea, an airliner crash-landing in Gottröra, Sweden, and a bus accident involving Swedish 6th grade schoolchildren in Måbødalen, Norway.

    The participants were surveyed 1 month to 4 years after the events and again after 14 to 20 years. The follow-up surveys included 33 ferry disaster survivors, 70 airline survivors, and 7 surviving schoolchildren with a comparison group from the same school (n = 33). Short- and long-term changes in posttraumatic stress were estimated separately in generalised regression models refined by linear splines. In-depth interviews were conducted with 22 ferry survivors 15 years after the disaster, including structured clinical interviews and thematic analysis of survivors’ descriptions of consequences of the event and social support.

    Approximately half of all survivors experienced significant posttraumatic stress at the initial assessments. Significant long-term distress was noted in one fourth of the ferry survivors and one sixth of the airline survivors. The bus crash was not associated with significant long-term posttraumatic stress. A poorer long-term outcome was noted in women and in bereaved survivors.

    The thematic analysis revealed that long-term consequences not only included negative aspects but also positive ones, including personal growth and existential awareness. There was ample availability of social support, although the need for support extended over a period of several years. Barriers to support from significant others were described in detail by the survivors.

    The results extend previous research by providing a comprehensive account of long-term consequences of disasters and major accidents in light of early reactions. The interviews provide some new insights into features of social support that warrant further study. Important future challenges include evaluating whether timely attention to survivors at risk for chronic distress and significant others can facilitate recovery.

    Delarbeid
    1. Traumatic bereavement, acute dissociation, and posttraumatic stress: 14 years after the MS Estonia disaster
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Traumatic bereavement, acute dissociation, and posttraumatic stress: 14 years after the MS Estonia disaster
    2011 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Traumatic Stress, ISSN 0894-9867, E-ISSN 1573-6598, Vol. 24, nr 2, s. 183-190Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This prospective longitudinal study aimed to examine posttraumatic stress in survivors 14 years after a ferry disaster, and estimate short- and long-term changes in stress associated with traumatic bereavement and acute dissociation. There were 852 people who perished in the disaster, 137 survived. The 51 Swedish survivors were surveyed with the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) at 3 months, 1, 3, and 14 years (response rates 82%, 65%, 51%, and 69%). Symptoms decreased from 3 months to 1 year; no change was found thereafter. After 14 years, 27% reported significant symptoms. Traumatic bereavement, but not acute dissociation, was associated with long-term symptom elevation. Chronic posttraumatic stress can persist in a minority of survivors, and traumatic bereavement appears to hinder recovery.

    Emneord
    posttraumatic stress disorder, bereavement, dissociation, disasters, survivors, Estonia prospective studies, posttraumatisk stress, förlustdrabbade, dissociation, katastrof, överlevande, Estonia
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Psykiatri; Psykologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-151374 (URN)10.1002/jts.20629 (DOI)000289528300006 ()21442665 (PubMedID)
    Prosjekter
    Long-term posttraumatic stress in survivors from disasters and major accidents
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2011-04-11 Laget: 2011-04-11 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-11bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Fifteen years after a ferry disaster: Clinical interviews and survivors’ self-assessment of their experience
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Fifteen years after a ferry disaster: Clinical interviews and survivors’ self-assessment of their experience
    2013 (engelsk)Inngår i: European Journal of Psychotraumatology, ISSN 2000-8066, E-ISSN 2000-8066, Vol. 4, s. 20650-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Disasters yield increased rates of psychological disorders decades later. Other consequences, however, have received little attention in the past.

    Objective:

    We aimed to examine diagnostic status and survivors’ views on disaster-related consequences and social support.

    Methods:

    A mixed-methods approach was used with 22 survivors (of 49 eligible) 15 years after a ferry disaster. Data collection included audiotaped interviews with open-ended questions and diagnostic assessment of Axis-I disorders.

    Results:

    The post-disaster incidence was 54% (12/22) for Axis-I disorders, and 45% (10/22) for full or subsyndromal posttraumatic stress disorder. Thematic analysis revealed that survivor perception of the longterm consequences included positive (character change) and negative aspects (being ascribed a survivor identity). Participants’ sought social support for several years, yet many felt hindered by experiential dissimilarity and distress of significant others.

    Conclusions:

    Axis-I disorders were prevalent, but not salient to survivors’ perceptions in the long-term. Postdisaster interventions need to attend to common barriers to support.

    Emneord
    posttraumatic stress disorder, survivors, diagnosis, social support, posttraumatic growth, mixed methods, PTSD, överlevande, posttraumatisk stress, socialt stöd, Estonia
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Psykiatri; Psykologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-169280 (URN)10.3402/ejpt.v4i0.20650 (DOI)000332099200001 ()
    Prosjekter
    Long-term posttraumatic stress in survivors from disasters and major accidents
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2012-02-27 Laget: 2012-02-27 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-07bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Posttraumatic stress in survivors 1 month to 19 years after an airliner emergency landing
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Posttraumatic stress in survivors 1 month to 19 years after an airliner emergency landing
    2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, nr 3, artikkel-id e0119732Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Posttraumatic stress (PTS) is common in survivors from life-threatening events. Little is known, however, about the course of PTS after life threat in the absence of collateral stressors (e.g., bereavement, social stigma, property loss) and there is a scarcity of studies about PTS in the long term. This study assessed the short- and long-term course of PTS, and the influence of gender, education and age on the level and course of PTS, in survivors from a non-fatal airliner emergency landing caused by engine failure at an altitude of 1 km. There were 129 persons on board. A survey including the Impact of Event Scale was distributed to 106 subjects after 1 month, 4 months, 14 months, and 25 months, and to 95 subjects after 19 years (response rates 64–83%). There were initially high levels of PTS. The majority of changes in PTS occurred from 1 to 4 months after the event. There were small changes from 4 to 25 months but further decrease in PTS thereafter. Female gender was associated with higher levels of PTS whereas gender was unrelated to the slope of the short- and long-term trajectories. Higher education was related to a quicker recovery although not to initial or long-term PTS. Age was not associated with PTS. The present findings suggest that a life-threatening experience without collateral stressors may produce high levels of acute posttraumatic stress, yet with a benign prognosis. The findings further implicate that gender is unrelated to trajectories of recovery in the context of highly similar exposure and few collateral stressors.

    Emneord
    Aviation disasters, Posttraumatic stress, Longitudinal studies, Long-term studies
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Psykiatri; Psykologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-169279 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0119732 (DOI)000350314700063 ()25734536 (PubMedID)
    Prosjekter
    Long-term posttraumatic stress in survivors from disasters and major accidents
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2012-02-27 Laget: 2012-02-27 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-07bibliografisk kontrollert
    4. A longitudinal follow-up of posttraumatic stress: from 9 months to 20 years after a major road traffic accident
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>A longitudinal follow-up of posttraumatic stress: from 9 months to 20 years after a major road traffic accident
    2011 (engelsk)Inngår i: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, ISSN 1753-2000, Vol. 5, nr 8Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Although road traffic accidents (RTA) are a major cause of injury and a cause of posttraumatic stress (PTS) in the aftermath, little is known about the long-term psychological effects of RTA.

    Methods: This prospective longitudinal study assessed long-term PTS, grief, and general mental health after a bus carrying 23 sixth-grade schoolchildren crashed on a school outing and 12 children died. Directly affected (i.e., children in the crash) and indirectly affected children (i.e., all pupils in the sixth grade who were not in the crash) were surveyed at 9 months (N = 102), 4 years (N = 51), and 20 years (N = 40) after the event. Psychological distresswas assessed by single items, including sadness, avoidance, intrusions, and guilt. After 20 years, PTS was assessed by the Impact of Event Scale–Revised.

    Results: Stress reactions were prevalent 9 months after the event, with sadness (69%) and avoidance (59%) being highly represented in both directly and indirectly affected groups, whereas, nightmares (60%) and feelings of guilt (50%) were only frequent in those directly affected. The frequency of sadness and avoidance decreased after 4 years in the indirectly exposed (ps < .05). After 20 years, the directly affected had a higher prevalence of PTS (p = .003), but not decreased general mental health (p = .14), than those indirectly affected.

    Conclusions: The limitations preclude assertive conclusions. Nonetheless, the findings corroborate previous studies reporting traumatic events are associated with long-term PTS, but not with decreased general mental health.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    London: BioMed Central, 2011
    Emneord
    road traffic accidents, posttraumatic stress, children, adolescents, disasters
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Psykiatri; Psykologi; Barn- och ungdomspsykiatri; Psykologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-150258 (URN)10.1186/1753-2000-5-8 (DOI)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2011-04-09 Laget: 2011-03-28 Sist oppdatert: 2012-04-19bibliografisk kontrollert
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
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