uu.seUppsala universitets publikationer
Ändra sökning
Avgränsa sökresultatet
12345 101 - 150 av 234
RefereraExporteraLänk till träfflistan
Permanent länk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Träffar per sida
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sortering
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Författare A-Ö
  • Författare Ö-A
  • Titel A-Ö
  • Titel Ö-A
  • Publikationstyp A-Ö
  • Publikationstyp Ö-A
  • Äldst först
  • Nyast först
  • Skapad (Äldst först)
  • Skapad (Nyast först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Äldst först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyast först)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidigaste först)
  • Disputationsdatum (senaste först)
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Författare A-Ö
  • Författare Ö-A
  • Titel A-Ö
  • Titel Ö-A
  • Publikationstyp A-Ö
  • Publikationstyp Ö-A
  • Äldst först
  • Nyast först
  • Skapad (Äldst först)
  • Skapad (Nyast först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Äldst först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyast först)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidigaste först)
  • Disputationsdatum (senaste först)
Markera
Maxantalet träffar du kan exportera från sökgränssnittet är 250. Vid större uttag använd dig av utsökningar.
  • 101.
    Juslin, Patrik N
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Harmat, Laszlo
    Eerola, Tuomas
    What makes music emotionally significant?: Exploring the underlying mechanisms2014Ingår i: Psychology of Music, ISSN 0305-7356, E-ISSN 1741-3087, Vol. 42, nr 4, s. 599-623Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A common approach to study emotional reactions to music is to attempt to obtain direct links between musical surface features such as tempo and a listener's response. However, such an analysis ultimately fails to explain why emotions are aroused in the listener. In this article, we propose an alternative approach, which seeks to explain musical emotions in terms of a set of underlying mechanisms that are activated by different types of information in musical events. We illustrate this approach by reporting a listening experiment, which manipulated a piece of music to activate four mechanisms: brain stem reflex; emotional contagion; episodic memory; and musical expectancy. The musical excerpts were played to 20 listeners, who were asked to rate their felt emotions on 12 scales. Pulse rate, skin conductance, and facial expressions were also measured. Results indicated that target mechanisms were activated and aroused emotions largely as predicted by a multi-mechanism framework.

  • 102.
    Juslin, Peter
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The availability heuristic2013Ingår i: The Encyclopedia of the Mind / [ed] H. Pashler, Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 2013Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 103.
    Juslin, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    WInman, Anders
    PERSSON, T
    Can overconfidence be used as an indicator of reconstructive rather than retrieval processes?1995Ingår i: COGNITION, ISSN 0010-0277, Vol. 54, nr 1, s. 99-130Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In a recent paper Wagenaar (1988) suggested that overconfidence can be used as an indicator of reconstructive processes which allow responses based on inference to be distinguished from responses based on retrieval. The ecological models (Bjorkman, in pr

  • 104.
    Juvrud, Joshua
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Rennels, Jennifer L.
    Univ Nevada, Dept Psychol, Las Vegas, NV 89154 USA.
    Kayl, Andrea J.
    Univ Nevada, Dept Psychol, Las Vegas, NV 89154 USA.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Herlitz, Agneta
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Div Psychol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Attention during Visual Preference Tasks: Relation to Caregiving and Face Recognition2019Ingår i: Infancy, ISSN 1525-0008, E-ISSN 1532-7078, Vol. 24, nr 3, s. 356-367Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This research examined how caregiver experience (female primary caregiver or distributed caregiving with mom and dad) influenced 10-, 14-, and 16-month-olds' visual preferences and attention toward internal facial features of female-male face pairs, and how these behaviors related to novelty preferences in a face recognition task and speed and accuracy on a visual search task. In the visual preference task, infants visually preferred male faces, regardless of caregiver experience. Despite similarities in visual preferences, infants' attention toward females and males' internal facial features was related for infants with distributed caregiving only. Infants' performance across face processing tasks most often correlated for those with female primary caregivers. Results further our understanding of how infants with female primary caregivers display specialized processing of female faces, and how infants with distributed caregiving show similarities in their attention to female and male facial features.

  • 105.
    Jöreskog, Karin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för forskning om funktionshinder.
    Lindstedt, Helena
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Forskning om funktionshinder och habilitering.
    Adolfsson, Päivi
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Forskning om funktionshinder och habilitering.
    Janeslätt, Gunnel
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Forskning om funktionshinder och habilitering. Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Experiences of the parenting sole and support in mothers with cognitive limitations who have children in placement2018Ingår i: JARID: Journal of applied research in intellectual disabilities, ISSN 1360-2322, E-ISSN 1468-3148, Vol. 31, nr 4, s. 624-624Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 106. Kallioinen, Petter
    et al.
    Olofsson, Jonas
    Nakeva von Mentzer, Cecilia
    Department of Behavioral Sciences and Learning, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linkoping University, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Magnus
    Ors, Marianne
    Sahlén, Birgitta
    Lyxell, Björn
    Engström, Elisabet
    Uhlén, Inger
    Semantic Processing in Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children: Large N400 Mismatch Effects in Brain Responses, Despite Poor Semantic Ability2016Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, artikel-id 1146Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 107.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för visuell information och interaktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Bildanalys och människa-datorinteraktion.
    ICT as a horsefly2012Ingår i: Critique, Democracy and Philosophy in 21st Century Information Society: Towards Critical Theories of Social Media / [ed] Christian Fuchs, 2012, s. 38-38Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The way we solve problems and make decisions has been at the focus of philosophy. Since ancient times the issue has been how to think in the right way. Skills, abilities, methods and processes have been investigated. According to Platon philosophers do not have the right answers but they can find the right answers. They have the skills and they can use the right tools to discard false ideas (aporia). Philosophers think and act in a democratic way among themselves. But anybody who has the ability to philosophize, to think self-critically, systematically, scientifically, i.e. has the Aristotelian virtue of phronesis or the Kantian skill of autonomy, and acts according to this, belongs to a democracy together with other like people. Unfortunately, this is not the only definition of democracy. Although democracy itself is a process, the common sense definition is either result oriented or focused on formalistic aspects, or a combination of both. The first means that societies providing high living standards, security, tolerance, good environment and other goods are called democratic. The second definition is based on the existence of certain procedures, institutions, roles and processes, like elections. The presence of formal procedures is sufficient for a democracy definition. But if democracy is a process neither the result of it nor its formal surface characteristics should have the highest significance. Maintaining and running the democratic process is the important aspect as well as the conditions supporting it. By saying this we are back to the philosophical discussion. In essence democracy is dialog between people. That means that people search for solutions to their problems by thinking together with others. But that presupposes that each person has a dialog with himself and that each person starts with the position that own ideas and beliefs need to be better (aporia). This makes it possible to listen to others. Each participant in a democratic process, or a dialog, feels always the need of other participants because he is expecting them to help him and together with other able people find a better idea (phronesis, autonomy).ICT can contribute to this process by making information accessible and therefore facilitating citizens’ participation in political decision making. It can support openness and by that invite people to be more aware and active. Furthermore, it can support horizontal communication among citizens. Issues that are of interest to few people or to people that for some reason have difficulties to contact each other by traditional means may be neglected in the political process even though they are important. ICT can easily overcome such difficulties and provide a powerful tool to connect, inform and coordinate people’s actions. Most important, ICT can support self-critical and systematic thinking, which is the base for successful democratic dialog. ICT systems are currently used to create aporia and to stimulate autonomy during a process of problem solving and decision making. Advanced games simulate the complexity of reality in micro worlds, broadening the spectrum of opportunities and possibilities to support dialog.

  • 108.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Människa-datorinteraktion.
    The concept of education in the Piagetian theory of moral development1989Ingår i: Psychologika Themata, ISSN 1106-1634, Vol. 2, nr 1, s. 11-17Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 109.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för visuell information och interaktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Bildanalys och människa-datorinteraktion.
    Laaksoharju, Mikael
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för visuell information och interaktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Bildanalys och människa-datorinteraktion.
    Training and supporting education in sustainability by the use of an ICT tool2012Ingår i: New technologies, education for sustainable development and critical pedagogy / [ed] Vassilios Makrakis and Nelly Kostoulas-Makrakis, Rethymnon, Greece: ICTeESD, University of Crete , 2012, s. 225-231Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we will present ColLab, a collaborative computerized tool to facilitate dialogue about concrete issues in sustainability. The tool is powerful in stimulating the inquiry in complex issues by constantly forcing the user to shift focus between the particular and the holistic. The design of the tool is theoretically founded in philosophy and knowledge about the psychological mechanisms, like cognitive biases, that are involved in decision making. It is based on the assumption that people are not making judgments in isolation, but rather in social settings. The main advantage with such a tool is that it supplies a shared platform in which an analysis can evolve organically, even in collaboration with competing parties. It is suitable for using in learning environments and for educational purposes as well as for formulation of sustainability policies.

  • 110.
    Kayhan, Ezgi
    et al.
    Max Planck Inst Human Cognit & Brain Sci, Leipzig, Germany; Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lindskog, Marcus
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Infants distinguish between two events based on their relative likelihood2018Ingår i: Child Development, ISSN 0009-3920, E-ISSN 1467-8624, Vol. 89, nr 6, s. e507-e519Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Likelihood estimations are crucial for dealing with the uncertainty of life. Here, infants' sensitivity to the difference in likelihood between two events was investigated. Infants aged 6, 12, and 18 months (N = 75) were shown animated movies of a machine simultaneously drawing likely and unlikely samples from a box filled with different colored balls. In different trials, the difference in likelihood between the two samples was manipulated. The infants' looking patterns varied as a function of the magnitude of the difference in likelihood and were modulated by the number of items in the samples. Looking patterns showed qualitative similarities across age groups. This study demonstrates that infants' looking responses are sensitive to the magnitude of the difference in likelihood between two events.

  • 111.
    Keshvari, Shaiyan
    et al.
    Baylor Coll Med, Dept Neurosci, Houston, TX 77030 USA.
    Van den Berg, Ronald
    Baylor Coll Med, Dept Neurosci, Houston, TX 77030 USA.
    Ma, Wei Ji
    Baylor Coll Med, Dept Neurosci, Houston, TX 77030 USA.
    No evidence for an item limit in change detection2013Ingår i: PloS Computational Biology, ISSN 1553-734X, E-ISSN 1553-7358, Vol. 9, nr 2, artikel-id e1002927Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Change detection is a classic paradigm that has been used for decades to argue that working memory can hold no more than a fixed number of items (“item-limit models”). Recent findings force us to consider the alternative view that working memory is limited by the precision in stimulus encoding, with mean precision decreasing with increasing set size (“continuous-resource models”). Most previous studies that used the change detection paradigm have ignored effects of limited encoding precision by using highly discriminable stimuli and only large changes. We conducted two change detection experiments (orientation and color) in which change magnitudes were drawn from a wide range, including small changes. In a rigorous comparison of five models, we found no evidence of an item limit. Instead, human change detection performance was best explained by a continuous-resource model in which encoding precision is variable across items and trials even at a given set size. This model accounts for comparison errors in a principled, probabilistic manner. Our findings sharply challenge the theoretical basis for most neural studies of working memory capacity.

  • 112.
    Keshvari, Shaiyan
    et al.
    Baylor Coll Med, Dept Neurosci, Houston, TX 77030 USA.
    Van den Berg, Ronald
    Baylor Coll Med, Dept Neurosci, Houston, TX 77030 USA.
    Ma, Wei Ji
    Baylor Coll Med, Dept Neurosci, Houston, TX 77030 USA.
    No evidence for an item limit in change detection2013Ingår i: PloS Computational Biology, ISSN 1553-734X, E-ISSN 1553-7358, Vol. 9, nr 2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Change detection is a classic paradigm that has been used for decades to argue that working memory can hold no more than a fixed number of items ("item-limit models"). Recent findings force us to consider the alternative view that working memory is limited by the precision in stimulus encoding, with mean precision decreasing with increasing set size ("continuous-resource models"). Most previous studies that used the change detection paradigm have ignored effects of limited encoding precision by using highly discriminable stimuli and only large changes. We conducted two change detection experiments (orientation and color) in which change magnitudes were drawn from a wide range, including small changes. In a rigorous comparison of five models, we found no evidence of an item limit. Instead, human change detection performance was best explained by a continuous-resource model in which encoding precision is variable across items and trials even at a given set size. This model accounts for comparison errors in a principled, probabilistic manner. Our findings sharply challenge the theoretical basis for most neural studies of working memory capacity.

  • 113.
    Keshvari, Shaiyan
    et al.
    Baylor Coll Med, Dept Neurosci, Houston, TX 77030 USA.
    Van den Berg, Ronald
    Baylor Coll Med, Dept Neurosci, Houston, TX 77030 USA.
    Ma, Wei Ji
    Baylor Coll Med, Dept Neurosci, Houston, TX 77030 USA.
    Probabilistic computation in human perception under variability in encoding precision2012Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, nr 6, artikel-id e40216Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A key function of the brain is to interpret noisy sensory information. To do so optimally, observers must, in many tasks, take into account knowledge of the precision with which stimuli are encoded. In an orientation change detection task, we find that encoding precision does not only depend on an experimentally controlled reliability parameter (shape), but also exhibits additional variability. In spite of variability in precision, human subjects seem to take into account precision near-optimally on a trial-to-trial and item-to-item basis. Our results offer a new conceptualization of the encoding of sensory information and highlight the brain's remarkable ability to incorporate knowledge of uncertainty during complex perceptual decision-making.

  • 114.
    Kim, Yunhwan
    et al.
    Karlstad Univ, Ctr Res Child & Adolescent Mental Hlth, Univ Gatan 2, SE-65188 Karlstad, Sweden.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Parent-youth discussions about politics from age 13 to 282019Ingår i: Journal of applied developmental psychology, ISSN 0193-3973, E-ISSN 1873-7900, Vol. 62, s. 249-259Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been commonly assumed that post-adolescent youth have fewer political discussions with parents than do adolescents, due to transitional events in young adulthood and the emergence of new age-appropriate socializing agents, like peers, colleagues, and romantic partners. We proposed a contrasting view that post-adolescent youth have more frequent political discussions with parents due to their increased political interest over time. Using an accelerated longitudinal design (n = 4286), we found that neither transitional events nor political discussions with other socializing agents decreased political discussions with parents. The long-term developmental trajectories for political discussions with parents and youth's own political interest showed a linear increase from adolescence to young adulthood. Cross-lagged models showed that youth's political interest positively predicted political discussions with parents over time and vice-versa. These findings indicate a need to see political discussions with parents as a parent-youth bidirectional process.

  • 115.
    Koch, Benjamin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Stapel, Janny
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The role of head and hand movements for infants' predictions of others' actions2019Ingår i: Psychological Research, ISSN 0340-0727, E-ISSN 1430-2772, Vol. 83, nr 6, s. 1269-1280Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In everyday life, both the head and the hand movements of another person reveal the other's action target. However, studies on the development of action prediction have primarily included displays in which only hand and no head movements were visible. Given that infants acquire in their first year both the ability to follow other's gaze and the ability to predict other's reaching actions, the question is whether they rely mostly on the hand or the head when predicting other's manual actions. The current study aimed to provide an answer to this question using a screen-based eye tracking setup. Thirteen-month-old infants observed a model transporting plastic rings from one side of the screen to the other side and place them on a pole. In randomized trials the model's head was either visible or occluded. The dependent variable was gaze-arrival time, which indicated whether participants predicted the model's action targets. Gaze-arrival times were not found to be different when the head was visible or rendered invisible. Furthermore, target looks that occurred after looks at the hand were found to be predictive, whereas target looks that occurred after looks at the head were reactive. In sum, the study shows that 13-month-olds are capable of predicting an individual's action target based on the observed hand movements but not the head movements. The data suggest that earlier findings on infants' action prediction in screen-based tasks in which often only the hands were visible may well generalize to real-life settings in which infants have visual access to the actor's head.

  • 116.
    Kochukhova, Olga
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Rosander, Kerstin
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Integrated global motion influences smooth pursuit in infants2008Ingår i: Journal of Vision, ISSN 1534-7362, E-ISSN 1534-7362, Vol. 8, nr 11, s. 16-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Smooth pursuit eye movements (SP) were studied in 5- and 9-month-old infants and adults in response to a rhombusoscillating horizontally behind three spatially separated vertical occluders. During motion, the rhombus vertices were nevervisible. Thus the perception of the global motion of the rhombus required integration of its moving visible segments. Wetested whether infants were able to use such perceived global motion for SP in two different occluder conditions; one inwhich the occluder was clearly visible to the observer and one in which it was invisible. In adults, the presence of a visibleoccluder hiding the vertices of the rhombus strongly facilitates the perception of the global motion. It was found that adultsand 9-month-olds performed significantly more horizontal SP in the presence of a visible occluder but not 5-month-olds.Furthermore, this tendency was strengthened over single trials, and this temporal pattern was very similar in all age groups.In the invisible occluder condition both adults and infants tracked the segments of the rhombus primarily with vertical SP. Itwas concluded that the ability to integrate moving object fragments into perceived global motion and use that to regulate SPdevelops into adult performance by 9 months of age.

  • 117.
    Korpela, Kalevi M.
    et al.
    Univ Tampere, Fac Social Sci, Psychol, Tampere, Finland.
    Pasanen, Tytti
    Univ Tampere, Fac Social Sci, Psychol, Tampere, Finland.
    Repo, Veera
    Univ Tampere, Fac Social Sci, Psychol, Tampere, Finland.
    Hartig, Terry
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för bostads- och urbanforskning (IBF).
    Staats, Henk
    Leiden Univ, Inst Psychol, Leiden, Netherlands.
    Mason, Michael
    Univ Tennessee, Coll Social Work, Ctr Behav Hlth Res, Knoxville, TN USA.
    Alves, Susana
    Cankaya Univ, Dept Architecture, Ankara, Turkey.
    Fornara, Ferdinando
    Univ Cagliari, Dept Psychol, Cagliari, Italy.
    Marks, Tony
    Univ New England, Sch Behav Cognit & Social Sci, Armidale, NSW, Australia.
    Saini, Sunil
    Indian Assoc Hlth Res & Welf, Hisar, Haryana, India.
    Scopelliti, Massimiliano
    Libera Univ Maria Ss Assunta, Dept Human Studies, Rome, Italy.
    Soares, Ana L.
    Univ Tecn Lisboa, Inst Super Agron, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Stigsdotter, Ulrika K.
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Geosci & Nat Resource Management, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Thompson, Catharine Ward
    Univ Edinburgh, OPENspace Res Ctr, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Environmental Strategies of Affect Regulation and Their Associations With Subjective Well-Being2018Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, artikel-id 562Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental strategies of affect regulation refer to the use of natural and urban socio-physical settings in the service of regulation. We investigated the perceived use and efficacy of environmental strategies for regulation of general affect and sadness, considering them in relation to other affect regulation strategies and to subjective well-being. Participants from Australia, Finland, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, India, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Sweden (N = 507) evaluated the frequency of use and perceived efficacy of affect regulation strategies using a modified version of the Measure of Affect Regulation Styles (MARS). The internet survey also included the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), emotional well-being items from the RAND 36-Item Health Survey, and a single-item measure of perceived general health. Environmental regulation formed a separate factor of affect regulation in the exploratory structural equation models (ESEM). Although no relations of environmental strategies with emotional well-being were found, both the perceived frequency of use and efficacy of environmental strategies were positively related to perceived health. Moreover, the perceived efficacy of environmental strategies was positively related to life satisfaction in regulating sadness. The results encourage more explicit treatment of environmental strategies in research on affect regulation.

  • 118.
    Larm, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning, Västerås. School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalen University, Box 883, S-72123 Västerås, Sweden.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning, Västerås.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning, Västerås.
    The role of online social network chatting for alcohol use in adolescence: Testing three peer-related pathways in a Swedish population-based sample2017Ingår i: Computers in human behavior, ISSN 0747-5632, E-ISSN 1873-7692, Vol. 71, s. 284-290Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to examine whether online social network chatting (OSNC) is related to any of three peer-related pathways to alcohol use among adolescents including a stress-exposure pathway, a peer status pathway and a social context pathway. A survey was distributed to a Swedish population based sample of 2439 boys and girls 15-16 years old enrolled in the 9th grade of primary school. Indirect effects, moderating effects, and gender differences were analysed. The results exposed a robust positive association between OSNC and alcohol use, but also that OSNC accounted for one-fifth of the association between the peer status pathway and alcohol use. A positive association between the stress exposure pathway and alcohol use was found that was weaker among adolescents who scored high on OSNC whereas a positive association between the social context pathway and alcohol use also was found that was stronger among adolescents who scored high on OSNC. Consequently, OSNC may contribute differently to alcohol use depending on which peer-related pathway that the adolescent follows. The robust positive association between OSNC and alcohol use that remained when the three peer-related pathways were accounted for also indicates that this association is accounted for by other factors.

  • 119.
    Lindberg, Lene
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Fransson, Mari
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Forslund, Tommie
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Springer, Lydia
    Uppsala Cty Council, SUF Resource Ctr, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Maternal Sensitivity in Mothers with Mild Intellectual Disabilities is Related to Experiences of Maltreatment and Predictive of Child Attachment: A Matched-Comparison Study2017Ingår i: JARID: Journal of applied research in intellectual disabilities, ISSN 1360-2322, E-ISSN 1468-3148, Vol. 30, nr 3, s. 445-455Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Scientific knowledge on the quality of caregiving/maternal sensitivity among mothers with mild intellectual disabilities (ID) is limited and subject to many methodological shortcomings, but seems to suggest that these mothers are less sensitive than mothers without intellectual disabilities.

    Methods: In this matched-comparison study (N=48), the present authors observed maternal sensitivity for 20min in four different laboratory play situations. The study also included semi-structured interviews to assess maternal experiences of maltreatment and child attachment.

    Results: The present authors found significantly lower sensitivity among mothers with intellectual disabilities than among a comparison group of mothers without intellectual disabilities. Among mothers with intellectual disabilities, low sensitivity was related to maternal experiences of maltreatment and predictive of disorganized child attachment. In the comparison group, high maternal sensitivity was related to partner presence and social support, and predictive of child intelligence.

    Conclusions: The present authors highlight the importance of attending to intellectual disabilities mothers' history of receiving care to understand their capacity for giving adequate care.

  • 120.
    Lindgren, Josefin
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Språkvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik och filologi. Leibniz Ctr Gen Linguist ZAS, Berlin, Germany.
    Comprehension and production of narrative macrostructure in Swedish: A longitudinal study from age 4 to 72019Ingår i: First language, ISSN 0142-7237, E-ISSN 1740-2344, Vol. 39, nr 4, s. 412-432Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports results from a longitudinal study from age 4 to 7 of comprehension and production of narrative macrostructure in Swedish monolingual children (N = 17). Baby Birds/Baby Goats from the Multilingual Assessment Instrument for Narratives (LITMUS-MAIN) were used to elicit narratives and ask comprehension questions at age 4;4, 5;10 and 7;4. Results showed a steep development from age 4;4 to 5;10 in both comprehension and production of macrostructure, but only some further development in comprehension to age 7;4. For the measures studied, children seem to reach a plateau around age 6. Consistent differences between comprehension and production (higher scores in comprehension) and between stories (higher scores on Baby Goats) were found across time points.

  • 121.
    Lindskog, Marcus
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Att spela på konjunktioner: en studie av hur feedback påverkar konjunktionsfel2008Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie undersöker hur antalet konjunktionsfel påverkas av feedback av varierande komplexitet. Ett konjunktionsfel uppstår när en sammansatt händelse A&B bedöms som mer sannolik än någon av de ingående händelserna A eller B. Ett datorbaserat experiment med 45 deltagare fördelade på tre betingelser (Singel, Trippel, Mix) kördes. I en träningsfas bedömde deltagarna utgången på spelkuponger innehållande en fotbollsmatch (Singel), tre fotbollsmatcher (Trippel) eller både en och tre fotbollsmatcher (Mix) och fick feedback på bedömningarna. I en testfas gjorde alla deltagarna bedömningar av sannolikheten för vinst på spelkuponger med en eller tre fotbollsmatcher. Resultaten visar på att en komplex feedback, av både komponenter och konjunktioner, reducerar proportionen konjunktionsfel mer än feedback av bara komponenter eller konjunktioner. Dock är konjunktionsfelet robust, trots att försöksdeltagare får feedback och har kunskap om sannolikheter för konjunktioner och komponenter.

  • 122.
    Lindskog, Marcus
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Is the Intuitive Statistician Eager or Lazy?: Exploring the Cognitive Processes of Intuitive Statistical Judgments2013Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerical information is ubiquitous and people are continuously engaged in evaluating it by means of intuitive statistical judgments. Much research has evaluated if people’s judgments live up to the norms of statistical theory but directed far less attention to the cognitive processes that underlie the judgments.

    The present thesis outlines, compares, and tests two cognitive models for intuitive statistical judgments, summarized in the metaphors of the lazy and eager intuitive statistician. In short, the lazy statistician postpones judgments to the time of a query when the properties of a small sample of values retrieved from memory serve as proxies for population properties. In contrast, the eager statistician abstracts summary representations of population properties online from incoming data.

    Four empirical studies were conducted. Study I outlined the two models and investigated whether an eager or a lazy statistician best describes how people make intuitive statistical judgments. In general the results supported the notion that people spontaneously engage in a lazy process. Under certain specific conditions, however, participants were able to induce abstract representations of the experienced data. Study II and Study III extended the models to describe naive point estimates (Study II) and inference about a generating distribution (Study III). The results indicated that both the former and the latter type of judgment was better described by a lazy than an eager model. Finally, Study IV, building on the support in Studies I-III, investigated boundary conditions for a lazy model by exploring if statistical judgments are influenced by common memory effects (primacy and recency). The results indicated no such effects, suggesting that the sampling from long-term memory in a lazy process is not conditional on when the data is encountered.

    The present thesis makes two major contributions. First, the lazy and eager models are first attempts at outlining a process model that could possibly be applied for a large variety of statistical judgments. Second, because a lazy process imposes boundary conditions on the accuracy of statistical judgments, the results suggest that the limitations of a lazy intuitive statistician would need to be taken into consideration in a variety of situations.

    Delarbeten
    1. Calculate or wait: Is man an eager or a lazy intuitive statistician?
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Calculate or wait: Is man an eager or a lazy intuitive statistician?
    2013 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592X, Vol. 25, nr 8, s. 994-1014Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Research on people’s ability to act as intuitive statisticians has mainly focused on the accuracy of estimates of central tendency and variability. In this paper, we investigate two hypothesised cognitive processes by which people make judgements of distribution shape. The first claims that people spontaneously induce abstract representations of distribution properties from experience, including about distribution shape. The second process claims that people construct beliefs about distribution properties post hoc by retrieval from long-term memory of small samples from the distribution, implying format dependence with accuracy that differs depending on judgement format. Results from two experiments confirm the predicted format dependence, suggesting that people are often constrained by the post hoc assessment of distribution properties by sampling from long-term memory. The results, however, also suggest that, although post hoc sampling from memory seems to be the default process, under certain predictable circumstances people do induce abstract representations of distribution shape.

    Nyckelord
    Intuitive statistics, Numerical cognition, Sampling model
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Psykologi (exklusive tillämpad psykologi)
    Forskningsämne
    Psykologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-209392 (URN)10.1080/20445911.2013.841170 (DOI)000326868000009 ()
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Vetenskapsrådet
    Tillgänglig från: 2013-10-18 Skapad: 2013-10-18 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-06Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Naïve Point Estimation
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Naïve Point Estimation
    2013 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory and Cognition, ISSN 0278-7393, E-ISSN 1939-1285, Vol. 39, nr 3, s. 782-800Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The capacity of short-term memory is a key constraint when people make online judgments requiringthem to rely on samples retrieved from memory (e.g., Dougherty & Hunter, 2003). In this article, theauthors compare 2 accounts of how people use knowledge of statistical distributions to make pointestimates: either by retrieving precomputed large-sample representations or by retrieving small samplesof similar observations post hoc at the time of judgment, as constrained by short-term memory capacity(the naı¨ve sampling model: Juslin, Winman, & Hansson, 2007). Results from four experiments supportthe predictions by the naı¨ve sampling model, including that participants sometimes guess values thatthey, when probed, demonstrably know have the lowest probability of occurring. Experiment 1 alsodemonstrated the operations of an unpredicted recognition-based inference. Computational modeling alsoincorporating this process demonstrated that the data from all 4 experiments were better predicted byassuming a post hoc sampling process constrained by short-term memory capacity than by assumingabstraction of large-sample representations of the distribution.

    Nyckelord
    point estimation, sampling model, intuitive statistics
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Psykologi (exklusive tillämpad psykologi)
    Forskningsämne
    Psykologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-183145 (URN)10.1037/a0029670 (DOI)000318455900010 ()
    Forskningsfinansiär
    VetenskapsrådetRiksbankens Jubileumsfond
    Tillgänglig från: 2012-10-23 Skapad: 2012-10-23 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-07Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Where did that come from?: Identifying the source of a sample
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Where did that come from?: Identifying the source of a sample
    2015 (Engelska)Ingår i: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, ISSN 1747-0218, E-ISSN 1747-0226, Vol. 68, nr 3, s. 499-522Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Nyckelord
    Intuitive statistics, sample, inference, naïve intuitive statistician, naïve sampling model
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Psykologi (exklusive tillämpad psykologi)
    Forskningsämne
    Psykologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-211503 (URN)10.1080/17470218.2014.959534 (DOI)000349472400007 ()
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Vetenskapsrådet
    Tillgänglig från: 2013-11-25 Skapad: 2013-11-25 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-06Bibliografiskt granskad
    4. Are all Data Created Equal?: Exploring Some Boundary Conditions for a Lazy Intuitive Statistician
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Are all Data Created Equal?: Exploring Some Boundary Conditions for a Lazy Intuitive Statistician
    2014 (Engelska)Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, nr 5, s. e97686-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The study investigated potential effects of the presentation order of numeric information on retrospective subjective judgments of descriptive statistics of this information. The studies were theoretically motivated by the assumption in the naive sampling model of independence between temporal encoding order of data in long-term memory and retrieval probability (i.e. as implied by a "random sampling'' from memory metaphor). In Experiment 1, participants experienced Arabic numbers that varied in distribution shape/variability between the first and the second half of the information sequence. Results showed no effects of order on judgments of mean, variability or distribution shape. To strengthen the interpretation of these results, Experiment 2 used a repeated judgment procedure, with an initial judgment occurring prior to the change in distribution shape of the information half-way through data presentation. The results of Experiment 2 were in line with those from Experiment 1, and in addition showed that the act of making explicit judgments did not impair accuracy of later judgments, as would be suggested by an anchoring and insufficient adjustment strategy. Overall, the results indicated that participants were very responsive to the properties of the data while at the same time being more or less immune to order effects. The results were interpreted as being in line with the naive sampling models in which values are stored as exemplars and sampled randomly from long-term memory.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Psykologi (exklusive tillämpad psykologi)
    Forskningsämne
    Psykologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-211504 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0097686 (DOI)000339614800063 ()24834913 (PubMedID)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Vetenskapsrådet
    Tillgänglig från: 2013-11-25 Skapad: 2013-11-25 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-06Bibliografiskt granskad
  • 123.
    Lindskog, Marcus
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The Lazy Intuitive Statistician: Influence of Data Representation and Retrieval Processes on Intuitive Statistical Judgment2012Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Intuitive statistical judgments are an integral part of people’s everyday life and a long line of research has investigated the extent to which man lives up to the norms of statistical theory when performing such judgments. A recent account of intuitive statistical judgments, summarized in the metaphor of the naïve intuitive statistician (K. Fiedler & P. Juslin, 2006), has suggested that people base judgments on small samples, which they have an ability to veridically record but an inability to evaluate the representativeness of.

    The present thesis builds on research concerning the naïve intuitive statistician and investigates how representation and memory retrieval of numerical information influences intuitive statistical judgments. Two studies were conducted. Study I introduced two possible accounts of how numerical information is represented and retrieved. The first possibility suggests that information is stored as exemplars and that estimates of statistical properties are calculated on small samples drawn from memory at the time of a query. The second possibility suggests that numerical information is stored as abstract summary statistics calculated at the time of exposure. The distinction was summarized in the metaphor of a lazy vs. an eager intuitive statistician. Study II extended the findings of Study I by investigating how point estimates of unknown quantities are formed from knowledge of statistical properties of a numerical variable. More specifically, a model of naïve point estimation based on the naïve sampling model (P., Juslin, A., Winman, & P., Hansson, 2007) was introduced to predict participants’ distribution of point estimates.

    In general, the results from both studies support the idea that people spontaneously act as lazy intuitive statisticians that record numerical information in a raw format during exposure and postpone evaluation of statistical properties until they are requested to do so. Under certain fairly predictable and limited circumstances, however, participants were able to form abstract representations of statistical properties. The results of Study II support the predictions by the model of naïve point estimation, including a novel phenomenon where participants give point estimates which they know, when probed otherwise, have a low probability of occurring.

    The findings of the two studies extend previous research concerning people’s ability to be intuitive statisticians by not only measuring how accurate the knowledge of properties of numerical variable is but by also describing how such knowledge is represented. The model of naïve point estimation contributes to the existing body of research by describing how people perform one type of intuitive statistical inference, point estimation, and shows how statistical properties of the underlying distribution influences the pattern of responses. The model also suggests novel explanations to results showing that people seem to have implicit expectations that distributions are normal.

  • 124.
    Lindskog, Marcus
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Where did that come from?: Identifying the source of a sample2015Ingår i: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, ISSN 1747-0218, E-ISSN 1747-0226, Vol. 68, nr 3, s. 499-522Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 125.
    Lindskog, Marcus
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Kerimi, Neda
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Winman, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Juslin, Peter
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    A Swedish validation of the Berlin Numeracy test2015Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 56, nr 2, s. 132-139Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research has highlighted the importance of considering an individual’s level of numeracy, that is their numerical abilities, in a vast variety of judgment and decision making tasks. To accurately evaluate the influence of numeracy requires good and valid measures of the construct. In the present study we validate a Swedish version of the Berlin Numeracy Test (Cokely, Galesic, Schulz, Ghazal & Garcia-Retamero, 2012). The validation was car- ried out on both a student sample and a sample representative of the Swedish population. The Swedish BNT showed sound psychometrical properties in both samples. Further, in both samples the BNT had satisfactory convergent and discriminant validity when correlating with other measures of numeracy, while not being significantly related to measures of personality. With respect to predictive validity the results indicated divergent patterns in the two samples. In the student sample, participants scoring highest on the BNT outperformed those in the other three levels, which did not differ in performance. In contrast, in the population sample participants scoring lowest on the BNT performed worse than those in the other three levels, which did not differ in performance. Taken together, however, the results suggest that the Swedish version of the BNT should be considered a valid measure of numeracy in both Swedish student and population representative samples.

  • 126.
    Lindskog, Marcus
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Winman, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Are all Data Created Equal?: Exploring Some Boundary Conditions for a Lazy Intuitive Statistician2014Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, nr 5, s. e97686-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The study investigated potential effects of the presentation order of numeric information on retrospective subjective judgments of descriptive statistics of this information. The studies were theoretically motivated by the assumption in the naive sampling model of independence between temporal encoding order of data in long-term memory and retrieval probability (i.e. as implied by a "random sampling'' from memory metaphor). In Experiment 1, participants experienced Arabic numbers that varied in distribution shape/variability between the first and the second half of the information sequence. Results showed no effects of order on judgments of mean, variability or distribution shape. To strengthen the interpretation of these results, Experiment 2 used a repeated judgment procedure, with an initial judgment occurring prior to the change in distribution shape of the information half-way through data presentation. The results of Experiment 2 were in line with those from Experiment 1, and in addition showed that the act of making explicit judgments did not impair accuracy of later judgments, as would be suggested by an anchoring and insufficient adjustment strategy. Overall, the results indicated that participants were very responsive to the properties of the data while at the same time being more or less immune to order effects. The results were interpreted as being in line with the naive sampling models in which values are stored as exemplars and sampled randomly from long-term memory.

  • 127.
    Lindskog, Marcus
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Winman, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    No evidence of learning in non-symbolic numerical tasks: A comment on Park & Brannon (2014)2016Ingår i: Cognition, ISSN 0010-0277, E-ISSN 1873-7838, Vol. 150, s. 243-247Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Two recent studies - one of which was published in this journal - claimed to have found that learning on a non-symbolic arithmetic task improved performance on a symbolic arithmetic task (Park & Brannon, 2013, 2014). This finding has potentially far-reaching implications, because it would constitute evidence for a causal link between the Approximate Number System (ANS) and symbolic-math ability. Here, we argue that, due to the methodology used in both studies, the interpretation of data in terms of an improvement in ANS performance is problematic. We provide arguments and simulations showing that the trends in the data are similar to what one would expect for a non-learning observer. We discuss the implications for the original interpretation in terms of causality between non-symbolic and symbolic arithmetic performance.

  • 128.
    Lindskog, Marcus
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Winman, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Juslin, Peter
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Calculate or wait: Is man an eager or a lazy intuitive statistician?2013Ingår i: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592X, Vol. 25, nr 8, s. 994-1014Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on people’s ability to act as intuitive statisticians has mainly focused on the accuracy of estimates of central tendency and variability. In this paper, we investigate two hypothesised cognitive processes by which people make judgements of distribution shape. The first claims that people spontaneously induce abstract representations of distribution properties from experience, including about distribution shape. The second process claims that people construct beliefs about distribution properties post hoc by retrieval from long-term memory of small samples from the distribution, implying format dependence with accuracy that differs depending on judgement format. Results from two experiments confirm the predicted format dependence, suggesting that people are often constrained by the post hoc assessment of distribution properties by sampling from long-term memory. The results, however, also suggest that, although post hoc sampling from memory seems to be the default process, under certain predictable circumstances people do induce abstract representations of distribution shape.

  • 129.
    Lindskog, Marcus
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Winman, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Juslin, Peter
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Effects of Response and Presentation Format on Measures of Approximate Number System Acuity2013Ingår i: Proceedings of the 35th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society / [ed] M. Knauff, M. Pauen, N. Sebanz, I. Wachsmuth, Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society, Inc., 2013, s. 2908-2913Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Human adults, infants, and non-human animals are believed to be equipped with an Approximate Number System (ANS) supporting non-symbolic representations of numerical magnitudes. Recent research has questioned both the validity and reliability of tasks intended to measure acuity in the ANS. Issues with validity and reliability might be due to differences in methodology. In the present study, we compare four tasks designed to measure ANS acuity, using a within-subjects design. The tasks are compared with respect to response and presentation format effects previously studied in the psychophysics literature, but largely ignored in the ANS literature. We find a presentation format effect and show that when non-symbolic numerical stimuli are presented sequentially the magnitude of the second stimulus is overestimated. Further, the results indicate that people’s sensitivity to differentiate between non-symbolic numerosities is dependent on response format. The implications of the results to measures of ANS acuity are discussed.

  • 130.
    Lindskog, Marcus
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Winman, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Juslin, Peter
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Is it Time Bayes went Fishing?: Bayesian Probabilistic Reasoning in a Category Learning Task2013Ingår i: Proceedings of the 35th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society / [ed] M. Knauff, M. Pauen, N. Sebanz, I. Wachsmuth, Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society, Inc., 2013, s. 906-911Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    People have generally been considered poor at probabilistic reasoning, producing subjective probability estimates that far from accord to normative rules. Features of the typical probabilistic reasoning task, however, make strong conclusions difficult. The present study, therefore, combines research on probabilistic reasoning with research on category learning where participants learn base rates and likelihoods in a category-learning task. Later they produce estimates of posterior probability based on the learnt probabilities. The results show that our participants can produce subjective probability estimates that are well calibrated against the normative Bayesian probability and are sensitive to base rates. Further, they have accurate knowledge of both base rate and means of the categories encountered during learning. This indicates that under some conditions people might be better at probabilistic reaso

  • 131.
    Lindskog, Marcus
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Winman, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Juslin, Peter
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Naïve Point Estimation2013Ingår i: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory and Cognition, ISSN 0278-7393, E-ISSN 1939-1285, Vol. 39, nr 3, s. 782-800Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The capacity of short-term memory is a key constraint when people make online judgments requiringthem to rely on samples retrieved from memory (e.g., Dougherty & Hunter, 2003). In this article, theauthors compare 2 accounts of how people use knowledge of statistical distributions to make pointestimates: either by retrieving precomputed large-sample representations or by retrieving small samplesof similar observations post hoc at the time of judgment, as constrained by short-term memory capacity(the naı¨ve sampling model: Juslin, Winman, & Hansson, 2007). Results from four experiments supportthe predictions by the naı¨ve sampling model, including that participants sometimes guess values thatthey, when probed, demonstrably know have the lowest probability of occurring. Experiment 1 alsodemonstrated the operations of an unpredicted recognition-based inference. Computational modeling alsoincorporating this process demonstrated that the data from all 4 experiments were better predicted byassuming a post hoc sampling process constrained by short-term memory capacity than by assumingabstraction of large-sample representations of the distribution.

  • 132.
    Lindskog, Marcus
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Winman, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Juslin, Peter
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Poom, Leo
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Measuring acuity of the approximate number system reliably and validly: the evaluation of an adaptive test procedure2013Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 4, s. 510-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Two studies investigated the reliability and predictive validity of commonly used measures and models of Approximate Number System acuity (ANS). Study 1 investigated reliability by both an empirical approach and a simulation of maximum obtainable reliability under ideal conditions. Results showed that common measures of the Weber fraction (w) are reliable only when using a substantial number of trials, even under ideal conditions. Study 2 compared different purported measures of ANS acuity as for convergent and predictive validity in a within-subjects design and evaluated an adaptive test using the ZEST algorithm. Results showed that the adaptive measure can reduce the number of trials needed to reach acceptable reliability. Only direct tests with non-symbolic numerosity discriminations of stimuli presented simultaneously were related to arithmetic fluency. This correlation remained when controlling for general cognitive ability and perceptual speed. Further, the purported indirect measure of ANS acuity in terms of the Numeric Distance Effect (NDE) was not reliable and showed no sign of predictive validity. The non-symbolic NDE for reaction time was significantly related to direct w estimates in a direction contrary to the expected. Easier stimuli were found to be more reliable, but only harder (7:8 ratio) stimuli contributed to predictive validity.

  • 133. Ma, Wei Ji
    et al.
    Navalpakkam, Vidhya
    Beck, Jeffrey M
    Van den Berg, Ronald
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Pouget, Alexandre
    Behavior and neural basis of near-optimal visual search.2011Ingår i: Nature Neuroscience, ISSN 1097-6256, E-ISSN 1546-1726, Vol. 14, nr 6Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to search efficiently for a target in a cluttered environment is one of the most remarkable functions of the nervous system. This task is difficult under natural circumstances, as the reliability of sensory information can vary greatly across space and time and is typically a priori unknown to the observer. In contrast, visual-search experiments commonly use stimuli of equal and known reliability. In a target detection task, we randomly assigned high or low reliability to each item on a trial-by-trial basis. An optimal observer would weight the observations by their trial-to-trial reliability and combine them using a specific nonlinear integration rule. We found that humans were near-optimal, regardless of whether distractors were homogeneous or heterogeneous and whether reliability was manipulated through contrast or shape. We present a neural-network implementation of near-optimal visual search based on probabilistic population coding. The network matched human performance.

  • 134. Ma, Wei Ji
    et al.
    Shen, Shan
    Dziugaite, Gintare
    van den Berg, Ronald
    Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, United States; University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
    Requiem for the max rule?2015Ingår i: Vision Research, ISSN 0042-6989, E-ISSN 1878-5646, Vol. 116, nr Pt B, s. 179-193Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In tasks such as visual search and change detection, a key question is how observers integrate noisy measurements from multiple locations to make a decision. Decision rules proposed to model this process have fallen into two categories: Bayes-optimal (ideal observer) rules and ad-hoc rules. Among the latter, the maximum-of-outputs (max) rule has been the most prominent. Reviewing recent work and performing new model comparisons across a range of paradigms, we find that in all cases except for one, the optimal rule describes human data as well as or better than every max rule either previously proposed or newly introduced here. This casts doubt on the utility of the max rule for understanding perceptual decision-making.

  • 135.
    Manninen, Elina
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Generalized Identification: Individuals’ levels of identification with groups and its relation to personality2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates a newly developed term coined by the author called generalized identification, which is the tendency that people who identify high with one group tend to identify high with other groups as well, and how personality variables from the Five-Factor model may relate to this tendency. A common component of identification towards 10 preselected groups was calculated (N = 148), with a principal component analysis. The result reveal that the generalized identification account for 41 % of the total variance. A stepwise multiple regression analysis further showed that Openness to Experience and Agreeableness from the Five-Factor model explained 26 % of the variance in the generalized identification. However, due to low reliability when measuring personality traits, the relationship between personality and generalized identification could not be interpreted in a satisfying way, and it needs to be further explored before drawing firm conclusions.

  • 136.
    Marengo, Davide
    et al.
    Univ Turin, Dept Psychol, Via Verdi 10, I-10124 Turin, Italy..
    Giannotta, Fabrizia
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Settanni, Michele
    Univ Turin, Dept Psychol, Via Verdi 10, I-10124 Turin, Italy..
    Assessing personality using emoji: An exploratory study2017Ingår i: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 112, s. 74-78Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing popularity of text-based computer mediated communication, such as instant messaging and mobile texting, have resulted in the emergence of a new pictographic form of language, i.e. emoji, offering an intuitive and informal way to convey emotions and attitudes, replacing words or phrases in text messages. Based on these characteristics, could identification with emoji be associated with personality? Could they be used instead of text-based items in personality assessment? The present study aimed at exploring these questions. The sample is composed of 234 young adults recruited online (age: M = 24.79, SD = 6.47; 62% female). Participants responded to a brief Big-Five personality questionnaire and a 91-item survey assessing participants' degree of self-identification with emoji selected from the Apple Color Emoji fontset. Results indicated that 36 out of 91 examined emoji are significantly related with three of the Big-Five personality traits - emotional stability, extraversion, and agreeableness - that are consistently linked with emotion and affective processing. Emoji-based measures of these personality traits show moderate-to-large concurrent validity with scores from a validated personality questionnaire (r = 0.6-0.8). Overall, our study advances the idea that emoji might be employed to develop a language-free assessment tool for personality.

  • 137.
    Mattingly, Keith
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teologiska fakulteten, Teologiska institutionen.
    Approaching Psychosocial Adaptation to a Post-Crisis Environment through Case Studies of Javanese Disaster Survivors and Refugees in Sweden2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The psychosocial well-being of survivors of armed conflicts, forced displacement, and/or natural disasters is becoming more and more an integral component of holistic humanitarian response. Yet many organisations rely on broad, generalised manuals or guidelines which do not take into account the unique characteristics of societies and target populations. This paper describes the author’s research with disaster survivors in Java, Indonesia, and refugee in Sweden, aiming to characterise the process of recovery, adaptation and integration through beneficiaries’ own words. The author looks at how theory can be applied, such as whether a hierarchy of needs can be universally relevant, how the host Swedish society affects refugees’ experiences, which so-called “states of being” subjects experience, and how religion and cultural differences like individualism and collectivism influence one’s ability to regain psychosocial well-being. The author used both in-depth interviews and quantitative questionnaires to obtain data. Results showed an incredible level of resilience and positivity among all groups, though Indonesians reported family, spirituality and the community as major helping factors, while many refugees in Sweden pointed to their own individual determination and will to succeed. Many Indonesians identified economic livelihood as the biggest remaining gap, while refugees in Sweden spoke of language skills, educational qualifications and employment as keys to success and integration. Many challenges and gaps remain, especially for newly arrived refugees facing an increasingly difficult job market and fewer opportunities. 

  • 138.
    Mazyar, Helga
    et al.
    Baylor Coll Med, Houston, TX 77030 USA.
    Van den Berg, Ronald
    Baylor Coll Med, Houston, TX 77030 USA.
    Ma, Wei Ji
    Baylor Coll Med, Houston, TX 77030 USA.
    Does precision decrease with set size?2012Ingår i: Journal of Vision, ISSN 1534-7362, E-ISSN 1534-7362, Vol. 12, nr 6, artikel-id 10Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The brain encodes visual information with limited precision. Contradictory evidence exists as to whether the precision with which an item is encoded depends on the number of stimuli in a display (set size). Some studies have found evidence that precision decreases with set size, but others have reported constant precision. These groups of studies differed in two ways. The studies that reported a decrease used displays with heterogeneous stimuli and tasks with a short-term memory component, while the ones that reported constancy used homogeneous stimuli and tasks that did not require short-term memory. To disentangle the effects of heterogeneity and short-memory involvement, we conducted two main experiments. In Experiment 1, stimuli were heterogeneous, and we compared a condition in which target identity was revealed before the stimulus display with one in which it was revealed afterward. In Experiment 2, target identity was fixed, and we compared heterogeneous and homogeneous distractor conditions. In both experiments, we compared an optimal-observer model in which precision is constant with set size with one in which it depends on set size. We found that precision decreases with set size when the distractors are heterogeneous, regardless of whether short-term memory is involved, but not when it is homogeneous. This suggests that heterogeneity, not short-term memory, is the critical factor. In addition, we found that precision exhibits variability across items and trials, which may partly be caused by attentional fluctuations.

  • 139.
    Mazyar, Helga
    et al.
    Baylor Coll Med, Houston, TX 77030 USA.
    Van den Berg, Ronald
    Baylor Coll Med, Houston, TX 77030 USA.
    Seilheimer, Robert L.
    Baylor Coll Med, Houston, TX 77030 USA.
    Ma, Wei Ji
    Baylor Coll Med, Houston, TX 77030 USA.
    Independence is elusive: set size effects on encoding precision in visual search2013Ingår i: Journal of Vision, ISSN 1534-7362, E-ISSN 1534-7362, Vol. 13, nr 5, artikel-id 8Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Looking for a target in a visual scene becomes more difficult as the number of stimuli increases. In a signal detection theory view, this is due to the cumulative effect of noise in the encoding of the distractors, and potentially on top of that, to an increase of the noise (i.e., a decrease of precision) per stimulus with set size, reflecting divided attention. It has long been argued that human visual search behavior can be accounted for by the first factor alone. While such an account seems to be adequate for search tasks in which all distractors have the same, known feature value (i.e., are maximally predictable), we recently found a clear effect of set size on encoding precision when distractors are drawn from a uniform distribution (i.e., when they are maximally unpredictable). Here we interpolate between these two extreme cases to examine which of both conclusions holds more generally as distractor statistics are varied. In one experiment, we vary the level of distractor heterogeneity; in another we dissociate distractor homogeneity from predictability. In all conditions in both experiments, we found a strong decrease of precision with increasing set size, suggesting that precision being independent of set size is the exception rather than the rule.

  • 140.
    Monell, Elin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning, Gävleborg. Karolinska Inst, Ctr Psychiat Res, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Cty Council, Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Clinton, David
    Karolinska Inst, Ctr Psychiat Res, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Cty Council, Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Stockholm, Sweden;Inst Eating Disorders, Oslo, Norway.
    Birgegard, Andreas
    Karolinska Inst, Ctr Psychiat Res, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Cty Council, Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Emotion dysregulation and eating disorders: Associations with diagnostic presentation and key symptoms2018Ingår i: International Journal of Eating Disorders, ISSN 0276-3478, E-ISSN 1098-108X, Vol. 51, nr 8, s. 921-930Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Emotion dysregulation seems involved in the development, maintenance, and outcome of eating disorders (EDs). The present study aimed to differentiate patients with EDs from a comparison group on emotion dysregulation, and to examine emotion dysregulation in relation to ED diagnostic presentation and ED symptoms.

    Method/Results: Participants, patients with EDs (N=999) and a student comparison group (N=252), completed the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. Patients were compared to the comparison group and compared by diagnosis regarding emotion dysregulation, and unique associations between emotion dysregulation aspects and ED symptoms were examined. Patients reported greater general emotion dysregulation than the comparison group, especially poorer emotional awareness and clarity. There were very few diagnostic differences. In both patients and the comparison group, limited access to emotion regulation strategies was associated with cognitive ED symptoms, and presence of binge eating in the comparison group. In patients, poor emotional awareness and emotional non-acceptance were additionally associated with cognitive symptoms, and difficulties in impulse control and emotional non-acceptance were associated with binge eating.

    Discussion: Emotion dysregulation is an important transdiagnostic characteristic of ED. Results suggest interventions that enhance emotional awareness and acceptance, as well as emotion regulation skills training, in both ED treatment and prevention.

  • 141.
    Möller, Clara
    et al.
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Behav Sci & Learning, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Karlgren, Linda
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Behav Sci & Learning, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Sandell, Anton
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Behav Sci & Learning, Linkoping, SwedenLinkoping Univ, Dept Behav Sci & Learning, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Falkenström, Fredrik
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning i Sörmland (CKFD).
    Philips, Björn
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Behav Sci & Learning, Linkoping, Sweden; Stockholm Cty Council, Ctr Dependency Disorders, Stockholm, Sweden.; Karolinska Inst, Ctr Psychiat Res Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mentalization-based therapy adherence and competence stimulates in-session mentalization in psychotherapy for borderline personality disorder with co-morbid substance dependence2017Ingår i: Psychotherapy Research, ISSN 1050-3307, E-ISSN 1468-4381, Vol. 27, nr 6, s. 749-765Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To test whether adherence to mentalization-based treatment (MBT) principles predict better patient in-session mentalizing.

    METHODS: Two sessions for each of 15 patients with borderline personality disorder and comorbid substance abuse disorder were rated for MBT adherence and competence. Individual patient statements were rated for Reflective Functioning (RF), therapist statements were rated as demanding RF or not. Data were analysed using multilevel modelling.

    RESULTS: MBT adherence and competence predicted higher session RF (β = .58-.75), even while controlling for pre-treatment RF. In addition, therapist interventions directed toward exploring mental states predicted higher RF of subsequent patient responses (β = .11-.12).

    CONCLUSIONS: MBT adherence and competence were significantly related to patient in-session mentalizing, supporting the validity of MBT principles. Results point to the importance of supervision for therapists to become adherent to MBT principles. The small number of patients and sessions limits generalizability of results.

  • 142.
    Nilsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Rieskamp, Jörg
    Department of Psychology, University of Basel.
    Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan
    Department of Psychology, University of Amsterdam.
    Hierarchical Bayesian parameter estimation for cumulative prospect theory2011Ingår i: Journal of mathematical psychology (Print), ISSN 0022-2496, E-ISSN 1096-0880, Vol. 55, nr 1, s. 84-93Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cumulative prospect theory (CPT Tversky & Kahneman, 1992) has provided one of the most influential accounts of how people make decisions under risk. CPT is a formal model with parameters that quantify psychological processes such as loss aversion, subjective values of gains and losses, and subjective probabilities. In practical applications of CPT, the model's parameters are usually estimated using a single-participant maximum likelihood approach. The present study shows the advantages of an alternative, hierarchical Bayesian parameter estimation procedure. Performance of the procedure is illustrated with a parameter recovery study and application to a real data set. The work reveals that without particular constraints on the parameter space, CPT can produce loss aversion without the parameter that has traditionally been associated with loss aversion. In general, the results illustrate that inferences about people's decision processes can crucially depend on the method used to estimate model parameters.

  • 143.
    Nilsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Winman, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Juslin, Peter
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Hansson, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Linda is not a bearded lady: Configural weighting and adding as the cause of extension errors2009Ingår i: Journal of experimental psychology. General, ISSN 0096-3445, E-ISSN 1939-2222, Vol. 138, nr 4, s. 517-534Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the configural weighted average (CWA) hypothesis suggesting that extension biases, like conjunction and disjunction errors, occur because people estimate compound probabilities by taking a CWA of the constituent probabilities. The hypothesis suggests a process consistent with well-known cognitive constraints, which nonetheless achieves high robustness and bounded rationality in noisy real-life environments. Predictions by the CWA hypothesis are that in error-free data, conjunction and disjunction errors should be the rule rather than the exception when pairs of statements are randomly sampled from an environment, the rate of extension errors should increase when noise in data is decreased, and that adding a likely component should increase the probability of a conjunction. Four experiments generally verify the predictions by the hypothesis, demonstrating that extension errors are frequent also when tasks are selected according to a representative design.

  • 144.
    Nilsson Jobs, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Karolinska Inst, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Div Neuropsychiat, Ctr Neurodev Disorders KIND, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Cty Council, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bölte, Sven
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Karolinska Inst, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Div Neuropsychiat, Ctr Neurodev Disorders KIND, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Cty Council, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden; SCAS, Thunbergsvagen 2, SE-75238 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Spotting Signs of Autism in 3-Year-Olds: Comparing Information from Parents and Preschool Staff2019Ingår i: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 49, nr 3, s. 1232-1241Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Preschool informants may provide valuable information about symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in young children. We compared the diagnostic accuracy of ratings by preschool staff with those by parents of 3-year-old children using the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment Preschool Forms. The sample consisted of 32 children at familial risk for ASD without diagnosis, 10 children at risk for ASD with diagnosis, and 14 low-risk typically developing controls. Preschool staff ratings were more accurate than parent ratings at differentiating children with and without ASD, and more closely associated with clinician-rated symptoms. These results point to the value of information from preschool informants in early detection and diagnostic assessments.

  • 145.
    Nordvall, Anna-Carin
    Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Cue abstraction and Exemplars in Multiple Cue Judgment2002Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 146. Nordvall, Anna-Carin
    Utslagsbedömningar för polisutbildningen. Pest eller Kolera?2009Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 147.
    Nordvall, Anna-Carin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Enqvist, Tommy
    Uppsala universitet.
    Juslin, Peter
    Uppsala universitet.
    Non-linear Multiple Cue Judgment tasks2005Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 148.
    Nordvall, Anna-Carin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Enqvist, Tommy
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Juslin, Peter
    Uppsala universitet.
    Non-linear Multiple Cue Judgment tasks2005Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 149.
    Nordvall, Anna-Carin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Juslin, Peter
    Uppsala universitet.
    Olsson, Henrik
    Uppsala universitet.
    Rules and Exemplars in Multiple-Cue Judgment2001Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 150. Nordvall, Anna-Carin
    et al.
    Karlsson, Linnea
    Umea University.
    Suitability judgments of police applicants – When? Where? How?2009Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
12345 101 - 150 av 234
RefereraExporteraLänk till träfflistan
Permanent länk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf