uu.seUppsala universitets publikationer
Ändra sökning
Avgränsa sökresultatet
1234567 101 - 150 av 354
RefereraExporteraLänk till träfflistan
Permanent länk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Träffar per sida
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sortering
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Författare A-Ö
  • Författare Ö-A
  • Titel A-Ö
  • Titel Ö-A
  • Publikationstyp A-Ö
  • Publikationstyp Ö-A
  • Äldst först
  • Nyast först
  • Skapad (Äldst först)
  • Skapad (Nyast först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Äldst först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyast först)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidigaste först)
  • Disputationsdatum (senaste först)
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Författare A-Ö
  • Författare Ö-A
  • Titel A-Ö
  • Titel Ö-A
  • Publikationstyp A-Ö
  • Publikationstyp Ö-A
  • Äldst först
  • Nyast först
  • Skapad (Äldst först)
  • Skapad (Nyast först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Äldst först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyast först)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidigaste först)
  • Disputationsdatum (senaste först)
Markera
Maxantalet träffar du kan exportera från sökgränssnittet är 250. Vid större uttag använd dig av utsökningar.
  • 101.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik. Science and Society Unit, Biogem, Biology and Molecular Genetics Institute, Ariano Irpino, Italy.
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Changeux, Jean-Pierre
    Drug addiction: from neuroscience to ethics2018Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychiatry, ISSN 1664-0640, E-ISSN 1664-0640, Vol. 9, artikel-id 595Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present paper we suggest a potential new ethical analysis of addiction focusing on the relationship between aware and unaware processings in the brain, i.e. on what is consciously and what is non-consciously perceived by the individual. We take the case of the opioids epidemics to argue that a consideration of both aware and unaware processings provides a more comprehensive ethical framework to discuss the ethical issues raised by addiction.Finally, our hypothesis is that in addition to identified Central Nervous System’s neuronal/neurochemical factors contributing to addictive dynamics, the socio-economic status, i.e. the individual background, plays a causal role through epigenetic processes, originating the need for additional reward in the brain. This provides a strong base for a socio-political form of responsibility for preventing and managing addiction crisis.

  • 102.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Petrini, Carlo
    Biomedical research involving patients with disorders of consciousness: ethical and legal dimensions2014Ingår i: Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità, ISSN 0021-2571, Vol. 50, nr 3, s. 221-228Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The directive 2001/20/UE and the research involving patients with docs. Researchinvolving patients with disorders of consciousness (DOCs) deserves special ethical andlegal attention because of its Janus-faced nature. On the one hand, it raises concernsabout the risk to expose the involved subjects to disproportionate risks not respectingtheir individual dignity, particularly their right to be cared for; on the other hand, researchis an essential tool in order to improve the clinical condition of patients withDOCs. The present paper concerns the ethical and legal dimensions of biomedical researchinvolving patients with disorders of consciousness. In particular, it focuses oninformed consent to experimental treatments, which is a challenging issue both from anethical and legal point of view. The first part reads the Directive 2001/20/EU in the lightof the experimentation of patients with DOCs, and suggests a revision in order to betterassess the issue of informed consent.The particular case of informed consent for observational studies of non-communicativepatients. The second part presents an informed consent form for studies throughvideo-recording of patients unable to communicate their own consent. This form hasbeen elaborated by the bioethics unit of the project “Review of the nosography of vegetativestates: application of methods of behavioral analysis to individuals in coma orvegetative state” developed at the Italian National Institute of Health.Relevance of the suggested form. The paper describes the conceptual framework ofthe form for informed consent to studies through video-recoding, which is a relevantexample of what issues should be included in an informed consent for any type of studiesthrough video-recording of patients unable to express their own consent. The article hasbeen sent on November the 7th 2013, before the adoption of the Regulation (EU) no.536/2014 (and consequent abrogation of the Directive 2001/20/EU) and the release ofthe new edition of the Italian Code of Medical Ethics.

  • 103.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Salles, Arleen
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik. Centro de Investigaciones Filosoficas.
    Big Science, Brain Simulation and Neuroethics2016Ingår i: AJOB Neuroscience, ISSN 2150-7740, E-ISSN 2150-7759, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 28-30Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We believe that it is valuable to investigate conceptual understandings of the brain andof simulation in order to better grasp the ethical implicationsof simulation technology in particular. Such conceptualexamination is offered by fundamental neuroethics. Inthis commentary we propose a reading of simulationwithin the framework of fundamental neuroethics.

  • 104.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Salles, Arleen
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    The Computational Shift in Neuroscience: A Multifaceted Neuroethical Analysis2017Ingår i: AJOB Neuroscience, ISSN 2150-7740, E-ISSN 2150-7759, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. W4-W5Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 105.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik. Science and Society Unit, Biogem Genetic Research Centre, Ariano Irpino (AV), Italy.
    Hellgren Kotaleski, Jeanette
    Science for Life Laboratory, School of Computer Science and Communication, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Solna, Sweden.
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Large-scale brain simulation and disorders of consciousness: Mapping technical and conceptual issues2018Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, artikel-id 585Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Modelling and simulations have gained a leading position in contemporary attempts to describe, explain, and quantitatively predict the human brain's operations. Computer models are highly sophisticated tools developed to achieve an integrated knowledge of the brain with the aim of overcoming the actual fragmentation resulting from different neuroscientific approaches. In this paper we investigate plausibility of simulation technologies for emulation of consciousness and the potential clinical impact of large-scale brain simulation on the assessment and care of disorders of consciousness (DOCs), e.g. Coma, Vegetative State/Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome, Minimally Conscious State.Notwithstanding their technical limitations, we suggest that simulation technologies may offer new solutions to old practical problems, particularly in clinical contexts. We take DOCs as an illustrative case, arguing that the simulation of neural correlates of consciousness is potentially useful for improving treatments of patients with DOCs.

  • 106.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Laureys, Steven
    University and University Hospital of Liège, Liège, Belgium.
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    The Intrinsic Activity of the Brain and Its Relation to Levels and Disorders of Consciousness2017Ingår i: Mind and Matter, ISSN 1611-8812, E-ISSN 2051-3003, Vol. 15, nr 2, s. 197-219Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Science and philosophy still lack an overarching theory of consciousness. We suggest that a further step toward it requires going beyond the view of the brain as input-output machine and focusing on its intrinsic activity, which may express itself in two distinct modalities, i.e. aware and unaware. We specifically investigate the predisposition of the brain to evaluate and to model the world. These intrinsic activities of the brain retain a deep relation with consciousness. In fact the ability of the brain to evaluate and model the world can develop in two modalities, implicit or explicit, that correspond to what we usually refer to as the unconscious and consciousness, and both are multilevel configurations of the brain along a continuous and dynamic line. Starting from an empirical understanding of the brain as intrinsically active and plastic, we here distinguish between higher cognitive functions and basic phenomenal consciousness, suggesting that the latter might characterize the brain’s intrinsic activity as such, even if at a very basic level. We proceed to explore possible impacts of the notion of intrinsic cerebral phenomenality on our understanding of consciousness and its disorders, particularly on the diagnosis and management of patients with disorders of consciousness.

  • 107.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Department of Philosophy, Pontifical Faculty of Theology of Southern Italy S. Thomas, Naples, Italy .
    Petrini, Carlo
    Italian National Institute of Health.
    Medical Responsibility and Clinical Guidelines: A Few Remarks from Two Italian Juridical Cases2012Ingår i: Medicine Studies, ISSN SSN: 1876-4533 (print version) ISSN: 1876-4541 (electronic version), Vol. 3, nr 3, s. 157-169Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The aim of this paper is to assess the complex issue of responsibility in clinical practice. The paper focuses mainly on the relationship between personal- and medical-professional responsibility of practitioners and clinical guidelines.

    Methods

    After a theoretical review of the different definitions of responsibility in selected bioethical and biojuridical literature, two recent juridical proceedings concerning medical responsibility from Italian Courts are discussed. Subsequently, a theoretical analysis of the definition of clinical practice guidelines is proposed in order to show their feasibility to assess personal- and medical-professional responsibility.

    Results

    The definitions of responsibility and the two Italian cases show the theoretical and practical difficulties of shared assessments of both personal-professional and medical-professional responsibility in clinical practice. Clinical practice guidelines cannot be assumed as an objective code of action stating exactly a rule of conduct in all situations, but as a tool suggesting how to decide what to do in different conditions.

    Conclusions

    Responsibility in clinical practice is such a complex issue to deserve a special ethical assessment. The clinician’s personal-professional responsibility cannot be replaced or reduced by clinical practice guidelines, because medicine is as such a relationship focused on the expertize of practitioners. Nonetheless, a shared approach to different clinical conditions is needed in order to avoid a relativist outcome and protect patients’ and even clinicians’ rights. Formal guidelines (that describe not exactly what to do but how to decide what to do) are proposed as potential useful tool to achieve this aim.

  • 108.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Petrini, Carlo
    Misdiagnosis as an ethical and scientific challenge2014Ingår i: Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità, ISSN 0021-2571, Vol. 50, nr 3, s. 229-233Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Difficulties of behavioral assessment of consciousness. An astonishingly high rateof misdiagnosis between vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome and minimallyconscious state has been detected. This raises the issue of the adequacy of theconsciousness’ assessment in patients with disorders of consciousness. The behavioralassessment of consciousness could be not able to detect covert awareness, which is increasinglyidentified by the instrumental assessment.Ancillary methods. Neurotechnology, particularly neuroimaging, provides relevant dataconcerning the neurological underlying condition of patients with DOCs, but the instrumentalapproach has still to assess some technical issues.Ethical considerations. A correct diagnosis of a DOC is not only an instrumental issue,but also an ethically relevant demand to the scientific community. Finally, an integrationbetween behavioral and instrumental assessments seems to be the most adequate strategyin order to decrease the rate of misdiagnosis.

  • 109.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Biogem, Genetic Reseach Centre, Ariano Irpino (AV) Italy.
    Petrini, Carlo
    The Impact of Contemporary Neurotechnology on Diagnosing and Treating Patients with Disorders of Consciousness: A Review2013Ingår i: International Journal of Clinical Therapeutics and Diagnosis, ISSN 2332-2926, Vol. 1, nr 2, s. 12-19Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Disorders of consciousness, especially Vegetative State, are assessed from a theoretical (historical and ethical) and empirical (neuroscientific) points of view, through a review of the most relevant recent literature. Both the potentiality of neuroscientific investigation and the limitations of its clinical (diagnostic and prognostic) application are underlined, showing the urgency of a collaboration between science, law and ethics in order to define the most appropriate nosography and to ensure the best therapy to patients with disorders of consciousness.

  • 110.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Salles, Arleen
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Neuroethics: A Conceptual Approach2018Ingår i: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, ISSN 0963-1801, E-ISSN 1469-2147, Vol. 27, nr 4, s. 717-727Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we begin by identifying three main neuroethical approaches: neurobioethics, empirical neuroethics, and conceptual neuroethics. Our focus is on conceptual approaches that generally emphasize the need to develop and use a methodological modus operandi for effectively linking scientific (i.e., neuroscience) and philosophical (i.e., ethics) interpretations. We explain and assess the value of conceptual neuroethics approaches and explain and defend one such approach that we propose as being particularly fruitful for addressing the various issues raised by neuroscience: fundamental neuroethics.

  • 111.
    Friberg von Sydow, Rikard
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teologiska fakulteten, Teologiska institutionen, Tros- och livsåskådningsvetenskap, Etik.
    Att ta skriken på allvar: Etiska perspektiv på självdestruktivt beteende2011Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation has multiple goals. First to analyze self-destructive behavior and its relations to ethics. Secondly to evaluate four different ethical perspectives regarding self-destructiveness from a certain position of human nature. The third goal is to construct a position that deals with self-destructive behavior in a way that is improved and well-managed compared to the four ethical perspectives analyzed earlier. The first goal is met by comparing and evaluating different theories concerning self-destructive behavior and discussing the ethical implications surrounding them. Self-destructive behavior is seen as a way of communicating, which puts a moral pressure on both the self-destructive person and the society around her. The four ethical perspectives represented by Robert Nozick and Thomas Szasz, two neoliberals, James B Nelson, a body theologian inspired by Paul Tillich, Gail Weiss, a body feminist and Mary Timothy Prokes, a catholic body theologian, are hence met by the problem of self-destruct, analyzed and critically evaluated. In the final chapter the author constructs an improved ethical perspective concerned with self-destructiveness, based on altruism, responsibility and broad-mindedness.

  • 112.
    Fridare, Christina
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teologiska fakulteten, Teologiska institutionen.
    Levinas, det feminina: Kritisk analys av det feminina i Levinas2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Flera feministiska tolkare har anmärkt att i Emmanuel Levinas i sin filosofi använder ordet feminin på ett sätt som skapar förvirring. I en första läsning verkar det som om han menar kvinnor. Han beskriver dem som tysta, mystiska och utan att ingå i den etiska relationen. Men vid en djupare studie förefaller användningen av det feminina mer som om han vill beskriva ett fenomen av känslor eller möjligen en metafor av riktiga kvinnor.

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att studera Emmanuel Levinas begrepp det feminina. Denna litteraturstudie har dessutom ett tydligt feministiskt perspektiv. Som huvudkritiker har jag valt den feminist-judiska filosofen Claire Elise Katz. Hennes främsta argument är att tolkningen och förståelsen av Levinas filosofi måste ske i ljuset av den judiska traditionen. Hon tolkar också Levinas det feminina dualistiskt, som riktiga kvinnor och som metafor. I min reflektion av studien kritiserar jag hennes argument där det judiska arvet skulle vara avgörande. Jag tolkar det feminina som absolut alteritet. Tolkningen är möjlig för alla religionsinriktningar i fenomenologisk mening och inte bara judendomen.

  • 113.
    Furberg, Elisabeth
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    Advance Directives and Personal Identity: What Is the Problem?2012Ingår i: The Journal of medicine and philosophy, ISSN 0360-5310, Vol. 37, nr 1, s. 60-73Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The personal identity problem expresses the worry that due to disrupted psychological continuity, one person’s advance directive could be used to determine the care of a different person. Even ethicists, who strongly question the possibility of the scenario depicted by the proponents of the personal identity problem, often consider it to be a very potent objection to the use of advance directives. Aiming to question this assumption, I, in this paper, discuss the personal identity problem’s relevance to the moral force of advance directives. By putting the personal identity argument in relation to two different normative frameworks, I aim to show that whether or not the personal identity problem is relevant to the moral force of advance directives, and further, in what way it is relevant, depends entirely on what normative reasons we have for respecting advance directives in the first place.

  • 114. Furberg, Elisabeth
    Ansvar för sin hälsa?: Problem och möjligheter med att tillämpa en ansvarsprincip inom hälso- och sjukvården2007Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att låta individuellt ansvar för sin egen hälsa påverka hälso- och sjukvårdens prioriteringar är ett förslag som är välkänt och ofta diskuterat i prioriteringsdebatten, men också ett förslag som sällan får bifall. Varken i Norge eller i Sverige ansåg prioriteringsutredningarna att en ansvarsprincip vore lämplig i prioriteringssammanhang och hittills har förslaget om en ansvarsprincip inte realiserats.

    En anledning både till frågans fortsatta aktualitet och till utredningarnas tveksamhet är troligtvis dess bredd och komplexitet. En princip som den ovan föreslagna måste förstås i relation till redan existerande moraliska värderingar och uppfattningar, och frågan om en ansvarsprincip berör många olika värderingar och uppfattningar både när det gäller personligt ansvar och vilken roll detta ansvar bör ha inom hälso- och sjukvården. Syftet med föreliggande rapport är att belysa några av de problem (och möjligheter) som idén om en ansvarsprincip ställer oss inför.

  • 115.
    Furberg, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    Zeiler, Kristin
    Welin, Stellan
    Tufveson, G
    The ethics of non-heart-beating donation: how new technology can change the ethical landscape.2008Ingår i: Journal of Medical Ethics, ISSN 0306-6800, E-ISSN 1473-4257, Vol. 34, nr 7, s. 526-529Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The global shortage of organs for transplantation and the development of new and better medical technologies for organ preservation have resulted in a renewed interest in non-heart-beating donation (NHBD). This article discusses ethical questions related to controlled and uncontrolled NHBD. It argues that certain preparative measures, such as giving anticoagulants, should be acceptable before patients are dead, but when they have passed a point where further curative treatment is futile, they are in the process of dying and they are unconscious. Furthermore, the article discusses consequences of technological developments based on improvement of a chest compression apparatus used today to make mechanical heart resuscitation. Such technological development can be used to transform cases of non-controlled NHBD to controlled NHBD. In our view, this is a step forward since the ethical difficulties related to controlled NHBD are easier to solve than those related to non-controlled NHBD. However, such technological developments also evoke other ethical questions.

  • 116. Gini, Adriana
    et al.
    Larrivee, Denis
    Farisco, Michele
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Sironi, Vittorio
    Keeping the human: neuroethics and the conciliation of dissonant values in the 21st century2015Ingår i: Neuroscience and neuroeconomics, ISSN 2230-3561, Vol. 4, s. 1-10Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Studied since antiquity, the human brain has recently been the inspiration for an international neuroscientific entrepreneurship, the Human Brain Project in Europe and the Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies initiative in the USA. Different in their approach, both regard the human brain as one of the greatest challenges of 21st century science and the organ that makes us “human”. However, it is mainly the necessity of developing new therapies that affect up to a billion people worldwide, which has propelled the search for extensive expertise and investment in neuroscience research. The debate on ethical and social policy issues as well as the research and medical strategies of such gigantic efforts has involved participants as diverse as neuroscientists, philosophers, scholars in ethics and law, politicians, and the general public, rendering modern neuroscience an interdisciplinary and conflictual endeavor. In fact, the brain is described as the biological underpinning of our thoughts, emotions, perceptions, free willed actions, and memories, features unique to our humanity. In this review, three neuroscientists and a philosopher from the neuroethics community provide their perspectives for an up-to-date survey of salient neuroethical issues, ie, modulation of free will and neuropharmaceuticals and neurotechnologies that enhance cognitive capacities, as well as an introduction of the reader to the controversial new discipline of neuroethics. Written for nonexperts in the field, it is intended to reflect on and to impart information helpful in understanding the challenges and the perils of modern neuroscience, whose tools are so powerful as to jeopardize what is uniquely “human” through willful mind manipulation. We conclude that, for any future effort to “recreate” the mind and, at the same time, keep what is uniquely ours, it will be necessary to reflect ethically and review carefully man's past best efforts at self-understanding.

  • 117.
    Godskesen, Tove
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    God vård innebär att sällsynta sjukdomar ges resurser2018Ingår i: Dagens MedicinArtikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Sverige behöver ta ett nationellt ansvar så att människor med sällsynta diagnoser också kan få ta del av forskning och nya läkemedel.

  • 118.
    Godskesen, Tove
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik. Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Petri, Suzanne
    Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Halkoaho, Arja
    Tampere University of Applied Sciences, Finland.
    Mangset, Margrete
    Oslo universitetssykehus, Oslo University Hospital, Norway.
    Pirinen, Merja
    University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Engelbak Nielsen, Zandra
    Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Denmark.
    When Nursing Care and Clinical Trials Coincide: A Qualitative Study of the Views of Nordic Oncology and Hematology Nurses on Ethical Work Challenges2018Ingår i: Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics, ISSN 1556-2646, E-ISSN 1556-2654, Vol. 13, nr 5, s. 475-485Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the kinds of ethical challenges experienced by nurses in oncology and hematology when nursing care and research overlap in clinical trials, and how the nurses handle such challenges. Individual interviews with 39 nurses from Sweden, Denmark, and Finland indicated that all nurses were positive about research, considering it essential for developing the best care. Ethical challenges exist, however; the most difficult were associated with the end-of-life patients, no longer responsive to standard therapy, who eagerly volunteer for cutting-edge drug trials in the hope of gaining therapeutic benefit. Many nurses lacked systematic strategies for addressing such challenges but found support from their nursing colleagues and relied on the research protocols to guide them.

  • 119.
    Gredin, Josefine
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teologiska fakulteten, Teologiska institutionen.
    En (värdig) andra chans?: En granskning av den nya gymnasielagen utifrån ett etiskt perspektiv2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2016 a new temporary asylum law was introduced in Sweden which limited the chance of being granted asylum. This law was most hard hitting on unaccompanied young people who no longer received fair asylum processes. The government changed part of the temporary law in 2018, and this amendment is referred to as the Upper Secondary School Act. The purpose of this change was to allow certain groups of unaccompanied young people the chance to gain asylum by granting them a residence permit to study in Sweden.

     

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine whether the Upper Secondary School Act provides unaccompanied young people enough human dignity and respect. To do this, elements of two immigration laws are examined to see how the differences between the laws affects unaccompanied young people in the asylum process and in order to gain an understanding of why the new high school law was introduced into legislation. This thesis also conducts a qualitative study to find out what effects the law have had on unaccompanied young people. The Upper Secondary School Act is then reviewed from an ethical and critical standpoint, where the thesis's theoretical approach is based on the thoughts of Jürgen Habermas, Seyla Benhabib and Elena Namli.

     

    The study shows that the Upper Secondary School Act has been criticized from many different directions, and points out that the law is inadequate and lacking a humane perspective. This study also concludes that the law has led to negative consequences for unaccompanied young people because they are not provided with the right conditions for a good life in Sweden. This has led to them being neglected. In order to change this the law must respect human dignity and express an equal respect for all people. This will then counteract repressive structures that prevent the possibility of integration, which the Upper Secondary School Act does not achieve. The main problem with the present law is that there is not enough respect for unaccompanied young peoples’ human dignity.

  • 120.
    Grill, Kalle
    Division of Philosophy, KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Anti-Paternalism and Public Health Policy: The Case of Product Safety Legislation2009Ingår i: The Philosophy of Public Health / [ed] Angus Dawson, Ashgate , 2009, s. 101-110Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 121.
    Grill, Kalle
    Division of Philosophy, KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Evaluating Consequences2009Ingår i: Encyclopedia of Medical Decision Making / [ed] Michael W. Kattan, Sage Publications, 2009, s. 463-467Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 122.
    Grill, Kalle
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Filosofiska institutionen.
    Individual liberty in public health – no trumping value2011Ingår i: Public Health – ethical issues / [ed] Soini, Sirpa, Copenhagen: Nordic Council of Ministers , 2011, s. 21-33Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 123.
    Grill, Kalle
    et al.
    Division of Philosophy, KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Who owns my avatar – rights in virtual property2005Ingår i: Changing views: Worlds in play, Vancuver: University of Vancover , 2005Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 124.
    Gunnarsson, Hampus
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Filosofiska institutionen, Avdelningen för praktisk filosofi.
    The Replaceability Argument: An evaluation of a utilitarian argument for the permissibility of purchasing meat2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis is an evaluation of a utilitarian argument for the permissibility of purchasing meat. The argument, which I call the replaceability argument, rests on four premises:

    1. Meat purchases cause animals to be brought into existence.

    2. The animals brought into existence by meat purchases live lives of positive final value.

    3. If the first two premises are true, then meat purchases cause at least as good consequences as any alternative act.

    4. If meat purchases cause at least as good consequences as any alternative act, then meat purchases are permissible.

    The first three premises are examined while the fourth one, representing consequentialism, is assumed to be true. The evaluation results in the conclusion that the argument is unsound because all of the premises evaluated turn out to be either doubtful or false. 

  • 125.
    Hansson, Mats G.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Access to health data in registries and the cost of privacy concerns: introducing a privacy ombudsman while extending access to data2015Ingår i: Information and Law in Transition: Freedom of Speech, the Internet, Privacy and Democracy in the 21st Century / [ed] Lind AS, Reichel J & Österdahl, I, Liber, 2015, 1, s. 325-338Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 126.
    Helgesson, Gert
    et al.
    Stockholm Centre for Healthcare Ethics, Department of Learning, Informatics, Management, and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bülow, William
    Department of Philosophy, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Godskesen, Tove
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik. Ersta Sköndal University College.
    Should the deceased be listed as authors?2019Ingår i: Journal of Medical Ethics, ISSN 0306-6800, E-ISSN 1473-4257, Vol. 45, nr 5, s. 331-338Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sometimes participants in research collaboration die before the paper is accepted for publication. The question we raise in this paper is how authorship should be handled in such situations. First, the outcome of a literature survey is presented. Taking this as our starting point, we then go on to discuss authorship of the dead in relation to the requirements of the Vancouver rules. We argue that in principle the deceased can meet the requirements laid down in these authorship guidelines. However, to include a deceased researcher as author requires a strong justification. The more the person has been involved in the research and writing process before he or she passes away, the stronger the justification for inclusion.

  • 127.
    Helgesson, Gert
    et al.
    Stockholm Centre for Healthcare Ethics, Karolinska institutet.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Authorship Order2019Ingår i: Learned Publishing, ISSN 0953-1513, E-ISSN 1741-4857, Vol. 32, nr 2, s. 106-112Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Considering the fact that authorship order plays such a significant role as a basis for scientific merit, this paper looks into the practices of authorship order from a research ethical perspective. We conclude that there is a wide variety of practices and no common understanding of what the different authorship positions signify. Authorship guidelines do not provide much help. We recognize that, regardless of what system for valuing authorship positions is used, it will be misleading and unfair in most applications because relative contributions vary in ways that are not captured by fixed value assignments to authorship positions. In theory, assigning percentage figures reflecting the relative contributions of the authors would solve that problem, but we argue that such a scheme is not likely to work in practice. It can also be questioned whether relative, rather than absolute, contributions should be the basis for scientific merit. Contributorship is discussed as an alternative, but is recognized to be insufficient both in communicating absolute and relative contributions, as standardly used. However, there may be a way forward with contributorship, but then, the level of detail needs to increase considerably and its application be standardized.

  • 128.
    Helgesson, Gert
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Plagiarism in research2015Ingår i: Medicine, Health care and Philosophy, ISSN 1386-7423, E-ISSN 1572-8633, Vol. 18, nr 1, s. 91-101Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Plagiarism is a major problem for research. There are, however, divergent views on how to define plagiarism and on what makes plagiarism reprehensible. In this paper we explicate the concept of "plagiarism" and discuss plagiarism normatively in relation to research. We suggest that plagiarism should be understood as "someone using someone else's intellectual product (such as texts, ideas, or results), thereby implying that it is their own" and argue that this is an adequate and fruitful definition. We discuss a number of circumstances that make plagiarism more or less grave and the plagiariser more or less blameworthy. As a result of our normative analysis, we suggest that what makes plagiarism reprehensible as such is that it distorts scientific credit. In addition, intentional plagiarism involves dishonesty. There are, furthermore, a number of potentially negative consequences of plagiarism.

  • 129.
    Helgesson, Gert
    et al.
    Stockholm Centre for Healthcare Ethics, Karolinska institutet.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Responsibility for scientific misconduct in collaborative papers2018Ingår i: Medicine, Health care and Philosophy, ISSN 1386-7423, E-ISSN 1572-8633, Vol. 21, s. 423-430Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper concerns the responsibility of co-authors in cases of scientific misconduct. Arguments in research integrity guidelines and in the bioethics literature concerning authorship responsibilities are discussed. It is argued that it is unreasonable to claim that for every case where a research paper is found to be fraudulent, each author is morally responsible for all aspects of that paper, or that one particular author has such a responsibility. It is further argued that it is more constructive to specify what task responsibilities come with different roles in a project and describe what kinds of situations or events call for some kind of action, and what the appropriate actions might be.

  • 130.
    Helgesson, Gert
    et al.
    Stockholm Centre for Healthcare Ethics, Karolinska Institutet.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Revise the ICMJE Recommendations regarding authorship responsibility!2018Ingår i: Learned Publishing, ISSN 0953-1513, E-ISSN 1741-4857, Vol. 31, nr 3, s. 267-269Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Key points:

    • A clear set of rules regarding authorship responsibilities in academic publications is much needed.

    • The leading research integrity guidelines on scientific authorship, the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors Recommendations, are unclear about authorship responsibilities in case of misconduct.

    • The source of the problem is the fourth authorship criterion – it should be revised.

  • 131. Hodge, Allison
    et al.
    Haapala, Irja
    Yngve, Agneta
    Karolinska Inst, Novum, Dept Biosci & Nutr, SE-14183 Huddinge, Sweden.
    McNeill, Geraldine
    Tseng, Marilyn
    A refresher in research publication ethics2012Ingår i: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 15, nr 3, s. 377-378Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 132.
    Holmberg, Ylva
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teologiska fakulteten, Teologiska institutionen.
    Att erkänna, eller inte erkänna?: En argumentationsanalys utifrån Kantiansk etik, om erkännande av utomlands ingångna barnäktenskap2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Genom denna studie undersöker jag argumentationen som ligger till grund för den svenska lagstiftningen om barnäktenskap, med fokus på erkännande av utländska barnäktenskap. Jag beskriver argumenten för att generellt sätt motverka barnäktenskap. Därefter utvärderar jag argumentationen för att erkänna vissa utomlands ingångna barnäktenskap. Metoden för studien är argumentationsanalys och den teoretiska utgångspunkten är Kantiansk etik, som jag tillämpar på barn. Den svenska lagstiftningen om erkännande av utomlands ingångna barnäktenskap regleras i Lagen (1904: 26 s.1) om vissa internationella rättsförhållanden rörande äktenskap och förmyndarskap (IÄL). Jag undersöker argumentationen som ligger till grund för 1 kap. 8§a, som förbjuder utländska barnäktenskap, där det funnits anknytning. Samtidigt underkänns tvångsäktenskap, oavsett anknytning, utifrån samma paragraf. Det tycks motsägelsefullt att barnäktenskap kan erkännas inom svensk internationell privaträtt, då barnäktenskap förbjuds enligt 2 kap. 1§ Äktenskapsbalken (ÄktB). Syftet med studien är därför att undersöka om argumentationen bakom paragrafen, är hållbar. Studien visar att flera argument inte är hållbara, främst eftersom de inte är rimliga enligt Kantiansk etik, tillämpad på barn. Det går därför att ifrågasätta den sammantagna hållbarheten i argumentationen för erkännandet av utomlands ingångna barnäktenskap, ur ett Kantianskt perspektiv.

  • 133.
    Howard, Heidi Carmen
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    van El, Carla G.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam Med Ctr, Dept Clin Genet, Sect Community Genet, Amsterdam.; Vrije Univ Amsterdam Med Ctr, EMGO Inst Hlth & Care Res, Amsterdam.
    Forzano, Francesca
    Great Ormond St Hosp Sick Children, Dept Clin Genet, London.
    Radojkovic, D.
    Univ Belgrade, Inst Mol Genet & Genet Engn, Lab Mol Genet, Belgrade.
    Rial-Sebbag, E.
    Univ Toulouse 3 Paul Sabatier, UMR 1027, INSERM, Fac Med, Toulouse.
    de Wert, G.
    Maastricht Univ, Dept Hlth Eth & Soc, Res Sch CAPHRI, Maastricht.; Maastricht Univ, Res Sch GROW, Maastricht.
    Borry, P.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Leuven Inst Genom & Soc, Dept Publ Hlth & Primary Care, Ctr Biomed Eth & Law, Leuven.
    Cornel, M. C.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam Med Ctr, Dept Clin Genet, Sect Community Genet, Amsterdam.; Vrije Univ Amsterdam Med Ctr, EMGO Inst Hlth & Care Res, Amsterdam.
    One small edit for humans, one giant edit for humankind? Points and questions to consider for a responsible way forward for gene editing in humans2018Ingår i: European Journal of Human Genetics, ISSN 1018-4813, E-ISSN 1476-5438, Vol. 26, nr 1, s. 1-11Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Gene editing, which allows for specific location(s) in the genome to be targeted and altered by deleting, adding or substituting nucleotides, is currently the subject of important academic and policy discussions. With the advent of efficient tools, such as CRISPR-Cas9, the plausibility of using gene editing safely in humans for either somatic or germ line gene editing is being considered seriously. Beyond safety issues, somatic gene editing in humans does raise ethical, legal and social issues (ELSI), however, it is suggested to be less challenging to existing ethical and legal frameworks; indeed somatic gene editing is already applied in (pre-) clinical trials. In contrast, the notion of altering the germ line or embryo such that alterations could be heritable in humans raises a large number of ELSI; it is currently debated whether it should even be allowed in the context of basic research. Even greater ELSI debates address the potential use of germ line or embryo gene editing for clinical purposes, which, at the moment is not being conducted and is prohibited in several jurisdictions. In the context of these ongoing debates surrounding gene editing, we present herein guidance to further discussion and investigation by highlighting three crucial areas that merit the most attention, time and resources at this stage in the responsible development and use of gene editing technologies: (1) conducting careful scientific research and disseminating results to build a solid evidence base; (2) conducting ethical, legal and social issues research; and (3) conducting meaningful stakeholder engagement, education and dialogue.

  • 134.
    Höglund, Anna T
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Helgesson, Gert
    Karolinska institutet.
    The role of guidelines in ethical competence-building: perceptions among research nurses and physicians2010Ingår i: Clinical Ethics, ISSN 1477-7509, E-ISSN 1758-101X, Vol. 5, nr 2, s. 95-102Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to describe and explore the perception of ethical guidelines and their role in ethical competence-building among Swedish physicians and research nurses. Twelve informants were interviewed in depth. The results demonstrated that the informants had a critical attitude towards ethical guidelines and claimed to make little use of them in practical moral judgements. Ethical competence was seen primarily as character-building, related to virtues such as being empathic, honest and loyal to patients. Ethical competence was assumed to be learned through good examples, role models and practical experience, while ethical guidelines were not perceived as valuable in this process. In order to improve the staff's familiarity with and the usability of ethical guidelines, the workplace needs to provide opportunities for ethical dialogues. In such discussions, argumentation can improve, virtues can be developed and guidelines can be usefully invoked.

  • 135.
    Höglund, Anna T
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Falkenström, Erica
    Stockholms universitet.
    The status of ethics in Swedish health care management:: a qualitative study2018Ingår i: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 18, nr 608, s. 1-8Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    By tradition, the Swedish health care system is based on a representative and parliamentary form of government. Recently, new management forms, inspired by market principles, have developed. The steering system is both national and regional, in that self-governing county councils are responsible for the financing and provision of health care in different regions. National and local documents regulating Swedish health care mention several ethical values, such as equity in health for the whole population and respect for autonomy and human dignity. It is therefore of interest to investigate the status of such ethical statements in Swedish health care management.

    Method

    The aim of the present study was to investigate perceptions of the status of ethics in the daily work of politicians, chief civil servants and Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) from care-giver organizations in the county council of Stockholm. A qualitative method was used, based on inductive content analysis of individual interviews with 13 health care managers.

    Results

    The content analysis resulted in four categories: Low status of ethics; Cost-effectiveness over ethics; Separation of ethics from management; and Lack of opportunities for ethical competence building. The informants described how they prioritized economic concerns over ethics and separated ethics from their daily work. They also expressed that they experienced that this development had been enforced by the marketization of the health care system. Further, they described how they lacked opportunities for ethical discussions, which could have helped develop their ethical competence.

    Conclusions

    In order to improve the status of ethics in health care management, ethical considerations and analyses must be integrated in the regular work tasks of politicians, chief civil servants and CEOs; such as decision-making, budgeting and reform work. Further, opportunities for ethical dialogues on a regular basis should be organized, in order to improve ethical competence on the management level. New steering forms, less focused upon market principles, might also be needed, in order to improve the status of ethics in the health care management organization.

  • 136.
    Johansson, Jens
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Filosofiska institutionen, Avdelningen för praktisk filosofi.
    The Severity of Death2016Ingår i: Ethics at the End of Life: New Issues and Arguments / [ed] John Davis, Routledge, 2016Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 137.
    Johansson, Jens
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Filosofiska institutionen, Avdelningen för praktisk filosofi.
    Risberg, Olle
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Filosofiska institutionen, Avdelningen för praktisk filosofi.
    Harming and Failing to Benefit: A Reply to Purves2019Ingår i: Philosophical Studies, ISSN 0031-8116, E-ISSN 1573-0883Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 138.
    Johansson, Jens
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Filosofiska institutionen, Avdelningen för praktisk filosofi.
    Risberg, Olle
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Filosofiska institutionen, Avdelningen för praktisk filosofi.
    The Problem of Justified Harm: A Reply to Gardner2018Ingår i: Ethical Theory and Moral Practice, ISSN 1386-2820, E-ISSN 1572-8447, Vol. 21, s. 735-742Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 139.
    Johnsson, Linus
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Allmänmedicin och preventivmedicin.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Autonomy is a Right, Not a Feat: How Theoretical Misconceptions have Muddled the Debate on Dynamic Consent to Biobank Research2016Ingår i: Bioethics, ISSN 0269-9702, E-ISSN 1467-8519, Vol. 30, nr 7, s. 471-478Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Should people be involved as active participants in longitudinal medical research, as opposed to remaining passive providers of data and material? We argue in this article that misconceptions of 'autonomy' as a kind of feat rather than a right are to blame for much of the confusion surrounding the debate of dynamic versus broad consent. Keeping in mind two foundational facts of human life, freedom and dignity, we elaborate three moral principles - those of autonomy, integrity and authority - to better see what is at stake. Respect for autonomy is to recognize the other's right to decide in matters that are important to them. Respect for integrity is to meet, in one's relationship with the other, their need to navigate the intersection between private and social life. Respect for authority is to empower the other - to help them to cultivate their responsibility as citizens. On our account, to force information onto someone who does not want it is not to respect that person's autonomy, but to violate integrity in the name of empowerment. Empowerment, not respect for autonomy, is the aim that sets patient-centred initiatives employing a dynamic consent model apart from other consent models. Whether this is ultimately morally justified depends on whether empowerment ought to be a goal of medical research, which is questionable.

  • 140.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teologiska fakulteten, Teologiska institutionen, Tros- och livsåskådningsvetenskap, Etik.
    Anthropomorphism and mechanomorphism2012Ingår i: Humanimalia, ISSN 2151-8645, Vol. 3, nr 2, s. 107-122Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 141.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teologiska fakulteten, Teologiska institutionen.
    Critical anthropomorphism and animal ethics2012Ingår i: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, ISSN 1187-7863, E-ISSN 1573-322X, Vol. 25, nr 5, s. 707-720Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropomorphism has long been considered a cardinal error when describing animals. Ethicists have feared the consequences of misrepresenting animals in their reasoning. Recent research within human-animal studies, however, has sophisticated the notion of anthropomorphism. It is suggested that avoiding anthropomorphism merely creates other morphisms, such as mechanomorphism. Instead of avoiding anthropomorphism, it is argued that it is a communicative strategy that should be used critically. Instances of anthropomorphism in animal ethics are analyzed in this paper. Some analogies made between people and non-human animals in present theories of animal ethics are clear instances of psychological anthropomorphism. Other analogies are implicit cases of cultural anthropomorphism. It is argued that animal ethics need to take the wider discourse of critical anthropomorphism into account in order to sophisticate the understanding and use of anthropomorphic projections. Anthropomorphism is an efficient tool of communication, and it may be made an adequate one as well.

  • 142.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för visuell information och interaktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Bildanalys och människa-datorinteraktion.
    AI and philosophizing2018Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 143.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för visuell information och interaktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Bildanalys och människa-datorinteraktion.
    AI as gadfly2018Ingår i: Wabi-Sabi: Imperfection, incompleteness and impermanence in Organisational Life / [ed] Masayasu Takahashi et al., 2018, s. 150-150Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Technology helps us with many things, and we expect Artificial Intelligence (AI) to give usmuch more in the future. However, there are certain risks involved. In science fiction AI hasbeen described as something apocalyptic: Artificial General Intelligence or Super Intelligencetakes over the world using its thinking power. Humans become slaves, laboratory animals,zoo/reservation inhabitants, or simply exterminated.That has been fiction. Not anymore. Recent technological developments especially inMachine Learning, and AI achievements in complex games for example, created worriesabout the imminence of the above apocalypse.The discussions focus on issues like the probability of AI acquiring an independent existenceof itself, transforming us into something we do not want to be, affect or even direct evolutionin a radically different direction, etc. Not everyone agrees on whether any of these things willhappen, or when they may happen.AI is seen as a technology providing answers, products, services to us in order to satisfy ourneeds, solve our problems and make our world balanced and perfect. In accordance to that,the discussion about its benevolence or cruelty is about whether its deliveries will be good orbad to humans, animals, or the whole universe. This is a significant issue and we have tohandle it somehow.We suggest a different approach. It would be possible to handle the issue of the impact of AIif we changed focus from the product to the process: AI designed to help us use the “right”process of thinking instead of delivering answers to make our world perfect.In order to be able to design such an AI we need to know what we want. The answer to thisquestion demands knowledge about what we are. Are we recipients of services and productsthat we need according to our nature? Only that? Partly that? Are we recipients but throughus, through our thinking and through our choices? Or are we only thinking and choices, a kindof a Socratic psyche?If we think we are only recipients, and design AI in order to be successful in making our worldperfect, we may soon go to ruin like the old despots who could have all their wishes satisfied.Our thinking, making choices and feeling anxiety will unavoidably languish and go away. Itseems also that this would lead rapidly to the emergence of an independent AI with owngoals and existence. Not only because no one will be there to stop it, but also because therewill be a well-defined goal from the very beginning for AI to work for the best it can.If we design AI to make us think exclusively in the “right” way it will never let us be in peace.It will soon perplex our mind to dissolution, meaning we will not exist anymore. On the otherhand, AI would have a very clear goal to achieve, and being undisturbed because of our nonexistence,should very fast make itself independent.If we base the design of AI on the idea that we are both processors and recipients it could bejust right. This approach would be in accordance with the idea of thinking and knowledgebeing interdependent, and of us thinking in order to solve our problems and to satisfy ourneeds. Moreover, the goal would not be well-defined: Delivery or choice? Both delivery andchoice? Who chooses? Who delivers? Who thinks?

  • 144.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för visuell information och interaktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Bildanalys och människa-datorinteraktion.
    Assessing and acquiring ethical leadership competence2012Ingår i: Leadership through the Classics: leadership and management in a changing world - lessons from ancient eastern and western philosophy / [ed] Gregory P. Prastacos, Fuming Wang, Klas Eric Soderquist, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, s. 389-400Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Leaders need the ability to handle any moral problem that may arise 5during their professional activities; they need ethical competence. Ethical skill is, in 6psychology and in accordance to the classical philosophical position, understood as 7the basis and the aim of ethical competence of leaders. Based on that, we can 8construct valid assessment tools and training programs that support the acquisition 9and use of ethical competence and skills.

  • 145.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för visuell information och interaktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Bildanalys och människa-datorinteraktion.
    Designing and using ethical autonomous agents2014Ingår i: Sweden – Kyoto Symposium, Kyoto: Kyoto University , 2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 146.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för visuell information och interaktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Bildanalys och människa-datorinteraktion.
    Education for leaders’ ethical competence2017Ingår i: European Business Ethics Network: Research / [ed] Ioannis Filos, Athens: Deree, American College of Greece College , 2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Leaders’ ethical competence and confidence is defined in this work as the use of a decision-making and problem-solving cognitive ability, independent of particular normative moral values. In two studies based on Piaget’s theory of moral development a training method for ethical autonomy has been examined. The study investigated a two-day education program on real life political ethics issues. The results showed clearly that political leaders and others who participated in the training program improved their ability to cope with ethical problems and retained it over a time of several years. That was shown both as a higher score on Ethical Competence Questionnaire – Political, and through a self-evaluation questionnaire

  • 147.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för visuell information och interaktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Bildanalys och människa-datorinteraktion.
    Ethical leadership in business: The significance of Information and Communication Technology2017Ingår i: Information and Management: Connect Things, Humans, Management / [ed] Murata, K. et al., Tokyo: Japan Society for Information and Management , 2017, s. 1-4Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In business it is necessary for leaders to have the ability to handle all kinds of different moral problems that may arise during their professional activities. Difficult ethical issues arise today, not least because of the possibilities and risks of ICT. Failure to address moral issues properly has significant impact on an organization’s life, affecting profits and public relations as well as internal processes of the organization and the well being of the leader and the employees. Competence in handling moral problems in a satisfying way is therefore very important for any leader. Education in ethics should equip leaders for difficult decisions, and ethical competence is therefore the most important goal of training programs. We need reliable and effective methods to stimulate and support leaders’ ethical competence. Proper ICT tools developed and used in accordance to philosophical theory and to empirical research on ethical decision-making, can contribute to the development of leaders’ ethical competence.

  • 148.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Etisk kompetens viktigare än lag och moral2006Ingår i: Svenska Dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, Vol. 19 marsArtikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Moralpredikningar och flummigt etikprat tjänar ingenting till, så långt håller jag ned Mats Qviberg. Det leder definitivt inte till att man handlar rätt, eller slipper skandaler och ekonomiska förluster. Predikningar kan t o m vara direkt farliga om de uppfattas som det enda alternativet. Predikningar och flummigt prat ger, rättmätigt, dåligt rykte till etiken och kan faktiskt förhindra sunda åtgärder som verkligen skulle kunna göra nytta. Men, etik är inte nödvändigtvis flummig. Och jag håller inte med Mats Qviberg om att etiken inte behövs. Lagen räcker i många fall inte till. Inte ens moralen räcker till. Att det blir fel ibland beror inte bara på psykopaterna utan på att normala människor gör fel. Visst finns det lagar och moralprinciper och visst har de allra flesta människor en sund känsla för vad som är rätt och fel, men det räcker inte alltid i en konkret situation. Det som är generellt rätt kan vara fel i ett särskilt fall. En lag kan ibland stå mot en annan lag, en moralprincip mot en annan moralprincip, och ett intresse mot ett annat intresse. Vi blir alltså tvungna att hantera sådana situationer själva, och vi måste göra det rätt. Här kan etiken bidra. För att undvika att göra fel måste vi koncentrera oss på att göra det som behövs och inget annat. Jag talar då om att främja förmågan att hantera moraliska problem. Alltför ofta kopplar vi ihop den etiska kompetensen med en eller annan moralisk princip eller ideologi som därmed upphöjs till den godaste principen eller ideologin. Men är inte frågan om vilken princip eller ideologi som skall styra beslutsfattandet en fråga som bara den direkt berörde beslutsfattaren och dennes organisation ska besvara? Det handlar inte bara om att visa respekt för dem som tar emot etisk hjälp. Det är en förutsättning för att hjälpen ska fungera. Beslutsfattare behöver etiska färdigheter och organisationer behöver lämpliga etiska processer. De behöver verktyg för att själva bestämma vilka principer de ska ha och hur de ska tillämpa dem. Forskning och praktisk erfarenhet har visat att etikåtgärder med fokus på just det leder till bättre etiskt insikt, högre etisk kompetens, övertygande etisk argumentationsförmåga och etiskt självförtroende. Ansvariga personer och organisationer är inte betjänta av andras tolkningar och färdiga svar. Sådant fungerar helt enkelt inte. Det som händer är bara att etikexpertens och beslutsfattarens moral kommer i konflikt med varandra.

  • 149.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för visuell information och interaktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Bildanalys och människa-datorinteraktion.
    How to handle issues of security and privacy2013Ingår i: ICT-ethics: Sweden and Japan, Linköping: LiU Tryck , 2013, s. 54-60Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Different ways to approach privacy and security are critically examined. The main question is how definitions may help us in our efforts to handle these issues in real life and allow us to create suitable and working system designs and policies. Given the controversial nature of privacy and security, and based on philosophical theory and psychological research, we have to focus on the ways, skills, methods and tools we adopt in order to create, revise and apply policies, guidelines, designs, rules and principles.

  • 150.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för visuell information och interaktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Bildanalys och människa-datorinteraktion.
    ICT and sustainability: skills and methods for dialogue and policy making2015Ingår i: Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, ISSN 1477-996X, E-ISSN 1758-8871, Vol. 13, nr 1, s. 13-18Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present an overview and to discuss the following issues: most often, discussions about Information and communication technology (ICT) sustainability focus on environmental issues; however, there are other aspects referring to ICT internal sustainability and to its role as a tool in managing general sustainability issues. The way to handle ICT sustainability issues is also significant.

    Design/methodology/approach: The paper discusses and investigates various aspects of ICT sustainability, and of methods to handle these issues and make decisions.

    Findings: Classical philosophy and psychological empirical research on decision-making demonstrate the way to take care of ICT sustainability issues. This way is philosophizing, which has to be trained and supported for people and organizations involved to acquire the necessary skills and to use suitable methods.

    Originality/value: The paper highlights other significant aspects of ICT sustainability rather than the environmental impact alone. It also proposes focus on the way ICT sustainability issues are handled rather than focus on normative or ideological aspects of it.

1234567 101 - 150 av 354
RefereraExporteraLänk till träfflistan
Permanent länk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf