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  • 101.
    Hieronymus, C.F.
    et al.
    Danish Lithosphere Centre.
    Bercovici, D.
    University of Hawaii.
    Discrete alternating hotspot islands formed by interaction of magma transport and lithospheric flexure1999Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 397, nr 6720, s. 604-607Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The large-scale geometry and age progression of many hotspot island chains, such as the Hawaiian-Emperor chain, are well explained by the steady movement of tectonic plates over stationary hotspots. But on a smaller scale, hotspot tracks are composed of discrete volcanic islands whose spacing correlates with lithospheric thickness(1). Moreover, the volcanic shields themselves are often not positioned along single lines, but in more complicated patterns, such as the dual line known as the Kea and Loa trends of the Hawaiian islands(2,3). Here we make use of the hypothesis that. island spacing is controlled by lithospheric flexure(1) to develop a simple nonlinear model coupling magma flow, which feeds volcanic growth, to the flexure caused by volcanic loads on the underlying plate. For a steady source of melt underneath a moving lithospheric plate, magma is found to reach the surface and build a chain of separate volcanic edifices with realistic spacing. If a volcano is introduced away from the axis of the chain, as might occur following a change in the direction of plate motion, the model perpetuates the asymmetry for long distances and times, thereby producing an alternating: series of edifices similar to that observed in the Kea and Loa trends of the Hawaiian island chain.

  • 102. Hillier, Ladeana W
    et al.
    Miller, Webb
    Birney, Ewan
    Warren, Wesley
    Hardison, Ross C
    Ponting, Chris P
    Bork, Peer
    Burt, David W
    Groenen, Martien A M
    Delany, Mary E
    Dodgson, Jerry B
    Chinwalla, Asif T
    Cliften, Paul F
    Clifton, Sandra W
    Delehaunty, Kimberly D
    Fronick, Catrina
    Fulton, Robert S
    Graves, Tina A
    Kremitzki, Colin
    Layman, Dan
    Magrini, Vincent
    McPherson, John D
    Miner, Tracie L
    Minx, Patrick
    Nash, William E
    Nhan, Michael N
    Nelson, Joanne O
    Oddy, Lachlan G
    Pohl, Craig S
    Randall-Maher, Jennifer
    Smith, Scott M
    Wallis, John W
    Yang, Shiaw-Pyng
    Romanov, Michael N
    Rondelli, Catherine M
    Paton, Bob
    Smith, Jacqueline
    Morrice, David
    Daniels, Laura
    Tempest, Helen G
    Robertson, Lindsay
    Masabanda, Julio S
    Griffin, Darren K
    Vignal, Alain
    Fillon, Valerie
    Jacobbson, Lina
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Kerje, Susanne
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Andersson, Leif
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Crooijmans, Richard P M
    Aerts, Jan
    van der Poel, Jan J
    Ellegren, Hans
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för evolution, genomik och systematik. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för evolution, genomik och systematik, Evolutionsbiologi. Evolutionsbiologi.
    Caldwell, Randolph B
    Hubbard, Simon J
    Grafham, Darren V
    Kierzek, Andrzej M
    McLaren, Stuart R
    Overton, Ian M
    Arakawa, Hiroshi
    Beattie, Kevin J
    Bezzubov, Yuri
    Boardman, Paul E
    Bonfield, James K
    Croning, Michael D R
    Davies, Robert M
    Francis, Matthew D
    Humphray, Sean J
    Scott, Carol E
    Taylor, Ruth G
    Tickle, Cheryll
    Brown, William R A
    Rogers, Jane
    Buerstedde, Jean-Marie
    Wilson, Stuart A
    Stubbs, Lisa
    Ovcharenko, Ivan
    Gordon, Laurie
    Lucas, Susan
    Miller, Marcia M
    Inoko, Hidetoshi
    Shiina, Takashi
    Kaufman, Jim
    Salomonsen, Jan
    Skjoedt, Karsten
    Wong, Gane Ka-Shu
    Wang, Jun
    Liu, Bin
    Wang, Jian
    Yu, Jun
    Yang, Huanming
    Nefedov, Mikhail
    Koriabine, Maxim
    Dejong, Pieter J
    Goodstadt, Leo
    Webber, Caleb
    Dickens, Nicholas J
    Letunic, Ivica
    Suyama, Mikita
    Torrents, David
    von Mering, Christian
    Zdobnov, Evgeny M
    Makova, Kateryna
    Nekrutenko, Anton
    Elnitski, Laura
    Eswara, Pallavi
    King, David C
    Yang, Shan
    Tyekucheva, Svitlana
    Radakrishnan, Anusha
    Harris, Robert S
    Chiaromonte, Francesca
    Taylor, James
    He, Jianbin
    Rijnkels, Monique
    Griffiths-Jones, Sam
    Ureta-Vidal, Abel
    Hoffman, Michael M
    Severin, Jessica
    Searle, Stephen M J
    Law, Andy S
    Speed, David
    Waddington, Dave
    Cheng, Ze
    Tuzun, Eray
    Eichler, Evan
    Bao, Zhirong
    Flicek, Paul
    Shteynberg, David D
    Brent, Michael R
    Bye, Jacqueline M
    Huckle, Elizabeth J
    Chatterji, Sourav
    Dewey, Colin
    Pachter, Lior
    Kouranov, Andrei
    Mourelatos, Zissimos
    Hatzigeorgiou, Artemis G
    Paterson, Andrew H
    Ivarie, Robert
    Brandström, Mikael
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för evolution, genomik och systematik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Axelsson, Erik
    Backström, Niclas
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för evolution, genomik och systematik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Berlin, Sofia
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för evolution, genomik och systematik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Webster, Matthew T
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för evolution, genomik och systematik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Pourquie, Olivier
    Reymond, Alexandre
    Ucla, Catherine
    Antonarakis, Stylianos E
    Long, Manyuan
    Emerson, J J
    Betrán, Esther
    Dupanloup, Isabelle
    Kaessmann, Henrik
    Hinrichs, Angie S
    Bejerano, Gill
    Furey, Terrence S
    Harte, Rachel A
    Raney, Brian
    Siepel, Adam
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Kent, W James
    Haussler, David
    Eyras, Eduardo
    Castelo, Robert
    Abril, Josep F
    Castellano, Sergi
    Camara, Francisco
    Parra, Genis
    Guigo, Roderic
    Bourque, Guillaume
    Tesler, Glenn
    Pevzner, Pavel A
    Smit, Arian
    Fulton, Lucinda A
    Mardis, Elaine R
    Wilson, Richard K
    Sequence and comparative analysis of the chicken genome provide unique perspectives on vertebrate evolution2004Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 432, nr 7018, s. 695-716Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present here a draft genome sequence of the red jungle fowl, Gallus gallus. Because the chicken is a modern descendant of the dinosaurs and the first non-mammalian amniote to have its genome sequenced, the draft sequence of its genome--composed of approximately one billion base pairs of sequence and an estimated 20,000-23,000 genes--provides a new perspective on vertebrate genome evolution, while also improving the annotation of mammalian genomes. For example, the evolutionary distance between chicken and human provides high specificity in detecting functional elements, both non-coding and coding. Notably, many conserved non-coding sequences are far from genes and cannot be assigned to defined functional classes. In coding regions the evolutionary dynamics of protein domains and orthologous groups illustrate processes that distinguish the lineages leading to birds and mammals. The distinctive properties of avian microchromosomes, together with the inferred patterns of conserved synteny, provide additional insights into vertebrate chromosome architecture.

  • 103. Hinke, C. B.
    et al.
    Boehmer, M.
    Boutachkov, P.
    Faestermann, T.
    Geissel, H.
    Gerl, J.
    Gernhaeuser, R.
    Gorska, M.
    Gottardo, A.
    Grawe, H.
    Grebosz, J. L.
    Kruecken, R.
    Kurz, N.
    Liu, Z.
    Maier, L.
    Nowacki, F.
    Pietri, S.
    Podolyak, Zs
    Sieja, K.
    Steiger, K.
    Straub, K.
    Weick, H.
    Wollersheim, H. -J
    Woods, P. J.
    Al-Dahan, N.
    Alkhomashi, N.
    Atac, A.
    Blazhev, A.
    Braun, N. F.
    Celikovic, I. T.
    Davinson, T.
    Dillmann, I.
    Domingo-Pardo, C.
    Doornenbal, P. C.
    de France, G.
    Farrelly, G. F.
    Farinon, F.
    Goel, N.
    Habermann, T. C.
    Hoischen, R.
    Janik, R.
    Karny, M.
    Kaskas, A.
    Kojouharov, I. M.
    Kroell, Th
    Litvinov, Y.
    Myalski, S.
    Nebel, F.
    Nishimura, S.
    Nociforo, C.
    Nyberg, Johan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Kärnfysik.
    Parikh, A. R.
    Prochazka, A.
    Regan, P. H.
    Rigollet, C.
    Schaffner, H.
    Scheidenberger, C.
    Schwertel, S.
    Soederstroem, P. -A
    Steer, S. J.
    Stolz, A.
    Strmen, P.
    Superallowed Gamow-Teller decay of the doubly magic nucleus 100Sn2012Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 486, nr 7403, s. 341-345Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The shell structure of atomic nuclei is associated with 'magic numbers' and originates in the nearly independent motion of neutrons and protons in a mean potential generated by all nucleons. During beta(+)-decay, a proton transforms into a neutron in a previously not fully occupied orbital, emitting a positron-neutrino pair with either parallel or antiparallel spins, in a Gamow-Teller or Fermi transition, respectively. The transition probability, or strength, of a Gamow-Teller transition depends sensitively on the underlying shell structure and is usually distributed among many states in the neighbouring nucleus. Here we report measurements of the half-life and decay energy for the decay of Sn-100, the heaviest doubly magic nucleus with equal numbers of protons and neutrons. In the beta-decay of Sn-100, a large fraction of the strength is observable because of the large decay energy. We determine the largest Gamow-Teller strength so far measured in allowed nuclear beta-decay, establishing the 'superallowed' nature of this Gamow-Teller transition. The large strength and the low-energy states in the daughter nucleus, In-100, are well reproduced by modern, large-scale shell model calculations.

  • 104.
    Holbrook, J. Britt
    et al.
    New Jersey Inst Technol, Newark, NJ 07102 USA.
    Curry, Stephen
    Imperial Coll, London, England.
    Kamerlin, Shina C. L.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - BMC, Biokemi.
    Debate on academic freedom and open access is healthy2018Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 562, nr 7728, s. 494-494Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 105. Horie, Masayuki
    et al.
    Honda, Tomoyuki
    Suzuki, Yoshiyuki
    Kobayashi, Yuki
    Daito, Takuji
    Oshida, Tatsuo
    Ikuta, Kazuyoshi
    Jern, Patric
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Gojobori, Takashi
    Coffin, John M
    Tomonaga, Keizo
    Endogenous non-retroviral RNA virus elements in mammalian genomes.2010Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 463, nr 7277, s. 84-87Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Retroviruses are the only group of viruses known to have left a fossil record, in the form of endogenous proviruses, and approximately 8% of the human genome is made up of these elements. Although many other viruses, including non-retroviral RNA viruses, are known to generate DNA forms of their own genomes during replication, none has been found as DNA in the germline of animals. Bornaviruses, a genus of non-segmented, negative-sense RNA virus, are unique among RNA viruses in that they establish persistent infection in the cell nucleus. Here we show that elements homologous to the nucleoprotein (N) gene of bornavirus exist in the genomes of several mammalian species, including humans, non-human primates, rodents and elephants. These sequences have been designated endogenous Borna-like N (EBLN) elements. Some of the primate EBLNs contain an intact open reading frame (ORF) and are expressed as mRNA. Phylogenetic analyses showed that EBLNs seem to have been generated by different insertional events in each specific animal family. Furthermore, the EBLN of a ground squirrel was formed by a recent integration event, whereas those in primates must have been formed more than 40 million years ago. We also show that the N mRNA of a current mammalian bornavirus, Borna disease virus (BDV), can form EBLN-like elements in the genomes of persistently infected cultured cells. Our results provide the first evidence for endogenization of non-retroviral virus-derived elements in mammalian genomes and give novel insights not only into generation of endogenous elements, but also into a role of bornavirus as a source of genetic novelty in its host.

  • 106.
    Howes, L. M.
    et al.
    Australian Natl Univ, Res Sch Astron & Astrophys, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia..
    Casey, A. R.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Asplund, M.
    Australian Natl Univ, Res Sch Astron & Astrophys, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia..
    Keller, S. C.
    Australian Natl Univ, Res Sch Astron & Astrophys, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia..
    Yong, D.
    Australian Natl Univ, Res Sch Astron & Astrophys, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia..
    Nataf, D. M.
    Australian Natl Univ, Res Sch Astron & Astrophys, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia..
    Poleski, R.
    Univ Warsaw Observ, PL-00473 Warsaw, Poland.;Ohio State Univ, Dept Astron, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Lind, Karin
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Observationell astrofysik.
    Kobayashi, C.
    Australian Natl Univ, Res Sch Astron & Astrophys, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia.;Univ Hertfordshire, Sch Phys Astron & Math, Ctr Astrophys Res, Hatfield AL10 9AB, Herts, England..
    Owen, C. I.
    Australian Natl Univ, Res Sch Astron & Astrophys, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia..
    Ness, M.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Bessell, M. S.
    Australian Natl Univ, Res Sch Astron & Astrophys, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia..
    Da Costa, G. S.
    Australian Natl Univ, Res Sch Astron & Astrophys, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia..
    Schmidt, B. P.
    Australian Natl Univ, Res Sch Astron & Astrophys, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia..
    Tisserand, P.
    Australian Natl Univ, Res Sch Astron & Astrophys, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia.;Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris 04, F-75014 Paris, France.;CNRS, Inst Astrophys Paris, UMR 7095, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Udalski, A.
    Univ Warsaw Observ, PL-00473 Warsaw, Poland..
    Szymanski, M. K.
    Univ Warsaw Observ, PL-00473 Warsaw, Poland..
    Soszynski, I.
    Univ Warsaw Observ, PL-00473 Warsaw, Poland..
    Pietrzynski, G.
    Univ Warsaw Observ, PL-00473 Warsaw, Poland.;Univ Concepcion, Dept Astron, Concepcion, Chile..
    Ulaczyk, K.
    Univ Warsaw Observ, PL-00473 Warsaw, Poland.;Univ Warwick, Dept Phys, Coventry CV4 7AL, W Midlands, England..
    Wyrzykowski, L.
    Univ Warsaw Observ, PL-00473 Warsaw, Poland..
    Pietrukowicz, P.
    Univ Warsaw Observ, PL-00473 Warsaw, Poland..
    Skowron, J.
    Univ Warsaw Observ, PL-00473 Warsaw, Poland..
    Kozlowski, S.
    Univ Warsaw Observ, PL-00473 Warsaw, Poland..
    Mroz, P.
    Univ Warsaw Observ, PL-00473 Warsaw, Poland..
    Extremely metal-poor stars from the cosmic dawn in the bulge of the Milky Way2015Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 527, nr 7579, s. 484-487Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The first stars are predicted to have formed within 200 million years after the Big Bang(1), initiating the cosmic dawn. A true first star has not yet been discovered, although stars(2-4) with tiny amounts of elements heavier than helium ('metals') have been found in the outer regions ('halo') of the Milky Way. The first stars and their immediate successors should, however, preferentially be found today in the central regions ('bulges') of galaxies, because they formed in the largest over-densities that grew gravitationally with time(5,6). The Milky Way bulge underwent a rapid chemical enrichment during the first 1-2 billion years(7), leading to a dearth of early, metal-poor stars(8,9). Here we report observations of extremely metal-poor stars in the Milky Way bulge, including one star with an iron abundance about 10,000 times lower than the solar value without noticeable carbon enhancement. We confirm that most of the metal-poor bulge stars are on tight orbits around the Galactic Centre, rather than being halo stars passing through the bulge, as expected for stars formed at redshifts greater than 15. Their chemical compositions are in general similar to typical halo stars of the same metallicity although intriguing differences exist, including lower abundances of carbon.

  • 107. Hudson, Thomas J.
    et al.
    Pontén, Fredrik
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik och patologi.
    Yang, Huanming
    International Cancer Genome Consortium,
    International network of cancer genome projects2010Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 464, nr 7291, s. 993-998Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) was launched to coordinate large-scale cancer genome studies in tumours from 50 different cancer types and/or subtypes that are of clinical and societal importance across the globe. Systematic studies of more than 25,000 cancer genomes at the genomic, epigenomic and transcriptomic levels will reveal the repertoire of oncogenic mutations, uncover traces of the mutagenic influences, define clinically relevant subtypes for prognosis and therapeutic management, and enable the development of new cancer therapies.

  • 108.
    Höfner, Susanne
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Teoretisk astrofysik.
    Fresh light on stardust2012Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 484, nr 7393, s. 172-173Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 109.
    Immonen, Elina
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Husby, Arild
    Univ Helsinki, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    Norway wolf cull will hit genetic diversity2016Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 539, nr 7627, s. 31-31Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 110.
    Ji, Cheng
    et al.
    Ctr High Pressure Sci & Technol Adv Res, Beijing, Peoples R China;Carnegie Inst Sci, Geophys Lab, High Pressure Collaborat Access Team, Argonne, IL USA.
    Li, Bing
    Ctr High Pressure Sci & Technol Adv Res, Beijing, Peoples R China;Florida Int Univ, Ctr Study Matter Extreme Condit, Miami, FL 33199 USA;Florida Int Univ, Dept Mech & Mat Engn, Miami, FL 33199 USA.
    Liu, Wenjun
    Argonne Natl Lab, Adv Photon Source, Argonne, IL 60439 USA.
    Smith, Jesse S.
    Carnegie Inst Sci, Geophys Lab, High Pressure Collaborat Access Team, Argonne, IL USA;Argonne Natl Lab, Xray Sci Div, HPCAT, Lemont, IL USA.
    Majumdar, Arnab
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Materialteori.
    Luo, Wei
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Materialteori.
    Ahuja, Rajeev
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Materialteori.
    Shu, Jinfu
    Ctr High Pressure Sci & Technol Adv Res, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Junyue
    Ctr High Pressure Sci & Technol Adv Res, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Sinogeikin, Stanislav
    Carnegie Inst Sci, Geophys Lab, High Pressure Collaborat Access Team, Argonne, IL USA;DAC Tools LLC, Naperville, IL USA.
    Meng, Yue
    Carnegie Inst Sci, Geophys Lab, High Pressure Collaborat Access Team, Argonne, IL USA;Argonne Natl Lab, Xray Sci Div, HPCAT, Lemont, IL USA.
    Prakapenka, Vitali B.
    Univ Chicago, Ctr Adv Radiat Sources, Chicago, IL 60637 USA.
    Greenberg, Eran
    Univ Chicago, Ctr Adv Radiat Sources, Chicago, IL 60637 USA.
    Xu, Ruqing
    Argonne Natl Lab, Adv Photon Source, Argonne, IL 60439 USA.
    Huang, Xianrong
    Argonne Natl Lab, Adv Photon Source, Argonne, IL 60439 USA.
    Yang, Wenge
    Ctr High Pressure Sci & Technol Adv Res, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Shen, Guoyin
    Carnegie Inst Sci, Geophys Lab, High Pressure Collaborat Access Team, Argonne, IL USA;Argonne Natl Lab, Xray Sci Div, HPCAT, Lemont, IL USA.
    Mao, Wendy L.
    Stanford Univ, Dept Geol Sci, Stanford, CA 94305 USA;Stanford Inst Mat & Energy Sci, SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, Menlo Pk, CA USA.
    Mao, Ho-Kwang
    Ctr High Pressure Sci & Technol Adv Res, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Ultrahigh-pressure isostructural electronic transitions in hydrogen2019Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 573, nr 7775, s. 558-562Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    High-pressure transitions are thought to modify hydrogen molecules to a molecular metallic solid and finally to an atomic metal(1), which is predicted to have exotic physical properties and the topology of a two-component (electron and proton) superconducting superfluid condensate(2,3). Therefore, understanding such transitions remains an important objective in condensed matter physics(4,5). However, measurements of the crystal structure of solid hydrogen, which provides crucial information about the metallization of hydrogen under compression, are lacking for most high-pressure phases, owing to the considerable technical challenges involved in X-ray and neutron diffraction measurements under extreme conditions. Here we present a single-crystal X-ray diffraction study of solid hydrogen at pressures of up to 254 gigapascals that reveals the crystallographic nature of the transitions from phase I to phases III and IV. Under compression, hydrogen molecules remain in the hexagonal close-packed (hcp) crystal lattice structure, accompanied by a monotonic increase in anisotropy. In addition, the pressure-dependent decrease of the unit cell volume exhibits a slope change when entering phase IV, suggesting a second-order isostructural phase transition. Our results indicate that the precursor to the exotic two-component atomic hydrogen may consist of electronic transitions caused by a highly distorted hcp Brillouin zone and molecular-symmetry breaking.

  • 111. Jones, Felicity C.
    et al.
    Grabherr, Manfred G.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Chan, Yingguang Frank
    Russell, Pamela
    Mauceli, Evan
    Johnson, Jeremy
    Swofford, Ross
    Pirun, Mono
    Zody, Michael C.
    White, Simon
    Birney, Ewan
    Searle, Stephen
    Schmutz, Jeremy
    Grimwood, Jane
    Dickson, Mark C.
    Myers, Richard M.
    Miller, Craig T.
    Summers, Brian R.
    Knecht, Anne K.
    Brady, Shannon D.
    Zhang, Haili
    Pollen, Alex A.
    Howes, Timothy
    Amemiya, Chris
    Lander, Eric S.
    Di Palma, Federica
    Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Kingsley, David M.
    The genomic basis of adaptive evolution in threespine sticklebacks2012Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 484, nr 7392, s. 55-61Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine stickleback fish have colonized and adapted to thousands of streams and lakes formed since the last ice age, providing an exceptional opportunity to characterize genomic mechanisms underlying repeated ecological adaptation in nature. Here we develop a high-quality reference genome assembly for threespine sticklebacks. By sequencing the genomes of twenty additional individuals from a global set of marine and freshwater populations, we identify a genome-wide set of loci that are consistently associated with marine-freshwater divergence. Our results indicate that reuse of globally shared standing genetic variation, including chromosomal inversions, has an important role in repeated evolution of distinct marine and freshwater sticklebacks, and in the maintenance of divergent ecotypes during early stages of reproductive isolation. Both coding and regulatory changes occur in the set of loci underlying marine-freshwater evolution, but regulatory changes appear to predominate in this well known example of repeated adaptive evolution in nature.

  • 112.
    Josefsson, Agnetha M.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik och patologi.
    Magnusson, Partik K. E.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik och patologi.
    Ylitalo, Nathalie
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik och patologi.
    Quarforth-Tubbin, Pernilla
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik och patologi.
    Pontén, Jan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik och patologi.
    Adami, Hans-Olov
    Gyllensten, Ulf B.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik och patologi.
    p53 polymorphism and risk of cervical cancer1998Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 396, nr 6711, s. 531-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 113. Joshi, Peter K
    et al.
    Esko, Tonu
    Mattsson, Hannele
    Eklund, Niina
    Gandin, Ilaria
    Nutile, Teresa
    Jackson, Anne U
    Schurmann, Claudia
    Smith, Albert V
    Zhang, Weihua
    Okada, Yukinori
    Stančáková, Alena
    Faul, Jessica D
    Zhao, Wei
    Bartz, Traci M
    Concas, Maria Pina
    Franceschini, Nora
    Enroth, Stefan
    Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Vitart, Veronique
    Trompet, Stella
    Guo, Xiuqing
    Chasman, Daniel I
    O'Connel, Jeffrey R
    Corre, Tanguy
    Nongmaithem, Suraj S
    Chen, Yuning
    Mangino, Massimo
    Ruggiero, Daniela
    Traglia, Michela
    Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni
    Kacprowski, Tim
    Bjonnes, Andrew
    van der Spek, Ashley
    Wu, Ying
    Giri, Anil K
    Yanek, Lisa R
    Wang, Lihua
    Hofer, Edith
    Rietveld, Cornelius A
    McLeod, Olga
    Cornelis, Marilyn C
    Pattaro, Cristian
    Verweij, Niek
    Baumbach, Clemens
    Abdellaoui, Abdel
    Warren, Helen R
    Vuckovic, Dragana
    Mei, Hao
    Bouchard, Claude
    Perry, John R B
    Cappellani, Stefania
    Mirza, Saira S
    Benton, Miles C
    Broeckel, Ulrich
    Medland, Sarah E
    Lind, Penelope A
    Malerba, Giovanni
    Drong, Alexander
    Yengo, Loic
    Bielak, Lawrence F
    Zhi, Degui
    van der Most, Peter J
    Shriner, Daniel
    Mägi, Reedik
    Hemani, Gibran
    Karaderi, Tugce
    Wang, Zhaoming
    Liu, Tian
    Demuth, Ilja
    Zhao, Jing Hua
    Meng, Weihua
    Lataniotis, Lazaros
    van der Laan, Sander W
    Bradfield, Jonathan P
    Wood, Andrew R
    Bonnefond, Amelie
    Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S
    Hall, Leanne M
    Salvi, Erika
    Yazar, Seyhan
    Carstensen, Lisbeth
    de Haan, Hugoline G
    Abney, Mark
    Afzal, Uzma
    Allison, Matthew A
    Amin, Najaf
    Asselbergs, Folkert W
    Bakker, Stephan J L
    Barr, R Graham
    Baumeister, Sebastian E
    Benjamin, Daniel J
    Bergmann, Sven
    Boerwinkle, Eric
    Bottinger, Erwin P
    Campbell, Archie
    Chakravarti, Aravinda
    Chan, Yingleong
    Chanock, Stephen J
    Chen, Constance
    Chen, Y-D Ida
    Collins, Francis S
    Connell, John
    Correa, Adolfo
    Cupples, L Adrienne
    Smith, George Davey
    Davies, Gail
    Dörr, Marcus
    Ehret, Georg
    Ellis, Stephen B
    Feenstra, Bjarke
    Feitosa, Mary F
    Ford, Ian
    Fox, Caroline S
    Frayling, Timothy M
    Friedrich, Nele
    Geller, Frank
    Scotland, Generation
    Gillham-Nasenya, Irina
    Gottesman, Omri
    Graff, Misa
    Grodstein, Francine
    Gu, Charles
    Haley, Chris
    Hammond, Christopher J
    Harris, Sarah E
    Harris, Tamara B
    Hastie, Nicholas D
    Heard-Costa, Nancy L
    Heikkilä, Kauko
    Hocking, Lynne J
    Homuth, Georg
    Hottenga, Jouke-Jan
    Huang, Jinyan
    Huffman, Jennifer E
    Hysi, Pirro G
    Ikram, M Arfan
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Molekylär epidemiologi. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Joensuu, Anni
    Johansson, Åsa
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Medicinsk genetik och genomik. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Jousilahti, Pekka
    Jukema, J Wouter
    Kähönen, Mika
    Kamatani, Yoichiro
    Kanoni, Stavroula
    Kerr, Shona M
    Khan, Nazir M
    Koellinger, Philipp
    Koistinen, Heikki A
    Kooner, Manraj K
    Kubo, Michiaki
    Kuusisto, Johanna
    Lahti, Jari
    Launer, Lenore J
    Lea, Rodney A
    Lehne, Benjamin
    Lehtimäki, Terho
    Liewald, David C M
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Kardiovaskulär epidemiologi.
    Loh, Marie
    Lokki, Marja-Liisa
    London, Stephanie J
    Loomis, Stephanie J
    Loukola, Anu
    Lu, Yingchang
    Lumley, Thomas
    Lundqvist, Annamari
    Männistö, Satu
    Marques-Vidal, Pedro
    Masciullo, Corrado
    Matchan, Angela
    Mathias, Rasika A
    Matsuda, Koichi
    Meigs, James B
    Meisinger, Christa
    Meitinger, Thomas
    Menni, Cristina
    Mentch, Frank D
    Mihailov, Evelin
    Milani, Lili
    Montasser, May E
    Montgomery, Grant W
    Morrison, Alanna
    Myers, Richard H
    Nadukuru, Rajiv
    Navarro, Pau
    Nelis, Mari
    Nieminen, Markku S
    Nolte, Ilja M
    O'Connor, George T
    Ogunniyi, Adesola
    Padmanabhan, Sandosh
    Palmas, Walter R
    Pankow, James S
    Patarcic, Inga
    Pavani, Francesca
    Peyser, Patricia A
    Pietilainen, Kirsi
    Poulter, Neil
    Prokopenko, Inga
    Ralhan, Sarju
    Redmond, Paul
    Rich, Stephen S
    Rissanen, Harri
    Robino, Antonietta
    Rose, Lynda M
    Rose, Richard
    Sala, Cinzia
    Salako, Babatunde
    Salomaa, Veikko
    Sarin, Antti-Pekka
    Saxena, Richa
    Schmidt, Helena
    Scott, Laura J
    Scott, William R
    Sennblad, Bengt
    Seshadri, Sudha
    Sever, Peter
    Shrestha, Smeeta
    Smith, Blair H
    Smith, Jennifer A
    Soranzo, Nicole
    Sotoodehnia, Nona
    Southam, Lorraine
    Stanton, Alice V
    Stathopoulou, Maria G
    Strauch, Konstantin
    Strawbridge, Rona J
    Suderman, Matthew J
    Tandon, Nikhil
    Tang, Sian-Tsun
    Taylor, Kent D
    Tayo, Bamidele O
    Töglhofer, Anna Maria
    Tomaszewski, Maciej
    Tšernikova, Natalia
    Tuomilehto, Jaakko
    Uitterlinden, Andre G
    Vaidya, Dhananjay
    van Hylckama Vlieg, Astrid
    van Setten, Jessica
    Vasankari, Tuula
    Vedantam, Sailaja
    Vlachopoulou, Efthymia
    Vozzi, Diego
    Vuoksimaa, Eero
    Waldenberger, Melanie
    Ware, Erin B
    Wentworth-Shields, William
    Whitfield, John B
    Wild, Sarah
    Willemsen, Gonneke
    Yajnik, Chittaranjan S
    Yao, Jie
    Zaza, Gianluigi
    Zhu, Xiaofeng
    Salem, Rany M
    Melbye, Mads
    Bisgaard, Hans
    Samani, Nilesh J
    Cusi, Daniele
    Mackey, David A
    Cooper, Richard S
    Froguel, Philippe
    Pasterkamp, Gerard
    Grant, Struan F A
    Hakonarson, Hakon
    Ferrucci, Luigi
    Scott, Robert A
    Morris, Andrew D
    Palmer, Colin N A
    Dedoussis, George
    Deloukas, Panos
    Bertram, Lars
    Lindenberger, Ulman
    Berndt, Sonja I
    Lindgren, Cecilia M
    Timpson, Nicholas J
    Tönjes, Anke
    Munroe, Patricia B
    Sørensen, Thorkild I A
    Rotimi, Charles N
    Arnett, Donna K
    Oldehinkel, Albertine J
    Kardia, Sharon L R
    Balkau, Beverley
    Gambaro, Giovanni
    Morris, Andrew P
    Eriksson, Johan G
    Wright, Margie J
    Martin, Nicholas G
    Hunt, Steven C
    Starr, John M
    Deary, Ian J
    Griffiths, Lyn R
    Tiemeier, Henning
    Pirastu, Nicola
    Kaprio, Jaakko
    Wareham, Nicholas J
    Pérusse, Louis
    Wilson, James G
    Girotto, Giorgia
    Caulfield, Mark J
    Raitakari, Olli
    Boomsma, Dorret I
    Gieger, Christian
    van der Harst, Pim
    Hicks, Andrew A
    Kraft, Peter
    Sinisalo, Juha
    Knekt, Paul
    Johannesson, Magnus
    Magnusson, Patrik K E
    Hamsten, Anders
    Schmidt, Reinhold
    Borecki, Ingrid B
    Vartiainen, Erkki
    Becker, Diane M
    Bharadwaj, Dwaipayan
    Mohlke, Karen L
    Boehnke, Michael
    van Duijn, Cornelia M
    Sanghera, Dharambir K
    Teumer, Alexander
    Zeggini, Eleftheria
    Metspalu, Andres
    Gasparini, Paolo
    Ulivi, Sheila
    Ober, Carole
    Toniolo, Daniela
    Rudan, Igor
    Porteous, David J
    Ciullo, Marina
    Spector, Tim D
    Hayward, Caroline
    Dupuis, Josée
    Loos, Ruth J F
    Wright, Alan F
    Chandak, Giriraj R
    Vollenweider, Peter
    Shuldiner, Alan R
    Ridker, Paul M
    Rotter, Jerome I
    Sattar, Naveed
    Gyllensten, Ulf
    Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    North, Kari E
    Pirastu, Mario
    Psaty, Bruce M
    Weir, David R
    Laakso, Markku
    Gudnason, Vilmundur
    Takahashi, Atsushi
    Chambers, John C
    Kooner, Jaspal S
    Strachan, David P
    Campbell, Harry
    Hirschhorn, Joel N
    Perola, Markus
    Polašek, Ozren
    Wilson, James F
    Directional dominance on stature and cognition in diverse human populations2015Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 523, nr 7561, s. 459-462Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Homozygosity has long been associated with rare, often devastating, Mendelian disorders, and Darwin was one of the first to recognize that inbreeding reduces evolutionary fitness. However, the effect of the more distant parental relatedness that is common in modern human populations is less well understood. Genomic data now allow us to investigate the effects of homozygosity on traits of public health importance by observing contiguous homozygous segments (runs of homozygosity), which are inferred to be homozygous along their complete length. Given the low levels of genome-wide homozygosity prevalent in most human populations, information is required on very large numbers of people to provide sufficient power. Here we use runs of homozygosity to study 16 health-related quantitative traits in 354,224 individuals from 102 cohorts, and find statistically significant associations between summed runs of homozygosity and four complex traits: height, forced expiratory lung volume in one second, general cognitive ability and educational attainment (P < 1 × 10(-300), 2.1 × 10(-6), 2.5 × 10(-10) and 1.8 × 10(-10), respectively). In each case, increased homozygosity was associated with decreased trait value, equivalent to the offspring of first cousins being 1.2 cm shorter and having 10 months' less education. Similar effect sizes were found across four continental groups and populations with different degrees of genome-wide homozygosity, providing evidence that homozygosity, rather than confounding, directly contributes to phenotypic variance. Contrary to earlier reports in substantially smaller samples, no evidence was seen of an influence of genome-wide homozygosity on blood pressure and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, or ten other cardio-metabolic traits. Since directional dominance is predicted for traits under directional evolutionary selection, this study provides evidence that increased stature and cognitive function have been positively selected in human evolution, whereas many important risk factors for late-onset complex diseases may not have been.

  • 114.
    Kanopka, Arvydas
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Mühleman, Oliver
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Akusjärvi, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Inhibition by SRproteins of splicing of a regulated adenovirus pre-mRNA1996Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 381, s. 535-538Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The adenovirus L1 unit represents an example of an alternatively spliced precursor messenger (pre-mRNA) where on 5' splice can be jointed to one of two alternative 3' splice sites, producing the 52,55K or the IIIa mRNAs (Fig. 1a). Efficient usage of the distal IIIa 3' splice site requires late viral protein synthesis and is therefore confined to the late phase of virus infection. Here we show that, in extracts from uninfected cells, the classical SR proteins, which are essential splicing factors, inhibit IIIa pre-mRNA splicing by binding to an intronic repressor element and preventing recruitment of the U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle to the spliceosome. We further show that the viral repressor element has splicing-enhancer activity when appropriately placed in the pre-mRNA. Together, our results demonstrate that SR proteins function as activators or repressors of splicing depending on where on the pre-mRNA they bind.

  • 115.
    Kanopka, Arvydas
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Mühleman, Oliver
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Petersen-Mahrt, Svend
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Estmer, Camilla
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Öhrmalm, Christina
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Akusjärvi, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Regulation of adenovirus alternative RNAsplicing by dephosphorylation of SR proteins1998Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 393, nr 6681, s. 185-187Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    SR proteins are a family of essential splicing factors required for early recognition of splice sites during spliceosome assembly. They also function as alternative RNA splicing factors when overexpressed in vivo or added in excess to extracts in vitro. SR proteins are highly phosphorylated in vivo, a modification that is required for their function in spliceosome assembly and splicing catalysis. Here we show that SR proteins purified from late adenovirus-infected cells are inactivated as splicing enhancer or splicing repressor proteins by virus-induced dephosphorylation. We further show that the virus-encoded protein E4-ORF4 activates dephosphorylation by protein phosphatase 2A of HeLa SR proteins and converts their splicing properties into that of SR proteins purified from late adenovirus-infected cells. Taken together, our results suggest that E4-ORF4 is an important factor controlling the temporal shift in adenovirus alternative RNA splicing. We conclude that alternative pre-mRNA splicing, like many other biological processes, is regulated by reversible protein phosphorylation.

  • 116. Keeling, Linda
    et al.
    Andersson, Leif
    Schütz, Karin E
    Kerje, Susanne
    Fredriksson, Robert
    Carlborg, Örjan
    SLU.
    Cornwallis, Charles K
    Pizzari, Tommaso
    Jensen, Per
    Chicken genomics: feather-pecking and victim pigmentation.2004Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 431, nr 7009Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Feather-pecking in domestic birds is associated with cannibalism and severe welfare problems. It is a dramatic example of a spiteful behaviour in which the victim's fitness is reduced for no immediate direct benefit to the perpetrator and its evolution is unexplained. Here we show that the plumage pigmentation of a chicken may predispose it to become a victim: birds suffer more drastic feather-pecking when the colour of their plumage is due to the expression of a wild recessive allele at PMEL17, a gene that controls plumage melanization, and when these birds are relatively common in a flock. These findings, obtained using an intercross between a domestic fowl and its wild ancestor, have implications for the welfare of domestic species and offer insight into the genetic changes associated with the evolution of feather-pecking during the early stages of domestication.

  • 117.
    Kern, Jan
    et al.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Mol Biophys & Integrated Bioimaging Div, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Chatterjee, Ruchira
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Mol Biophys & Integrated Bioimaging Div, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Young, Iris D.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Mol Biophys & Integrated Bioimaging Div, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Fuller, Franklin D.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Mol Biophys & Integrated Bioimaging Div, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Lassalle, Louise
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Mol Biophys & Integrated Bioimaging Div, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Ibrahim, Mohamed
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Biol, Berlin, Germany.
    Gul, Sheraz
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Mol Biophys & Integrated Bioimaging Div, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Fransson, Thomas
    SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, Stanford PULSE Inst, Menlo Pk, CA USA;Heidelberg Univ, Interdisciplinary Ctr Sci Comp, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Brewster, Aaron S.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Mol Biophys & Integrated Bioimaging Div, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Alonso-Mori, Roberto
    SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, LCLS, Menlo Pk, CA USA.
    Hussein, Rana
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Biol, Berlin, Germany.
    Zhang, Miao
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Biol, Berlin, Germany.
    Douthit, Lacey
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Mol Biophys & Integrated Bioimaging Div, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    de Lichtenberg, Casper
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Molekylär biomimetik. Umeå Univ, Kemiskt Biol Ctr, Inst Kemi, Umeå, Sweden.
    Cheah, Mun Hon
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Molekylär biomimetik.
    Shevela, Dmitry
    Umea Univ, Kemiskt Biol Ctr, Inst Kemi, Umea, Sweden.
    Wersig, Julia
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Biol, Berlin, Germany.
    Seuffert, Ina
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Biol, Berlin, Germany.
    Sokaras, Dimosthenis
    SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, SSRL, Menlo Pk, CA USA.
    Pastor, Ernest
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Mol Biophys & Integrated Bioimaging Div, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Weninger, Clemens
    SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, LCLS, Menlo Pk, CA USA.
    Kroll, Thomas
    SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, SSRL, Menlo Pk, CA USA.
    Sierra, Raymond G.
    SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, LCLS, Menlo Pk, CA USA.
    Aller, Pierre
    Diamond Light Source Ltd, Harwell Sci & Innovat Campus, Didcot, Oxon, England.
    Butryn, Agata
    Diamond Light Source Ltd, Harwell Sci & Innovat Campus, Didcot, Oxon, England.
    Orville, Allen M.
    Diamond Light Source Ltd, Harwell Sci & Innovat Campus, Didcot, Oxon, England.
    Liang, Mengning
    SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, LCLS, Menlo Pk, CA USA.
    Batyuk, Alexander
    SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, LCLS, Menlo Pk, CA USA.
    Koglin, Jason E.
    SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, LCLS, Menlo Pk, CA USA.
    Carbajo, Sergio
    SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, LCLS, Menlo Pk, CA USA.
    Boutet, Sebastien
    SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, LCLS, Menlo Pk, CA USA.
    Moriarty, Nigel W.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Mol Biophys & Integrated Bioimaging Div, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Holton, James M.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Mol Biophys & Integrated Bioimaging Div, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA;SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, SSRL, Menlo Pk, CA USA;Univ Calif San Francisco, Dept Biochem & Biophys, San Francisco, CA 94143 USA.
    Dobbek, Holger
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Biol, Berlin, Germany.
    Adams, Paul D.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Mol Biophys & Integrated Bioimaging Div, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA;Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Bioengn, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Bergmann, Uwe
    SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, Stanford PULSE Inst, Menlo Pk, CA USA.
    Sauter, Nicholas K.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Mol Biophys & Integrated Bioimaging Div, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Zouni, Athina
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Biol, Berlin, Germany.
    Messinger, Johannes
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Molekylär biomimetik. Umeå Univ, Kemiskt Biol Ctr, Inst Kemi, Umeå, Sweden.
    Yano, Junko
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Mol Biophys & Integrated Bioimaging Div, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Yachandra, Vittal K.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Mol Biophys & Integrated Bioimaging Div, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Structures of the intermediates of Kok's photosynthetic water oxidation clock2018Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 563, nr 7731, s. 421-425Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Inspired by the period-four oscillation in flash-induced oxygen evolution of photo system II discovered by Joliot in 1969, Kok performed additional experiments and proposed a five-state kinetic model for photosynthetic oxygen evolution, known as Kok's S-state clock or cycle(1,2). The model comprises four (meta)stable intermediates (S-0, S-1, S-2 and S-3) and one transient S-4 state, which precedes dioxygen formation occurring in a concerted reaction from two water-derived oxygens bound at an oxo-bridged tetra manganese calcium (Mn4CaO5) cluster in the oxygen-evolving complex(3-7). This reaction is coupled to the two-step reduction and protonation of the mobile plastoquinone Q(B) at the acceptor side of PSII. Here, using serial femto second X-ray crystallography and simultaneous X-ray emission spectroscopy with multi-flash visible laser excitation at room temperature, we visualize all (meta) stable states of Kok's cycle as high-resolution structures (2.04-2.08 angstrom). In addition, we report structures of two transient states at 150 and 400 mu s, revealing notable structural changes including the binding of one additional 'water', Ox, during the S-2 -> S-3 state transition. Our results suggest that one water ligand to calcium (W3) is directly involved in substrate delivery. The binding of the additional oxygen Ox in the S-3 state between Ca and Mnl supports O-O bond formation mechanisms involving O5 as one substrate, where Ox is either the other substrate oxygen or is perfectly positioned to refill the O5 position during O-2 release. Thus, our results exclude peroxo-bond formation in the S-3 state, and the nucleophilic attack of W3 onto W2 is unlikely.

  • 118.
    Korn, Andreas
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för astronomi och rymdfysik.
    Grundahl, Frank
    Richard, O.
    Barklem, Paul
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för astronomi och rymdfysik.
    Mashonkina, Ludmila
    Collet, Remo
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för astronomi och rymdfysik.
    Piskunov, Nikolai
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för astronomi och rymdfysik.
    Gustafsson, Bengt
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för astronomi och rymdfysik.
    A probable stellar solution to the cosmological lithium discrepancy2006Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 442, nr 7103, s. 657-659Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The measurement of the cosmic microwave background has strongly constrained the cosmological parameters of the Universe. When the measured density of baryons (ordinary matter) is combined with standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis calculations, the amounts of hydrogen, helium and lithium produced shortly after the Big Bang can be predicted with unprecedented precision. The predicted primordial lithium abundance is a factor of two to three higher than the value measured in the atmospheres of old stars. With estimated errors of 10 to 25%, this cosmological lithium discrepancy seriously challenges our understanding of stellar physics, Big Bang nucleosynthesis or both. Certain modifications to nucleosynthesis have been proposed, but found experimentally not to be viable. Diffusion theory, however, predicts atmospheric abundances of stars to vary with time, which offers a possible explanation of the discrepancy. Here we report spectroscopic observations of stars in the metal-poor globular cluster NGC6397 that reveal trends of atmospheric abundance with evolutionary stage for various elements. These element-specific trends are reproduced by stellar-evolution models with diffusion and turbulent mixing. We thus conclude that diffusion is predominantly responsible for the low apparent stellar lithium abundance in the atmospheres of old stars by transporting the lithium deep into the star.

  • 119. Kupitz, Christopher
    et al.
    Basu, Shibom
    Grotjohann, Ingo
    Fromme, Raimund
    Zatsepin, Nadia A
    Rendek, Kimberly N
    Hunter, Mark S
    Shoeman, Robert L
    White, Thomas A
    Wang, Dingjie
    James, Daniel
    Yang, Jay-How
    Cobb, Danielle E
    Reeder, Brenda
    Sierra, Raymond G
    Liu, Haiguang
    Barty, Anton
    Aquila, Andrew L
    Deponte, Daniel
    Kirian, Richard A
    Bari, Sadia
    Bergkamp, Jesse J
    Beyerlein, Kenneth R
    Bogan, Michael J
    Caleman, Carl
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Molekyl- och kondenserade materiens fysik.
    Chao, Tzu-Chiao
    Conrad, Chelsie E
    Davis, Katherine M
    Fleckenstein, Holger
    Galli, Lorenzo
    Hau-Riege, Stefan P
    Kassemeyer, Stephan
    Laksmono, Hartawan
    Liang, Mengning
    Lomb, Lukas
    Marchesini, Stefano
    Martin, Andrew V
    Messerschmidt, Marc
    Milathianaki, Despina
    Nass, Karol
    Ros, Alexandra
    Roy-Chowdhury, Shatabdi
    Schmidt, Kevin
    Seibert, Marvin
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi, Molekylär biofysik.
    Steinbrener, Jan
    Stellato, Francesco
    Yan, Lifen
    Yoon, Chunhong
    Moore, Thomas A
    Moore, Ana L
    Pushkar, Yulia
    Williams, Garth J
    Boutet, Sébastien
    Doak, R Bruce
    Weierstall, Uwe
    Frank, Matthias
    Chapman, Henry N
    Spence, John C H
    Fromme, Petra
    Serial time-resolved crystallography of photosystem II using a femtosecond X-ray laser2014Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 513, nr 7517, s. 261-265Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Photosynthesis, a process catalysed by plants, algae and cyanobacteria converts sunlight to energy thus sustaining all higher life on Earth. Two large membrane protein complexes, photosystem I and II (PSI and PSII), act in series to catalyse the light-driven reactions in photosynthesis. PSII catalyses the light-driven water splitting process, which maintains the Earth's oxygenic atmosphere. In this process, the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of PSII cycles through five states, S0 to S4, in which four electrons are sequentially extracted from the OEC in four light-driven charge-separation events. Here we describe time resolved experiments on PSII nano/microcrystals from Thermosynechococcus elongatus performed with the recently developed technique of serial femtosecond crystallography. Structures have been determined from PSII in the dark S1 state and after double laser excitation (putative S3 state) at 5 and 5.5 Å resolution, respectively. The results provide evidence that PSII undergoes significant conformational changes at the electron acceptor side and at the Mn4CaO5 core of the OEC. These include an elongation of the metal cluster, accompanied by changes in the protein environment, which could allow for binding of the second substrate water molecule between the more distant protruding Mn (referred to as the 'dangler' Mn) and the Mn3CaOx cubane in the S2 to S3 transition, as predicted by spectroscopic and computational studies. This work shows the great potential for time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography for investigation of catalytic processes in biomolecules.

  • 120.
    Kusumbe, Anjali P.
    et al.
    Max Planck Inst Mol Biomed, Dept Tissue Morphogenesis, D-48149 Munster, Germany.;Univ Munster, Fac Med, D-48149 Munster, Germany..
    Ramasamy, Saravana K.
    Max Planck Inst Mol Biomed, Dept Tissue Morphogenesis, D-48149 Munster, Germany.;Univ Munster, Fac Med, D-48149 Munster, Germany..
    Itkin, Tomer
    Weizmann Inst Sci, Dept Immunol, IL-76100 Rehovot, Israel..
    Mae, Maarja Andaloussi
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi.
    Langen, Urs H.
    Max Planck Inst Mol Biomed, Dept Tissue Morphogenesis, D-48149 Munster, Germany.;Univ Munster, Fac Med, D-48149 Munster, Germany..
    Betsholtz, Christer
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Vaskulärbiologi.
    Lapidot, Tsvee
    Weizmann Inst Sci, Dept Immunol, IL-76100 Rehovot, Israel..
    Adams, Ralf H.
    Max Planck Inst Mol Biomed, Dept Tissue Morphogenesis, D-48149 Munster, Germany.;Univ Munster, Fac Med, D-48149 Munster, Germany..
    Age-dependent modulation of vascular niches for haematopoietic stem cells2016Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 532, nr 7599, s. 380-+Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Blood vessels define local microenvironments in the skeletal system, play crucial roles in osteogenesis and provide niches for haematopoietic stem cells(1-6). The properties of nicheforming vessels and their changes in the ageing organism remain incompletely understood. Here we show that Notch signalling in endothelial cells leads to the expansion of haematopoietic stem cell niches in bone, which involves increases in CD31-positive capillaries and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-beta (PDGFR beta)-positive perivascular cells, arteriole formation and elevated levels of cellular stem cell factor. Although endothelial hypoxia-inducible factor signalling promotes some of these changes, it fails to enhance vascular niche function because of a lack of arterialization and expansion of PDGFR beta-positive cells. In ageing mice, niche-forming vessels in the skeletal system are strongly reduced but can be restored by activation of endothelial Notch signalling. These findings indicate that vascular niches for haematopoietic stem cells are part of complex, age-dependent microenvironments involving multiple cell populations and vessel subtypes.

  • 121.
    Lamichhaney, Sangeet
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Berglund, Jonas
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Almen, Markus Sällman
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Maqbool, Khurram
    Grabherr, Manfred
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Martinez-Barrio, Alvaro
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Promerova, Marta
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Rubin, Carl-Johan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Wang, Chao
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Zamani, Neda
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Grant, B. Rosemary
    Grant, Peter R.
    Webster, Matthew T.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Andersson, Leif
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Evolution of Darwin's finches and their beaks revealed by genome sequencing2015Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 518, nr 7539Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Darwin's finches, inhabiting the Galapagos archipelago and Cocos Island, constitute an iconic model for studies of speciation and adaptive evolution. Here we report the results of whole-genome re-sequencing of 120 individuals representing all of the Darwin's finch species and two close relatives' Phylogenetic analysis reveals important discrepancies with the phenotype-based taxonomy. We find extensive evidence for interspecific gene flow throughout the radiation. Hybridization has given rise to species of mixed ancestry. A 240 kilobase haplotype encompassing the ALX1 gene that encodes a transcription factor affecting craniofacial. development is strongly associated with beak shape diversity across Darwin's finch species as well as within the medium ground finch (Geospiza fortis) a species that has undergone rapid evolution of beak shape in response to environmental changes. The ALX1 haplotype has contributed to diversification of beak shapes among the Darwin's finches and thereby, to an expanded utilization of food resources.

  • 122. Lappalainen, Tuuli
    et al.
    Sammeth, Michael
    Friedländer, Marc R
    't Hoen, Peter A C
    Monlong, Jean
    Rivas, Manuel A
    Gonzàlez-Porta, Mar
    Kurbatova, Natalja
    Griebel, Thasso
    Ferreira, Pedro G
    Barann, Matthias
    Wieland, Thomas
    Greger, Liliana
    van Iterson, Maarten
    Almlöf, Jonas
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Molekylär medicin. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Ribeca, Paolo
    Pulyakhina, Irina
    Esser, Daniela
    Giger, Thomas
    Tikhonov, Andrew
    Sultan, Marc
    Bertier, Gabrielle
    Macarthur, Daniel G
    Lek, Monkol
    Lizano, Esther
    Buermans, Henk P J
    Padioleau, Ismael
    Schwarzmayr, Thomas
    Karlberg, Olof
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Molekylär medicin. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Ongen, Halit
    Kilpinen, Helena
    Beltran, Sergi
    Gut, Marta
    Kahlem, Katja
    Amstislavskiy, Vyacheslav
    Stegle, Oliver
    Pirinen, Matti
    Montgomery, Stephen B
    Donnelly, Peter
    McCarthy, Mark I
    Flicek, Paul
    Strom, Tim M
    Lehrach, Hans
    Schreiber, Stefan
    Sudbrak, Ralf
    Carracedo, Angel
    Antonarakis, Stylianos E
    Häsler, Robert
    Syvänen, Ann-Christine
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Molekylär medicin. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    van Ommen, Gert-Jan
    Brazma, Alvis
    Meitinger, Thomas
    Rosenstiel, Philip
    Guigó, Roderic
    Gut, Ivo G
    Estivill, Xavier
    Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T
    Transcriptome and genome sequencing uncovers functional variation in humans2013Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 501, nr 7468, s. 506-511Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Genome sequencing projects are discovering millions of genetic variants in humans, and interpretation of their functional effects is essential for understanding the genetic basis of variation in human traits. Here we report sequencing and deep analysis of messenger RNA and microRNA from lymphoblastoid cell lines of 462 individuals from the 1000 Genomes Project-the first uniformly processed high-throughput RNA-sequencing data from multiple human populations with high-quality genome sequences. We discover extremely widespread genetic variation affecting the regulation of most genes, with transcript structure and expression level variation being equally common but genetically largely independent. Our characterization of causal regulatory variation sheds light on the cellular mechanisms of regulatory and loss-of-function variation, and allows us to infer putative causal variants for dozens of disease-associated loci. Altogether, this study provides a deep understanding of the cellular mechanisms of transcriptome variation and of the landscape of functional variants in the human genome.

  • 123.
    Lax, Gordon
    et al.
    Dalhousie Univ, Ctr Comparat Genom & Evolutionary Bioinformat, Dept Biol, Halifax, NS, Canada.
    Eglit, Yana
    Dalhousie Univ, Ctr Comparat Genom & Evolutionary Bioinformat, Dept Biol, Halifax, NS, Canada.
    Eme, Laura
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi, Molekylär evolution. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Dalhousie Univ, Dept Biochem & Mol Biol, Ctr Comparat Genom & Evolutionary Bioinformat, Halifax, NS, Canada.
    Bertrand, Erin M.
    Dalhousie Univ, Ctr Comparat Genom & Evolutionary Bioinformat, Dept Biol, Halifax, NS, Canada.
    Roger, Andrew J.
    Dalhousie Univ, Dept Biochem & Mol Biol, Ctr Comparat Genom & Evolutionary Bioinformat, Halifax, NS, Canada.
    Simpson, Alastair G. B.
    Dalhousie Univ, Ctr Comparat Genom & Evolutionary Bioinformat, Dept Biol, Halifax, NS, Canada.
    Hemimastigophora is a novel supra-kingdom-level lineage of eukaryotes2018Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 564, nr 7736, s. 410-414Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Almost all eukaryote life forms have now been placed within one of five to eight supra-kingdom-level groups using molecular phylogenetics(1-4). The 'phylum' Hemimastigophora is probably the most distinctive morphologically defined lineage that still awaits such a phylogenetic assignment. First observed in the nineteenth century, hemimastigotes are free-living predatory protists with two rows of flagella and a unique cell architecture(5-7); to our knowledge, no molecular sequence data or cultures are currently available for this group. Here we report phylogenomic analyses based on high-coverage, cultivation-independent transcriptomics that place Hemimastigophora outside of all established eukaryote supergroups. They instead comprise an independent supra-kingdom-level lineage that most likely forms a sister clade to the 'Diaphoretickes' half of eukaryote diversity (that is, the 'stramenopiles, alveolates and Rhizaria' supergroup (Sar), Archaeplastida and Cryptista, as well as other major groups). The previous ranking of Hemimastigophora as a phylum understates the evolutionary distinctiveness of this group, which has considerable importance for investigations into the deep-level evolutionary history of eukaryotic life-ranging from understanding the origins of fundamental cell systems to placing the root of the tree. We have also established the first culture of a hemimastigote (Hemimastix kukwesjijk sp. nov.), which will facilitate future genomic and cellbiological investigations into eukaryote evolution and the last eukaryotic common ancestor.

  • 124.
    Lazazzera, Beth A
    et al.
    University of California Los Angeles.
    Hughes, Diarmaid
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Genetics: Location affects sporulation2015Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 525, nr 7567, s. 42-43Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Monitored changes in the number of copies of a gene during DNA replication control the timing of sporulation in bacteria. This discovery links replication to the concept that a gene's location on a chromosome can influence cell traits.

  • 125.
    Leebens-Mack, James H.
    et al.
    Univ Georgia, Dept Plant Biol, Athens, GA 30602 USA.
    Barker, Michael S.
    Univ Arizona, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, Tucson, AZ USA.
    Carpenter, Eric J.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Biol Sci, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
    Deyholos, Michael K.
    Univ British Columbia Okanagan, Dept Biol, Kelowna, BC, Canada.
    Gitzendanner, Matthew A.
    Univ Florida, Dept Biol, Gainesville, FL USA;Univ Florida, Florida Museum Nat Hist, Gainesville, FL 32611 USA.
    Graham, Sean W.
    Univ British Columbia, Dept Bot, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Grosse, Ivo
    German Ctr Integrat Biodivers Res iDiv, Halle, Germany;Martin Luther Univ Halle Wittenberg, Inst Comp Sci, Halle, Saale, Germany.
    Li, Zheng
    Univ Arizona, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, Tucson, AZ USA.
    Melkonian, Michael
    Univ Cologne, Inst Bot, Cologne, Germany.
    Mirarab, Siavash
    Univ Calif San Diego, Dept Elect & Comp Engn, San Diego, CA 92103 USA.
    Porsch, Martin
    Martin Luther Univ Halle Wittenberg, Inst Comp Sci, Halle, Saale, Germany.
    Quint, Marcel
    Martin Luther Univ Halle Wittenberg, Inst Agr & Nutr Sci, Halle, Saale, Germany.
    Rensing, Stefan A.
    Univ Freiburg, BIOSS Ctr Biol Signalling Studies, Freiburg, Germany;Univ Marburg, Plant Cell Biol, Fac Biol, Marburg, Germany.
    Soltis, Douglas E.
    Univ Florida, Florida Museum Nat Hist, Gainesville, FL 32611 USA;Univ Florida, UF Biodivers Inst, Gainesville, FL USA;Univ Florida, UF Genet Inst, Gainesville, FL USA.
    Soltis, Pamela S.
    Univ Florida, Florida Museum Nat Hist, Gainesville, FL 32611 USA;Univ Florida, UF Biodivers Inst, Gainesville, FL USA;Univ Florida, UF Genet Inst, Gainesville, FL USA.
    Stevenson, Dennis W.
    New York Bot Garden, New York, NY USA.
    Ullrich, Kristian K.
    Max Planck Inst Evolutionary Biol, Dept Evolutionary Genet, Plon, Germany.
    Wickett, Norman J.
    Chicago Bot Garden, Negaunee Inst Plant Conservat Sci & Act, Glencoe, IL USA;Northwestern Univ, Program Plant Biol & Conservat, Evanston, IL USA.
    DeGironimo, Lisa
    New York Bot Garden, New York, NY USA.
    Edger, Patrick P.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Hort, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA.
    Jordon-Thaden, Ingrid E.
    Univ Florida, Dept Biol, Gainesville, FL USA;Univ Florida, Florida Museum Nat Hist, Gainesville, FL 32611 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Bot, Madison, WI USA.
    Joya, Steve
    Univ British Columbia, Dept Bot, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Liu, Tao
    Ocean Univ China, Qingdao, Shandong, Peoples R China.
    Melkonian, Barbara
    Univ Cologne, Inst Bot, Cologne, Germany.
    Miles, Nicholas W.
    Univ North Texas, Dept Biol Sci, Denton, TX 76203 USA.
    Pokorny, Lisa
    UPM INIA, Ctr Plant Biotechnol & Genom CBGP, Madrid, Spain;Real Jardin Bot RJB CSIC, Dept Biodivers & Conservat, Madrid, Spain;Kew, Jodrell Lab, Royal Bot Gardens, London, England.
    Quigley, Charlotte
    Univ Maine, Sch Marine Sci, Orono, ME USA.
    Thomas, Philip
    Kew, Jodrell Lab, Royal Bot Gardens, London, England.
    Villarreal, Juan Carlos
    Laval Univ, Dept Plant Biol, Quebec City, PQ, Canada.
    Augustin, Megan M.
    Donald Danforth Plant Sci Ctr, St Louis, MO USA.
    Barrett, Matthew D.
    Univ Western Australia, Sch Biol Sci, Perth, WA, Australia;Kings Pk & Bot Gardens, Dept Biodivers Conservat & Attract, Perth, WA, Australia;James Cook Univ, Australian Trop Herbarium, Cairns, Qld, Australia.
    Baucom, Regina S.
    Univ Michigan, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.
    Beerling, David J.
    Univ Sheffield, Dept Anim & Plant Sci, Sheffield, S Yorkshire, England.
    Benstein, Ruben Maximilian
    Umea Univ, Umea Plant Sci Ctr, Umea, Sweden.
    Biffin, Ed
    Univ Adelaide, Inst Environm, Sch Earth & Environm Sci, Australian Ctr Evolutionary Biol & Biodivers, Adelaide, SA, Australia.
    Brockington, Samuel F.
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Plant Sci, Cambridge, England.
    Burge, Dylan O.
    Royal Bot Garden Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Burris, Jason N.
    Univ Tennessee, Dept Plant Sci, Knoxville, TN USA;Univ Tennessee, Ctr Agr Synthet Biol, Knoxville, TN USA;Univ Tennessee, Dept Food Sci, Knoxville, TN USA.
    Burris, Kellie P.
    Univ Tennessee, Dept Plant Sci, Knoxville, TN USA;North Carolina State Univ, Dept Food Bioproc & Nutr Sci, Raleigh, NC USA.
    Burtet-Sarramegna, Valerie
    Univ New Caledonia, Inst Exact & Appl Sci, Noumea, New Caledonia.
    Caicedo, Ana L.
    Univ Massachusetts, Dept Biol, Amherst, MA 01003 USA.
    Cannon, Steven B.
    USDA ARS, Corn Insects & Crop Genet Res Unit, Ames, IA USA.
    Cebi, Zehra
    Univ Cologne, Inst Bot, Cologne, Germany.
    Chang, Ying
    Univ British Columbia, Dept Bot, Vancouver, BC, Canada;Oregon State Univ, Dept Bot & Plant Pathol, Corvallis, OR 97331 USA.
    Chater, Caspar
    Univ Sheffield, Dept Mol Biol & Biotechnol, Sheffield, S Yorkshire, England.
    Cheeseman, John M.
    Univ Illinois, Dept Plant Biol, Urbana, IL USA.
    Chen, Tao
    Chinese Acad Sci, Fairy Lake Bot Garden, Shenzhen, Peoples R China.
    Clarke, Neil D.
    Yale NUS Coll, Singapore, Singapore.
    Clayton, Harmony
    Univ Western Australia, Sch Mol Sci, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Covshoff, Sarah
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Plant Sci, Cambridge, England.
    Crandall-Stotler, Barbara J.
    Southern Illinois Univ, Dept Plant Biol, Carbondale, IL USA.
    Cross, Hugh
    Univ Otago, Dept Anat, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    dePamphilis, Claude W.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Biol, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
    Der, Joshua P.
    Calif State Univ Fullerton, Dept Biol Sci, Fullerton, CA 92634 USA.
    Determann, Ron
    Atlanta Bot Garden, Atlanta, GA USA.
    Dickson, Rowan C.
    Massey Univ, Sch Fundamental Sci, Palmerston North, New Zealand.
    Di Stilio, Veronica S.
    Univ Washington, Dept Biol, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Ellis, Shona
    Univ British Columbia, Dept Bot, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Fast, Eva
    Univ Cologne, Inst Bot, Cologne, Germany.
    Feja, Nicole
    Univ Cologne, Inst Bot, Cologne, Germany.
    Field, Katie J.
    Univ Leeds, Fac Biol Sci, Ctr Plant Sci, Leeds, W Yorkshire, England.
    Filatov, Dmitry A.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Plant Sci, Oxford, England.
    Finnegan, Patrick M.
    Univ Western Australia, Sch Biol Sci, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Floyd, Sandra K.
    Monash Univ, Sch Biol Sci, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Fogliani, Bruno
    Univ New Caledonia, Inst Exact & Appl Sci, Noumea, New Caledonia;Inst Agron Neo Caledonien IAC, Equipe ARBOREAL, Paita, New Caledonia.
    Garcia, Nicolas
    Univ Chile, Fac Ciencias Forestales & Conservac Nat, Santiago, Chile.
    Gateble, Gildas
    Inst Agron Neo Caledonien IAC, Equipe ARBOREAL, Paita, New Caledonia.
    Godden, Grant T.
    Univ Florida, Florida Museum Nat Hist, Gainesville, FL 32611 USA.
    Goh, Falicia (Qi Yun)
    Genome Inst Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.
    Greiner, Stephan
    Max Planck Inst Mol Plant Physiol, Potsdam, Germany.
    Harkess, Alex
    Univ Georgia, Dept Plant Biol, Athens, GA 30602 USA;Donald Danforth Plant Sci Ctr, St Louis, MO USA.
    Heaney, James Mike
    Univ Florida, Dept Biol, Gainesville, FL USA;Univ Florida, Florida Museum Nat Hist, Gainesville, FL 32611 USA.
    Helliwell, Katherine E.
    Univ Exeter, Coll Life & Environm Sci, Biosci, Exeter, Devon, England;Marine Biol Assoc UK, Plymouth, Devon, England.
    Heyduk, Karolina
    Univ Georgia, Dept Plant Biol, Athens, GA 30602 USA;Yale Univ, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, New Haven, CT USA.
    Hibberd, Julian M.
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Plant Sci, Cambridge, England.
    Hodel, Richard G. J.
    Univ Florida, Dept Biol, Gainesville, FL USA;Univ Florida, Florida Museum Nat Hist, Gainesville, FL 32611 USA;Univ Michigan, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.
    Hollingsworth, Peter M.
    Royal Bot Garden Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Johnson, Marc T. J.
    Univ Toronto Mississauga, Dept Biol, Mississauga, ON, Canada.
    Jost, Ricarda
    Univ Western Australia, Sch Biol Sci, Perth, WA, Australia;La Trobe Univ, Sch Life Sci, Bundoora, Vic, Australia.
    Joyce, Blake
    Univ Tennessee, Dept Plant Sci, Knoxville, TN USA;Univ Arizona, Inst BIO5, CyVerse, Tucson, AZ USA.
    Kapralov, Maxim V.
    Newcastle Univ, Sch Nat & Environm Sci, Newcastle Upon Tyne, Tyne & Wear, England.
    Kazamia, Elena
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Plant Sci, Cambridge, England.
    Kellogg, Elizabeth A.
    Donald Danforth Plant Sci Ctr, St Louis, MO USA;Univ Missouri, St Louis, MO 63121 USA.
    Koch, Marcus A.
    Heidelberg Univ, Ctr Organismal Studies Heidelberg, Dept Biodivers & Plant Systemat, Bot Garden, Heidelberg, Germany;Heidelberg Univ, Herbarium Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Von Konrat, Matt
    Field Museum, Chicago, IL USA.
    Konyves, Kalman
    Royal Hort Soc Garden Wisley, Woking, Surrey, England;Univ Reading, Sch Biol Sci, Univ Reading Herbarium, Reading, Berks, England.
    Kutchan, Toni M.
    Donald Danforth Plant Sci Ctr, St Louis, MO USA.
    Lam, Vivienne
    Univ British Columbia, Dept Bot, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap.
    Leitch, Andrew R.
    Queen Mary Univ London, Sch Biol & Chem Sci, London, England.
    Lentz, Roswitha
    Univ Cologne, Inst Bot, Cologne, Germany.
    Li, Fay-Wei
    Cornell Univ, Boyce Thompson Inst, Ithaca, NY USA.
    Lowe, Andrew J.
    Univ Adelaide, Inst Environm, Sch Biol Sci, Adelaide, SA, Australia.
    Ludwig, Martha
    Univ Western Australia, Sch Mol Sci, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Manos, Paul S.
    Duke Univ, Dept Biol, Durham, NC USA.
    Mavrodiev, Evgeny
    Univ Florida, Dept Biol, Gainesville, FL USA;Univ Florida, Florida Museum Nat Hist, Gainesville, FL 32611 USA.
    McCormick, Melissa K.
    Smithsonian Environm Res Ctr, POB 28, Edgewater, MD 21037 USA.
    McKain, Michael
    Univ Alabama, Dept Biol Sci, Tuscaloosa, AL USA.
    McLellan, Tracy
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Mol & Cell Biol, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    McNeal, Joel R.
    Univ Georgia, Dept Plant Biol, Athens, GA 30602 USA;Kennesaw State Univ, Dept Ecol Evolut & Organismal Biol, Kennesaw, GA 30144 USA.
    Miller, Richard E.
    Flower Divers Inst, Arvada, CO USA.
    Nelson, Matthew N.
    CSIRO Agr & Food, Perth, WA, Australia;Kew, Royal Bot Gardens, Millennium Seed Bank, Ardingly, England;Univ Western Australia, UWA Inst Agr, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Peng, Yanhui
    Univ Tennessee, Dept Plant Sci, Knoxville, TN USA;Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Atlanta, GA USA.
    Ralph, Paula
    Penn State Univ, Dept Biol, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
    Real, Daniel
    Dept Primary Ind & Reg Dev, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Riggins, Chance W.
    Univ Illinois, Dept Crop Sci, Urbana, IL USA.
    Ruhsam, Markus
    Royal Bot Garden Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Sage, Rowan F.
    Univ Toronto, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Sakai, Ann K.
    Univ Toronto, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Scascitella, Moira
    Univ British Columbia, Dept Bot, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Schilling, Edward E.
    Univ Tennessee, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, Knoxville, TN USA.
    Schlosser, Eva-Marie
    Univ Cologne, Inst Bot, Cologne, Germany.
    Sederoff, Heike
    North Carolina State Univ, Dept Plant & Microbial Biol, Raleigh, NC USA.
    Servick, Stein
    Univ Florida, Dept Biol, Gainesville, FL USA.
    Sessa, Emily B.
    Univ Florida, Dept Biol, Gainesville, FL USA.
    Shaw, A. Jonathan
    Duke Univ, Dept Biol, Durham, NC USA.
    Shaw, Shane W.
    Manoa, Honolulu, HI USA.
    Sigel, Erin M.
    Univ Louisiana Lafayette, Dept Biol, Lafayette, LA 70504 USA.
    Skema, Cynthia
    Univ Penn, Morris Arboretum, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.
    Smith, Alison G.
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Plant Sci, Cambridge, England.
    Smithson, Ann
    Univ Western Australia, Sch Biol Sci, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Stewart, C. Neal, Jr.
    Univ Tennessee, Dept Plant Sci, Knoxville, TN USA;Univ Tennessee, Ctr Agr Synthet Biol, Knoxville, TN USA.
    Stinchcombe, John R.
    Univ Toronto, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, Toronto, ON, Canada;Univ Toronto, Koffler Sci Reserve, King City, ON, Canada.
    Szovenyi, Peter
    Univ Zurich, Dept Systemat & Evolutionary Bot, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Tate, Jennifer A.
    Massey Univ, Sch Fundamental Sci, Palmerston North, New Zealand.
    Tiebel, Helga
    Univ Cologne, Inst Bot, Cologne, Germany.
    Trapnell, Dorset
    Univ Georgia, Dept Plant Biol, Athens, GA 30602 USA.
    Villegente, Matthieu
    Univ New Caledonia, Inst Exact & Appl Sci, Noumea, New Caledonia.
    Wang, Chun-Neng
    Natl Taiwan Univ, Inst Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, Dept Life Sci, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Weller, Stephen G.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, Irvine, CA 92717 USA.
    Wenzel, Michael
    Atlanta Bot Garden, Atlanta, GA USA.
    Weststrand, Stina
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi, Systematisk biologi.
    Westwood, James H.
    Virginia Tech, Dept Plant Pathol Physiol & Weed Sci, Blacksburg, VA USA.
    Whigham, Dennis F.
    Smithsonian Environm Res Ctr, Edgewater, MD USA.
    Wu, Shuangxiu
    Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing Inst Genom, Beijing Key Lab Genome & Precis Med Technol, CAS Key Lab Genome Sci & Informat, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Wulff, Adrien S.
    Univ New Caledonia, Inst Exact & Appl Sci, Noumea, New Caledonia;Inst Agron Neo Caledonien IAC, Equipe ARBOREAL, Paita, New Caledonia.
    Yang, Yu
    Northeast Agr Univ, Key Lab Agr Biol Funct Genes, Harbin, Heilongjiang, Peoples R China.
    Zhu, Dan
    Qingdao Agr Univ, Coll Life Sci, Qingdao, Shandong, Peoples R China.
    Zhuang, Cuili
    Univ British Columbia, Dept Bot, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Zuidof, Jennifer
    Agr & Agri Food Canada, Lacombe, AB, Canada.
    Chase, Mark W.
    Kew, Jodrell Lab, Royal Bot Gardens, London, England;Curtin Univ, Dept Environm & Agr, Bentley, WA, Australia.
    Pires, J. Chris
    Univ Missouri, Div Biol Sci, Bond Life Sci Ctr, Columbia, MO 65211 USA.
    Rothfels, Carl J.
    Duke Univ, Dept Biol, Durham, NC USA;Univ British Columbia, Dept Zool, Vancouver, WA USA;Univ Calif Berkeley, Univ Herbarium, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA;Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Integrat Biol, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Yu, Jun
    Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing Inst Genom, Beijing Key Lab Genome & Precis Med Technol, CAS Key Lab Genome Sci & Informat, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Chen, Cui
    Beijing Genom Inst Wuhan, Wuhan, Hubei, Peoples R China.
    Chen, Li
    BGI Shenzhen, Shenzhen, Peoples R China.
    Cheng, Shifeng
    Chinese Acad Agr Sci, Agr Genome Inst Shenzhen, Shenzhen, Peoples R China.
    Li, Juanjuan
    BGI Shenzhen, Shenzhen, Peoples R China.
    Li, Ran
    BGI Shenzhen, Shenzhen, Peoples R China.
    Li, Xia
    BGI Shenzhen, Shenzhen, Peoples R China.
    Lu, Haorong
    BGI Shenzhen, Shenzhen, Peoples R China.
    Ou, Yanxiang
    BGI Shenzhen, Shenzhen, Peoples R China.
    Sun, Xiao
    BGI Shenzhen, Shenzhen, Peoples R China.
    Tan, Xuemei
    BGI Shenzhen, Shenzhen, Peoples R China.
    Tang, Jingbo
    BGI Shenzhen, MGI, Shenzhen, Peoples R China.
    Tian, Zhijian
    Beijing Genom Inst Wuhan, Wuhan, Hubei, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Feng
    Allwegene Technol, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Jun
    iCarbonX, Shenzhen, Peoples R China.
    Wei, Xiaofeng
    BGI Shenzhen, Shenzhen, Peoples R China.
    Xu, Xun
    BGI Shenzhen, Shenzhen, Peoples R China.
    Yan, Zhixiang
    BGI Shenzhen, Shenzhen, Peoples R China.
    Yang, Fan
    BGI Shenzhen, Shenzhen, Peoples R China.
    Zhong, Xiaoni
    BGI Shenzhen, Shenzhen, Peoples R China.
    Zhou, Feiyu
    BGI Shenzhen, Shenzhen, Peoples R China.
    Zhu, Ying
    BGI Shenzhen, Shenzhen, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Yong
    BGI Shenzhen, Shenzhen, Peoples R China;Huahan Gene, Shenzhen, Peoples R China.
    Ayyampalayam, Saravanaraj
    Univ Georgia, Dept Plant Biol, Athens, GA 30602 USA;Univ Georgia, Georgia Adv Comp Resource Ctr, Athens, GA 30602 USA.
    Barkman, Todd J.
    Western Michigan Univ, Dept Biol Sci, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 USA.
    Nguyen, Nam-Phuong
    Matasci, Naim
    Univ Southern Calif, Lawrence J Ellison Inst Transformat Med, Los Angeles, CA USA.
    Nelson, David R.
    Univ Tennessee, Hlth Sci Ctr, Microbiol Immunol & Biochem, Memphis, TN USA.
    Sayyari, Erfan
    Univ Calif San Diego, Dept Elect & Comp Engn, San Diego, CA 92103 USA.
    Wafula, Eric K.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Biol, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
    Walls, Ramona L.
    Univ Arizona, Inst BIO5, CyVerse, Tucson, AZ USA.
    Warnow, Tandy
    Univ Illinois, Dept Comp Sci, Urbana, IL USA.
    An, Hong
    Univ Missouri, Div Biol Sci, Columbia, MO 65211 USA.
    Arrigo, Nils
    Univ Arizona, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, Tucson, AZ USA.
    Baniaga, Anthony E.
    Univ Arizona, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, Tucson, AZ USA.
    Galuska, Sally
    Univ Arizona, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, Tucson, AZ USA.
    Jorgensen, Stacy A.
    Univ Arizona, Arizona Res Labs, Tucson, AZ USA.
    Kidder, Thomas I.
    Univ Arizona, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, Tucson, AZ USA.
    Kong, Hanghui
    Chinese Acad Sci, Key Lab Plant Resources Conservat & Sustainable U, South China Bot Garden, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Peoples R China.
    Lu-Irving, Patricia
    Univ Arizona, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, Tucson, AZ USA.
    Marx, Hannah E.
    Univ Arizona, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, Tucson, AZ USA;Univ Michigan, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.
    Qi, Xinshuai
    Univ Arizona, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, Tucson, AZ USA.
    Reardon, Chris R.
    Univ Arizona, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, Tucson, AZ USA.
    Sutherland, Brittany L.
    Univ Arizona, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, Tucson, AZ USA.
    Tiley, George P.
    Duke Univ, Dept Biol, Durham, NC USA.
    Welles, Shana R.
    Univ Arizona, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, Tucson, AZ USA.
    Yu, Rongpei
    Yunnan Acad Agr Sci, Flower Res Inst, Kunming, Yunnan, Peoples R China.
    Zhan, Shing
    Univ British Columbia, Dept Zool, Vancouver, WA USA.
    Gramzow, Lydia
    Friedrich Schiller Univ Jena, Matthias Schleiden Inst, Dept Genet, Jena, Germany.
    Theissen, Gunter
    Friedrich Schiller Univ Jena, Matthias Schleiden Inst, Dept Genet, Jena, Germany.
    Wong, Gane Ka-Shu
    Univ Alberta, Dept Biol Sci, Edmonton, AB, Canada;BGI Shenzhen, Shenzhen, Peoples R China;Univ Alberta, Dept Med, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
    One thousand plant transcriptomes and the phylogenomics of green plants2019Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 574, nr 7780, s. 679-+Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Green plants (Viridiplantae) include around 450,000-500,000 species(1,2) of great diversity and have important roles in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Here, as part of the One Thousand Plant Transcriptomes Initiative, we sequenced the vegetative transcriptomes of 1,124 species that span the diversity of plants in a broad sense (Archaeplastida), including green plants (Viridiplantae), glaucophytes (Glaucophyta) and red algae (Rhodophyta). Our analysis provides a robust phylogenomic framework for examining the evolution of green plants. Most inferred species relationships are well supported across multiple species tree and supermatrix analyses, but discordance among plastid and nuclear gene trees at a few important nodes highlights the complexity of plant genome evolution, including polyploidy, periods of rapid speciation, and extinction. Incomplete sorting of ancestral variation, polyploidization and massive expansions of gene families punctuate the evolutionary history of green plants. Notably, we find that large expansions of gene families preceded the origins of green plants, land plants and vascular plants, whereas whole-genome duplications are inferred to have occurred repeatedly throughout the evolution of flowering plants and ferns. The increasing availability of high-quality plant genome sequences and advances in functional genomics are enabling research on genome evolution across the green tree of life.

  • 126. Liang, Liming
    et al.
    Willis-Owen, Saffron A. G.
    Laprise, Catherine
    Wong, Kenny C. C.
    Davies, Gwyneth A.
    Hudson, Thomas J.
    Binia, Aristea
    Hopkin, Julian M.
    Yang, Ivana V.
    Grundberg, Elin
    Busche, Stephan
    Hudson, Marie
    Rönnblom, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Reumatologi. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Pastinen, Tomi M.
    Schwartz, David A.
    Lathrop, G. Mark
    Moffatt, Miriam F.
    Cookson, William O. C. M.
    An epigenome-wide association study of total serum immunoglobulin E concentration2015Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 520, nr 7549, s. 670-U188Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a central mediator of allergic (atopic) inflammation. Therapies directed against IgE can alleviate hay fever' and allergic asthma'''. Genetic association studies have not yet identified novel therapeutic targets or pathways underlying IgE regulation'. We therefore surveyed epigenetic associations between serum IgE concentrations and methylation at loci concentrated in CpG islands genome wide in 95 nuclear pedigrees, using DNA from peripheral blood leukocytes. We validated positive results in additional families and in subjects from the general population. Here we show replicated associations with a meta-analysis false discovery rate less than 10-4 between IgE and low methylation at 36 loci. Genes annotated to these loci encode known eosinophil products, and also implicate phospholipid inflammatory mediators, specific transcription factors and mitochondrial proteins. We confirmed that methylation at these loci differed significantly in isolated eosinophils from subjects with and without asthma and high IgE levels. The top three loci accounted for 13% of IgE variation in the primary subject panel, explaining the tenfold higher variance found compared with that derived from large single-nucleotide polymorphism genome-wide association studies'''. This study identifies novel therapeutic targets and biomarkers for patient stratification for allergic diseases.

  • 127.
    Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Garber, Manuel
    Zuk, Or
    Lin, Michael F.
    Parker, Brian J.
    Washietl, Stefan
    Kheradpour, Pouya
    Ernst, Jason
    Jordan, Gregory
    Mauceli, Evan
    Ward, Lucas D.
    Lowe, Craig B.
    Holloway, Alisha K.
    Clamp, Michele
    Gnerre, Sante
    Alfoeldi, Jessica
    Beal, Kathryn
    Chang, Jean
    Clawson, Hiram
    Cuff, James
    Di Palma, Federica
    Fitzgerald, Stephen
    Flicek, Paul
    Guttman, Mitchell
    Hubisz, Melissa J.
    Jaffe, David B.
    Jungreis, Irwin
    Kent, W. James
    Kostka, Dennis
    Lara, Marcia
    Martins, Andre L.
    Massingham, Tim
    Moltke, Ida
    Raney, Brian J.
    Rasmussen, Matthew D.
    Robinson, Jim
    Stark, Alexander
    Vilella, Albert J.
    Wen, Jiayu
    Xie, Xiaohui
    Zody, Michael C.
    Worley, Kim C.
    Kovar, Christie L.
    Muzny, Donna M.
    Gibbs, Richard A.
    Warren, Wesley C.
    Mardis, Elaine R.
    Weinstock, George M.
    Wilson, Richard K.
    Birney, Ewan
    Margulies, Elliott H.
    Herrero, Javier
    Green, Eric D.
    Haussler, David
    Siepel, Adam
    Goldman, Nick
    Pollard, Katherine S.
    Pedersen, Jakob S.
    Lander, Eric S.
    Kellis, Manolis
    A high-resolution map of human evolutionary constraint using 29 mammals2011Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 478, nr 7370, s. 476-482Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The comparison of related genomes has emerged as a powerful lens for genome interpretation. Here we report the sequencing and comparative analysis of 29 eutherian genomes. We confirm that at least 5.5% of the human genome has undergone purifying selection, and locate constrained elements covering similar to 4.2% of the genome. We use evolutionary signatures and comparisons with experimental data sets to suggest candidate functions for similar to 60% of constrained bases. These elements reveal a small number of new coding exons, candidate stop codon readthrough events and over 10,000 regions of overlapping synonymous constraint within protein-coding exons. We find 220 candidate RNA structural families, and nearly a million elements overlapping potential promoter, enhancer and insulator regions. We report specific amino acid residues that have undergone positive selection, 280,000 non-coding elements exapted from mobile elements and more than 1,000 primate-and human-accelerated elements. Overlap with disease-associated variants indicates that our findings will be relevant for studies of human biology, health and disease.

  • 128.
    Lindgren, Johan
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Dept Geol, Lund, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Dan-Eric
    Lund Univ, Dept Biol, Lund, Sweden.
    Sjövall, Peter
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Chem & Mat, Boras, Sweden.
    Jarenmark, Martin
    Lund Univ, Dept Geol, Lund, Sweden.
    Ito, Shosuke
    Fujita Hlth Univ, Dept Chem, Sch Hlth Sci, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan.
    Wakamatsu, Kazumasa
    Fujita Hlth Univ, Dept Chem, Sch Hlth Sci, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan.
    Kear, Benjamin P.
    Uppsala universitet, Enheten för musik och museer, Evolutionsmuseet.
    Schultz, Bo Pagh
    Fur Museum, Museum Salling, Fur, Denmark.
    Sylvestersen, Rene Lyng
    Fur Museum, Museum Salling, Fur, Denmark.
    Madsen, Henrik
    Mo Clay Museum, Museum Mors, Nykobing, Denmark.
    LaFountain, James R., Jr.
    SUNY Buffalo, Dept Biol Sci, Buffalo, NY USA.
    Alwmark, Carl
    Lund Univ, Dept Geol, Lund, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Mats E.
    Lund Univ, Dept Geol, Lund, Sweden.
    Hall, Stephen A.
    Lund Univ, Dept Construct Sci, Lund, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Paula
    Lund Univ, Dept Geol, Lund, Sweden.
    Rodriguez-Meizoso, Irene
    Lund Univ, Dept Chem, Ctr Anal & Synth, Lund, Sweden.
    Ahlberg, Per
    Lund Univ, Dept Geol, Lund, Sweden.
    Fossil insect eyes shed light on trilobite optics and the arthropod pigment screen2019Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 573, nr 7772, s. 122-125Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Fossilized eyes permit inferences of the visual capacity of extinct arthropods(1-3). However, structural and/or chemical modifications as a result of taphonomic and diagenetic processes can alter the original features, thereby necessitating comparisons with modern species. Here we report the detailed molecular composition and microanatomy of the eyes of 54-million-year-old crane-flies, which together provide a proxy for the interpretation of optical systems in some other ancient arthropods. These well-preserved visual organs comprise calcified corneal lenses that are separated by intervening spaces containing eumelanin pigment. We also show that eumelanin is present in the facet walls of living crane-flies, in which it forms the outermost ommatidial pigment shield in compound eyes incorporating a chitinous cornea. To our knowledge, this is the first record of melanic screening pigments in arthropods, and reveals a fossilization mode in insect eyes that involves a decay-resistant biochrome coupled with early diagenetic mineralization of the ommatidial lenses. The demonstrable secondary calcification of lens cuticle that was initially chitinous has implications for the proposed calcitic corneas of trilobites, which we posit are artefacts of preservation rather than a product of in vivo biomineralization(4-7). Although trilobite eyes might have been partly mineralized for mechanical strength, a (more likely) organic composition would have enhanced function via gradient-index optics and increased control of lens shape.

  • 129.
    Lindgren, Johan
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Dept Geol, Lund, Sweden.
    Sjövall, Peter
    RISE Res Inst Sweden Chem & Mat, Boras, Sweden.
    Thiel, Volker
    Univ Gottingen, Geosci Ctr, Geobiol, Gottingen, Germany.
    Zheng, Wenxia
    North Carolina State Univ, Dept Biol Sci, Raleigh, NC 27695 USA.
    Ito, Shosuke
    Fujita Hlth Univ, Sch Hlth Sci, Dept Chem, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan.
    Wakamatsu, Kazumasa
    Fujita Hlth Univ, Sch Hlth Sci, Dept Chem, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan.
    Hauff, Rolf
    Urweltmuseum Hauff, Holzmaden, Germany.
    Kear, Benjamin P.
    Uppsala universitet, Enheten för musik och museer, Evolutionsmuseet.
    Engdahl, Anders
    Lund Univ, MAX Lab 4, Lund, Sweden.
    Alwmark, Carl
    Lund Univ, Dept Geol, Lund, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Mats E.
    Lund Univ, Dept Geol, Lund, Sweden.
    Jarenmark, Martin
    Lund Univ, Dept Geol, Lund, Sweden.
    Sachs, Sven
    Nat Kunde Museum Bielefeld, Abt Geowissensch, Bielefeld, Germany.
    Ahlberg, Per
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi, Evolution och utvecklingsbiologi. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Marone, Federica
    Paul Scherrer Inst, Swiss Light Source, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Kuriyama, Takeo
    Univ Hyogo, Inst Nat & Environm Sci, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan;Wildlife Management Res Ctr, Tanba, Hyogo, Japan.
    Gustafsson, Ola
    Lund Univ, Dept Biol, Lund, Sweden.
    Malmberg, Per
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Chem & Chem Engn, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Thomen, Aurelien
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Chem & Mol Biol, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rodriguez-Meizoso, Irene
    Lund Univ, Dept Chem, Ctr Anal & Synth, Lund, Sweden.
    Uvdal, Per
    Lund Univ, Dept Chem, Chem Phys, Lund, Sweden.
    Ojika, Makoto
    Nagoya Univ, Grad Sch Bioagr Sci, Dept Appl Biosci, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan.
    Schweitzer, Mary H.
    Lund Univ, Dept Geol, Lund, Sweden;North Carolina State Univ, Dept Biol Sci, Raleigh, NC 27695 USA;North Carolina Museum Nat Sci, Raleigh, NC USA.
    Soft-tissue evidence for homeothermy and crypsis in a Jurassic ichthyosaur2018Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 564, nr 7736, s. 359-365Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ichthyosaurs are extinct marine reptiles that display a notable external similarity to modern toothed whales. Here we show that this resemblance is more than skin deep. We apply a multidisciplinary experimental approach to characterize the cellular and molecular composition of integumental tissues in an exceptionally preserved specimen of the Early Jurassic ichthyosaur Stenopterygius. Our analyses recovered still-flexible remnants of the original scaleless skin, which comprises morphologically distinct epidermal and dermal layers. These are underlain by insulating blubber that would have augmented streamlining, buoyancy and homeothermy. Additionally, we identify endogenous proteinaceous and lipid constituents, together with keratinocytes and branched melanophores that contain eumelanin pigment. Distributional variation of melanophores across the body suggests countershading, possibly enhanced by physiological adjustments of colour to enable photoprotection, concealment and/or thermoregulation. Convergence of ichthyosaurs with extant marine amniotes thus extends to the ultrastructural and molecular levels, reflecting the omnipresent constraints of their shared adaptation to pelagic life.

  • 130. Locke, Adam E
    et al.
    Kahali, Bratati
    Berndt, Sonja I
    Justice, Anne E
    Pers, Tune H
    Day, Felix R
    Powell, Corey
    Vedantam, Sailaja
    Buchkovich, Martin L
    Yang, Jian
    Croteau-Chonka, Damien C
    Esko, Tonu
    Fall, Tove
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Molekylär epidemiologi. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Ferreira, Teresa
    Gustafsson, Stefan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Molekylär epidemiologi. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Kutalik, Zoltán
    Luan, Jian'an
    Mägi, Reedik
    Randall, Joshua C
    Winkler, Thomas W
    Wood, Andrew R
    Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie
    Faul, Jessica D
    Smith, Jennifer A
    Hua Zhao, Jing
    Zhao, Wei
    Chen, Jin
    Fehrmann, Rudolf
    Hedman, Åsa K
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Molekylär epidemiologi. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Karjalainen, Juha
    Schmidt, Ellen M
    Absher, Devin
    Amin, Najaf
    Anderson, Denise
    Beekman, Marian
    Bolton, Jennifer L
    Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L
    Buyske, Steven
    Demirkan, Ayse
    Deng, Guohong
    Ehret, Georg B
    Feenstra, Bjarke
    Feitosa, Mary F
    Fischer, Krista
    Goel, Anuj
    Gong, Jian
    Jackson, Anne U
    Kanoni, Stavroula
    Kleber, Marcus E
    Kristiansson, Kati
    Lim, Unhee
    Lotay, Vaneet
    Mangino, Massimo
    Mateo Leach, Irene
    Medina-Gomez, Carolina
    Medland, Sarah E
    Nalls, Michael A
    Palmer, Cameron D
    Pasko, Dorota
    Pechlivanis, Sonali
    Peters, Marjolein J
    Prokopenko, Inga
    Shungin, Dmitry
    Stančáková, Alena
    Strawbridge, Rona J
    Ju Sung, Yun
    Tanaka, Toshiko
    Teumer, Alexander
    Trompet, Stella
    van der Laan, Sander W
    van Setten, Jessica
    Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V
    Wang, Zhaoming
    Yengo, Loïc
    Zhang, Weihua
    Isaacs, Aaron
    Albrecht, Eva
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Molekylär epidemiologi. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Arscott, Gillian M
    Attwood, Antony P
    Bandinelli, Stefania
    Barrett, Amy
    Bas, Isabelita N
    Bellis, Claire
    Bennett, Amanda J
    Berne, Christian
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Klinisk diabetologi och metabolism.
    Blagieva, Roza
    Blüher, Matthias
    Böhringer, Stefan
    Bonnycastle, Lori L
    Böttcher, Yvonne
    Boyd, Heather A
    Bruinenberg, Marcel
    Caspersen, Ida H
    Ida Chen, Yii-Der
    Clarke, Robert
    Warwick Daw, E
    de Craen, Anton J M
    Delgado, Graciela
    Dimitriou, Maria
    Doney, Alex S F
    Eklund, Niina
    Estrada, Karol
    Eury, Elodie
    Folkersen, Lasse
    Fraser, Ross M
    Garcia, Melissa E
    Geller, Frank
    Giedraitis, Vilmantas
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Geriatrik.
    Gigante, Bruna
    Go, Alan S
    Golay, Alain
    Goodall, Alison H
    Gordon, Scott D
    Gorski, Mathias
    Grabe, Hans-Jörgen
    Grallert, Harald
    Grammer, Tanja B
    Gräßler, Jürgen
    Grönberg, Henrik
    Groves, Christopher J
    Gusto, Gaëlle
    Haessler, Jeffrey
    Hall, Per
    Haller, Toomas
    Hallmans, Goran
    Hartman, Catharina A
    Hassinen, Maija
    Hayward, Caroline
    Heard-Costa, Nancy L
    Helmer, Quinta
    Hengstenberg, Christian
    Holmen, Oddgeir
    Hottenga, Jouke-Jan
    James, Alan L
    Jeff, Janina M
    Johansson, Åsa
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Medicinsk genetik och genomik. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Jolley, Jennifer
    Juliusdottir, Thorhildur
    Kinnunen, Leena
    Koenig, Wolfgang
    Koskenvuo, Markku
    Kratzer, Wolfgang
    Laitinen, Jaana
    Lamina, Claudia
    Leander, Karin
    Lee, Nanette R
    Lichtner, Peter
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Kardiovaskulär epidemiologi.
    Lindström, Jaana
    Sin Lo, Ken
    Lobbens, Stéphane
    Lorbeer, Roberto
    Lu, Yingchang
    Mach, François
    Magnusson, Patrik K E
    Mahajan, Anubha
    McArdle, Wendy L
    McLachlan, Stela
    Menni, Cristina
    Merger, Sigrun
    Mihailov, Evelin
    Milani, Lili
    Moayyeri, Alireza
    Monda, Keri L
    Morken, Mario A
    Mulas, Antonella
    Müller, Gabriele
    Müller-Nurasyid, Martina
    Musk, Arthur W
    Nagaraja, Ramaiah
    Nöthen, Markus M
    Nolte, Ilja M
    Pilz, Stefan
    Rayner, Nigel W
    Renstrom, Frida
    Rettig, Rainer
    Ried, Janina S
    Ripke, Stephan
    Robertson, Neil R
    Rose, Lynda M
    Sanna, Serena
    Scharnagl, Hubert
    Scholtens, Salome
    Schumacher, Fredrick R
    Scott, William R
    Seufferlein, Thomas
    Shi, Jianxin
    Vernon Smith, Albert
    Smolonska, Joanna
    Stanton, Alice V
    Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur
    Stirrups, Kathleen
    Stringham, Heather M
    Sundström, Johan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Kardiovaskulär epidemiologi.
    Swertz, Morris A
    Swift, Amy J
    Syvänen, Ann-Christine
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Molekylär medicin. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Tan, Sian-Tsung
    Tayo, Bamidele O
    Thorand, Barbara
    Thorleifsson, Gudmar
    Tyrer, Jonathan P
    Uh, Hae-Won
    Vandenput, Liesbeth
    Verhulst, Frank C
    Vermeulen, Sita H
    Verweij, Niek
    Vonk, Judith M
    Waite, Lindsay L
    Warren, Helen R
    Waterworth, Dawn
    Weedon, Michael N
    Wilkens, Lynne R
    Willenborg, Christina
    Wilsgaard, Tom
    Wojczynski, Mary K
    Wong, Andrew
    Wright, Alan F
    Zhang, Qunyuan
    Brennan, Eoin P
    Choi, Murim
    Dastani, Zari
    Drong, Alexander W
    Eriksson, Per
    Franco-Cereceda, Anders
    Gådin, Jesper R
    Gharavi, Ali G
    Goddard, Michael E
    Handsaker, Robert E
    Huang, Jinyan
    Karpe, Fredrik
    Kathiresan, Sekar
    Keildson, Sarah
    Kiryluk, Krzysztof
    Kubo, Michiaki
    Lee, Jong-Young
    Liang, Liming
    Lifton, Richard P
    Ma, Baoshan
    McCarroll, Steven A
    McKnight, Amy J
    Min, Josine L
    Moffatt, Miriam F
    Montgomery, Grant W
    Murabito, Joanne M
    Nicholson, George
    Nyholt, Dale R
    Okada, Yukinori
    Perry, John R B
    Dorajoo, Rajkumar
    Reinmaa, Eva
    Salem, Rany M
    Sandholm, Niina
    Scott, Robert A
    Stolk, Lisette
    Takahashi, Atsushi
    Tanaka, Toshihiro
    Van't Hooft, Ferdinand M
    Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E
    Westra, Harm-Jan
    Zheng, Wei
    Zondervan, Krina T
    Heath, Andrew C
    Arveiler, Dominique
    Bakker, Stephan J L
    Beilby, John
    Bergman, Richard N
    Blangero, John
    Bovet, Pascal
    Campbell, Harry
    Caulfield, Mark J
    Cesana, Giancarlo
    Chakravarti, Aravinda
    Chasman, Daniel I
    Chines, Peter S
    Collins, Francis S
    Crawford, Dana C
    Adrienne Cupples, L
    Cusi, Daniele
    Danesh, John
    de Faire, Ulf
    den Ruijter, Hester M
    Dominiczak, Anna F
    Erbel, Raimund
    Erdmann, Jeanette
    Eriksson, Johan G
    Farrall, Martin
    Felix, Stephan B
    Ferrannini, Ele
    Ferrières, Jean
    Ford, Ian
    Forouhi, Nita G
    Forrester, Terrence
    Franco, Oscar H
    Gansevoort, Ron T
    Gejman, Pablo V
    Gieger, Christian
    Gottesman, Omri
    Gudnason, Vilmundur
    Gyllensten, Ulf
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Medicinsk genetik och genomik. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Hall, Alistair S
    Harris, Tamara B
    Hattersley, Andrew T
    Hicks, Andrew A
    Hindorff, Lucia A
    Hingorani, Aroon D
    Hofman, Albert
    Homuth, Georg
    Kees Hovingh, G
    Humphries, Steve E
    Hunt, Steven C
    Hyppönen, Elina
    Illig, Thomas
    Jacobs, Kevin B
    Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta
    Jöckel, Karl-Heinz
    Johansen, Berit
    Jousilahti, Pekka
    Wouter Jukema, J
    Jula, Antti M
    Kaprio, Jaakko
    Kastelein, John J P
    Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M
    Kiemeney, Lambertus A
    Knekt, Paul
    Kooner, Jaspal S
    Kooperberg, Charles
    Kovacs, Peter
    Kraja, Aldi T
    Kumari, Meena
    Kuusisto, Johanna
    Lakka, Timo A
    Langenberg, Claudia
    Le Marchand, Loic
    Lehtimäki, Terho
    Lyssenko, Valeriya
    Männistö, Satu
    Marette, André
    Matise, Tara C
    McKenzie, Colin A
    McKnight, Barbara
    Moll, Frans L
    Morris, Andrew D
    Morris, Andrew P
    Murray, Jeffrey C
    Nelis, Mari
    Ohlsson, Claes
    Oldehinkel, Albertine J
    Ong, Ken K
    Madden, Pamela A F
    Pasterkamp, Gerard
    Peden, John F
    Peters, Annette
    Postma, Dirkje S
    Pramstaller, Peter P
    Price, Jackie F
    Qi, Lu
    Raitakari, Olli T
    Rankinen, Tuomo
    Rao, D C
    Rice, Treva K
    Ridker, Paul M
    Rioux, John D
    Ritchie, Marylyn D
    Rudan, Igor
    Salomaa, Veikko
    Samani, Nilesh J
    Saramies, Jouko
    Sarzynski, Mark A
    Schunkert, Heribert
    Schwarz, Peter E H
    Sever, Peter
    Shuldiner, Alan R
    Sinisalo, Juha
    Stolk, Ronald P
    Strauch, Konstantin
    Tönjes, Anke
    Trégouët, David-Alexandre
    Tremblay, Angelo
    Tremoli, Elena
    Virtamo, Jarmo
    Vohl, Marie-Claude
    Völker, Uwe
    Waeber, Gérard
    Willemsen, Gonneke
    Witteman, Jacqueline C
    Zillikens, M Carola
    Adair, Linda S
    Amouyel, Philippe
    Asselbergs, Folkert W
    Assimes, Themistocles L
    Bochud, Murielle
    Boehm, Bernhard O
    Boerwinkle, Eric
    Bornstein, Stefan R
    Bottinger, Erwin P
    Bouchard, Claude
    Cauchi, Stéphane
    Chambers, John C
    Chanock, Stephen J
    Cooper, Richard S
    de Bakker, Paul I W
    Dedoussis, George
    Ferrucci, Luigi
    Franks, Paul W
    Froguel, Philippe
    Groop, Leif C
    Haiman, Christopher A
    Hamsten, Anders
    Hui, Jennie
    Hunter, David J
    Hveem, Kristian
    Kaplan, Robert C
    Kivimaki, Mika
    Kuh, Diana
    Laakso, Markku
    Liu, Yongmei
    Martin, Nicholas G
    März, Winfried
    Melbye, Mads
    Metspalu, Andres
    Moebus, Susanne
    Munroe, Patricia B
    Njølstad, Inger
    Oostra, Ben A
    Palmer, Colin N A
    Pedersen, Nancy L
    Perola, Markus
    Pérusse, Louis
    Peters, Ulrike
    Power, Chris
    Quertermous, Thomas
    Rauramaa, Rainer
    Rivadeneira, Fernando
    Saaristo, Timo E
    Saleheen, Danish
    Sattar, Naveed
    Schadt, Eric E
    Schlessinger, David
    Eline Slagboom, P
    Snieder, Harold
    Spector, Tim D
    Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur
    Stumvoll, Michael
    Tuomilehto, Jaakko
    Uitterlinden, André G
    Uusitupa, Matti
    van der Harst, Pim
    Walker, Mark
    Wallaschofski, Henri
    Wareham, Nicholas J
    Watkins, Hugh
    Weir, David R
    Wichmann, H-Erich
    Wilson, James F
    Zanen, Pieter
    Borecki, Ingrid B
    Deloukas, Panos
    Fox, Caroline S
    Heid, Iris M
    O'Connell, Jeffrey R
    Strachan, David P
    Stefansson, Kari
    van Duijn, Cornelia M
    Abecasis, Gonçalo R
    Franke, Lude
    Frayling, Timothy M
    McCarthy, Mark I
    Visscher, Peter M
    Scherag, André
    Willer, Cristen J
    Boehnke, Michael
    Mohlke, Karen L
    Lindgren, Cecilia M
    Beckmann, Jacques S
    Barroso, Inês
    North, Kari E
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Molekylär epidemiologi. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Hirschhorn, Joel N
    Loos, Ruth J F
    Speliotes, Elizabeth K
    Genetic studies of body mass index yield new insights for obesity biology2015Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 518, nr 7538, s. 197-206Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Obesity is heritable and predisposes to many diseases. To understand the genetic basis of obesity better, here we conduct a genome-wide association study and Metabochip meta-analysis of body mass index (BMI), a measure commonly used to define obesity and assess adiposity, in up to 339,224 individuals. This analysis identifies 97 BMI-associated loci (P < 5 × 10−8), 56 of which are novel. Five loci demonstrate clear evidence of several independent association signals, and many loci have significant effects on other metabolic phenotypes. The 97 loci account for ~2.7% of BMI variation, and genome-wide estimates suggest that common variation accounts for >20% of BMI variation. Pathway analyses provide strong support for a role of the central nervous system in obesity susceptibility and implicate new genes and pathways, including those related to synaptic function, glutamate signalling, insulin secretion/action, energy metabolism, lipid biology and adipogenesis.

  • 131. Loh, N. D.
    et al.
    Hampton, C. Y.
    Martin, A. V.
    Starodub, D.
    Sierra, R. G.
    Barty, A.
    Aquila, A.
    Schulz, J.
    Lomb, L.
    Steinbrener, J.
    Shoeman, R. L.
    Kassemeyer, S.
    Bostedt, C.
    Bozek, J.
    Epp, S. W.
    Erk, B.
    Hartmann, R.
    Rolles, D.
    Rudenko, A.
    Rudek, B.
    Foucar, L.
    Kimmel, N.
    Weidenspointner, G.
    Hauser, G.
    Holl, P.
    Pedersoli, E.
    Liang, M.
    Hunter, M. M.
    Gumprecht, L.
    Coppola, N.
    Wunderer, C.
    Graafsma, H.
    Maia, F. R. N. C.
    Ekeberg, Tomas
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi, Molekylär biofysik.
    Hantke, Max
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi, Molekylär biofysik.
    Fleckenstein, H.
    Hirsemann, H.
    Nass, K.
    White, T. A.
    Tobias, H. J.
    Farquar, G. R.
    Benner, W. H.
    Hau-Riege, S. P.
    Reich, C.
    Hartmann, A.
    Soltau, H.
    Marchesini, S.
    Bajt, S.
    Barthelmess, M.
    Bucksbaum, P.
    Hodgson, K. O.
    Strueder, L.
    Ullrich, J.
    Frank, M.
    Schlichting, I.
    Chapman, H. N.
    Bogan, M. J.
    Fractal morphology, imaging and mass spectrometry of single aerosol particles in flight2012Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 486, nr 7404, s. 513-517Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The morphology of micrometre-size particulate matter is of critical importance in fields ranging from toxicology(1) to climate science(2), yet these properties are surprisingly difficult to measure in the particles' native environment. Electron microscopy requires collection of particles on a substrate(3); visible light scattering provides insufficient resolution(4); and X-ray synchrotron studies have been limited to ensembles of particles(5). Here we demonstrate an in situ method for imaging individual sub-micrometre particles to nanometre resolution in their native environment, using intense, coherent X-ray pulses from the Linac Coherent Light Source(6) free-electron laser. We introduced individual aerosol particles into the pulsed X-ray beam, which is sufficiently intense that diffraction from individual particles can be measured for morphological analysis. At the same time, ion fragments ejected from the beam were analysed using mass spectrometry, to determine the composition of single aerosol particles. Our results show the extent of internal dilation symmetry of individual soot particles subject to non-equilibrium aggregation, and the surprisingly large variability in their fractal dimensions. More broadly, our methods can be extended to resolve both static and dynamic morphology of general ensembles of disordered particles. Such general morphology has implications in topics such as solvent accessibilities in proteins(7), vibrational energy transfer by the hydrodynamic interaction of amino acids(8), and large-scale production of nanoscale structures by flame synthesis(9).

  • 132.
    Long, John A.
    et al.
    Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia.
    Mark-Kurik, Elga
    Tallinn University of Technology.
    Johanson, Zerina
    The Natural History Museum, London.
    Lee, Michael S.Y.
    South Australian Museum, Adelaide.
    Young, Gavin C.
    Australian National University, Canberra.
    Zhu, Min
    Institute of Vertebrate Palaeontology and Palaeoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing.
    Ahlberg, Per Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi, Evolution och utvecklingsbiologi.
    Newman, Michael
    Jones, Roger
    den Blaauwen, Jan
    University of Amsterdam.
    Choo, Brian
    Flinders University, Adelaide.
    Trinajstic, Kate
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia.
    Copulation in antiarch placoderms and the origin of gnathostome internal fertilization2015Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 517, nr 7533, s. 196-199Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Reproduction in jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes) involves either external or internal fertilization. It is commonly argued that internal fertilization can evolve from external, but not the reverse. Male copulatoryclaspers are present in certain placoderms, fossil jawed vertebrates retrieved as a paraphyletic segment of the gnathostome stem group in recent studies. This suggests that internal fertilization could be primitive for gnathostomes, but such a conclusion depends on demonstrating that copulation was not just a specialized feature of certain placoderm subgroups. The reproductive biology of antiarchs, consistently identified as the least crownward placoderms and thus of great interest in this context, has until now remained unknown. Here we show that certain antiarchs possessed dermal claspers in the males, while females bore paired dermal plates inferred to have facilitated copulation. These structures are not associated with pelvic fins. The clasper morphology resembles that of ptyctodonts, a more crownward placoderm group, suggesting that all placoderm claspers are homologous and that internal fertilization characterized all placoderms. This implies that external fertilization and spawning, which characterize most extant aquatic gnathostomes, must be derived from internal fertilization, even though this transformation has been thought implausible. Alternatively, the substantial morphological evidence for placoderm paraphyly must be rejected.

  • 133. Lorenzen, Eline D.
    et al.
    Nogues-Bravo, David
    Orlando, Ludovic
    Weinstock, Jaco
    Binladen, Jonas
    Marske, Katharine A.
    Ugan, Andrew
    Borregaard, Michael K.
    Gilbert, M. Thomas P.
    Nielsen, Rasmus
    Ho, Simon Y. W.
    Goebel, Ted
    Graf, Kelly E.
    Byers, David
    Stenderup, Jesper T.
    Rasmussen, Morten
    Campos, Paula F.
    Leonard, Jennifer A.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Koepfli, Klaus-Peter
    Froese, Duane
    Zazula, Grant
    Stafford, Thomas W., Jr.
    Aaris-Sorensen, Kim
    Batra, Persaram
    Haywood, Alan M.
    Singarayer, Joy S.
    Valdes, Paul J.
    Boeskorov, Gennady
    Burns, James A.
    Davydov, Sergey P.
    Haile, James
    Jenkins, Dennis L.
    Kosintsev, Pavel
    Kuznetsova, Tatyana
    Lai, Xulong
    Martin, Larry D.
    McDonald, H. Gregory
    Mol, Dick
    Meldgaard, Morten
    Munch, Kasper
    Stephan, Elisabeth
    Sablin, Mikhail
    Sommer, Robert S.
    Sipko, Taras
    Scott, Eric
    Suchard, Marc A.
    Tikhonov, Alexei
    Willerslev, Rane
    Wayne, Robert K.
    Cooper, Alan
    Hofreiter, Michael
    Sher, Andrei
    Shapiro, Beth
    Rahbek, Carsten
    Willerslev, Eske
    Species-specific responses of Late Quaternary megafauna to climate and humans2011Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 479, nr 7373, s. 359-364Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite decades of research, the roles of climate and humans in driving the dramatic extinctions of large-bodied mammals during the Late Quaternary period remain contentious. Here we use ancient DNA, species distribution models and the human fossil record to elucidate how climate and humans shaped the demographic history of woolly rhinoceros, woolly mammoth, wild horse, reindeer, bison and musk ox. We show that climate has been a major driver of population change over the past 50,000 years. However, each species responds differently to the effects of climatic shifts, habitat redistribution and human encroachment. Although climate change alone can explain the extinction of some species, such as Eurasian musk ox and woolly rhinoceros, a combination of climatic and anthropogenic effects appears to be responsible for the extinction of others, including Eurasian steppe bison and wild horse. We find no genetic signature or any distinctive range dynamics distinguishing extinct from surviving species, emphasizing the challenges associated with predicting future responses of extant mammals to climate and human-mediated habitat change.

  • 134. Lubick, Naomi
    et al.
    Järhult, Josef D.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Infektionssjukdomar. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Resistance in the wild: Q&A: Keeping antivirals viable2019Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 573, nr 7774, s. S53-S53Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 135.
    Mach, Katharine J.
    et al.
    Stanford University.
    Kraan, Caroline M.
    Stanford University.
    Adger, W. Neil
    University of Exeter.
    Buhaug, Halvard
    Peace Research Institute Oslo;Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
    Burke, Marshall
    Stanford University;National Bureau of Economic Research.
    Fearon, James D.
    Stanford University.
    Field, Christopher B.
    Stanford University.
    Hendrix, Cullen S.
    University of Denver;Peterson Institute for International Economics.
    Maystadt, Jean-Francois
    University of Antwerp;Lancaster University.
    O’Loughlin, John
    University of Colorado Boulder.
    Roessler, Philip
    William & Mary.
    Scheffran, Jürgen
    University of Hamburg.
    Schultz, Kenneth A.
    Stanford University.
    von Uexkull, Nina
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för freds- och konfliktforskning. Peace Research Institute Oslo.
    Climate as a risk factor for armed conflict2019Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 571, nr 7764, s. 193-197Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research findings on the relationship between climate and conflict are diverse and contested. Here we assess the current understanding of the relationship between climate and conflict, based on the structured judgments of experts from diverse disciplines. These experts agree that climate has affected organized armed conflict within countries. However, other drivers, such as low socioeconomic development and low capabilities of the state, are judged to be substantially more influential, and the mechanisms of climate–conflict linkages remain a key uncertainty. Intensifying climate change is estimated to increase future risks of conflict.

  • 136.
    Marouli, Eirini
    et al.
    Queen Mary Univ London, Barts & London Sch Med & Dent, William Harvey Res Inst, London EC1M 6BQ, England..
    Graff, Mariaelisa
    Univ N Carolina, Dept Epidemiol, Chapel Hill, NC 27514 USA..
    Medina-Gomez, Carolina
    Erasmus Sch Ctr, Dept Epidemiol, NL-3015 GE Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Erasmus Sch Ctr, Dept Internal Med, NL-3015 GE Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Lo, Ken Sin
    Montreal Heart Inst, Montreal, PQ H1T 1C8, Canada..
    Wood, Andrew R.
    Univ Exeter, Sch Med, Genet Complex Traits, Exeter EX2 5DW, Devon, England..
    Kjaer, Troels R.
    Aarhus Univ, Dept Mol Biol & Genet, DK-8000 Aarhus, Denmark..
    Fine, Rebecca S.
    Broad Inst MIT & Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142 USA.;Harvard Med Sch, Dept Genet, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Boston Childrens Hosp, Div Endocrinol, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Boston Childrens Hosp, Ctr Basic & Translat Obes Res, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Lu, Yingchang
    Vanderbilt Univ, Sch Med, Vanderbilt Ingram Canc Ctr, Div Epidemiol,Dept Med,Vanderbilt Epidemiol Ctr, Nashville, TN 37203 USA.;Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Charles Bronfman Inst Personalized Med, New York, NY 10029 USA.;Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Genet Obes & Related Metab Traits Program, New York, NY 10069 USA..
    Schurmann, Claudia
    Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Charles Bronfman Inst Personalized Med, New York, NY 10029 USA.;Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Genet Obes & Related Metab Traits Program, New York, NY 10069 USA..
    Highland, Heather M.
    Univ N Carolina, Dept Epidemiol, Chapel Hill, NC 27514 USA.;Univ Texas Hlth Sci Ctr Houston, Univ Texas Grad Sch Biomed Sci Houston, Univ Texas Sch Publ Hlth, Ctr Human Genet, Houston, TX 77030 USA..
    Rueger, Sina
    Univ Lausanne Hosp, Inst Social & Prevent Med, CH-1010 Lausanne, Switzerland.;Swiss Inst Bioinformat, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Thorleifsson, Gudmar
    deCODE Genet Amgen Inc, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Justice, Anne E.
    Univ N Carolina, Dept Epidemiol, Chapel Hill, NC 27514 USA..
    Lamparter, David
    Swiss Inst Bioinformat, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.;Univ Lausanne, Dept Comp Biol, CH-1011 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Stirrups, Kathleen E.
    Queen Mary Univ London, Barts & London Sch Med & Dent, William Harvey Res Inst, London EC1M 6BQ, England.;Univ Cambridge, Dept Hematol, Cambridge CB2 0PT, England..
    Turcot, Valerie
    Montreal Heart Inst, Montreal, PQ H1T 1C8, Canada..
    Young, Kristin L.
    Univ N Carolina, Dept Epidemiol, Chapel Hill, NC 27514 USA..
    Winkler, Thomas W.
    Univ Regensburg, Dept Genet Epidemiol, D-93051 Regensburg, Germany..
    Esko, Tonu
    Broad Inst MIT & Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142 USA.;Boston Childrens Hosp, Div Endocrinol, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Boston Childrens Hosp, Ctr Basic & Translat Obes Res, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Univ Tartu, Estonian Genome Ctr, EE-51010 Tartu, Estonia..
    Karaderi, Tugce
    Univ Oxford, Wellcome Trust Ctr Human Genet, Oxford OX3 7BN, England..
    Locke, Adam E.
    Univ Michigan, Dept Biostat, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.;Univ Michigan, Ctr Stat Genet, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.;Washington Univ, Sch Med, McDonnell Genome Inst, St Louis, MO 63108 USA..
    Masca, Nicholas G. D.
    Univ Leicester, Glenfield Hosp, Dept Cardiovasc Sci, Leicester LE3 9QP, Leics, England.;Glenfield Hosp, NIHR Leicester Cardiovasc Biomed Res Unit, Leicester LE3 9QP, Leics, England..
    Ng, Maggie C. Y.
    Wake Forest Sch Med, Ctr Diabet Res, Winston Salem, NC 27157 USA.;Wake Forest Sch Med, Ctr Genom & Personalized Med Res, Winston Salem, NC 27157 USA..
    Mudgal, Poorva
    Wake Forest Sch Med, Ctr Diabet Res, Winston Salem, NC 27157 USA..
    Rivas, Manuel A.
    Broad Inst MIT & Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142 USA.;Nuffield Dept Clin Med, Oxford OX3 7BN, England..
    Vedantam, Sailaja
    Broad Inst MIT & Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142 USA.;Harvard Med Sch, Dept Genet, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Boston Childrens Hosp, Div Endocrinol, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Boston Childrens Hosp, Ctr Basic & Translat Obes Res, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Mahajan, Anubha
    Univ Oxford, Wellcome Trust Ctr Human Genet, Oxford OX3 7BN, England..
    Guo, Xiuqing
    LABioMed Harbor UCLA Med Ctr, Inst Translat Genom & Populat Sci, Torrance, CA 90502 USA..
    Abecasis, Goncalo
    Univ Michigan, Dept Biostat, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.;Univ Michigan, Ctr Stat Genet, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA..
    Aben, Katja K.
    Netherland Comprehens Canc Org, NL-3501 DB Utrecht, Netherlands.;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Med Ctr, NL-6500 HB Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Adair, Linda S.
    Univ N Carolina, Dept Nutr, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 USA..
    Alam, Dewan S.
    Ctr Control Chron Dis, Dhaka 1212, Bangladesh..
    Albrecht, Eva
    Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen German Res Ctr Environm, Inst Genet Epidemiol, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany..
    Allin, Kristine H.
    Univ Copenhagen, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, Novo Nordisk Fdn Ctr Basic Metab Res, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Allison, Matthew
    Univ Calif San Diego, Dept Family Med & Publ Hlth, La Jolla, CA 92093 USA..
    Amouyel, Philippe
    INSERM, U1167, F-59019 Lille, France.;Inst Pasteur, U1167, F-59019 Lille, France.;Univ Lille, U1167, RID AGE Risk Factors & Mol Determinants Aging Rel, F-59019 Lille, France..
    Appel, Emil V.
    Univ Copenhagen, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, Novo Nordisk Fdn Ctr Basic Metab Res, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Arveiler, Dominique
    Univ Strasbourg, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, F-67085 Strasbourg, France.;Univ Hosp Strasbourg, Dept Publ Hlth, F-67081 Strasbourg, France..
    Asselbergs, Folkert W.
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Dept Cardiol, Div Heart & Lungs, Utrecht, Netherlands.;ICIN Netherland Heart Inst, Durrer Ctr Cardiogenet Res, Utrecht, Netherlands.;UCL, Fac Populat Hlth Sci, Inst Cardiovasc Sci, London, England..
    Auer, Paul L.
    Univ Wisconsin, Zilber Sch Publ Hlth, Milwaukee, WI 53201 USA..
    Balkau, Beverley
    INSERM, Ctr Rech Epidemiol & Sante Populat CESP, U1018, Villejuif, France..
    Banas, Bernhard
    Univ Hosp Regensburg, Dept Nephrol, D-93042 Regensburg, Germany..
    Bang, Lia E.
    Copenhagen Univ Hosp, Rigshosp, Dept Cardiol, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Benn, Marianne
    Copenhagen Univ Hosp, Herlev & Gentofte Hosp, Dept Clin Biochem, DK-2730 Herlev, Denmark.;Univ Copenhagen, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, DK-2200 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Bergmann, Sven
    Swiss Inst Bioinformat, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.;Univ Lausanne, Dept Comp Biol, CH-1011 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Bielak, Lawrence F.
    Univ Michigan, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA..
    Blueher, Matthias
    Univ Leipzig, Dept Med, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany..
    Boeing, Heiner
    German Inst Human Nutr Potsdam Rehbruecke DIfE, Dept Epidemiol, D-14558 Nuthetal, Germany..
    Boerwinkle, Eric
    Univ Texas Hlth Sci Ctr Houston, Sch Publ Hlth, Ctr Human Genet, Houston, TX 77030 USA.;Baylor Coll Med, Human Genome Sequencing Ctr, Houston, TX 77030 USA..
    Boeger, Carsten A.
    Univ Hosp Regensburg, Dept Nephrol, D-93042 Regensburg, Germany..
    Bonnycastle, Lori L.
    NHGRI, Med Genom & Metabol Genet Branch, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA..
    Bork-Jensen, Jette
    Univ Copenhagen, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, Novo Nordisk Fdn Ctr Basic Metab Res, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Bots, Michiel L.
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Julius Ctr Hlth Sci & Primary Care, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Bottinger, Erwin P.
    Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Charles Bronfman Inst Personalized Med, New York, NY 10029 USA..
    Bowden, Donald W.
    Wake Forest Sch Med, Ctr Diabet Res, Winston Salem, NC 27157 USA.;Wake Forest Sch Med, Ctr Genom & Personalized Med Res, Winston Salem, NC 27157 USA.;Wake Forest Sch Med, Dept Biochem, Winston Salem, NC 27157 USA..
    Brandslund, Ivan
    Lillebaelt Hosp, Dept Clin Biochem, DK-7100 Vejle, Denmark.;Univ Southern Denmark, Inst Reg Hlth Res, DK-5000 Odense, Denmark..
    Breen, Gerome
    Kings Coll London, Inst Psychiat Psychol & Neurosci, MRC Social Genet & Dev Psychiat Ctr, London SE5 8AF, England.;NIHR Biomed Res Ctr Mental Hlth Maudsley, London SE5 8AF, England..
    Brilliant, Murray H.
    Marshfield Clin Res Fdn, Marshfield, WI 54449 USA..
    Broer, Linda
    Erasmus Sch Ctr, Dept Internal Med, NL-3015 GE Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Burt, Amber A.
    Univ Washington, Dept Med, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Butterworth, Adam S.
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Publ Hlth & Primary Care, MRC BHF Cardiovasc Epidemiol Unit, Cambridge CB1 8RN, England.;Univ Cambridge, NIHR Blood & Transplant Res Unit Donor Hlth Genom, Cambridge CB1 8RN, England..
    Carey, David J.
    Sigfried & Janet Weis Ctr Res, Danville, PA 17822 USA..
    Caulfield, Mark J.
    Queen Mary Univ London, Barts & London Sch Med & Dent, William Harvey Res Inst, London EC1M 6BQ, England.;Queen Mary Univ, Barts & London Sch Med & Dent, NIHR Barts Cardiovasc Res Unit, London EC1M 6BQ, England..
    Chambers, John C.
    London North West Healthcare NHS Trust, Ealing Hosp, Dept Cardiol, Middlesex UB1 3HW, England.;Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London W2 1PG, England.;Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Healthcare NHS Trust, London W12 0HS, England..
    Chasman, Daniel I.
    Broad Inst MIT & Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142 USA.;Brigham & Womens Hosp, Div Genet, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Brigham & Womens & Harvard Med Sch, Div Prevent Med, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Chen, Yii-Der Ida
    LABioMed Harbor UCLA Med Ctr, Inst Translat Genom & Populat Sci, Torrance, CA 90502 USA..
    Chowdhury, Rajiv
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Publ Hlth & Primary Care, MRC BHF Cardiovasc Epidemiol Unit, Cambridge CB1 8RN, England..
    Christensen, Cramer
    Lillebaelt Hosp, Dept Med, DK-7100 Vejle, Denmark..
    Chu, Audrey Y.
    Brigham & Womens & Harvard Med Sch, Div Prevent Med, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;NHLBI, Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MA 01702 USA..
    Cocca, Massimiliano
    Univ Trieste, Dept Med Surg & Hlth Sci, I-34100 Trieste, Italy..
    Collins, Francis S.
    NHGRI, Med Genom & Metabol Genet Branch, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA..
    Cook, James P.
    Univ Liverpool, Dept Biostat, Liverpool L69 3GL, Merseyside, England..
    Corley, Janie
    Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Cognit Ageing & Cognit Epidemiol, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, Midlothian, Scotland.;Univ Edinburgh, Dept Psychol, 7 George Sq, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Galbany, Jordi Corominas
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Med Ctr, Dept Human Genet, NL-6500 HB Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Cox, Amanda J.
    Wake Forest Sch Med, Ctr Diabet Res, Winston Salem, NC 27157 USA.;Wake Forest Sch Med, Ctr Genom & Personalized Med Res, Winston Salem, NC 27157 USA.;Griffith Univ, Menzies Hlth Inst Queensland, Southport, Qld, Australia..
    Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel
    Univ Queensland, Diamantina Inst, Brisbane, Qld 4072, Australia.;QIMR Berghofer Med Res Inst, Brisbane, Qld 4006, Australia..
    Danesh, John
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Publ Hlth & Primary Care, MRC BHF Cardiovasc Epidemiol Unit, Cambridge CB1 8RN, England.;Univ Cambridge, NIHR Blood & Transplant Res Unit Donor Hlth Genom, Cambridge CB1 8RN, England.;Wellcome Trust Sanger Inst, Wellcome Genome Campus, Cambridge CB10 1SA, England.;Univ Cambridge, Dept Med, Cambridge Escellence, British Heart Fdn, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, England..
    Davies, Gail
    Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Cognit Ageing & Cognit Epidemiol, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, Midlothian, Scotland.;Univ Edinburgh, Dept Psychol, 7 George Sq, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    de Bakker, Paul I. W.
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Julius Ctr Hlth Sci & Primary Care, Utrecht, Netherlands.;Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Ctr Mol Med, Dept Genet, NL-3584 CX Utrecht, Netherlands..
    de Borst, Gert J.
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Dept Vasc Surg, Div Surg Specialties, NL-3584 CX Utrecht, Netherlands..
    de Denus, Simon
    Montreal Heart Inst, Montreal, PQ H1T 1C8, Canada.;Univ Montreal, Fac Pharm, Montreal, PQ H3T 1J4, Canada..
    de Groot, Mark C. H.
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Div Lab & Pharm, Dept Clin Chem & Haematol, NL-3508 GA Utrecht, Netherlands.;Univ Utrecht, Div Pharmacoepidemiol & Clin Pharmacol, Utrecht Inst Pharmaceut Sci, NL-3508 TB Utrecht, Netherlands..
    de Mutsert, Renee
    Leiden Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Clin Epidemiol, NL-2300 RC Leiden, Netherlands..
    Deary, Ian J.
    Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Cognit Ageing & Cognit Epidemiol, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, Midlothian, Scotland.;Univ Edinburgh, Dept Psychol, 7 George Sq, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Dedoussis, George
    Harokopio Univ, Sch Hlth Sci & Educ, Dept Nutr & Dietet, Athens 17671, Greece..
    Demerath, Ellen W.
    Univ Minnesota, Sch Publ Hlth, Div Epidemiol & Community Hlth, Minneapolis, MN 55454 USA..
    den Hollander, Anneke I.
    Radbound Univ Med Ctr, Dept Ophthalmol, NL-6500 HB Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Dennis, Joe G.
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Publ Hlth & Primary Care, Ctr Canc Genet Epidemiol, Cambridge CB1 8RN, England..
    Di Angelantonio, Emanuele
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Publ Hlth & Primary Care, MRC BHF Cardiovasc Epidemiol Unit, Cambridge CB1 8RN, England.;Univ Cambridge, NIHR Blood & Transplant Res Unit Donor Hlth Genom, Cambridge CB1 8RN, England..
    Drenos, Fotios
    UCL, Inst Cardiovasc Sci, London WC1E 6JF, England.;Univ Bristol, Sch Social & Community Med, MRC Integrat Epidemiol Unit, Bristol BS8 2BN, Avon, England..
    Du, Mengmeng
    Fred Hutchinson Canc Res Ctr, Div Publ Hlth Sci, Seattle, WA 98109 USA.;Mem Sloan Kettering Canc Ctr, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, New York, NY 10017 USA..
    Dunning, Alison M.
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Oncol, Ctr Canc Genet Epidemiol, Cambridge CB1 8RN, England.;Univ Helsinki, Inst Mol Med Finland FIMM, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    Easton, Douglas F.
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Publ Hlth & Primary Care, Ctr Canc Genet Epidemiol, Cambridge CB1 8RN, England.;Univ Cambridge, Dept Oncol, Ctr Canc Genet Epidemiol, Cambridge CB1 8RN, England..
    Ebeling, Tapani
    Oulu Univ Hosp, Dept Med, Oulu 90029, Finland.;Univ Oulu, Res Unit Internal Med, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland..
    Edwards, Todd L.
    Vanderbilt Univ, Vanderbilt Genet Inst, Inst Med & Publ Hlth, Dept Med,Div Epidemiol, Nashville, TN 37203 USA..
    Ellinor, Patrick T.
    Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Boston, MA 02114 USA.;Broad Inst, Med & Populat Genet Program, Cambridge, MA 02141 USA..
    Elliott, Paul
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Sch Publ Hlth, MRC PHE Ctr Environm & Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London W2 1PG, England..
    Evangelou, Evangelos
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London W2 1PG, England.;Univ Ioannina, Sch Med, Dept Hyg & Epidemiol, GR-45110 Ioannina, Greece..
    Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni
    Harokopio Univ, Sch Hlth Sci & Educ, Dept Nutr & Dietet, Athens 17671, Greece..
    Faul, Jessica D.
    Univ Michigan, Inst Social Res, Survey Res Ctr, Ann Arbor, MI 48104 USA..
    Feitosa, Mary F.
    Washington Univ, Sch Med, Dept Genet, Div Stat Genom, St Louis, MO 63108 USA..
    Feng, Shuang
    Univ Michigan, Ctr Stat Genet, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA..
    Ferrannini, Ele
    CNR Inst Clin Physiol, Pisa, Italy.;Univ Pisa, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Pisa, Italy..
    Ferrario, Marco M.
    Univ Insubria, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Res Ctr Epidemiol & Prevent Med, I-21100 Varese, Italy..
    Ferrieres, Jean
    Toulouse Univ, Sch Med, F-31059 Toulouse, France..
    Florez, Jose C.
    Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Boston, MA 02114 USA.;Broad Inst, Med & Populat Genet Program, Cambridge, MA 02141 USA.;Harvard Univ, Sch Med, Dept Med, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Ford, Ian
    Univ Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Lanark, Scotland..
    Fornage, Myriam
    Univ Texas Hlth Sci Ctr Houston, Inst Mol Med, Houston, TX 77030 USA..
    Franks, Paul W.
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci, Genet & Mol Epidemiol Unit, SE-20502 Malmo, Sweden.;Harvard Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Nutr, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Umea Univ, Med Unit, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, S-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth
    Univ Copenhagen, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, DK-2200 Copenhagen, Denmark.;Copenhagen Univ Hosp, Rigshosp, Dept Clin Biochem, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Galesloot, Tessel E.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Med Ctr, NL-6500 HB Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Gan, Wei
    Univ Oxford, Wellcome Trust Ctr Human Genet, Oxford OX3 7BN, England..
    Gandin, Ilaria
    Univ Trieste, Dept Med Sci, I-34137 Trieste, Italy..
    Gasparini, Paolo
    Univ Trieste, Dept Med Sci, I-34137 Trieste, Italy.;Sidra Med & Res Ctr, Div Expt Genet, Doha 26999, Qatar..
    Giedraitis, Vilmantas
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Geriatrik.
    Giri, Ayush
    Vanderbilt Univ, Vanderbilt Genet Inst, Inst Med & Publ Hlth, Dept Med,Div Epidemiol, Nashville, TN 37203 USA..
    Girotto, Giorgia
    Univ Trieste, Dept Med Sci, I-34137 Trieste, Italy.;Sidra Med & Res Ctr, Div Expt Genet, Doha 26999, Qatar..
    Gordon, Scott D.
    QIMR Berghofer Med Res Inst, Brisbane, Qld 4006, Australia..
    Gordon-Larsen, Penny
    Univ N Carolina, Caroline Populat Ctr, Chapel Hill, NC 27514 USA.;Univ N Carolina, Dept Nutr, Gillings Sch Global Publ Hlth, Chapel Hill, NC 27514 USA..
    Gorski, Mathias
    Univ Regensburg, Dept Genet Epidemiol, D-93051 Regensburg, Germany.;Univ Hosp Regensburg, Dept Nephrol, D-93042 Regensburg, Germany.;Univ Leipzig, IFB Adipos Dis, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany..
    Grarup, Niels
    Univ Copenhagen, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, Novo Nordisk Fdn Ctr Basic Metab Res, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Grove, Megan L.
    Univ Texas Hlth Sci Ctr Houston, Sch Publ Hlth, Ctr Human Genet, Houston, TX 77030 USA..
    Gudnason, Vilmundur
    Univ Iceland, Fac Med, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland.;Icelandic Heart Assoc, IS-201 Kopavogur, Iceland..
    Gustafsson, Stefan
    Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Molekylär epidemiologi.
    Hansen, Torben
    Univ Copenhagen, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, Novo Nordisk Fdn Ctr Basic Metab Res, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Harris, Kathleen Mullan
    Univ N Carolina, Caroline Populat Ctr, Chapel Hill, NC 27514 USA.;Univ N Carolina, Dept Sociol, Chapel Hill, NC 27514 USA..
    Harris, Tamara B.
    NIA, Lab Epidemiol & Populat Sci, Intramural Res Program, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA..
    Hattersley, Andrew T.
    Univ Exeter, Univ Exeter Med Sch, Exeter EX2 5DW, Devon, England..
    Hayward, Caroline
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Genet & Mol Med, MRCHGU, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, Midlothian, Scotland..
    He, Liang
    Duke Univ, Social Sci Res Inst, Biodemog Aging Res Unit, Durham, NC 27708 USA.;Univ Helsinki, Dept Publ Hlth, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    Heid, Iris M.
    Univ Regensburg, Dept Genet Epidemiol, D-93051 Regensburg, Germany.;Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen German Res Ctr Environm, Inst Genet Epidemiol, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany..
    Heikkila, Kauko
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Publ Hlth, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland.;Univ Helsinki, Inst Mol Med Finland FIMM, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    Helgeland, Oyvind
    Haukeland Hosp, Dept Pediat, N-5021 Bergen, Norway.;Univ Bergen, Dept Clin Sci, KG Jebson Ctr Diabet Res, N-5020 Bergen, Norway..
    Hernesniemi, Jussi
    Tampere Univ Hosp, Dept Cardiol, Ctr Heart, FI-33521 Tampere, Finland.;Fimlab Labs, Dept Clin Chem, Tampere 33520, Finland.;Univ Tampere, Sch Med, Dept Clin Chem, Tampere 33014, Finland..
    Hewitt, Alex W.
    Univ Melbourne, Royal Victorian Eye & Ear Hosp, Ctr Eye Res Australia, Melbourne, Vic 3002, Australia.;Univ Western Australia, Lions Eye Inst, Ctr Ophthalmol & Vis Sci, Perth, WA 6009, Australia.;Univ Tasmania, Menzies Res Inst Tasmania, Hobart, Tas 7000, Australia..
    Hocking, Lynne J.
    Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Genom & Expt Med, Generat Scotland, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, Midlothian, Scotland.;Univ Aberdeen, Div Appl Med, Musculoskeletal Res Programme, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, Scotland..
    Hollensted, Mette
    Univ Copenhagen, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, Novo Nordisk Fdn Ctr Basic Metab Res, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Holmen, Oddgeir L.
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, NTNU, Dept Publ Hlth, KG Jebsen Ctr Genet Epidemiol, N-7600 Trondheim, Norway..
    Hovingh, G. Kees
    AMC, Dept Vasc Med, NL-1105 AZ Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Howson, Joanna M. M.
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Publ Hlth & Primary Care, MRC BHF Cardiovasc Epidemiol Unit, Cambridge CB1 8RN, England..
    Hoyng, Carel B.
    Radbound Univ Med Ctr, Dept Ophthalmol, NL-6500 HB Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Huang, Paul L.
    Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Boston, MA 02114 USA..
    Hveem, Kristian
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Publ Hlth & Gen Practice, HUNT Res Ctr, N-7600 Levanger, Norway..
    Ikram, M. Arfan
    Erasmus Sch Ctr, Dept Epidemiol, NL-3015 GE Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Erasmus Sch Ctr, Dept Neurol, NL-3015 GE Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Erasmus Sch Ctr, Dept Radiol, NL-3015 GE Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Molekylär epidemiologi. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Jackson, Anne U.
    Univ Michigan, Dept Biostat, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.;Univ Michigan, Ctr Stat Genet, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA..
    Jansson, Jan-Hakan
    Umea Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, SE-90185 Umea, Sweden.;Res Unit Skelleftea, SE-93141 Skelleftea, Sweden..
    Jarvik, Gail P.
    Univ Washington, Dept Med, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Univ Washington, Dept Genom Sci, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Jensen, Gorm B.
    Frederiksberg Univ Hosp, Copenhagen City Heart Study, DK-2000 Frederiksberg, Denmark..
    Jhun, Min A.
    Univ Michigan, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA..
    Jia, Yucheng
    LABioMed Harbor UCLA Med Ctr, Inst Translat Genom & Populat Sci, Torrance, CA 90502 USA..
    Jiang, Xuejuan
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Keck Sch Med, Dept Prevent Med, Los Angeles, CA 90089 USA.;Univ Southern Calif, Keck Sch Med, Dept Ophthalmol, USC Roski Eye Inst, Los Angeles, CA 90089 USA..
    Johansson, Stefan
    Univ Bergen, Dept Clin Sci, KG Jebson Ctr Diabet Res, N-5020 Bergen, Norway.;Haukeland Hosp, Ctr Med Genet & Mol Med, N-5021 Bergen, Norway..
    Jorgensen, Marit E.
    Univ Southern Denmark, Natl Inst Publ Hlth, DK-1353 Copenhagen, Denmark.;Steno Diabet Ctr, DK-2820 Gentofte, Denmark..
    Jorgensen, Torben
    Univ Copenhagen, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, DK-2200 Copenhagen, Denmark.;Aalborg Hosp, DK-9000 Aalborg, Denmark.;Capital Reg Denmark, Res Ctr Prevent & Hlth, DK-2600 Glostrup, Denmark..
    Jousilahti, Pekka
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, FI-00271 Helsinki, Finland..
    Jukema, J. Wouter
    Leiden Univ Med Ctr, Dept Cardiol, NL-2333 Leiden, Netherlands.;Interuniv Cardiol Inst Netherlands, NL-2333 Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Kahali, Bratati
    Univ Michigan, Dept Computat Med & Bioinformat, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.;Univ Michigan, Dept Internal Med, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.;Univ Michigan, Div Gastroenterol, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA..
    Kahn, Rene S.
    Ctr Med Univ Utrecht, Brain Ctr Rudolf Magnus, Dept Psychiat, NL-3584 CG Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Kahonen, Mika
    Univ Tampere, Sch Med, Dept Clin Physiol, Tampere 33014, Finland..
    Kamstrup, Pia R.
    Copenhagen Univ Hosp, Herlev & Gentofte Hosp, Dept Clin Biochem, DK-2730 Herlev, Denmark..
    Kanoni, Stavroula
    Queen Mary Univ London, Barts & London Sch Med & Dent, William Harvey Res Inst, London EC1M 6BQ, England..
    Kaprio, Jaakko
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Publ Hlth, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland.;Univ Helsinki, Inst Mol Med Finland FIMM, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland.;Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, FI-00271 Helsinki, Finland..
    Karaleftheri, Maria
    Echinos Med Ctr, Echinos, Greece..
    Kardia, Sharon L. R.
    Univ Michigan, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA..
    Karpe, Fredrik
    Univ Oxford, Radcliffe Dept Med, Oxford Ctr Diabetes Endocrinol & Metab, Oxford OX3 7LE, England.;Oxford Univ Hosp Trust, Oxford NIHR Biomed Res Ctr, Oxford OX3 7LE, England..
    Kee, Frank
    Queens Univ Belfast, UKCRC Ctr Excellence Publ Hlth Res, Belfast BT12 6BJ, Antrim, North Ireland..
    Keeman, Renske
    Netherlands Canc Inst, Antoni van Leewenhoek Hosp, NL-1066 CX Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Kiemeney, Lambertus A.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Med Ctr, NL-6500 HB Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Kitajima, Hidetoshi
    Univ Oxford, Wellcome Trust Ctr Human Genet, Oxford OX3 7BN, England..
    Kluivers, Kirsten B.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Med Ctr, NL-6500 HB Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Kocher, Thomas
    Univ Med Greifswald, Dept Restorat Dent Periodontol & Endodontol, D-17475 Greifswald, Germany..
    Komulainen, Pirjo
    Kuopio Res Inst Exercise Med, Fdn Res Hlth Exercise & Nutr, Kuopio 70100, Finland..
    Kontto, Jukka
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, FI-00271 Helsinki, Finland..
    Kooner, Jaspal S.
    London North West Healthcare NHS Trust, Ealing Hosp, Dept Cardiol, Middlesex UB1 3HW, England.;Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Healthcare NHS Trust, London W12 0HS, England.;Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Natl Heart & Lung Inst, Hammersmith Hosp Campus, London W12 0NN, England..
    Kooperberg, Charles
    Fred Hutchinson Canc Res Ctr, Div Publ Hlth Sci, Seattle, WA 98109 USA..
    Kovacs, Peter
    Univ Leipzig, IFB Adipos Dis, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany..
    Kriebel, Jennifer
    German Ctr Diabet Res, D-85764 Munich, Germany.;Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen German Res Ctr Environm, Inst Epidemiol 2, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany.;Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen German Res Ctr Environm, Res Unit Mol Epidemiol, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany..
    Kuivaniemi, Helena
    Sigfried & Janet Weis Ctr Res, Danville, PA 17822 USA.;Univ Stellenbosch, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, Dept Biomed Sci, Dept Psychiat, ZA-7505 Tygerberg, Western Cape, South Africa.;Univ Stellenbosch, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, Dept Biomed Sci, Div Mol Biol & Human Genet, ZA-7505 Tygerberg, Western Cape, South Africa..
    Kury, Sebastien
    CHU Nantes, Serv Genet Med, F-44093 Nantes, France..
    Kuusisto, Johanna
    Univ Eastern Finland, Inst Clin Med, Internal Med, Kuopio 70210, Finland.;Kuopio Univ Hosp, SF-70210 Kuopio, Finland..
    La Bianca, Martina
    Inst Maternal & Child Hlth IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, I-34137 Trieste, Italy..
    Laakso, Markku
    Univ Eastern Finland, Inst Clin Med, Internal Med, Kuopio 70210, Finland.;Kuopio Univ Hosp, SF-70210 Kuopio, Finland..
    Lakka, Timo A.
    Kuopio Res Inst Exercise Med, Fdn Res Hlth Exercise & Nutr, Kuopio 70100, Finland.;Univ Eastern Finland, Inst Biomed & Physiol, Kuopio 70210, Finland..
    Lange, Ethan M.
    Univ N Carolina, Dept Genet, Chapel Hill, NC 27514 USA..
    Lange, Leslie A.
    Univ N Carolina, Dept Genet, Chapel Hill, NC 27514 USA..
    Langefeld, Carl D.
    Wake Forest Sch Med, Dept Biostat Sci, Winston Salem, NC 27157 USA.;Wake Forest Sch Med, Ctr Publ Hlth Genom, Winston Salem, NC 27157 USA..
    Langenberg, Claudia
    Univ Cambridge, Sch Clin Med, Inst Metab Sci, MRC Epidemiol Unit, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, England..
    Larson, Eric B.
    Univ Washington, Dept Med, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Grp Hlth Res Inst, Seattle, WA 98101 USA.;Univ Washington, Dept Hlth Serv, Seattle, WA 98101 USA..
    Lee, I-Te
    Taichung Vet Gen Hosp, Dept Internal Med, Div Endocrinol & Metab, Taichung 407, Taiwan.;Natl Yang Ming Univ, Sch Med, Taipei 112, Taiwan.;Chung Shan Med Univ, Sch Med, Taichung 402, Taiwan..
    Lehtimaki, Terho
    Fimlab Labs, Dept Clin Chem, Tampere 33520, Finland.;Univ Tampere, Sch Med, Dept Clin Chem, Tampere 33014, Finland..
    Lewis, Cora E.
    Univ Alabama Birmingham, Div Prevent Med, Birmingham, AL 35205 USA..
    Li, Huaixing
    Chinese Acad Sci, Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Shanghai Inst Biol Sci, Inst Nutr Sci,Key Lab Nutr & Metab, Shanghai 200031, Peoples R China..
    Li, Jin
    Stanford Univ, Sch Med, Div Cardiovasc Med, Dept Med, Palo Alto, CA 94305 USA..
    Li-Gao, Ruifang
    Leiden Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Clin Epidemiol, NL-2300 RC Leiden, Netherlands..
    Lin, Honghuang
    Boston Univ, Sch Med, Dept Med, Boston, MA 02118 USA..
    Lin, Li-An
    Univ Texas Hlth Sci Ctr Houston, Inst Mol Med, Houston, TX 77030 USA..
    Lin, Xu
    Chinese Acad Sci, Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Shanghai Inst Biol Sci, Inst Nutr Sci,Key Lab Nutr & Metab, Shanghai 200031, Peoples R China..
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Kardiovaskulär epidemiologi.
    Lindstrom, Jaana
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, FI-00271 Helsinki, Finland..
    Linneberg, Allan
    Univ N Carolina, Dept Nutr, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 USA.;Univ Copenhagen, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, DK-2200 Copenhagen, Denmark.;Capital Reg Denmark, Res Ctr Prevent & Hlth, DK-2600 Glostrup, Denmark.;Rigshosp, Dept Expt Med, DK-2200 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Liu, Yeheng
    LABioMed Harbor UCLA Med Ctr, Inst Translat Genom & Populat Sci, Torrance, CA 90502 USA..
    Liu, Yongmei
    Wake Forest Sch Med, Div Publ Hlth Sci, Winston Salem, NC 27157 USA..
    Lophatananon, Artitaya
    Warsaw Acad Med & Hosp, Div Hlth Sci, Coventry CV4 7AL, W Midlands, England..
    Luan, Jian'an
    Univ Cambridge, Sch Clin Med, Inst Metab Sci, MRC Epidemiol Unit, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, England..
    Lubitz, Steven A.
    Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Boston, MA 02114 USA.;Broad Inst, Med & Populat Genet Program, Cambridge, MA 02141 USA..
    Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka
    Fimlab Labs, Dept Clin Chem, Tampere 33520, Finland.;Univ Tampere, Sch Med, Dept Clin Chem, Tampere 33014, Finland..
    Mackey, David A.
    Univ Western Australia, Lions Eye Inst, Ctr Ophthalmol & Vis Sci, Perth, WA 6009, Australia..
    Madden, Pamela A. F.
    Washington Univ, Dept Psychiat, St Louis, MO 63110 USA..
    Manning, Alisa K.
    Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Boston, MA 02114 USA.;Broad Inst, Med & Populat Genet Program, Cambridge, MA 02141 USA.;Harvard Univ, Sch Med, Dept Med, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Kuopio Res Inst Exercise Med, Fdn Res Hlth Exercise & Nutr, Kuopio 70100, Finland..
    Mannisto, Satu
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, FI-00271 Helsinki, Finland..
    Marenne, Gaelle
    Wellcome Trust Sanger Inst, Wellcome Genome Campus, Cambridge CB10 1SA, England..
    Marten, Jonathan
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Genet & Mol Med, MRCHGU, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Martin, Nicholas G.
    QIMR Berghofer Med Res Inst, Brisbane, Qld 4006, Australia..
    Mazul, Angela L.
    Univ N Carolina, Dept Epidemiol, Chapel Hill, NC 27514 USA..
    Meidtner, Karina
    German Ctr Diabet Res, D-85764 Munich, Germany.;German Inst Human Nutr Potsdam Rehbruecke DIfE, Dept Mol Epidemiol, D-14558 Nuthetal, Germany..
    Metspalu, Andres
    Univ Tartu, Estonian Genome Ctr, EE-51010 Tartu, Estonia..
    Mitchell, Paul
    Univ Sydney, Ctr Vis Res, Westmead Millennium Inst Med Res, Sydney, NSW 2022, Australia.;Univ Sydney, Dept Ophthalmol, Sydney, NSW 2022, Australia..
    Mohlke, Karen L.
    Univ N Carolina, Dept Genet, Chapel Hill, NC 27514 USA..
    Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O.
    Leiden Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Clin Epidemiol, NL-2300 RC Leiden, Netherlands.;Leiden Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Publ Hlth & Primary Care, NL-2300 RC Leiden, Netherlands..
    Morgan, Anna
    Univ Trieste, Dept Med Sci, I-34137 Trieste, Italy..
    Morris, Andrew D.
    Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Global Hlth Res, Ushar Inst Populat Hlth Sci & Informat, Edinburgh EH8 9AG, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Morris, Andrew P.
    Univ Oxford, Wellcome Trust Ctr Human Genet, Oxford OX3 7BN, England.;Univ Liverpool, Dept Biostat, Liverpool L69 3GL, Merseyside, England..
    Mueller-Nurasyid, Martina
    Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen German Res Ctr Environm, Inst Genet Epidemiol, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany.;Univ Munich, Dept Med 1, D-81377 Munich, Germany.;DZHK German Ctr Cardiovasc Res, Partner Site Munich Heart Alliance, D-80802 Munich, Germany..
    Munroe, Patricia B.
    Queen Mary Univ London, Barts & London Sch Med & Dent, William Harvey Res Inst, London EC1M 6BQ, England.;Queen Mary Univ, Barts & London Sch Med & Dent, NIHR Barts Cardiovasc Res Unit, London EC1M 6BQ, England..
    Nalls, Mike A.
    NIA, Neurogenet Lab, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA..
    Nauck, Matthias
    DZHK German Ctr Cardiovasc Res, Partner Site Greifswald, D-17475 Greifswald, Germany.;Univ Med Greifswald, Inst Clin Chem, D-17475 Greifswald, Germany.;Univ Med Greifswald, Lab Med, D-17475 Greifswald, Germany..
    Nelson, Christopher P.
    Univ Leicester, Glenfield Hosp, Dept Cardiovasc Sci, Leicester LE3 9QP, Leics, England.;Glenfield Hosp, NIHR Leicester Cardiovasc Biomed Res Unit, Leicester LE3 9QP, Leics, England..
    Neville, Matt
    Univ Oxford, Radcliffe Dept Med, Oxford Ctr Diabetes Endocrinol & Metab, Oxford OX3 7LE, England.;Oxford Univ Hosp Trust, Oxford NIHR Biomed Res Ctr, Oxford OX3 7LE, England..
    Nielsen, Sune F.
    Copenhagen Univ Hosp, Herlev & Gentofte Hosp, Dept Clin Biochem, DK-2730 Herlev, Denmark.;Univ Copenhagen, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, DK-2200 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Nikus, Kjell
    Univ Tampere, Tampere Univ Hosp, Dept Cardiol, Ctr Heart, Tampere 33521, Finland.;Univ Tampere, Sch Med, Tampere 33521, Finland..
    Njolstad, Pal R.
    Haukeland Hosp, Dept Pediat, N-5021 Bergen, Norway.;Univ Bergen, Dept Clin Sci, KG Jebson Ctr Diabet Res, N-5020 Bergen, Norway..
    Nordestgaard, Borge G.
    Copenhagen Univ Hosp, Herlev & Gentofte Hosp, Dept Clin Biochem, DK-2730 Herlev, Denmark.;Univ Copenhagen, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, DK-2200 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Ntalla, Ioanna
    Queen Mary Univ London, Barts & London Sch Med & Dent, William Harvey Res Inst, London EC1M 6BQ, England..
    O'Connel, Jeffrey R.
    Univ Maryland, Sch Med, Dept Med, Program Personalized Med, Baltimore, MD 21201 USA..
    Oksa, Heikki
    Tampere Univ Hosp, Dept Med, Tampere 33521, Finland..
    Loohuis, Loes M. Olde
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Ctr Neurobehav Genet, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA..
    Ophoff, Roel A.
    Ctr Med Univ Utrecht, Brain Ctr Rudolf Magnus, Dept Psychiat, NL-3584 CG Utrecht, Netherlands.;Univ Calif Los Angeles, Ctr Neurobehav Genet, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA..
    Owen, Katharine R.
    Univ Oxford, Radcliffe Dept Med, Oxford Ctr Diabetes Endocrinol & Metab, Oxford OX3 7LE, England.;Oxford Univ Hosp Trust, Oxford NIHR Biomed Res Ctr, Oxford OX3 7LE, England..
    Packard, Chris J.
    Univ Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Lanark, Scotland..
    Padmanabhan, Sandosh
    Univ Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Lanark, Scotland..
    Palmer, Colin N. A.
    Ninewells Hosp & Med Sch, Med Res Inst, Pat Macpherson Ctr Pharmacogenet & Pharmacogenom, Dundee DD1 9SY, Scotland..
    Pasterkamp, Gerard
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Div Labs & Pharm, Lab Clin Chem & Hematol, NL-3584 CX Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Patel, Aniruddh P.
    Broad Inst MIT & Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142 USA.;Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Boston, MA 02114 USA..
    Pattie, Alison
    Univ Edinburgh, Dept Psychol, 7 George Sq, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Pedersen, Oluf
    Univ Copenhagen, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, Novo Nordisk Fdn Ctr Basic Metab Res, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Peissig, Peggy L.
    Marshfield Clin Res Fdn, Marshfield, WI 54449 USA..
    Peloso, Gina M.
    Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Boston, MA 02114 USA.;Broad Inst, Med & Populat Genet Program, Cambridge, MA 02141 USA..
    Pennell, Craig E.
    Univ Western Australia, Sch Womens & Infants Hlth, Perth, WA 6009, Australia..
    Perola, Markus
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, FI-00271 Helsinki, Finland.;Univ Helsinki, Inst Mol Med FIMM, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland.;Univ Helsinki, Diabet & Obes Res Program, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland.;Univ Tartu, Estonian Genome Ctr, EE-51010 Tartu, Estonia..
    Perry, James A.
    Univ Maryland, Sch Med, Dept Med, Program Personalized Med, Baltimore, MD 21201 USA..
    Perry, John R. B.
    Univ Cambridge, Sch Clin Med, Inst Metab Sci, MRC Epidemiol Unit, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, England..
    Person, Thomas N.
    Marshfield Clin Res Fdn, Marshfield, WI 54449 USA..
    Pirie, Ailith
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Oncol, Ctr Canc Genet Epidemiol, Cambridge CB1 8RN, England..
    Polasek, Ozren
    Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Global Hlth Res, Ushar Inst Populat Hlth Sci & Informat, Edinburgh EH8 9AG, Midlothian, Scotland.;Univ Split, Sch Med, Split 21000, Croatia..
    Posthuma, Danielle
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Complex Trait Genet, Ctr Neurogenom & Cognit Res, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Vrije Univ Amsterdam Med Ctr, Dept Clin Genet, Neurosci Campus Amsterdam, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Raitakari, Olli T.
    Turku Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Physiol & Nucl Med, Turku 20521, Finland.;Univ Turku, Res Ctr Appl & Prevent Cardiovasc Med, FIN-20520 Turku, Finland..
    Rasheed, Asif
    Ctr Noncommunicable Dis, Karachi, Pakistan..
    Rauramaa, Rainer
    Kuopio Res Inst Exercise Med, Fdn Res Hlth Exercise & Nutr, Kuopio 70100, Finland.;Kuopio Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Physiol & Nucl Med, SF-70210 Kuopio, Finland..
    Reilly, Dermot F.
    MRL Merck & Co Inc, Genet & Pharmacogenom, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Reiner, Alex P.
    Fred Hutchinson Canc Res Ctr, Div Publ Hlth Sci, Seattle, WA 98109 USA.;Univ Washington, Dept Epidemiol, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Renstrom, Frida
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci, Genet & Mol Epidemiol Unit, SE-20502 Malmo, Sweden.;Umea Univ, Dept Biobank Res, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Ridker, Paul M.
    Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Brigham & Womens & Harvard Med Sch, Div Prevent Med, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Brigham & Womens Hosp, Div Cardiovasc Med, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Rioux, John D.
    Montreal Heart Inst, Montreal, PQ H1T 1C8, Canada.;Univ Montreal, Fac Med, Dept Med, Montreal, PQ H3T 1J4, Canada..
    Robertson, Neil
    Univ Oxford, Wellcome Trust Ctr Human Genet, Oxford OX3 7BN, England.;Univ Oxford, Radcliffe Dept Med, Oxford Ctr Diabetes Endocrinol & Metab, Oxford OX3 7LE, England..
    Robino, Antonietta
    Inst Maternal & Child Hlth IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, I-34137 Trieste, Italy..
    Rolandsson, Olov
    Umea Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, SE-90185 Umea, Sweden.;Umea Univ, Unit Family Med, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, S-90185 Umea, Sweden..
    Rudan, Igor
    Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Global Hlth Res, Ushar Inst Populat Hlth Sci & Informat, Edinburgh EH8 9AG, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Ruth, Katherine S.
    Univ Exeter, Sch Med, Genet Complex Traits, Exeter EX2 5DW, Devon, England..
    Saleheen, Danish
    Ctr Noncommunicable Dis, Karachi, Pakistan.;Univ Penn, Perelman Sch Med, Dept Biostat & Epidemiol, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA..
    Salomaa, Veikko
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, FI-00271 Helsinki, Finland..
    Samani, Nilesh J.
    Univ Leicester, Glenfield Hosp, Dept Cardiovasc Sci, Leicester LE3 9QP, Leics, England.;Glenfield Hosp, NIHR Leicester Cardiovasc Biomed Res Unit, Leicester LE3 9QP, Leics, England..
    Sandow, Kevin
    LABioMed Harbor UCLA Med Ctr, Inst Translat Genom & Populat Sci, Torrance, CA 90502 USA..
    Sapkota, Yadav
    QIMR Berghofer Med Res Inst, Brisbane, Qld 4006, Australia..
    Sattar, Naveed
    Univ Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Lanark, Scotland..
    Schmidt, Marjanka K.
    Netherlands Canc Inst, Antoni van Leewenhoek Hosp, NL-1066 CX Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Schreiner, Pamela J.
    Univ Minnesota, Div Epidemiol & Community Hlth, Minneapolis, MN 55454 USA..
    Schulze, Matthias B.
    German Ctr Diabet Res, D-85764 Munich, Germany.;German Inst Human Nutr Potsdam Rehbruecke DIfE, Dept Mol Epidemiol, D-14558 Nuthetal, Germany..
    Scott, Robert A.
    Univ Cambridge, Sch Clin Med, Inst Metab Sci, MRC Epidemiol Unit, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, England..
    Segura-Lepe, Marcelo P.
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London W2 1PG, England..
    Shah, Svati
    Duke Univ, Durham, NC 27703 USA..
    Sim, Xueling
    Univ Michigan, Dept Biostat, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.;Univ Michigan, Ctr Stat Genet, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.;Natl Univ Singapore, Natl Univ Hlth Syst, Saw Swee Hock Sch Publ Hlth, Singapore, Singapore..
    Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh
    Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Boston, MA 02114 USA.;Univ Cambridge, Dept Haematol, Cambridge CB2 0PT, England.;AMC, Dept Vasc Med, NL-1105 AZ Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Small, Kerrin S.
    Kings Coll London, Dept Twin Res & Genet Epidemiol, London SE1 7EH, England..
    Smith, Albert Vernon
    Univ Iceland, Fac Med, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland.;Icelandic Heart Assoc, IS-201 Kopavogur, Iceland..
    Smith, Jennifer A.
    Univ Michigan, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA..
    Southam, Lorraine
    Univ Oxford, Wellcome Trust Ctr Human Genet, Oxford OX3 7BN, England.;Wellcome Trust Sanger Inst, Wellcome Genome Campus, Cambridge CB10 1SA, England..
    Spector, Timothy D.
    Kings Coll London, Dept Twin Res & Genet Epidemiol, London SE1 7EH, England..
    Speliotes, Elizabeth K.
    Univ Michigan, Dept Computat Med & Bioinformat, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.;Univ Michigan, Dept Internal Med, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.;Univ Michigan, Div Gastroenterol, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA..
    Starr, John M.
    Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Cognit Ageing & Cognit Epidemiol, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, Midlothian, Scotland.;Univ Edinburgh, Alzheimer Scotland Dementia Res Ctr, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur
    deCODE Genet Amgen Inc, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Stringham, Heather M.
    Univ Michigan, Dept Biostat, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.;Univ Michigan, Ctr Stat Genet, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA..
    Stumvoll, Michael
    Univ Leipzig, IFB Adipos Dis, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany.;Univ Leipzig, Dept Med, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany..
    Surendran, Praveen
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Publ Hlth & Primary Care, MRC BHF Cardiovasc Epidemiol Unit, Cambridge CB1 8RN, England..
    't Hart, Leen M.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam Med Ctr, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, NL-1007 MB Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Leiden Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Mol & Cell Biol, NL-2333 ZC Leiden, Netherlands.;Leiden Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Mol Epidemiol, NL-2333 ZC Leiden, Netherlands..
    Tansey, Katherine E.
    Cardiff Univ, Coll Biomed & Life Sci, Cardiff CF14 4EP, S Glam, Wales.;Univ Bristol, Dept Social & Community Med, MRC Integrat Epidemiol Unit, Bristol BS8 2BN, Avon, England..
    Tardif, Jean-Claude
    Montreal Heart Inst, Montreal, PQ H1T 1C8, Canada.;Univ Montreal, Fac Med, Dept Med, Montreal, PQ H3T 1J4, Canada..
    Taylor, Kent D.
    LABioMed Harbor UCLA Med Ctr, Inst Translat Genom & Populat Sci, Torrance, CA 90502 USA..
    Teumer, Alexander
    Boston Univ, Sch Med, Dept Med, Boston, MA 02118 USA.;Univ Med Greifswald, Inst Community Med, D-17475 Greifswald, Germany..
    Thompson, Deborah J.
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Publ Hlth & Primary Care, Ctr Canc Genet Epidemiol, Cambridge CB1 8RN, England..
    Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur
    deCODE Genet Amgen Inc, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland.;Univ Iceland, Fac Med, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Thuesen, Betina H.
    Capital Reg Denmark, Res Ctr Prevent & Hlth, DK-2600 Glostrup, Denmark..
    Toenjes, Anke
    Univ Leipzig, Dept Womens & Child Hlth, Ctr Pediat Res, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany..
    Tromp, Gerard
    Sigfried & Janet Weis Ctr Res, Danville, PA 17822 USA.;Univ Stellenbosch, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, Dept Biomed Sci, Div Human Genet & Mol Biol, ZA-7505 Tygerberg, Western Cape, South Africa..
    Trompet, Stella
    Leiden Univ Med Ctr, Dept Cardiol, NL-2333 Leiden, Netherlands.;Leiden Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Gerontol & Geriatr, NL-2333 Leiden, Netherlands..
    Tsafantakis, Emmanouil
    Anogia Med Ctr, Anogia, Greece..
    Tuomilehto, Jaakko
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, FI-00271 Helsinki, Finland.;Danube Univ Krems, Ctr Vasc Prevent, A-3500 Krems, Austria.;Dasman Diabet Inst, Dasman 15462, Kuwait.;King Abdulaziz Univ, Diabet Res Grp, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia..
    Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne
    Univ Copenhagen, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, DK-2200 Copenhagen, Denmark.;Copenhagen Univ Hosp, Rigshosp, Dept Clin Biochem, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Tyrer, Jonathan P.
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Oncol, Ctr Canc Genet Epidemiol, Cambridge CB1 8RN, England..
    Uher, Rudolf
    Dalhousie Univ, Dept Psychiat, Halifax, NS B3H 4R2, Canada..
    Uitterlinden, Andre G.
    Erasmus Sch Ctr, Dept Epidemiol, NL-3015 GE Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Erasmus Sch Ctr, Dept Internal Med, NL-3015 GE Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Ulivi, Sheila
    Inst Maternal & Child Hlth IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, I-34137 Trieste, Italy..
    van der Laan, Sander W.
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Div Heart & Lungs, Lab Expt Cardiol, NL-3584 CX Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Van Der Leij, Andries R.
    Univ Amsterdam, Dept Brain & Cognit, NL-1018 WS Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    van Duijn, Cornelia M.
    Erasmus Sch Ctr, Dept Epidemiol, NL-3015 GE Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    van Schoor, Natasja M.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam Med Ctr, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, NL-1007 MB Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    van Setten, Jessica
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Dept Cardiol, Div Heart & Lungs, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Varbo, Anette
    Copenhagen Univ Hosp, Herlev & Gentofte Hosp, Dept Clin Biochem, DK-2730 Herlev, Denmark.;Univ Copenhagen, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, DK-2200 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Varga, Tibor V.
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci, Genet & Mol Epidemiol Unit, SE-20502 Malmo, Sweden..
    Varma, Rohit
    Univ Southern Calif, Keck Sch Med, Dept Ophthalmol, USC Roski Eye Inst, Los Angeles, CA 90089 USA..
    Edwards, Digna R. Velez
    Vanderbilt Univ, Vanderbilt Genet Inst, Inst Med & Publ Hlth, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Nashville, TN 37203 USA..
    Vermeulen, Sita H.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Med Ctr, NL-6500 HB Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Vestergaard, Henrik
    Univ Copenhagen, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, Novo Nordisk Fdn Ctr Basic Metab Res, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Vitart, Veronique
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Genet & Mol Med, MRCHGU, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Vogt, Thomas F.
    MRL Merck Co Inc, Cardiometab Dis, Kenilworth, NJ 07033 USA..
    Vozzi, Diego
    Sidra Med & Res Ctr, Div Expt Genet, Doha 26999, Qatar..
    Walker, Mark
    Newcastle Univ, Sch Med, Inst Cellular Med, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE2 4HH, Tyne & Wear, England..
    Wang, Feijie
    Chinese Acad Sci, Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Shanghai Inst Biol Sci, Inst Nutr Sci,Key Lab Nutr & Metab, Shanghai 200031, Peoples R China..
    Wang, Carol A.
    Univ Western Australia, Sch Womens & Infants Hlth, Perth, WA 6009, Australia..
    Wang, Shuai
    Boston Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Biostat, Boston, MA 02118 USA..
    Wang, Yiqin
    Chinese Acad Sci, Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Shanghai Inst Biol Sci, Inst Nutr Sci,Key Lab Nutr & Metab, Shanghai 200031, Peoples R China..
    Wareham, Nicholas J.
    Univ Cambridge, Sch Clin Med, Inst Metab Sci, MRC Epidemiol Unit, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, England..
    Warren, Helen R.
    Queen Mary Univ London, Barts & London Sch Med & Dent, William Harvey Res Inst, London EC1M 6BQ, England.;Queen Mary Univ, Barts & London Sch Med & Dent, NIHR Barts Cardiovasc Res Unit, London EC1M 6BQ, England..
    Wessel, Jennifer
    Indiana Univ, Fairbanks Sch Publ Hlth, Diabet Translat Res Ctr, Dept Epidemiol & Med, Indianapolis, IN 46202 USA.;Indiana Univ, Sch Med, Indianapolis, IN 46202 USA..
    Willems, Sara M.
    Univ Cambridge, Sch Clin Med, Inst Metab Sci, MRC Epidemiol Unit, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, England..
    Wilson, James G.
    Univ Mississippi, Med Ctr, Dept Physiol & Biophys, Jackson, MS 39216 USA..
    Witte, Daniel R.
    Danish Diabet Acad, DK-5000 Odense, Denmark.;Aarhus Univ, Dept Publ Hlth, DK-8000 Aarhus, Denmark..
    Woods, Michael O.
    Mem Univ Newfoundland, Fac Med, Discipline Genet, St John, NF A1B 3V6, Canada..
    Wu, Ying
    Univ N Carolina, Dept Genet, Chapel Hill, NC 27514 USA..
    Yaghootkar, Hanieh
    Univ Exeter, Sch Med, Genet Complex Traits, Exeter EX2 5DW, Devon, England..
    Yao, Jie
    LABioMed Harbor UCLA Med Ctr, Inst Translat Genom & Populat Sci, Torrance, CA 90502 USA..
    Yao, Pang
    Chinese Acad Sci, Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Shanghai Inst Biol Sci, Inst Nutr Sci,Key Lab Nutr & Metab, Shanghai 200031, Peoples R China..
    Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M.
    Univ Maryland, Sch Med, Dept Med, Program Personalized Med, Baltimore, MD 21201 USA.;GlaxoSmithKlein, King Of Prussia, PA 19406 USA..
    Young, Robin
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Publ Hlth & Primary Care, MRC BHF Cardiovasc Epidemiol Unit, Cambridge CB1 8RN, England.;Univ Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Lanark, Scotland..
    Zeggini, Eleftheria
    Wellcome Trust Sanger Inst, Wellcome Genome Campus, Cambridge CB10 1SA, England..
    Zhan, Xiaowei
    Univ Texas Southwestern Med Ctr Dallas, Quantitat Biomed Res Ctr, Ctr Genet Host Def, Dept Clin Sci, Dallas, TX 75390 USA..
    Zhang, Weihua
    London North West Healthcare NHS Trust, Ealing Hosp, Dept Cardiol, Middlesex UB1 3HW, England.;Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London W2 1PG, England..
    Zhao, Jing Hua
    Univ Cambridge, Sch Clin Med, Inst Metab Sci, MRC Epidemiol Unit, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, England..
    Zhao, Wei
    Univ Michigan, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.;Univ Penn, Perelman Sch Med, Dept Biostat & Epidemiol, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA..
    Zheng, He
    Chinese Acad Sci, Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Shanghai Inst Biol Sci, Inst Nutr Sci,Key Lab Nutr & Metab, Shanghai 200031, Peoples R China..
    Zhou, Wei
    Univ Michigan, Dept Computat Med & Bioinformat, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.;Univ Michigan, Dept Internal Med, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA..
    Rotter, Jerome I.
    LABioMed Harbor UCLA Med Ctr, Inst Translat Genom & Populat Sci, Torrance, CA 90502 USA..
    Boehnke, Michael
    Univ Michigan, Dept Biostat, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.;Univ Michigan, Ctr Stat Genet, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA..
    Kathiresan, Sekar
    Broad Inst MIT & Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142 USA.;Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Boston, MA 02114 USA..
    McCarthy, Mark I.
    Univ Oxford, Wellcome Trust Ctr Human Genet, Oxford OX3 7BN, England.;Univ Oxford, Radcliffe Dept Med, Oxford Ctr Diabetes Endocrinol & Metab, Oxford OX3 7LE, England.;Oxford Univ Hosp Trust, Oxford NIHR Biomed Res Ctr, Oxford OX3 7LE, England..
    Willer, Cristen J.
    Univ Michigan, Dept Computat Med & Bioinformat, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.;Univ Michigan, Dept Internal Med, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.;Univ Michigan, Dept Human Genet, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA..
    Stefansson, Kari
    deCODE Genet Amgen Inc, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland.;Univ Iceland, Fac Med, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Borecki, Ingrid B.
    Washington Univ, Sch Med, Dept Genet, Div Stat Genom, St Louis, MO 63108 USA..
    Liu, Dajiang J.
    Penn State Univ, Coll Med, Inst Personalized Med, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Hershey, PA 17033 USA..
    North, Kari E.
    Dept Epidemiol, Chapel Hill, NC 27514 USA.;Carolina Ctr Genome Sci, Chapel Hill, NC 27514 USA..
    Heard-Costa, Nancy L.
    NHLBI, Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MA 01702 USA.;Boston Univ, Sch Med, Dept Neurol, Boston, MA 02118 USA..
    Pers, Tune H.
    Univ Copenhagen, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, Novo Nordisk Fdn Ctr Basic Metab Res, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.;Statens Serum Inst, Dept Epidemiol Res, DK-2200 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Lindgren, Cecilia M.
    Univ Oxford, Wellcome Trust Ctr Human Genet, Oxford OX3 7BN, England.;Univ Oxford, Big Data Inst, Li Ka Shing Ctr Hlth Informat & Discovery, Oxford OX3 7BN, England..
    Oxvig, Claus
    Aarhus Univ, Dept Mol Biol & Genet, DK-8000 Aarhus, Denmark..
    Kutalik, Zoltan
    Univ Lausanne Hosp, Inst Social & Prevent Med, CH-1010 Lausanne, Switzerland.;Swiss Inst Bioinformat, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Rivadeneira, Fernando
    Erasmus Sch Ctr, Dept Epidemiol, NL-3015 GE Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Erasmus Sch Ctr, Dept Internal Med, NL-3015 GE Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Loos, Ruth J. F.
    Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Charles Bronfman Inst Personalized Med, New York, NY 10029 USA.;Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Genet Obes & Related Metab Traits Program, New York, NY 10069 USA.;Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Mindich Child Hlth & Dev Inst, New York, NY 10069 USA..
    Frayling, Timothy M.
    Univ Exeter, Sch Med, Genet Complex Traits, Exeter EX2 5DW, Devon, England..
    Hirschhorn, Joel N.
    Broad Inst MIT & Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142 USA.;Boston Childrens Hosp, Div Endocrinol, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Boston Childrens Hosp, Ctr Basic & Translat Obes Res, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Harvard Med Sch, Dept Pediat & Genet, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Deloukas, Panos
    Queen Mary Univ London, Barts & London Sch Med & Dent, William Harvey Res Inst, London EC1M 6BQ, England.;King Abdulaziz Univ, Princess Al Jawhara Al Brahim Ctr Excellence Res, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia..
    Lettre, Guillaume
    Montreal Heart Inst, Montreal, PQ H1T 1C8, Canada.;Univ Montreal, Fac Med, Dept Med, Montreal, PQ H3T 1J4, Canada..
    Rare and low-frequency coding variants alter human adult height2017Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 542, nr 7640, s. 186-190Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Height is a highly heritable, classic polygenic trait with approximately 700 common associated variants identified through genome-wide association studies so far. Here, we report 83 height-associated coding variants with lower minor-allele frequencies (in the range of 0.1-4.8%) and effects of up to 2 centimetres per allele (such as those in IHH, STC2, AR and CRISPLD2), greater than ten times the average effect of common variants. In functional follow-up studies, rare height increasing alleles of STC2 (giving an increase of 1-2 centimetres per allele) compromised proteolytic inhibition of PAPP-A and increased cleavage of IGFBP-4 in vitro, resulting in higher bioavailability of insulin-like growth factors. These 83 height-associated variants overlap genes that are mutated in monogenic growth disorders and highlight new biological candidates (such as ADAMTS3, IL11RA and NOX4) and pathways (such as proteoglycan and glycosaminoglycan synthesis) involved in growth. Our results demonstrate that sufficiently large sample sizes can uncover rare and low-frequency variants of moderate-to-large effect associated with polygenic human phenotypes, and that these variants implicate relevant genes and pathways.

  • 137. Marteyn, Benoit
    et al.
    West, Nicholas P.
    Browning, Douglas F.
    Cole, Jeffery A.
    Shaw, Jonathan G.
    Palm, Fredrik
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk cellbiologi.
    Mounier, Joelle
    Prevost, Marie-Christine
    Sansonetti, Philippe
    Tang, Christoph M.
    Modulation of Shigella virulence in response to available oxygen in vivo2010Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 465, nr 7296, s. 355-358Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacteria coordinate expression of virulence determinants in response to localized microenvironments in their hosts. Here we show that Shigella flexneri, which causes dysentery, encounters varying oxygen concentrations in the gastrointestinal tract, which govern activity of its type three secretion system (T3SS). The T3SS is essential for cell invasion and virulence(1). In anaerobic environments (for example, the gastrointestinal tract lumen), Shigella is primed for invasion and expresses extended T3SS needles while reducing Ipa (invasion plasmid antigen) effector secretion. This is mediated by FNR (fumarate and nitrate reduction), a regulator of anaerobic metabolism that represses transcription of spa32 and spa33, virulence genes that regulate secretion through the T3SS. We demonstrate there is a zone of relative oxygenation adjacent to the gastrointestinal tract mucosa, caused by diffusion from the capillary network at the tips of villi. This would reverse the anaerobic block of Ipa secretion, allowing T3SS activation at its precise site of action, enhancing invasion and virulence.

  • 138.
    Martijn, Joran
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi, Molekylär evolution. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Vosseberg, Julian
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi, Molekylär evolution. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Univ Utrecht, Dept Biol, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Guy, Lionel
    Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Offre, Pierre
    Ettema, Thijs J. G.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi, Molekylär evolution. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Deep mitochondrial origin outside the sampled alphaproteobacteria2018Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 557, nr 7703, s. 101-105Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mitochondria are ATP-generating organelles, the endosymbiotic origin of which was a key event in the evolution of eukaryotic cells(1). Despite strong phylogenetic evidence that mitochondria had an alphaproteobacterial ancestry(2), efforts to pinpoint their closest relatives among sampled alphaproteobacteria have generated conflicting results, complicating detailed inferences about the identity and nature of the mitochondrial ancestor. While most studies support the idea that mitochondria evolved from an ancestor related to Rickettsiales(3-9), an order that includes several host-associated pathogenic and endosymbiotic lineages(10,11), others have suggested that mitochondria evolved from a free-living group(12-14). Here we re-evaluate the phylogenetic placement of mitochondria. We used genome-resolved binning of oceanic metagenome datasets and increased the genomic sampling of Alphaproteobacteria with twelve divergent clades, and one clade representing a sister group to all Alphaproteobacteria. Subsequent phylogenomic analyses that specifically address long branch attraction and compositional bias artefacts suggest that mitochondria did not evolve from Rickettsiales or any other currently recognized alphaproteobacterial lineage. Rather, our analyses indicate that mitochondria evolved from a proteobacterial lineage that branched off before the divergence of all sampled alphaproteobacteria. In light of this new result, previous hypotheses on the nature of the mitochondrial ancestor(6,15,16) should be re-evaluated.

  • 139.
    Massironi, Matteo
    et al.
    Univ Padua, Dipartimento Geosci, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;Univ Padua, Ctr Ateneo Studi & Attivita Spaziali Giuseppe Col, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Simioni, Emanuele
    CNR INFN UOS Padova LUXOR, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Marzari, Francesco
    Univ Padua, Dept Phys & Astron, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Cremonese, Gabriele
    Osserv Astron Padova, INAF, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Giacomini, Lorenza
    Univ Padua, Dipartimento Geosci, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Pajola, Maurizio
    Univ Padua, Ctr Ateneo Studi & Attivita Spaziali Giuseppe Col, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Jorda, Laurent
    Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, UMR 7326, LAM, F-13388 Marseille, France..
    Naletto, Giampiero
    Univ Padua, Ctr Ateneo Studi & Attivita Spaziali Giuseppe Col, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;CNR INFN UOS Padova LUXOR, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;Univ Padua, Dept Informat Engn, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Lowry, Stephen
    Univ Kent, Sch Phys Sci, Canterbury CT2 7NZ, Kent, England..
    El-Maarry, Mohamed Ramy
    Univ Bern, Inst Phys, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland..
    Preusker, Frank
    Deutsch Zentrum Luft & Raumfahrt DLR, Inst Planetenforsch, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Scholten, Frank
    Deutsch Zentrum Luft & Raumfahrt DLR, Inst Planetenforsch, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Sierks, Holger
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Barbieri, Cesare
    Univ Padua, Dept Phys & Astron, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Lamy, Philippe
    Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, UMR 7326, LAM, F-13388 Marseille, France..
    Rodrigo, Rafael
    CSIC INTA, Ctr Astrobiol, Madrid 28850, Spain.;Int Space Sci Inst, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland..
    Koschny, Detlef
    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA, Sci Support Off, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    Rickman, Hans
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi. PAS Space Res Ctr, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Keller, Horst Uwe
    Tech Univ Carolo Wilhelmina Braunschweig, Inst Geophys & Extraterr Phys IGEP, D-38106 Braunschweig, Germany..
    A'Hearn, Michael F.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany.;Univ Maryland, Dept Astron, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.;Akad Wissensch Gottingen, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Agarwal, Jessica
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Auger, Anne-Therese
    Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, UMR 7326, LAM, F-13388 Marseille, France..
    Barucci, M. Antonella
    Univ Paris Diderot, Univ Paris 06, CNRS, LESIA,Observ Paris, F-92195 Meudon, France..
    Bertaux, Jean-Loup
    CNRS UVSQ IPSL, LATMOS, F-78280 Guyancourt, France..
    Bertini, Ivano
    Univ Padua, Ctr Ateneo Studi & Attivita Spaziali Giuseppe Col, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Besse, Sebastien
    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA, Sci Support Off, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    Bodewits, Dennis
    Univ Maryland, Dept Astron, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Capanna, Claire
    Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, UMR 7326, LAM, F-13388 Marseille, France..
    Da Deppo, Vania
    CNR INFN UOS Padova LUXOR, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Davidsson, Björn
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi.
    Debei, Stefano
    Univ Padua, Dept Ind Engn, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    De Cecco, Mario Lino
    Univ Trent, I-38100 Trento, Italy..
    Ferri, Francesca
    Univ Padua, Ctr Ateneo Studi & Attivita Spaziali Giuseppe Col, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Fornasier, Sonia
    Univ Paris Diderot, Univ Paris 06, CNRS, LESIA,Observ Paris, F-92195 Meudon, France..
    Fulle, Marco
    Osserv Astron Trieste, INAF, I-34014 Trieste, Italy..
    Gaskell, Robert
    Planetary Sci Inst, Tucson, AZ 85719 USA..
    Groussin, Olivier
    Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, UMR 7326, LAM, F-13388 Marseille, France..
    Gutierrez, Pedro J.
    CSIC, Inst Astrofis Andalucia, E-18008 Granada, Spain..
    Guettler, Carsten
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Hviid, Stubbe F.
    Deutsch Zentrum Luft & Raumfahrt DLR, Inst Planetenforsch, D-12489 Berlin, Germany.;Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Ip, Wing-Huen
    Natl Cent Univ, Grad Inst Astron, Chungli 32054, Taiwan..
    Knollenberg, Joerg
    Deutsch Zentrum Luft & Raumfahrt DLR, Inst Planetenforsch, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Kovacs, Gabor
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Kramm, Rainer
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Kuehrt, Ekkehard
    Deutsch Zentrum Luft & Raumfahrt DLR, Inst Planetenforsch, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Kueppers, Michael
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA, Operat Dept, Madrid 28691, Spain..
    La Forgia, Fiorangela
    Univ Padua, Dept Phys & Astron, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Lara, Luisa M.
    CSIC, Inst Astrofis Andalucia, E-18008 Granada, Spain..
    Lazzarin, Monica
    Univ Padua, Dept Phys & Astron, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Lin, Zhong-Yi
    Natl Cent Univ, Grad Inst Astron, Chungli 32054, Taiwan..
    Lopez Moreno, Jose J.
    CSIC, Inst Astrofis Andalucia, E-18008 Granada, Spain..
    Magrin, Sara
    Univ Padua, Dept Phys & Astron, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Michalik, Harald
    TU Braunschweig, Inst Datentech & Kommunikat, D-38106 Braunschweig, Germany..
    Mottola, Stefano
    Deutsch Zentrum Luft & Raumfahrt DLR, Inst Planetenforsch, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Oklay, Nilda
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Pommerol, Antoine
    Univ Bern, Inst Phys, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland..
    Thomas, Nicolas
    Univ Bern, Inst Phys, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland..
    Tubiana, Cecilia
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Vincent, Jean-Baptiste
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Two independent and primitive envelopes of the bilobate nucleus of comet 67P2015Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 526, nr 7573, s. 402-405Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The factors shaping cometary nuclei are still largely unknown, but could be the result of concurrent effects of evolutionary(1,2) and primordial processes(3,4). The peculiar bilobed shape of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko may be the result of the fusion of two objects that were once separate or the result of a localized excavation by outgassing at the interface between the two lobes(5). Here we report that the comet's major lobe is enveloped by a nearly continuous set of strata, up to 650 metres thick, which are independent of an analogous stratified envelope on the minor lobe. Gravity vectors computed for the two lobes separately are closer to perpendicular to the strata than those calculated for the entire nucleus and adjacent to the neck separating the two lobes. Therefore comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko is an accreted body of two distinct objects with 'onion-like' stratification, which formed before they merged. We conclude that gentle, low-velocity collisions occurred between two fully formed kilometre-sized cometesimals in the early stages of the Solar System. The notable structural similarities between the two lobes of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko indicate that the early-forming cometesimals experienced similar primordial stratified accretion, even though they formed independently.

  • 140. McCalley, Carmody K.
    et al.
    Woodcroft, Ben J.
    Hodgkins, Suzanne B.
    Wehr, Richard A.
    Kim, Eun-Hae
    Mondav, Rhiannon
    Crill, Patrick M.
    Chanton, Jeffrey P.
    Rich, Virginia I.
    Tyson, Gene W.
    Saleska, Scott R.
    Methane dynamics regulated by microbial community response to permafrost thaw2014Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 514, nr 7523, s. 478-481Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Permafrost contains about 50% of the global soil carbon1. It is thought that the thawing of permafrost can lead to a loss of soil carbon in the form of methane and carbon dioxide emissions2, 3. The magnitude of the resulting positive climate feedback of such greenhouse gas emissions is still unknown3 and may to a large extent depend on the poorly understood role of microbial community composition in regulating the metabolic processes that drive such ecosystem-scale greenhouse gas fluxes. Here we show that changes in vegetation and increasing methane emissions with permafrost thaw are associated with a switch from hydrogenotrophic to partly acetoclastic methanogenesis, resulting in a large shift in the δ13C signature (10–15‰) of emitted methane. We used a natural landscape gradient of permafrost thaw in northern Sweden4, 5 as a model to investigate the role of microbial communities in regulating methane cycling, and to test whether a knowledge of community dynamics could improve predictions of carbon emissions under loss of permafrost. Abundance of the methanogen Candidatus ‘Methanoflorens stordalenmirensis6 is a key predictor of the shifts in methane isotopes, which in turn predicts the proportions of carbon emitted as methane and as carbon dioxide, an important factor for simulating the climate feedback associated with permafrost thaw in global models3, 7. By showing that the abundance of key microbial lineages can be used to predict atmospherically relevant patterns in methane isotopes and the proportion of carbon metabolized to methane during permafrost thaw, we establish a basis for scaling changing microbial communities to ecosystem isotope dynamics. Our findings indicate that microbial ecology may be important in ecosystem-scale responses to global change.

  • 141.
    McCalley, Carmody
    et al.
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona.
    Woodcroft, Ben
    Australian Centre for Ecogenomics, School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, University of Queensland.
    Hodgkins, Suzanne
    Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Science, Florida State University.
    Wehr, Richard
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona.
    Kim, Eun-Hae
    Department of Soil, Water and Environmental Science, University of Arizona,.
    Mondav, Rhiannon
    Australian Centre for Ecogenomics, School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, University of Queensland.
    Crill, Patrick
    Department of Geological Sciences, Stockholm University.
    Chanton, Jeffrey
    epartment of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Science, Florida State University.
    Rich, Virginia
    Department of Soil, Water and Environmental Science, University of Arizona.
    Tyson, Gene
    Australian Centre for Ecogenomics, School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, University of Queensland.
    Saleska, Scott
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona.
    Methane dynamics regulated by microbial community response to permafrost thaw2014Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 514, nr 7523, s. 478-481Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Permafrost contains about 50% of the global soil carbon1. It is thought that the thawing of permafrost can lead to a loss of soil carbon in the form of methane and carbon dioxide emissions2, 3. The magnitude of the resulting positive climate feedback of such greenhouse gas emissions is still unknown3 and may to a large extent depend on the poorly understood role of microbial community composition in regulating the metabolic processes that drive such ecosystem-scale greenhouse gas fluxes. Here we show that changes in vegetation and increasing methane emissions with permafrost thaw are associated with a switch from hydrogenotrophic to partly acetoclastic methanogenesis, resulting in a large shift in the δ13C signature (10–15‰) of emitted methane. We used a natural landscape gradient of permafrost thaw in northern Sweden4, 5 as a model to investigate the role of microbial communities in regulating methane cycling, and to test whether a knowledge of community dynamics could improve predictions of carbon emissions under loss of permafrost. Abundance of the methanogen Candidatus ‘Methanoflorens stordalenmirensis6 is a key predictor of the shifts in methane isotopes, which in turn predicts the proportions of carbon emitted as methane and as carbon dioxide, an important factor for simulating the climate feedback associated with permafrost thaw in global models3, 7. By showing that the abundance of key microbial lineages can be used to predict atmospherically relevant patterns in methane isotopes and the proportion of carbon metabolized to methane during permafrost thaw, we establish a basis for scaling changing microbial communities to ecosystem isotope dynamics. Our findings indicate that microbial ecology may be important in ecosystem-scale responses to global change.

  • 142. Merckx, Vincent S. F. T.
    et al.
    Hendriks, Kasper P.
    Beentjes, Kevin K.
    Mennes, Constantijn B.
    Becking, Leontine E.
    Peijnenburg, Katja T. C. A.
    Afendy, Aqilah
    Arumugam, Nivaarani
    de Boer, Hugo
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi, Systematisk biologi.
    Biun, Alim
    Buang, Matsain M.
    Chen, Ping-Ping
    Chung, Arthur Y. C.
    Dow, Rory
    Feijen, Frida A. A.
    Feijen, Hans
    Soest, Cobi Feijen-van
    Geml, Jozsef
    Geurts, Rene
    Gravendeel, Barbara
    Hovenkamp, Peter
    Imbun, Paul
    Ipor, Isa
    Janssens, Steven B.
    Jocque, Merlijn
    Kappes, Heike
    Khoo, Eyen
    Koomen, Peter
    Lens, Frederic
    Majapun, Richard J.
    Morgado, Luis N.
    Neupane, Suman
    Nieser, Nico
    Pereira, Joan T.
    Rahman, Homathevi
    Sabran, Suzana
    Sawang, Anati
    Schwallier, Rachel M.
    Shim, Phyau-Soon
    Smit, Harry
    Sol, Nicolien
    Spait, Maipul
    Stech, Michael
    Stokvis, Frank
    Sugau, John B.
    Suleiman, Monica
    Sumail, Sukaibin
    Thomas, Daniel C.
    van Tol, Jan
    Tuh, Fred Y. Y.
    Yahya, Bakhtiar E.
    Nais, Jamili
    Repin, Rimi
    Lakim, Maklarin
    Schilthuizen, Menno
    Evolution of endemismon a young tropical mountain2015Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 524, nr 7565, s. 347-+Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Tropical mountains are hot spots of biodiversity and endemism(1-3), but the evolutionary origins of their unique biotas are poorly understood(4). In varying degrees, local and regional extinction, long-distance colonization, and local recruitment may all contribute to the exceptional character of these communities(5). Also, it is debated whether mountain endemics mostly originate from local lowland taxa, or from lineages that reach the mountain by long-range dispersal from cool localities elsewhere(6). Here we investigate the evolutionary routes to endemism by sampling an entire tropical mountain biota on the 4,095-metre-high Mount Kinabalu in Sabah, East Malaysia. We discover that most of its unique biodiversity is younger than the mountain itself (6 million years), and comprises a mix of immigrant pre-adapted lineages and descendants from local lowland ancestors, although substantial shifts from lower to higher vegetation zones in this latter group were rare. These insights could improve forecasts of the likelihood of extinction and 'evolutionary rescue'(7) in montane biodiversity hot spots under climate change scenarios.

  • 143. Michailidou, Kyriaki
    et al.
    Lindström, Sara
    Dennis, Joe
    Beesley, Jonathan
    Hui, Shirley
    Kar, Siddhartha
    Lemaçon, Audrey
    Soucy, Penny
    Glubb, Dylan
    Rostamianfar, Asha
    Bolla, Manjeet K
    Wang, Qin
    Tyrer, Jonathan
    Dicks, Ed
    Lee, Andrew
    Wang, Zhaoming
    Allen, Jamie
    Keeman, Renske
    Eilber, Ursula
    French, Juliet D
    Qing Chen, Xiao
    Fachal, Laura
    McCue, Karen
    McCart Reed, Amy E
    Ghoussaini, Maya
    Carroll, Jason S
    Jiang, Xia
    Finucane, Hilary
    Adams, Marcia
    Adank, Muriel A
    Ahsan, Habibul
    Aittomäki, Kristiina
    Anton-Culver, Hoda
    Antonenkova, Natalia N
    Arndt, Volker
    Aronson, Kristan J
    Arun, Banu
    Auer, Paul L
    Bacot, François
    Barrdahl, Myrto
    Baynes, Caroline
    Beckmann, Matthias W
    Behrens, Sabine
    Benitez, Javier
    Bermisheva, Marina
    Bernstein, Leslie
    Blomqvist, Carl
    Bogdanova, Natalia V
    Bojesen, Stig E
    Bonanni, Bernardo
    Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise
    Brand, Judith S
    Brauch, Hiltrud
    Brennan, Paul
    Brenner, Hermann
    Brinton, Louise
    Broberg, Per
    Brock, Ian W
    Broeks, Annegien
    Brooks-Wilson, Angela
    Brucker, Sara Y
    Brüning, Thomas
    Burwinkel, Barbara
    Butterbach, Katja
    Cai, Qiuyin
    Cai, Hui
    Caldés, Trinidad
    Canzian, Federico
    Carracedo, Angel
    Carter, Brian D
    Castelao, Jose E
    Chan, Tsun L
    David Cheng, Ting-Yuan
    Seng Chia, Kee
    Choi, Ji-Yeob
    Christiansen, Hans
    Clarke, Christine L
    Collée, Margriet
    Conroy, Don M
    Cordina-Duverger, Emilie
    Cornelissen, Sten
    Cox, David G
    Cox, Angela
    Cross, Simon S
    Cunningham, Julie M
    Czene, Kamila
    Daly, Mary B
    Devilee, Peter
    Doheny, Kimberly F
    Dörk, Thilo
    Dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel
    Dumont, Martine
    Durcan, Lorraine
    Dwek, Miriam
    Eccles, Diana M
    Ekici, Arif B
    Eliassen, A Heather
    Ellberg, Carolina
    Elvira, Mingajeva
    Engel, Christoph
    Eriksson, Mikael
    Fasching, Peter A
    Figueroa, Jonine
    Flesch-Janys, Dieter
    Fletcher, Olivia
    Flyger, Henrik
    Fritschi, Lin
    Gaborieau, Valerie
    Gabrielson, Marike
    Gago-Dominguez, Manuela
    Gao, Yu-Tang
    Gapstur, Susan M
    García-Sáenz, José A
    Gaudet, Mia M
    Georgoulias, Vassilios
    Giles, Graham G
    Glendon, Gord
    Goldberg, Mark S
    Goldgar, David E
    González-Neira, Anna
    Grenaker Alnæs, Grethe I
    Grip, Mervi
    Gronwald, Jacek
    Grundy, Anne
    Guénel, Pascal
    Haeberle, Lothar
    Hahnen, Eric
    Haiman, Christopher A
    Håkansson, Niclas
    Hamann, Ute
    Hamel, Nathalie
    Hankinson, Susan
    Harrington, Patricia
    Hart, Steven N
    Hartikainen, Jaana M
    Hartman, Mikael
    Hein, Alexander
    Heyworth, Jane
    Hicks, Belynda
    Hillemanns, Peter
    Ho, Dona N
    Hollestelle, Antoinette
    Hooning, Maartje J
    Hoover, Robert N
    Hopper, John L
    Hou, Ming-Feng
    Hsiung, Chia-Ni
    Huang, Guanmengqian
    Humphreys, Keith
    Ishiguro, Junko
    Ito, Hidemi
    Iwasaki, Motoki
    Iwata, Hiroji
    Jakubowska, Anna
    Janni, Wolfgang
    John, Esther M
    Johnson, Nichola
    Jones, Kristine
    Jones, Michael
    Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Kabisch, Maria
    Kaczmarek, Katarzyna
    Kang, Daehee
    Kasuga, Yoshio
    Kerin, Michael J
    Khan, Sofia
    Khusnutdinova, Elza
    Kiiski, Johanna I
    Kim, Sung-Won
    Knight, Julia A
    Kosma, Veli-Matti
    Kristensen, Vessela N
    Krüger, Ute
    Kwong, Ava
    Lambrechts, Diether
    Le Marchand, Loic
    Lee, Eunjung
    Lee, Min Hyuk
    Lee, Jong Won
    Neng Lee, Chuen
    Lejbkowicz, Flavio
    Li, Jingmei
    Lilyquist, Jenna
    Lindblom, Annika
    Lissowska, Jolanta
    Lo, Wing-Yee
    Loibl, Sibylle
    Long, Jirong
    Lophatananon, Artitaya
    Lubinski, Jan
    Luccarini, Craig
    Lux, Michael P
    Ma, Edmond S K
    MacInnis, Robert J
    Maishman, Tom
    Makalic, Enes
    Malone, Kathleen E
    Kostovska, Ivana Maleva
    Mannermaa, Arto
    Manoukian, Siranoush
    Manson, JoAnn E
    Margolin, Sara
    Mariapun, Shivaani
    Martinez, Maria Elena
    Matsuo, Keitaro
    Mavroudis, Dimitrios
    McKay, James
    McLean, Catriona
    Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne
    Meindl, Alfons
    Menéndez, Primitiva
    Menon, Usha
    Meyer, Jeffery
    Miao, Hui
    Miller, Nicola
    Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd
    Muir, Kenneth
    Mulligan, Anna Marie
    Mulot, Claire
    Neuhausen, Susan L
    Nevanlinna, Heli
    Neven, Patrick
    Nielsen, Sune F
    Noh, Dong-Young
    Nordestgaard, Børge G
    Norman, Aaron
    Olopade, Olufunmilayo I
    Olson, Janet E
    Olsson, Håkan
    Olswold, Curtis
    Orr, Nick
    Pankratz, V Shane
    Park, Sue K
    Park-Simon, Tjoung-Won
    Lloyd, Rachel
    Perez, Jose I A
    Peterlongo, Paolo
    Peto, Julian
    Phillips, Kelly-Anne
    Pinchev, Mila
    Plaseska-Karanfilska, Dijana
    Prentice, Ross
    Presneau, Nadege
    Prokofyeva, Darya
    Pugh, Elizabeth
    Pylkäs, Katri
    Rack, Brigitte
    Radice, Paolo
    Rahman, Nazneen
    Rennert, Gadi
    Rennert, Hedy S
    Rhenius, Valerie
    Romero, Atocha
    Romm, Jane
    Ruddy, Kathryn J
    Rüdiger, Thomas
    Rudolph, Anja
    Ruebner, Matthias
    Rutgers, Emiel J T
    Saloustros, Emmanouil
    Sandler, Dale P
    Sangrajrang, Suleeporn
    Sawyer, Elinor J
    Schmidt, Daniel F
    Schmutzler, Rita K
    Schneeweiss, Andreas
    Schoemaker, Minouk J
    Schumacher, Fredrick
    Schürmann, Peter
    Scott, Rodney J
    Scott, Christopher
    Seal, Sheila
    Seynaeve, Caroline
    Shah, Mitul
    Sharma, Priyanka
    Shen, Chen-Yang
    Sheng, Grace
    Sherman, Mark E
    Shrubsole, Martha J
    Shu, Xiao-Ou
    Smeets, Ann
    Sohn, Christof
    Southey, Melissa C
    Spinelli, John J
    Stegmaier, Christa
    Stewart-Brown, Sarah
    Stone, Jennifer
    Stram, Daniel O
    Surowy, Harald
    Swerdlow, Anthony
    Tamimi, Rulla
    Taylor, Jack A
    Tengström, Maria
    Teo, Soo H
    Beth Terry, Mary
    Tessier, Daniel C
    Thanasitthichai, Somchai
    Thöne, Kathrin
    Tollenaar, Rob A E M
    Tomlinson, Ian
    Tong, Ling
    Torres, Diana
    Truong, Thérèse
    Tseng, Chiu-Chen
    Tsugane, Shoichiro
    Ulmer, Hans-Ulrich
    Ursin, Giske
    Untch, Michael
    Vachon, Celine
    van Asperen, Christi J
    Van Den Berg, David
    van den Ouweland, Ans M W
    van der Kolk, Lizet
    van der Luijt, Rob B
    Vincent, Daniel
    Vollenweider, Jason
    Waisfisz, Quinten
    Wang-Gohrke, Shan
    Weinberg, Clarice R
    Wendt, Camilla
    Whittemore, Alice S
    Wildiers, Hans
    Willett, Walter
    Winqvist, Robert
    Wolk, Alicja
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Ortopedi.
    Wu, Anna H
    Xia, Lucy
    Yamaji, Taiki
    Yang, Xiaohong R
    Har Yip, Cheng
    Yoo, Keun-Young
    Yu, Jyh-Cherng
    Zheng, Wei
    Zheng, Ying
    Zhu, Bin
    Ziogas, Argyrios
    Ziv, Elad
    Lakhani, Sunil R
    Antoniou, Antonis C
    Droit, Arnaud
    Andrulis, Irene L
    Amos, Christopher I
    Couch, Fergus J
    Pharoah, Paul D P
    Chang-Claude, Jenny
    Hall, Per
    Hunter, David J
    Milne, Roger L
    García-Closas, Montserrat
    Schmidt, Marjanka K
    Chanock, Stephen J
    Dunning, Alison M
    Edwards, Stacey L
    Bader, Gary D
    Chenevix-Trench, Georgia
    Simard, Jacques
    Kraft, Peter
    Easton, Douglas F
    Association analysis identifies 65 new breast cancer risk loci.2017Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 551, nr 7678, s. 92-94Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Breast cancer risk is influenced by rare coding variants in susceptibility genes, such as BRCA1, and many common, mostly non-coding variants. However, much of the genetic contribution to breast cancer risk remains unknown. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study of breast cancer in 122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European ancestry and 14,068 cases and 13,104 controls of East Asian ancestry. We identified 65 new loci that are associated with overall breast cancer risk at P < 5 × 10-8. The majority of credible risk single-nucleotide polymorphisms in these loci fall in distal regulatory elements, and by integrating in silico data to predict target genes in breast cells at each locus, we demonstrate a strong overlap between candidate target genes and somatic driver genes in breast tumours. We also find that heritability of breast cancer due to all single-nucleotide polymorphisms in regulatory features was 2-5-fold enriched relative to the genome-wide average, with strong enrichment for particular transcription factor binding sites. These results provide further insight into genetic susceptibility to breast cancer and will improve the use of genetic risk scores for individualized screening and prevention.

  • 144.
    Mikkelsen, Tarjei
    et al.
    Broad Institute.
    Hillier, LaDeana
    Washington University School of Medicine, Genome Sequencing Center.
    Eichler, Evan
    University of Washington, Department of Genome Sciences.
    Zody, Michael
    Broad Institute.
    Jaffe, David
    Broad Institute.
    Yang, Shiaw-Pyng
    Washington University School of Medicine, Genome Sequencing Center.
    Enard, Wolfgang
    Max Planck Institute of Evolutionary Anthropology.
    Hellmann, Ines
    Max Planck Institute of Evolutionary Anthropology.
    Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin
    Broad Institute.
    Altheide, Tasha
    University of California, San Diego.
    Archidiacono, Nicoletta
    University of Bari, Department of Genetics and Microbiology.
    Bork, Peer
    EMBL.
    Butler, Jonathan
    Broad Institute.
    Chang, Jean
    Broad Institute.
    Cheng, Ze
    University of Washington, Department of Genome Sciences.
    Chinwalla, Asif
    Washington University School of Medicine, Genome Sequencing Center.
    de Jong, Pieter
    Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute.
    Delehaunty, Kimberley
    Washington University School of Medicine, Genome Sequencing Center.
    Fronick, Catrina
    Washington University School of Medicine, Genome Sequencing Center.
    Fulton, Lucinda
    Washington University School of Medicine, Genome Sequencing Center.
    Gilad, Yoav
    Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Genetics.
    Glusman, Gustavo
    Institute for Systems Biology.
    Gnerre, Sante
    Broad Institute.
    Graves, Tina
    Washington University School of Medicine, Genome Sequencing Center.
    Hayakawa, Toshiyuki
    University of California, San Diego.
    Hayden, Karen
    Case Western Reserve University, Department of Genetics.
    Huang, Xiaoqiu
    Iowa State University, Department of Computer Science.
    Ji, Hongkai
    Harvard University, Department of Statistics.
    Kent, W.
    University of California, Santa Cruz, Center for Biomolecular Science and Engineering.
    King, Mary-Claire
    University of Washington, Department of Genome Sciences.
    Kulbokas, Edward
    Broad Institute.
    Lee, Ming
    University of Washington, Department of Genome Sciences.
    Liu, Ge
    Case Western Reserve University, Department of Genetics.
    Lopez-Otin, Carlos
    Universidad de Oviedo, Instituto Universitario de Oncologia del Principado de Asturias, Departamento de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular.
    Makova, Kateryna
    The Pennsylvania State University, Center for Comparative Genomics and Bioinformatics and Department of Biology.
    Man, Orna
    Weizmann Institute of Science, Department of Structural Biology.
    Mardis, Elaine
    Washington University School of Medicine, Genome Sequencing Center.
    Mauceli, Evan
    Broad Institute.
    Miner, Tracie
    Washington University School of Medicine, Genome Sequencing Center.
    Nash, illiam
    Washington University School of Medicine, Genome Sequencing Center.
    Nelson, Joanne
    Washington University School of Medicine, Genome Sequencing Center.
    Pääbo, Svante
    Max Planck Institute of Evolutionary Anthropology.
    Patterson, Nick
    Broad Institute.
    Pohl, Craig
    Washington University School of Medicine, Genome Sequencing Center.
    Pollard, Katherine
    University of California, Santa Cruz, Center for Biomolecular Science and Engineering.
    Prüfer, Kay
    Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
    Puente, Xose
    Universidad de Oviedo, Instituto Universitario de Oncologia del Principado de Asturias, Departamento de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular.
    Reich, David
    Broad Institute.
    Rocchi, Mariano
    University of Bari, Department of Genetics and Microbiology.
    Rosenbloom, Kate
    University of California, Santa Cruz, Center for Biomolecular Science and Engineering.
    Ruvolo, Maryellen
    Harvard University, Department of Anthropology and of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology.
    Richter, Daniel
    Broad Institute.
    Schaffner, Stephen
    Broad Institute.
    Smit, Arian
    Institute for Systems Biology.
    Smith, Scott
    Washington University School of Medicine, Genome Sequencing Center.
    Suyama, Mikita
    EMBL.
    Taylor, James
    The Pennsylvania State University, Center for Comparative Genomics and Bioinformatics and Department of Biology.
    Torrents, David
    EMBL.
    Tuzun, Eray
    University of Washington, Department of Genome Sciences.
    Varki, Ajit
    University of California, San Diego.
    Velasco, Gloria
    Universidad de Oviedo, Instituto Universitario de Oncologia del Principado de Asturias, Departamento de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular.
    Ventura, Mario
    University of Bari, Department of Genetics and Microbiology.
    Wallis, John
    Washington University School of Medicine, Genome Sequencing Center.
    Wendl, Michael
    Washington University School of Medicine, Genome Sequencing Center.
    Wilson, Richard
    Washington University School of Medicine, Genome Sequencing Center.
    Lander, Eric
    Broad Institute.
    Waterston, Robert
    University of Washington, Department of Genome Sciences.
    Initial sequence of the chimpanzee genome and comparison with the human genome2005Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 437, nr 7055, s. 69-87Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we present a draft genome sequence of the common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). Through comparison with the human genome, we have generated a largely complete catalogue of the genetic differences that have accumulated since the human and chimpanzee species diverged from our common ancestor, constituting approximately thirty-five million single-nucleotide changes, five million insertion/deletion events, and various chromosomal rearrangements. We use this catalogue to explore the magnitude and regional variation of mutational forces shaping these two genomes, and the strength of positive and negative selection acting on their genes. In particular, we find that the patterns of evolution in human and chimpanzee protein-coding genes are highly correlated and dominated by the fixation of neutral and slightly deleterious alleles. We also use the chimpanzee genome as an outgroup to investigate human population genetics and identify signatures of selective sweeps in recent human evolution.

  • 145. Mikkelsen, Tarjei S
    et al.
    Wakefield, Matthew J
    Aken, Bronwen
    Amemiya, Chris T
    Chang, Jean L
    Duke, Shannon
    Garber, Manuel
    Gentles, Andrew J
    Goodstadt, Leo
    Heger, Andreas
    Jurka, Jerzy
    Kamal, Michael
    Mauceli, Evan
    Searle, Stephen M J
    Sharpe, Ted
    Baker, Michelle L
    Batzer, Mark A
    Benos, Panayiotis V
    Belov, Katherine
    Clamp, Michele
    Cook, April
    Cuff, James
    Das, Radhika
    Davidow, Lance
    Deakin, Janine E
    Fazzari, Melissa J
    Glass, Jacob L
    Grabherr, Manfred
    Greally, John M
    Gu, Wanjun
    Hore, Timothy A
    Huttley, Gavin A
    Kleber, Michael
    Jirtle, Randy L
    Koina, Edda
    Lee, Jeannie T
    Mahony, Shaun
    Marra, Marco A
    Miller, Robert D
    Nicholls, Robert D
    Oda, Mayumi
    Papenfuss, Anthony T
    Parra, Zuly E
    Pollock, David D
    Ray, David A
    Schein, Jacqueline E
    Speed, Terence P
    Thompson, Katherine
    VandeBerg, John L
    Wade, Claire M
    Walker, Jerilyn A
    Waters, Paul D
    Webber, Caleb
    Weidman, Jennifer R
    Xie, Xiaohui
    Zody, Michael C
    Graves, Jennifer A Marshall
    Ponting, Chris P
    Breen, Matthew
    Samollow, Paul B
    Lander, Eric S
    Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Genome of the marsupial Monodelphis domestica reveals innovation in non-coding sequences2007Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 447, nr 7141, s. 167-177Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We report a high-quality draft of the genome sequence of the grey, short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica). As the first metatherian ('marsupial') species to be sequenced, the opossum provides a unique perspective on the organization and evolution of mammalian genomes. Distinctive features of the opossum chromosomes provide support for recent theories about genome evolution and function, including a strong influence of biased gene conversion on nucleotide sequence composition, and a relationship between chromosomal characteristics and X chromosome inactivation. Comparison of opossum and eutherian genomes also reveals a sharp difference in evolutionary innovation between protein-coding and non-coding functional elements. True innovation in protein-coding genes seems to be relatively rare, with lineage-specific differences being largely due to diversification and rapid turnover in gene families involved in environmental interactions. In contrast, about 20% of eutherian conserved non-coding elements (CNEs) are recent inventions that postdate the divergence of Eutheria and Metatheria. A substantial proportion of these eutherian-specific CNEs arose from sequence inserted by transposable elements, pointing to transposons as a major creative force in the evolution of mammalian gene regulation.

  • 146. Miller, Webb
    et al.
    Drautz, Daniela I
    Ratan, Aakrosh
    Pusey, Barbara
    Qi, Ji
    Lesk, Arthur M
    Tomsho, Lynn P
    Packard, Michael D
    Zhao, Fangqing
    Sher, Andrei
    Tikhonov, Alexei
    Raney, Brian
    Patterson, Nick
    Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Lander, Eric S
    Knight, James R
    Irzyk, Gerard P
    Fredrikson, Karin M
    Harkins, Timothy T
    Sheridan, Sharon
    Pringle, Tom
    Schuster, Stephan C
    Sequencing the nuclear genome of the extinct woolly mammoth.2008Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 456, nr 7220, s. 387-390Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1994, two independent groups extracted DNA from several Pleistocene epoch mammoths and noted differences among individual specimens. Subsequently, DNA sequences have been published for a number of extinct species. However, such ancient DNA is often fragmented and damaged, and studies to date have typically focused on short mitochondrial sequences, never yielding more than a fraction of a per cent of any nuclear genome. Here we describe 4.17 billion bases (Gb) of sequence from several mammoth specimens, 3.3 billion (80%) of which are from the woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) genome and thus comprise an extensive set of genome-wide sequence from an extinct species. Our data support earlier reports that elephantid genomes exceed 4 Gb. The estimated divergence rate between mammoth and African elephant is half of that between human and chimpanzee. The observed number of nucleotide differences between two particular mammoths was approximately one-eighth of that between one of them and the African elephant, corresponding to a separation between the mammoths of 1.5-2.0 Myr. The estimated probability that orthologous elephant and mammoth amino acids differ is 0.002, corresponding to about one residue per protein. Differences were discovered between mammoth and African elephant in amino-acid positions that are otherwise invariant over several billion years of combined mammalian evolution. This study shows that nuclear genome sequencing of extinct species can reveal population differences not evident from the fossil record, and perhaps even discover genetic factors that affect extinction.

  • 147.
    Moor, Kathrin
    et al.
    ETH, Inst Microbiol, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland.;Univ Zurich, Ctr Dent Med, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Diard, Mederic
    ETH, Inst Microbiol, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Sellin, Mikael E.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi, Mikrobiologi. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. ETH, Inst Microbiol, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Felmy, Boas
    ETH, Inst Microbiol, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Wotzka, Sandra Y.
    ETH, Inst Microbiol, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Toska, Albulena
    ETH, Inst Microbiol, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Bakkeren, Erik
    ETH, Inst Microbiol, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Arnoldini, Markus
    ETH, Inst Microbiol, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Bansept, Florence
    CNRS UPMC, Lab Jean Perrin, UMR 8237, F-75005 Paris, France..
    Dal Co, Alma
    ETH, Dept Environm Syst Sci, Zurich, Switzerland.;Swiss Fed Inst Aquat Sci & Technol, Eawag, Dept Environm Microbiol, Dubendorf, Switzerland..
    Voller, Tom
    ETH, Inst Microbiol, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Minola, Andrea
    Humabs BioMed SA, CH-6500 Bellinzona, Switzerland..
    Fernandez-Rodriguez, Blanca
    Univ Svizzera Italiana, Inst Res Biomed, CH-6500 Bellinzona, Switzerland..
    Agatic, Gloria
    Humabs BioMed SA, CH-6500 Bellinzona, Switzerland..
    Barbieri, Sonia
    Univ Svizzera Italiana, Inst Res Biomed, CH-6500 Bellinzona, Switzerland..
    Piccoli, Luca
    Univ Svizzera Italiana, Inst Res Biomed, CH-6500 Bellinzona, Switzerland..
    Casiraghi, Costanza
    Univ Svizzera Italiana, Inst Res Biomed, CH-6500 Bellinzona, Switzerland.;Univ Bologna, Dept Expt Diagnost & Specialty Med, Bologna, Italy..
    Corti, Davide
    Humabs BioMed SA, CH-6500 Bellinzona, Switzerland..
    Lanzavecchia, Antonio
    ETH, Inst Microbiol, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland.;Univ Svizzera Italiana, Inst Res Biomed, CH-6500 Bellinzona, Switzerland..
    Regoes, Roland R.
    ETH, Inst Integrat Biol, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Loverdo, Claude
    CNRS UPMC, Lab Jean Perrin, UMR 8237, F-75005 Paris, France..
    Stocker, Roman
    ETH, Dept Civil Environm & Geomat Engn, Inst Environm Engn, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Brumley, Douglas R.
    ETH, Dept Civil Environm & Geomat Engn, Inst Environm Engn, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland.;Univ Melbourne, Sch Math & Stat, Parkville, Vic 3010, Australia..
    Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich
    ETH, Inst Microbiol, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Slack, Emma
    ETH, Inst Microbiol, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland..
    High-avidity IgA protects the intestine by enchaining growing bacteria2017Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 544, nr 7651, s. 498-+Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Vaccine-induced high-avidity IgA can protect against bacterial enteropathogens by directly neutralizing virulence factors or by poorly defined mechanisms that physically impede bacterial interactions with the gut tissues ('immune exclusion')(1-3). IgA-mediated cross-linking clumps bacteria in the gut lumen and is critical for protection against infection by non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium). However, classical agglutination, which was thought to drive this process, is efficient only at high pathogen densities (>= 10(8) non-motile bacteria per gram). In typical infections, much lower densities(4,5) (10(0)-10(7) colony-forming units per gram) of rapidly dividing bacteria are present in the gut lumen. Here we show that a different physical process drives formation of clumps in vivo: IgA-mediated cross-linking enchains daughter cells, preventing their separation after division, and clumping is therefore dependent on growth. Enchained growth is effective at all realistic pathogen densities, and accelerates pathogen clearance from the gut lumen. Furthermore, IgA enchains plasmid-donor and -recipient clones into separate clumps, impeding conjugative plasmid transfer in vivo. Enchained growth is therefore a mechanism by which IgA can disarm and clear potentially invasive species from the intestinal lumen without requiring high pathogen densities, inflammation or bacterial killing. Furthermore, our results reveal an untapped potential for oral vaccines in combating the spread of antimicrobial resistance.

  • 148.
    Mäkinen, Taija
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Vaskulärbiologi.
    Neurobiology: A Drain At The Base Of The Brain2019Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 572, nr 7767, s. 34-35Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A set of lymphatic vessels that wrap around the base of the mouse brain have been shown to drain fluid from the brain into the peripheral lymphatic system, and to exhibit a decline in function with ageing.

  • 149.
    Nesbitt, Sterling J.
    et al.
    Virginia Tech, Dept Geosci, Blacksburg, VA 24061 USA..
    Butler, Richard J.
    Univ Birmingham, Sch Geog Earth & Environm Sci, Birmingham B15 2TT, W Midlands, England..
    Ezcurra, Martin D.
    Univ Birmingham, Sch Geog Earth & Environm Sci, Birmingham B15 2TT, W Midlands, England.;Museo Argentino Ciencias Nat Bernardino Rivadavia, CONICET, Secc Paleontol Vertebrados, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Barrett, Paul M.
    Nat Hist Museum, Dept Earth Sci, Cromwell Rd, London SW7 5BD, England..
    Stocker, Michelle R.
    Virginia Tech, Dept Geosci, Blacksburg, VA 24061 USA..
    Angielczyk, Kenneth D.
    Field Museum Nat Hist, Integrat Res Ctr, 1400 South Lake Shore Dr, Chicago, IL 60605 USA..
    Smith, Roger M. H.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Evolutionary Studies Inst, PO Wits 2050, Johannesburg, South Africa.;Iziko South African Museum, POB 61, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Sidor, Christian A.
    Univ Washington, Burke Museum, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Univ Washington, Dept Biol, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Niedzwiedzki, Grzegorz
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi, Evolution och utvecklingsbiologi.
    Sennikov, Andrey G.
    Russian Acad Sci, Borissiak Paleontol Inst, Profsoyuznaya 123, Moscow 117997, Russia.;Kazan Fed Univ, Kremlyovskaya Ul 18, Kazan 420008, Russia..
    Charig, Alan J.
    Nat Hist Museum, Dept Earth Sci, Cromwell Rd, London SW7 5BD, England..
    The earliest bird-line archosaurs and the assembly of the dinosaur body plan2017Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 544, nr 7651, s. 484-+Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between dinosaurs and other reptiles is well established(1-4), but the sequence of acquisition of dinosaurian features has been obscured by the scarcity of fossils with transitional morphologies. The closest extinct relatives of dinosaurs either have highly derived morphologies(5-7) or are known from poorly preserved(8,9) or incomplete material(10,11). Here we describe one of the stratigraphically lowest and phylogenetically earliest members of the avian stem lineage (Avemetatarsalia), Teleocrater rhadinus gen. et sp. nov., from the Middle Triassic epoch. The anatomy of T. rhadinus provides key information that unites several enigmatic taxa from across Pangaea into a previously unrecognized clade, Aphanosauria. This clade is the sister taxon of Ornithodira (pterosaurs and birds) and shortens the ghost lineage inferred at the base of Avemetatarsalia. We demonstrate that several anatomical features long thought to characterize Dinosauria and dinosauriforms evolved much earlier, soon after the bird-crocodylian split, and that the earliest avemetatarsalians retained the crocodylian-like ankle morphology and hindlimb proportions of stem archosaurs and early pseudosuchians. Early avemetatarsalians were substantially more species-rich, widely geographically distributed and morphologically diverse than previously recognized. Moreover, several early dinosauromorphs that were previously used as models to understand dinosaur origins may represent specialized forms rather than the ancestral avemetatarsalian morphology.

  • 150. Niedzwiedzki, Grzegorz
    et al.
    Szrek, Piotr
    Narkiewicz, Katarzyna
    Narkiewicz, Marek
    Ahlberg, Per Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysiologi och utvecklingsbiologi, Evolution och utvecklingsbiologi.
    Tetrapod trackways from the early Middle Devonian period of Poland2010Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 463, nr 7277, s. 43-48Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The fossil record of the earliest tetrapods (vertebrates with limbs rather than paired fins) consists of body fossils and trackways. The earliest body fossils of tetrapods date to the Late Devonian period (late Frasnian stage) and are preceded by transitional elpistostegids such as Panderichthys and Tiktaalik that still have paired fins. Claims of tetrapod trackways predating these body fossils have remained controversial with regard to both age and the identity of the track makers. Here we present well-preserved and securely dated tetrapod tracks from Polish marine tidal flat sediments of early Middle Devonian (Eifelian stage) age that are approximately 18 million years older than the earliest tetrapod body fossils and 10 million years earlier than the oldest elpistostegids. They force a radical reassessment of the timing, ecology and environmental setting of the fish-tetrapod transition, as well as the completeness of the body fossil record.

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