uu.seUppsala universitets publikationer
Ändra sökning
Avgränsa sökresultatet
1234567 101 - 150 av 628
RefereraExporteraLänk till träfflistan
Permanent länk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Träffar per sida
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sortering
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Författare A-Ö
  • Författare Ö-A
  • Titel A-Ö
  • Titel Ö-A
  • Publikationstyp A-Ö
  • Publikationstyp Ö-A
  • Äldst först
  • Nyast först
  • Skapad (Äldst först)
  • Skapad (Nyast först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Äldst först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyast först)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidigaste först)
  • Disputationsdatum (senaste först)
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Författare A-Ö
  • Författare Ö-A
  • Titel A-Ö
  • Titel Ö-A
  • Publikationstyp A-Ö
  • Publikationstyp Ö-A
  • Äldst först
  • Nyast först
  • Skapad (Äldst först)
  • Skapad (Nyast först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Äldst först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyast först)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidigaste först)
  • Disputationsdatum (senaste först)
Markera
Maxantalet träffar du kan exportera från sökgränssnittet är 250. Vid större uttag använd dig av utsökningar.
  • 101.
    Engvall, Karin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Hult, M
    Corner, R
    Lampa, E
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Norbäck, D
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Emenius, G
    A new multiple regression model to identify multi-family houses with a high prevalence of sick building symptoms "SBS", within the healthy sustainable house study in Stockholm (3H)2010Ingår i: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 83, nr 1, s. 85-94Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSES: The aim was to develop a new model to identify residential buildings with higher frequencies of "SBS" than expected, "risk buildings". METHODS: In 2005, 481 multi-family buildings with 10,506 dwellings in Stockholm were studied by a new stratified random sampling. A standardised self-administered questionnaire was used to assess "SBS", atopy and personal factors. The response rate was 73%. Statistical analysis was performed by multiple logistic regressions. RESULTS: Dwellers owning their building reported less "SBS" than those renting. There was a strong relationship between socio-economic factors and ownership. The regression model, ended up with high explanatory values for age, gender, atopy and ownership. Applying our model, 9% of all residential buildings in Stockholm were classified as "risk buildings" with the highest proportion in houses built 1961-1975 (26%) and lowest in houses built 1985-1990 (4%). CONCLUSION: To identify "risk buildings", it is necessary to adjust for ownership and population characteristics.

  • 102.
    Engvall, Karin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Lampa, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Levin, Per
    Wickman, Per
    Öfverholm, Egil
    Interaction between building design, management, household and individual factors in relation to energy use for space heating in apartment buildings2014Ingår i: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 81, s. 457-465Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In Stockholm, 472 multi-family buildings with 7554 dwellings has been selected by stratified random sampling. Information about building characteristics and property management was gathered from each property owners. Energy use for space heating was collected from the utility company. Perceived thermal comfort, household and personal factors were assessed by a standardized self-administered questionnaire, answered by one adult person in each dwelling, and a proportion of each factor was calculated for each building. Statistical analysis was performed by multiple linear regression models with control for relevant factors all at the same time in the model. Energy use for heating was significantly related to the building age, type of building and ventilation, length of time since the last heating adjustment, ownership form, proportion of females, and proportion of occupants expressing thermal discomfort. How beneficial energy efficiency measures will be may depend on the relationship between energy use and factors related to the building and the property maintenance together with household and personal factors, as all these factors interact with each other. The results show that greater focus should be on real estate management and maintenance and also a need for research with a gender perspective on energy use for space heating.

  • 103.
    Engvall, Karin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Norrby, Christina
    Bandel, Jeanette
    Hult, Marie
    Norbäck, Dan
    Development of a multiple regression model to identify multi-family residential buildings with high prevalence of sick building syndrome (SBS).2000Ingår i: Indoor Air, ISSN 0905-6947, Vol. 10, nr 2, s. 101-110Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 104.
    Engvall, Karin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Norrby, Christina
    Norbäck, Dan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Ocular, nasal, dermal and respiratory symptoms in relation to heating, ventilation, energy conservation and reconstruction of older multi-family houses2003Ingår i: Indoor Air, ISSN 0905-6947, E-ISSN 1600-0668, Vol. 13, nr 3, s. 206-211Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to study relationships between symptoms compatible with the sick building syndrome, type of heating and ventilation system, energy saving, and reconstruction in older dwellings. In Stockholm, 4815 inhabitants in 231 multi-family buildings built before 1961 were randomly selected, of whom 3241 participated (77%). Symptoms and personal factors were assessed by a postal questionnaire. Independent information on building characteristics, and energy saving measures was gathered from the building owners. Multiple logistic regression analysis was applied to calculate odds ratios (OR) adjusting for age, gender, hay fever, current smoking, population density, type of ventilation, type of heating system, and ownership of the building. Subjects in buildings with a mechanical ventilation system had less ocular and nasal symptoms (OR = 0.29-0.85). Heating by electric radiators, and wood heating was associated with an increase of most symptoms (OR = 1.18-1.74). In total, 48% lived in buildings that had gone through at least one type of reconstruction or energy saving remedies during the latest 10 years, including exchange of heating or ventilation system, and sealing measures (exchange of windows, sealing of window frames, roof/attic insulation, and phasade insulation). Energy saving was associated with both a decrease and increase of different symptoms. Major reconstruction of the interior of the building was associated with an increase of most symptoms (OR = 1.09-1.90), and buildings with more than one sealing measure had an increase of ocular, nasal symptoms, headache and tiredness (OR = 1.22-2.49). In conclusion, major reconstruction of the interior, direct heated electric radiators, wood heating, and multiple sealing of buildings were associated with an increase of some symptoms. The study supports the view that mechanical ventilation in dwellings is beneficial from a health point of view.

  • 105.
    Engvall, Karin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Norrby, Christina
    Norbäck, Dan
    Sick building syndrome (SBS) in relation to building dampness in multi-family residential buildings in Stockholm.2001Ingår i: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, Vol. 74, nr 4, s. 270-278Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 106.
    Engvall, Karin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Norrby, Christina
    Sandstedt, Eva
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för bostads- och urbanforskning (IBF). Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    The Stockholm Indoor Environment Questionnaire (SIEQ): A sociological based tool for assessment of indoor environment and health in dwellings2004Ingår i: Indoor Air, ISSN 0905-6947, E-ISSN 1600-0668, Vol. 14, nr 1, s. 24-33Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to develop and validate a standardized questionnaire - the Stockholm Indoor Environment Questionnaire (SIEQ). The validation procedure was based on sociological principles and test procedures for validation. The indicators of indoor environment are air quality, thermal climate, noise, and illumination. The indicators of health are symptoms comprised in the sick building syndrome (SBS). The questionnaire also contains questions about the apartment, individual behavior, and personal factors. The everyday language describing the building and its function was first obtained by qualitative personal interviews, then by standardized questions. The interview questionnaire was transformed into a postal self-administered questionnaire. The reduction of the questionnaire was based on correlation analysis. It was found that to obtain a good validity, general questions are not sufficient, but specific question on perceptions and observations are needed. Good test-retest agreement was found both on an area level, building level, and individually. For each indicator, a set of questions are constructed and validated. SIEQ has been used in several studies, and the results are presented in graphic problem profiles. Reference data has been calculated for the Stockholm area.

  • 107.
    Engvall, Karin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Wickman, Per
    Norbäck, Dan
    Sick building syndrome (SBS) and percived indoor environment in relation to energy saving by reduced ventilation rate during the heating season: a one year intervention study in dwellings.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 108.
    Erbas, Bircan
    et al.
    La Trobe Univ, Dept Publ Hlth, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Knudsen, Toril Morkve
    Univ Bergen, Dept Clin Sci, Bergen, Norway.
    Janson, Christer
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Lung- allergi- och sömnforskning.
    Nilsen, Roy M.
    Haukeland Hosp, Ctr Clin Res, Bergen, Norway.
    Accordini, Simone
    Univ Verona, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med, Unit Epidemiol & Med Stat, Verona, Italy.
    Benediktdottir, Bryndis
    Univ Iceland, Landspitali Univ Hosp, Fac Med, Dept Resp Med & Sleep, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Dratva, Julia
    Swiss Trop & Publ Hlth Inst, Dept Publ Hlth & Epidemiol, Basel, Switzerland;Univ Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
    Heinrich, Joachim
    Helmholtz Zentrum, Inst Epidemiol 1, Munich, Germany;Ludwig Maximilian Univ Munich, Univ Hosp Munich, Inst & Outpatient Clin Occupat Social & Environm, Inner City Clin, Munich, Germany.
    Jarvis, Debbie
    Imperial Coll, Natl Heart & Lung Inst, Dept Resp Epidemiol Occupat Med & Publ Hlth, London, England.
    Leynaert, Benedcite
    INSERM, UMR1152, Team Epidemiol, Paris, France.
    Matheson, Melanie C.
    Univ Melbourne, Allergy & Lung Hlth Unit, Sch Populat & Global Hlth, Ctr Epidemiol & Biostat, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Norbäck, Dan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Real, Francisco G.
    Univ Bergen, Dept Clin Sci, Bergen, Norway;Haukeland Hosp, Dept Gynecol & Obstet, Bergen, Norway.
    Raherison-Semjen, Chantal
    Bordeaux Univ, Inst Publ Hlth & Epidemiol, INSERM, U897, Bordeaux, France.
    Villani, Simona
    Univ Pavia, Dept Publ Hlth Expt & Forens Med, Unit Biostat & Clin Epidemiol, Pavia, Italy.
    Dharmage, S. C.
    Univ Melbourne, Allergy & Lung Hlth Unit, Sch Populat & Global Hlth, Ctr Epidemiol & Biostat, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Svanes, C.
    Univ Bergen, Ctr Int Hlth, Bergen, Norway;Haukeland Hosp, Dept Occupat Med, Bergen, Norway.
    Critical age windows in the impact of lifetime smoking exposure on respiratory symptoms and disease among ever smokers2018Ingår i: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 164, s. 241-247Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Despite extensive knowledge of smoking effects on respiratory disease, there is no study including all age windows of exposure among ever smokers. The objective of this study was to assess the effects from smoking exposure in utero, early childhood, adolescence and adulthood on respiratory health outcomes in adult male and female ever smokers. Methods: Respiratory health outcomes were assessed in 10,610 participants of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) I who reported a history of ever smoking by questionnaire. The associations of maternal smoking in utero, maternal smoking during childhood, age of smoking debut and pack-years of smoking with respiratory symptoms, obstructive diseases and bronchial hyperreactivity were analysed using generalized linear regression, non-linearity between age of smoking debut and outcomes were assessed by Generalized additive mixed models. Results: Respiratory symptoms and asthma were more frequent in adults if their mother smoked during pregnancy, and, in men, also if mother smoked in childhood. Wheeze and >= 3 respiratory symptoms declined with later smoking debut among women [<= 10 years: OR = 3.51, 95% CI 1.26, 9.73; 11-12 years: 1.57[1.01-2.44]; 13-15 years: 1.11[0.94-1.32] and <= 10 years: 3.74[1.56-8.83]; 11-12 years: 1.76[1.19-2.56]; 13-15 years: 1.12[0.94-1.35], respectively]. Effects of increasing number of packyears were pronounced in women (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): OR/10 packyears women: 1.33 [1.18, 1.50], men: 1.14 [1.04, 1.26] P-interaction = 0.01). Conclusions: Among ever smokers, smoking exposure in each stage of the lifespan show persistent harmful effects for adult respiratory health, while women appeared to be more vulnerable to an early age of smoking debut and amount of smoking in adulthood.

  • 109.
    Eriksson, Gunilla
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Rehabiliteringsmedicin. Karolinska Inst, Div Occupat Therapy, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hellman, Therese
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Nilsson, A. O.
    Karolinska Inst, Div Occupat Therapy, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johansson, Ulla
    Karolinska Inst, Div Occupat Therapy, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekbladh, E.
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Social & Welf Studies, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Bernspang, B.
    Umea Univ, Dept Community Med & Rehabil, Umea, Sweden.
    The return to work process after stroke changes over time while participating in a newly designed person-centred rehabilitation programme2018Ingår i: International Journal of Stroke, ISSN 1747-4930, E-ISSN 1747-4949, Vol. 13, s. 31-31Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 110.
    Eriksson, Gunilla
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Rehabiliteringsmedicin. Karolinska Inst, Div Occupat Therapy, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Öst Nilsson, Annika
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning, Gävleborg. Karolinska Inst, Div Occupat Therapy, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Huddinge, Sweden;Uppsala Univ Reg Gavleborg, Ctr Res & Dev, Gavle, Sweden.
    Asaba, E.
    Karolinska Inst, Div Occupat Therapy, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Johansson, Ulla
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning, Gävleborg. Karolinska Inst, Div Occupat Therapy, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Hellman, Therese
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Being a co-worker or a manager of a colleague returning to work after stroke: a challenge facilitated by cooperation and flexibility2018Ingår i: International Journal of Stroke, ISSN 1747-4930, E-ISSN 1747-4949, Vol. 13, s. 31-31Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 111. Ernstgård, L
    et al.
    Norbäck, Dan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Nordquist, Tobias
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Wieslander, Gunilla
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Wålinder, Robert
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Johanson, G
    Acute effects of exposure to vapors of 3-methyl-1-butanol in humans2013Ingår i: Indoor Air, ISSN 0905-6947, E-ISSN 1600-0668, Vol. 23, nr 3, s. 227-235Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The secondary alcohol 3-methyl-1-butanol (3MB, isoamyl alcohol) is used, for example, as a solvent in a variety of applications and as a fragrance ingredient. It is also one of the microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) found in indoor air. There are little data on acute effects. The aim of the study was to assess the acute effects of 3MB in humans. Thirty healthy volunteers (16 men and 14 women) were exposed in random order to 1 mg/m3 3MB or clean air for 2 h at controlled conditions. Ratings with visual analogue scales revealed slightly increased perceptions of eye irritation (P = 0.048, Wilcoxon) and smell (P < 0.0001) compared with control exposure. The other ratings were not significantly affected (irritation in nose and throat, dyspnea, headache, fatigue, dizziness, nausea, and intoxication). No significant exposure-related effects were found in blinking frequency, tear film break-up time, vital staining of the eye, nasal lavage biomarkers, lung function, and nasal swelling. In conclusion, this study suggests that 3MB is not a causative factor for health effects in damp and moldy buildings.

  • 112. Ernstgård, Lena
    et al.
    Löf, Agneta E.
    Wieslander, Gunilla
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Norbäck, Dan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Johanson, Gunnar
    Acute Effects of Some Volatile Organic Compounds Emitted From Waters-Based Paints2007Ingår i: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 49, nr 8, s. 880-889Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Acute effects during controlled exposure to some of the volatile organic compounds emitted from water-based paints were evaluated. METHODS: Healthy volunteers (10 atopics, 10 nonatopics, and 10 painters) were exposed to a mixture of propyleneglycol, texanol, diethyleneglycol monoethylether, diethyleneglycol monobutyl ether, and dipropyleneglycol monomethyl ether at a total concentration of 35 mg/m3 (G), a mixture of G and ammonia (15 mg/m3) (GA), and clean air (C). RESULTS: Subjective ratings of irritation in eyes, nose, throat, and dyspnea were significantly higher during the G and GA conditions, when compared with during the C condition. Nasal mucosal swelling was observed after G but not after GA exposure. No effects of the exposure on the pulmonary function, markers of inflammation in nasal lavages, and renal function in urine were seen. CONCLUSION: Exposure to G and GA caused mild irritation in eyes, nose, and airways.

  • 113. Ernstgård, Lena
    et al.
    Norbäck, Dan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Nordquist, Tobias
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Wieslander, Gunilla
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Wålinder, Robert
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Johanson, G.
    Acute effects of exposure to 1 mg/m(3) of vaporized 2-ethyl-1-hexanol in humans2010Ingår i: Indoor Air, ISSN 0905-6947, E-ISSN 1600-0668, Vol. 20, nr 2, s. 168-175Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective was to assess acute effects from controlled exposure of volunteers to 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, a volatile organic compound that is often found in indoor air. Sixteen males and fourteen females were in random order exposed to 1 mg/m3 of vapors of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol or to clean air (control exposure) in an exposure chamber during 2 h at rest. The subjects performed symptom ratings on Visual Analog Scales. During exposure to 2-ethyl-1-hexanol subjective ratings of smell and eye discomfort were minimally but significantly increased. Ratings of nasal irritation, throat irritation, headache, dyspnoea, fatigue, dizziness, nausea, and intoxication were not significantly affected. No exposure-related effects on measurement of blinking frequency by electromyography, measurement of the eye break-up time, vital staining of the eye, nasal lavage biomarkers, transfer tests, spirometric and rhinometric measures were seen. No differences in response were seen between sexes or between atopics and non-atopics

  • 114. Evans, N. P.
    et al.
    Bellingham, M.
    Sharpe, R. M.
    Cotinot, C.
    Rhind, S. M.
    Kyle, C.
    Erhard, H.
    Hombach-Klonisch, S.
    Lind, Monica
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Fowler, P. A.
    Does grazing on biosolids-treated pasture pose a pathophysiological risk associated with increased exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds?2014Ingår i: Journal of Animal Science, ISSN 0021-8812, E-ISSN 1525-3163, Vol. 92, nr 8, s. 3185-3198Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Biosolids (processed human sewage sludge), which contain low individual concentrations of an array of contaminants including heavy metals and organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans known to cause physiological disturbances, are increasingly being used as an agricultural fertilizer. This could pose a health threat to both humans and domestic and wild animal species. This review summarizes results of a unique model, used to determine the effects of exposure to mixtures of environmentally relevant concentrations of pollutants, in sheep grazed on biosolids-treated pastures. Pasture treatment results in nonsignificant increases in environmental chemical (EC) concentrations in soil. Whereas EC concentrations were increased in some tissues of both ewes and their fetuses, concentrations were low and variable and deemed to pose little risk to consumer health. Investigation of the effects of gestational EC exposure on fetal development has highlighted a number of issues. The results indicate that gestational EC exposure can adversely affect gonadal development (males and females) and that these effects can impact testicular morphology, ovarian follicle numbers and health, and the transcriptome and proteome in adult animals. In addition, EC exposure can be associated with altered expression of GnRH, GnRH receptors, galanin receptors, and kisspeptin mRNA within the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, gonadotroph populations within the pituitary gland, and regional aberrations in thyroid morphology. In most cases, these anatomical and functional differences do not result in altered peripheral hormone concentrations or reproductive function (e.g., lambing rate), indicating physiological compensation under the conditions tested. Physiological compensation is also suggested from studies that indicate that EC effects may be greater when exposure occurs either before or during gestation compared with EC exposure throughout life. With regard to human and animal health, this body of work questions the concept of safe individual concentration of EC when EC exposure typically occurs as complex mixtures. It suggests that developmental EC exposure may affect many different physiological systems, with some sex-specific differences in EC sensitivity, and that EC effects may be masked under favorable physiological conditions.

  • 115.
    Falkenberg, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Sickness basence, self-rated health and social support: Results from a longitudinal study in Sweden2011Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 116.
    Falkenberg, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Nyfjäll, M.
    Hellgren, C.
    Social support at work and leisure time and its association with self-rated health and sickness absence2012Ingår i: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 43, nr 4, s. 469-474Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this longitudinal study is to investigate how different aspects of social support at work and in leisure time are associated with self rated health and sickness absence. Participants: The 541 participants in the study were representative for a working population in the public sector in Sweden with a majority being woman. Methods: Most of the variables were created from data from a questionnaire in March - April 2005. There were four independent variables and two dependent variables. The dependent were based on data from November 2006. A logistic regression model was used for the analysis of associations. A separate model was adapted for each of the explanatory variables for each outcome, which gave five models per independent variable. Results: The study has given a greater awareness of the importance of employees receiving social support, regardless of type of support or from whom the support is coming. Conclusion: Social support has a strong association with SRH in a longitudinal perspective and no association between social support and sickness absence.

  • 117. Falkstedt, Daniel
    et al.
    Lundberg, Ingvar
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Hemmingsson, Tomas
    Childhood socio-economic position and risk of coronary heart disease in middle age: a study of 49 321 male conscripts2011Ingår i: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 21, nr 6, s. 713-718Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Poor social circumstances in childhood are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). In previous studies, social circumstances and risk factors in adulthood have been suggested to explain this association. In the present study, we included potential explanatory factors from childhood and adolescence. METHODS: We investigated the association between childhood socio-economic position (SEP) and CHD in middle age among 49 321 Swedish males, born during 1949-51, who were conscripted for military service at 18-20 years of age. Register-based data on childhood social circumstances, educational attainment and occupational class in adulthood were used in combination with information on cognitive ability, smoking, body mass index and body height in late adolescence obtained from a compulsory conscription examination. Incidence of CHD from 1991 to 2007 (between 40 and 58 years of age) was followed in national registers. RESULTS: We demonstrated an inverse association between childhood SEP and CHD in middle age: among men with the lowest childhood SEP the crude hazard ratio of CHD was 1.47 (95% CI = 1.30-1.67). Adjustment for crowded housing in childhood, body height, cognitive ability, smoking and BMI in late adolescence attenuated relative risks of CHD considerably. Additional adjustment for educational level had a further, although limited, attenuating effect on associations, but additional adjustment for occupational class had no such effect. CONCLUSIONS: Results showed that social, cognitive and behavioural factors evident prior to adulthood may be of greater importance in explaining the association between childhood SEP and CHD later in life than socio-economic indicators in adulthood.

  • 118.
    Fan, X-J
    et al.
    Taiyuan Univ Technol, Coll Chem & Chem Engn, Taiyuan, Shanxi, Peoples R China.
    Yang, C
    Taiyuan Univ Technol, Coll Chem & Chem Engn, Taiyuan, Shanxi, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, L
    Shanxi Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Taiyuan, Shanxi, Peoples R China.
    Fan, Q
    Shanxi Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Taiyuan, Shanxi, Peoples R China.
    Li, T
    Shanxi Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Taiyuan, Shanxi, Peoples R China.
    Bai, X
    Shanxi Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Taiyuan, Shanxi, Peoples R China.
    Zhao, Z-H
    Fudan Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Shanghai, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, X
    Shanxi Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Taiyuan, Shanxi, Peoples R China.
    Norbäck, Dan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Asthma symptoms among Chinese children: the role of ventilation and PM10 exposure at school and home2017Ingår i: The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, ISSN 1027-3719, E-ISSN 1815-7920, Vol. 21, nr 11, s. 1187-1193Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    SETTING: Respiratory symptoms in relation to environment in Taiyuan, China.

    OBJECTIVE: To study associations between school/home exposure and prevalence of respiratory symptoms and self-reported respiratory infections (RIs) among students.

    DESIGN: A total of 2134 pupils from 10 schools answered a questionnaire; air pollution at school was measured.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of current wheeze, daytime attacks of breathlessness, nocturnal cough, nocturnal respiratory symptoms and RI was respectively 4.4%, 18.7%, 11.6%, 3.6% and 32.3%. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) at home was associated with daytime attacks of breathlessness (OR 1.41), nocturnal cough (OR 1.41) and RI (OR 1.26). Redecoration or indoor painting at home was associated with wheeze (OR 2.02), daytime attacks of breathlessness (OR 1.57) and nocturnal symptoms (OR 1.83). Dampness or mould at home was associated with daytime attacks of breathlessness (OR 1.68), nocturnal cough (OR 1.68) and RI (OR 1.69). Particulate matter of diameter  10 microns (PM10) in the classroom was associated with nocturnal cough (OR 1.20/10 μg/m3). PM10 outside school was associated with daytime attacks of breathlessness (OR 1.07/10 μg/m3) and nocturnal cough (OR 1.13/10 μg/m3). Indoor carbon dioxide, a marker of poor ventilation (OR 1.52/1000 parts per million), and relative humidity (RH) (OR 1.33/10%) were associated with nocturnal cough.

    CONCLUSION: Dampness, redecoration and ETS at home, as well as poor ventilation flow, and high RH and PM10 concentration at school may influence respiratory health.

  • 119. Fandiño-Losada, Andrés
    et al.
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Lundberg, Ingvar
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Demands, skill discretion, decision authority and social climate at work as determinants of major depression in a 3-year follow-up study2013Ingår i: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 86, nr 5, s. 591-605Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE:

    The psychosocial work environment may be a determinant of the development and course of depressive disorders, but the literature shows inconsistent findings. Thus, the aim of this study is to determine longitudinal effects of the job demands-control-support model (JDCSM) variables on the occurrence of major depression among working men and women from the general population.

    METHODS:

    The sample comprised 4,710 working women and men living in Stockholm, who answered the same questionnaire twice, 3 years apart, who were not depressed during the first wave and had the same job in both waves. The questionnaire included JDCSM variables (demands, skill discretion, decision authority and social climate) and other co-variables (income, education, occupational group, social support, help and small children at home, living with an adult and depressive symptoms at time 1; and negative life events at time 2). Multiple logistic regressions were run to calculate odds ratios of having major depression at time 2, after adjustment for other JDCSM variables and co-variables.

    RESULTS:

    Among women, inadequate work social climate was the only significant risk indicator for major depression. Surprisingly, among men, high job demands and low skill discretion appeared as protective factors against major depression.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    The results showed a strong relationship between inadequate social climate and major depression among women, while there were no certain effects for the remaining exposure variables. Among men, few cases of major depression hampered well-founded conclusions regarding our findings of low job demands and high skill discretion as related to major depression.

  • 120.
    Ferrie, Jane E.
    et al.
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London, England.;Univ Bristol, Sch Community & Social Med, Bristol, Avon, England..
    Virtanen, Marianna
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.;Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Tampere, Finland.;Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Turku, Finland..
    Jokela, Markus
    Univ Helsinki, Inst Behav Sci, Helsinki, Finland..
    Madsen, Ida E. H.
    Working Environm, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Heikkila, Katriina
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.;Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Tampere, Finland.;Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Turku, Finland..
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Cty Council, Ctr Occupat & Environm Med, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Batty, G. David
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London, England.;Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Cognit Ageing & Cognit Epi demiol, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Bjorner, Jakob B.
    Working Environm, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Borritz, Marianne
    Bispebjerg Hosp, Dept Occupat & Environm Med, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Burr, Hermann
    Fed Inst Occupat Safety & Hlth, Berlin, Germany..
    Dragano, Nico
    Univ Dusseldorf, Inst Med Sociol, Fac Med, Dusseldorf, Germany..
    Elovainio, Marko
    Jonkoping Univ, Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Helsinki, Finland..
    Fransson, Eleonor I.
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Stockholm, Sweden.;Jonkoping Univ, Sch Hlth Sci, Jonkoping, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mid Sweden Univ, Dept Hlth Sci, Sundsvall, Sweden..
    Koskenvuo, Markku
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Publ Hlth, Helsinki, Finland..
    Koskinen, Aki
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Tampere, Finland.;Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Turku, Finland..
    Kouvonen, Anne
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Social Res, Helsinki, Finland..
    Kumari, Meena
    Univ Essex, Inst Social & Econ Res, Colchester, Essex, England..
    Nielsen, Martin L.
    Frederiksberg Univ Hosp, Unit Social Med, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Nordin, Maria
    Umea Univ, Dept Psychol, Umea, Sweden..
    Oksanen, Tuula
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.;Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Tampere, Finland.;Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Turku, Finland..
    Pahkin, Krista
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.;Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Tampere, Finland.;Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Turku, Finland..
    Pejtersen, Jan H.
    Danish Natl Ctr Social Res, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Pentti, Jaana
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.;Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Tampere, Finland.;Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Turku, Finland..
    Salo, Paula
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.;Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Tampere, Finland.;Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Turku, Finland.;Univ Turku, Dept Psychol, Turku, Finland..
    Shipley, Martin J.
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London, England..
    Suominen, Sakari B.
    Univ Turku, Dept Publ Hlth, Turku, Finland.;Folkhalsan Res Ctr, Helsinki, Finland.;Univ Skovde, Skovde, Sweden..
    Tabak, Adam
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London, England.;Semmelweis Univ, Dept Med 1, Fac Med, Budapest, Hungary..
    Theorell, Toeres
    Stockholm Cty Council, Ctr Occupat & Environm Med, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Vaananen, Ari
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.;Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Tampere, Finland.;Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Turku, Finland..
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.;Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Tampere, Finland.;Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Turku, Finland.;Univ Turku, Dept Publ Hlth, Turku, Finland.;Turku Univ Hosp, Turku, Finland..
    Westerholm, Peter J. M.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm Cty Council, Ctr Occupat & Environm Med, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Rugulies, Reiner
    Working Environm, Copenhagen, Denmark.;Univ Copenhagen, Dept Publ Hlth, Copenhagen, Denmark.;Univ Copenhagen, Dept Psychol, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Nyberg, Solja T.
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.;Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Tampere, Finland.;Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Turku, Finland..
    Kivimaki, Mika
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London, England.;Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.;Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Tampere, Finland.;Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Turku, Finland.;Univ Helsinki, Inst Behav Sci, Helsinki, Finland..
    Job insecurity and risk of diabetes: a meta-analysis of individual participant data2016Ingår i: CMJA. Canadian Medical Association Journal. Onlineutg. Med tittel: ECMAJ. ISSN 1488-2329, ISSN 0820-3946, E-ISSN 1488-2329, Vol. 188, nr 17-18, s. E447-E455Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Job insecurity has been associated with certain health outcomes. We examined the role of job insecurity as a risk factor for incident diabetes. Methods: We used individual participant data from 8 cohort studies identified in 2 open-access data archives and 11 cohort studies participating in the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working Populations Consortium. We calculated study-specific estimates of the association between job insecurity reported at baseline and incident diabetes over the follow-up period. We pooled the estimates in a meta-analysis to produce a summary risk estimate. Results: The 19 studies involved 140 825 participants from Australia, Europe and the United States, with a mean follow-up of 9.4 years and 3954 incident cases of diabetes. In the preliminary analysis adjusted for age and sex, high job insecurity was associated with an increased risk of incident diabetes compared with low job insecurity (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09-1.30). In the multivariable-adjusted analysis restricted to 15 studies with baseline data for all covariates (age, sex, socioeconomic status, obesity, physical activity, alcohol and smoking), the association was slightly attenuated (adjusted OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.01-1.24). Heterogeneity between the studies was low to moderate (age- and sex-adjusted model: I-2 = 24%, p = 0.2; multivariable-adjusted model: I-2 = 27%, p = 0.2). In the multivariable-adjusted analysis restricted to high-quality studies, in which the diabetes diagnosis was ascertained from electronic medical records or clinical examination, the association was similar to that in the main analysis (adjusted OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.04-1.35). Interpretation: Our findings suggest that self-reported job insecurity is associated with a modest increased risk of incident diabetes. Health care personnel should be aware of this association among workers reporting job insecurity.

  • 121. Fonad, Edit
    et al.
    Emami, Azita
    Wahlin, Tarja-Brita Robins
    Winblad, Bengt
    Sandmark, Hélène
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Falls in somatic and dementia wards at Community Care Units2009Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 23, nr 1, s. 2-10Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Falls and fall injuries are common problems for patients at nursing homes in Sweden. Impaired cognitive function, a poor sense of orientation and a high intake of medicine, can lead to an increase in falls among older people. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between falls and: fall risks, fractures, the use of physical restraints and the use of certain medications in somatic and dementia wards, respectively. The study design is ecological, and aggregated data regarding falls, fall risk assessments, fractures, the use of physical restraints and medication were collected between 2000 and 2003. The Pearson correlation analysis and regression analyses were used to investigate associations between fall risks, medication, fractures, wheelchair-bound situations, bed rails and falls. The total number of reported fall incidents was 2651; of these, 737 incidents were registered in dementia wards and 1914 in somatic wards. Dementia wards and somatic wards differed regarding falls and fractures, as it was only in dementia wards that falls were associated with fractures. There was also a significant correlation between falls and assessed risk of falling, the use of certain medication, and physical restraints such as wheelchairs and bed rails in dementia wards. Falls at somatic wards were associated with the use of sleeping pills with benzodiazepines. For dementia wards there were associations between falls and fractures, physical restraints and the use of certain medications. Fractures were associated with the use of neuroleptics, sleeping pills and sleeping pills with benzodiazepines. At somatic wards, falls correlated with the use of sleeping pills with benzodiazepines, and with the use of wheelchairs and bed rails.

  • 122. Fonad, Edit
    et al.
    Wahlin, Tarja-Brita Robins
    Winblad, Bengt
    Emami, Azita
    Sandmark, Helene
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Falls and fall risk among nursing home residents2008Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 126-134Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim and objectives. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for falls in older people living in nursing homes. Background. Impaired cognitive function and a poor sense of orientation could lead to an increase in falls among those with impaired freedom of movement. Many accidents occur while an older person is walking or being moved. Method. The study was carried out over four years (2000-2003) and 21 nursing home units in five municipal homes for older people in Stockholm, Sweden, participated. A questionnaire was sent to staff nurses, including questions on fall risk assessments, falls, fractures, medication and freedom-restricting measures, such as wheelchairs with belts and bed rails. The data were aggregated and not patient-bound. The study covered 2343 reported incidents. Results. There was a significant correlation between falls and fractures (r = 0.365, p = 0.004), fall risk and use of wheelchairs (r = 0.406, p = 0.001, safety belts (r = 0.403, p = 0.001 and bed rails (r = 0.446, p = 0.000) and between the occurrence of fractures and the use of sleeping pills with benzodiazepines (r = 0.352, p = 0.005). Associations were also found between fall risk and the use of anti-depressants (r = 0.412, p = 0.001). Conclusions. In clinical practice, patient safety is very important. Preventative measures should focus on risk factors associated with individuals, including their environment. Wheelchairs with safety belts and bed rails did not eliminate falls but our results support the hypothesis that they might be protective when used selectively with less anti-depressants and sleeping pills, especially benzodiazepines.

  • 123. Fransson, Eleonor I
    et al.
    Heikkilä, Katriina
    Nyberg, Solja T
    Zins, Marie
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Westerholm, Peter
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Väänänen, Ari
    Virtanen, Marianna
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Theorell, Töres
    Suominen, Sakari
    Singh-Manoux, Archana
    Siegrist, Johannes
    Sabia, Séverine
    Rugulies, Reiner
    Pentti, Jaana
    Oksanen, Tuula
    Nordin, Maria
    Nielsen, Martin L
    Marmot, Michael G
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L
    Madsen, Ida E H
    Lunau, Thorsten
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Kumari, Meena
    Kouvonen, Anne
    Koskinen, Aki
    Koskenvuo, Markku
    Knutsson, Anders
    Kittel, France
    Jöckel, Karl-Heinz
    Joensuu, Matti
    Houtman, Irene L
    Hooftman, Wendela E
    Goldberg, Marcel
    Geuskens, Goedele A
    Ferrie, Jane E
    Erbel, Raimund
    Dragano, Nico
    De Bacquer, Dirk
    Clays, Els
    Casini, Annalisa
    Burr, Hermann
    Borritz, Marianne
    Bonenfant, Sébastien
    Bjorner, Jakob B
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Hamer, Mark
    Batty, G David
    Kivimäki, Mika
    Job Strain as a Risk Factor for Leisure-Time Physical Inactivity: An Individual-Participant Meta-Analysis of Up to 170,000 Men and Women2012Ingår i: American Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0002-9262, E-ISSN 1476-6256, Vol. 176, nr 12, s. 1078-1089Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Unfavorable work characteristics, such as low job control and too high or too low job demands, have been suggested to increase the likelihood of physical inactivity during leisure time, but this has not been verified in large-scale studies. The authors combined individual-level data from 14 European cohort studies (baseline years from 1985-1988 to 2006-2008) to examine the association between unfavorable work characteristics and leisure-time physical inactivity in a total of 170,162 employees (50% women; mean age, 43.5 years). Of these employees, 56,735 were reexamined after 2-9 years. In cross-sectional analyses, the odds for physical inactivity were 26% higher (odds ratio = 1.26, 95% confidence interval: 1.15, 1.38) for employees with high-strain jobs (low control/high demands) and 21% higher (odds ratio = 1.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.31) for those with passive jobs (low control/low demands) compared with employees in low-strain jobs (high control/low demands). In prospective analyses restricted to physically active participants, the odds of becoming physically inactive during follow-up were 21% and 20% higher for those with high-strain (odds ratio = 1.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.32) and passive (odds ratio = 1.20, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.30) jobs at baseline. These data suggest that unfavorable work characteristics may have a spillover effect on leisure-time physical activity.

  • 124. Fransson, Eleonor I.
    et al.
    Nyberg, Solja T.
    Heikkila, Katriina
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Bjorner, Jakob B.
    Borritz, Marianne
    Burr, Hermann
    Dragano, Nico
    Geuskens, Goedele A.
    Goldberg, Marcel
    Hamer, Mark
    Hooftman, Wendela E.
    Houtman, Irene L.
    Joensuu, Matti
    Jokela, Markus
    Knutsson, Anders
    Koskenvuo, Markku
    Koskinen, Aki
    Kumari, Meena
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Lunau, Thorsten
    Madsen, Ida E. H.
    Hanson, Linda L. Magnusson
    Nielsen, Martin L.
    Nordin, Maria
    Oksanen, Tuula
    Pentti, Jaana
    Pejtersen, Jan H.
    Rugulies, Reiner
    Salo, Paula
    Shipley, Martin J.
    Steptoe, Andrew
    Suominen, Sakari B.
    Theorell, Toeres
    Toppinen-Tanner, Salla
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Virtanen, Marianna
    Vaananen, Ari
    Westerholm, Peter J. M.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Zins, Marie
    Britton, Annie
    Brunner, Eric J.
    Singh-Manoux, Archana
    Batty, G. David
    Kivimaki, Mika
    Job Strain and the Risk of Stroke An Individual-Participant Data Meta-Analysis2015Ingår i: Stroke, ISSN 0039-2499, E-ISSN 1524-4628, Vol. 46, nr 2, s. 557-559Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Purpose-Psychosocial stress at work has been proposed to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, its role as a risk factor for stroke is uncertain. Methods-We conducted an individual-participant-data meta-analysis of 196 380 males and females from 14 European cohort studies to investigate the association between job strain, a measure of work-related stress, and incident stroke. Results-In 1.8 million person-years at risk (mean follow-up 9.2 years), 2023 first-time stroke events were recorded. The age-and sex-adjusted hazard ratio for job strain relative to no job strain was 1.24 (95% confidence interval, 1.05; 1.47) for ischemic stroke, 1.01 (95% confidence interval, 0.75; 1.36) for hemorrhagic stroke, and 1.09 (95% confidence interval, 0.94; 1.26) for overall stroke. The association with ischemic stroke was robust to further adjustment for socioeconomic status. Conclusion-Job strain may be associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke, but further research is needed to determine whether interventions targeting job strain would reduce stroke risk beyond existing preventive strategies.

  • 125. Fransson, Eleonor I.
    et al.
    Nyberg, Solja T.
    Heikkilä, Katriina
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Bacquer, De Dirk
    Batty, G. David
    Bonenfant, Sébastien
    Casini, Annalisa
    Clays, Els
    Goldberg, Marcel
    Kittel, France
    Koskenvuo, Markku
    Knutsson, Anders
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Hanson, Linda L. Magnusson
    Nordin, Maria
    Singh-Manoux, Archana
    Suominen, Sakari
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Westerholm, Peter
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Zins, Marie
    Theorell, Töres
    Kivimäki, Mika
    Comparison of alternative versions of the job demand-control scales in 17 European cohort studies: the IPD-Work consortium2012Ingår i: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 12, s. 62-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Job strain (i.e., high job demands combined with low job control) is a frequently used indicator of harmful work stress, but studies have often used partial versions of the complete multi-item job demands and control scales. Understanding whether the different instruments assess the same underlying concepts has crucial implications for the interpretation of findings across studies, harmonisation of multi-cohort data for pooled analyses, and design of future studies. As part of the 'IPD-Work' (Individual-participant-data meta-analysis in working populations) consortium, we compared different versions of the demands and control scales available in 17 European cohort studies. Methods: Six of the 17 studies had information on the complete scales and 11 on partial scales. Here, we analyse individual level data from 70 751 participants of the studies which had complete scales (5 demand items, 6 job control items). Results: We found high Pearson correlation coefficients between complete scales of job demands and control relative to scales with at least three items (r > 0.90) and for partial scales with two items only (r = 0.76-0.88). In comparison with scores from the complete scales, the agreement between job strain definitions was very good when only one item was missing in either the demands or the control scale (kappa > 0.80); good for job strain assessed with three demand items and all six control items (kappa > 0.68) and moderate to good when items were missing from both scales (kappa = 0.54-0.76). The sensitivity was > 0.80 when only one item was missing from either scale, decreasing when several items were missing in one or both job strain subscales. Conclusions: Partial job demand and job control scales with at least half of the items of the complete scales, and job strain indices based on one complete and one partial scale, seemed to assess the same underlying concepts as the complete survey instruments.

  • 126.
    Fransson, Eleonor I.
    et al.
    Jonkoping Univ, Sch Hlth Sci, S-55111 Jonkoping, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Stadin, Magdalena
    Jonkoping Univ, Sch Hlth Sci, S-55111 Jonkoping, Sweden..
    Nordin, Maria
    Umea Univ, Dept Psychol, S-90187 Umea, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Malm, Dan
    Jonkoping Univ, Sch Hlth Sci, S-55111 Jonkoping, Sweden.;Cty Hosp Ryhov, Dept Internal Med, S-55185 Jonkoping, Sweden..
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mid Sweden Univ, Dept Hlth Sci, S-85170 Sundsvall, Sweden..
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Westerholm, Peter J. M.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    The Association between Job Strain and Atrial Fibrillation: Results from the Swedish WOLF Study2015Ingår i: BioMed Research International, ISSN 2314-6133, E-ISSN 2314-6141, artikel-id 371905Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction. Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common heart rhythmdisorder. Several life-style factors have been identified as risk factors for AF, but less is known about the impact of work-related stress. This study aims to evaluate the association between work-related stress, defined as job strain, and risk of AF. Methods. Data from the Swedish WOLF study was used, comprising 10,121 working men and women. Job strain was measured by the demand-control model. Information on incident AF was derived from national registers. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between job strain and AF risk. Results. In total, 253 incident AF cases were identified during a total follow-up time of 132,387 person-years. Job strain was associated with AF risk in a time-dependent manner, with stronger association after 10.7 years of follow-up (HR 1.93, 95% CI 1.10-3.36 after 10.7 years, versus HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.67-1.83 before 10.7 years). The results pointed towards a dose-response relationship when taking accumulated exposure to job strain over time into account. Conclusion. This study provides support to the hypothesis that work-related stress defined as job strain is linked to an increased risk of AF.

  • 127. Fransson, Eleonor
    et al.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Westerholm, Peter
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Indications of recall bias found in a retrospective study of physical activity and myocardial infarction2008Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, ISSN 0895-4356, E-ISSN 1878-5921, Vol. 61, nr 8, s. 840-847Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To evaluate the presence of recall bias in retrospective studies of physical activity and myocardial infarction. Study Design and Setting: In 2005, seventy-eight cases who had suffered from a myocardial infarction and 243 control subjects, who had previously participated in the Swedish WOLF (Work, Lipids, and Fibrinogen) study, were asked about their physical activity level during 1990-2005. The answers about recalled past leisure time, occupational, and household physical activity level were compared with physical activity level as reported at the baseline examination of the WOLF study in 1992-1998. Results: The proportion who recalled the same activity level as originally reported ranged from 69% to 96% (cases) and 69% to 89% (controls), and the kappa values ranged from 0.30 to 0.91 (cases) and 0.46 to 0.59 (controls), with the exception of perceived physical workload in household work, which showed low agreement between the originally stated and later recalled activity levels. Some differences were found between cases and controls regarding recall of past occupational activity, indicating the presence of recall bias in this domain of physical activity. Conclusion: We cannot preclude the existence of recall bias when using retrospectively recalled information about occupational physical activity in studies of physical activity and myocardial infarction.

  • 128.
    Fu, Xi
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Self-rated health and respiratory symptoms among civil aviation pilots: Occupational and non-occupational risk factors2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    There is concern about the indoor environment in aircraft but few stud-ies exist on self-rated health (SRH) and respiratory symptoms among pilots. Occupational and non-occupational risk factors for SRH, respira-tory symptoms and other symptoms among commercial pilots were investigated in this thesis. One cohort study and one prevalence study were performed among pilots in one Scandinavian airline company. Fungal DNA, furry pet allergens and volatile organic compounds of microbial origin (MVOC) were measured on board. Cat (fel d1), dog (Can f1) and horse (Ecu cx) allergens were found in all dust samples and allergen levels were 27-75 times higher in aircraft with textile seats as compared to leather surfaces. The sum of MVOCs in the cabin air was 3.7 times higher than in homes in Uppsala and 2-methyl-1-butanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol concentrations were 15-17 times higher. Asper-gillus/Penicillium DNA and Aspergillus versicolor DNA were more common in aircraft with textile seats. One fifth reported SRH as poor or fair, 62% had fatigue, 46% overweight/obesity and 71% insomnia. Poor or fair SRH was associated with overweight/obesity, lack of exercise, insomnia, low sense of coherence (SOC) and high work demand. Re-covery from work was worse among those with insomnia and low social support at work. Fatigue was more common among young or female pilots and related to insomnia and high work demand. Pilots flying MD80 or Saab 2000 aircraft had less fatigue. Pilots exposed to environmental tobacco (ETS) on board had more eye symptoms and fatigue which were reduced after the ban of smoking (in 1997). Pilots with increased work demand developed more rhinitis, dermal symptoms and fartigue and those with decreased work control developed more eye symptoms. The incidence of doctors’ diagnosed asthma and atopy were 2.4 and 16.6 per 1000 person years, respectively. Pilots changing type of flight got more airway infections. Those reporting decreased work control had a higher incidence of atopy. Risk factors in the home environment included ETS, dampness or mould, window pane condensation in winter and living in houses built after 1975. In conclusion, SRH and respiratory health among pilots are associated with specific occupational and non-occupational risk factors.

    Delarbeten
    1. Self-rated health (SRH) and fatigue among commercial pilots in relation to work conditions, psychosocial work environment, life style factors, insomnia, and sense of coherence (SOC)
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Self-rated health (SRH) and fatigue among commercial pilots in relation to work conditions, psychosocial work environment, life style factors, insomnia, and sense of coherence (SOC)
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Medicin och hälsovetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-318816 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-03-28 Skapad: 2017-03-28 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-03-28
    2. Furry pet allergens, fungal DNA and microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) in the commercial aircraft cabin environment
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Furry pet allergens, fungal DNA and microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) in the commercial aircraft cabin environment
    Visa övriga...
    2013 (Engelska)Ingår i: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, Vol. 15, nr 6, s. 1228-1234Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    There has been concern about the cabin environment in commercial aircraft. We measured cat, dog and horse allergens and fungal DNA in cabin dust and microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) in cabin air. Samples were collected from two European airline companies, one with cabins having textile seats (TSC) and the other with cabins having leather seats (LSC), 9 airplanes from each company. Dust was vacuumed from seats and floors in the flight deck and different parts of the cabin. Cat (Fel d1), dog (Can f1) and horse allergens (Equ cx) were analyzed by ELISA. Five sequences of fungal DNA were analyzed by quantitative PCR. MVOCs were sampled on charcoal tubes in 42 TSC flights, and 17 compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with selective ion monitoring (SIM). MVOC levels were compared with levels in homes from Nordic countries. The weight of dust was 1.8 times larger in TSC cabins as compared to LSC cabins (p < 0.001). In cabins with textile seats, the geometric mean (GM) concentrations of Fel d1, Can f1 and Equ cx were 5359 ng g(-1), 6067 ng g(-1), and 13 703 ng g(-1) (GM) respectively. Levels of Fel d1, Can f1 and Equ cx were 50 times, 27 times and 75 times higher respectively, in TSC cabins as compared to LSC cabins (p < 0.001). GM levels of Aspergillus/Penicillium DNA, Aspergillus versicolor DNA, Stachybotrys chartarum DNA and Streptomyces DNA were all higher in TSC as compared to LSC (p < 0.05). The sum of MVOCs in cabin air (excluding butanols) was 3192 ng m(-3) (GM), 3.7 times higher than in homes (p < 0.001) and 2-methyl-1-butanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol concentrations were 15-17 times higher as compared to homes (p < 0.001). Concentrations of isobutanol, 1-butanol, dimethyldisulfide, 2-hexanone, 2-heptanone, 3-octanone, isobutyl acetate and ethyl-2-methylbutyrate were lower in cabin air as compared to homes (p < 0.05). In conclusion, textile seats are much more contaminated by pet allergens and fungal DNA than leather seats. The use of seats with smooth surfaces should be encouraged. The MVOC levels differed between cabin air and homes.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Medicin och hälsovetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-203691 (URN)10.1039/c3em30928b (DOI)000319668900013 ()
    Tillgänglig från: 2013-07-17 Skapad: 2013-07-17 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-03-28Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Respiratory Illness and Allergy Related to Work and Home Environment among Commercial Pilots
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Respiratory Illness and Allergy Related to Work and Home Environment among Commercial Pilots
    Visa övriga...
    2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, nr 10, artikel-id e0164954Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to study associations between work and home environment and prevalence and incidence of respiratory health and a history of atopy in a 3-y cohort of commercial pilots. A questionnaire was mailed in 1997 to all pilots in a Scandinavian airline company (N = 622); 577 (93%) participated. The same questionnaire was sent to the participants 3 years later, 436 participated (76%). There were questions on asthma, respiratory symptoms and infections, allergies, the cabin environment, psychosocial environment and the home environment. Associations were analyzed by multiple logistic regression, calculating odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). The incidence of doctors' diagnosed asthma and atopy were 2.4 and 16.6 per 1000 person years, respectively. Pilots changing type of flight during follow-up got more airway infections (OR = 11.27; 95% CI 2.39-53.14). Those reporting decreased work control (OR = 1.85; 95% CI 1.03-3.31 for 1 unit change) and those with environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) at home (OR = 3.73; 95% CI 1.09-12.83) had a higher incidence of atopy during follow up. Dampness or mould at home was associated with a higher prevalence of asthma symptoms (OR = 3.55; 95% CI 1.43-8.82) and airway infections (OR = 3.12 95% CI 1.27-7.68). Window pane condensation in winter at home, reported at baseline, was associated with increased incidence of asthma symptoms (OR = 4.14; 95% CI 1.32-12.97) and pilots living in newer buildings at baseline had a higher incidence of airway infections (OR = 5.23; 95% CI 1.43-19.10). In conclusion, lack of work control and ETS at home can be a risk factors for development of allergic symptoms in pilots. Window pane condensation at home can be a risk factor for incidence of asthma symptoms. Dampness and mould at home can be a risk factor for prevalence of asthma symptoms and airway infections and living in newer buildings can be a risk factor for incidence of airway infections.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Lungmedicin och allergi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-307536 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0164954 (DOI)000385507000084 ()27741314 (PubMedID)
    Tillgänglig från: 2016-11-17 Skapad: 2016-11-17 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-11-29Bibliografiskt granskad
    4. Medical Symptoms Among Pilots Associated with Work and Home Environments: A 3-Year Cohort Study
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Medical Symptoms Among Pilots Associated with Work and Home Environments: A 3-Year Cohort Study
    2015 (Engelska)Ingår i: AEROSPACE MEDICINE AND HUMAN PERFORMANCE, ISSN 2375-6314, Vol. 86, nr 5, s. 458-465Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To study associations between the cockpit environment, psychosocial work environment, home environment, and medical symptoms in a cohort of commercial pilots followed over 3 yr. METHODS: A standardized questionnaire was mailed in February-March 1997 to all Stockholm-based pilots on duty in a Scandinavian flight company (N = 622); 577 (93%) participated. During this time smoking was allowed on long haul flights, but not on shorter flights. Smoking was prohibited on all flights after September 1997. The same questionnaire was sent to the cohort of 577 pilots in February-March 2000; 436 participated (76%). The questionnaire contained questions on symptoms, the psychosocial work environment, and the home environment. Associations were investigated using multiple logistic and ordinal regression. RESULTS: Symptoms were common, especially eye symptoms (38.5%), nose symptoms (39.9%), and tiredness (29.9%). Pilots exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) on long haul flights had more eye symptoms (odds ratio = 1.91) and tiredness (odds ratio = 2.73). These symptoms were reduced when no longer exposed to ETS. Those who started working on long haul flights developed more nose symptoms. Pilots reporting increased work demands developed more nose and dermal symptoms and tiredness and those with decreased work control developed more eye symptoms. Pilots living in new houses, multifamily houses, and in recently painted homes reported more symptoms. CONCLUSION: Eliminating ETS exposure on board reduced medical symptoms. Further work to reduce ETS exposure globally is needed. Psychosocial aspects of the work environment for commercial pilots should be considered, as well as the home environment.

    Nyckelord
    aircraft environment, commercial pilots, environmental tobacco smoke, psychosocial work environment
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Arbetsmedicin och miljömedicin
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-259128 (URN)10.3357/AMHP.4216.2015 (DOI)000357377800006 ()25945663 (PubMedID)
    Tillgänglig från: 2015-07-28 Skapad: 2015-07-27 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-11Bibliografiskt granskad
  • 129.
    Fu, Xi
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Self-rated health (SRH) and fatigue among commercial pilots in relation to work conditions, psychosocial work environment, life style factors, insomnia, and sense of coherence (SOC)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 130.
    Fu, Xi
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Lindgren, Torsten
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Guo, Moran
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Cai, Gui-Hong
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Lundgren, Hakan
    Norbäck, Dan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Furry pet allergens, fungal DNA and microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) in the commercial aircraft cabin environment2013Ingår i: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, Vol. 15, nr 6, s. 1228-1234Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been concern about the cabin environment in commercial aircraft. We measured cat, dog and horse allergens and fungal DNA in cabin dust and microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) in cabin air. Samples were collected from two European airline companies, one with cabins having textile seats (TSC) and the other with cabins having leather seats (LSC), 9 airplanes from each company. Dust was vacuumed from seats and floors in the flight deck and different parts of the cabin. Cat (Fel d1), dog (Can f1) and horse allergens (Equ cx) were analyzed by ELISA. Five sequences of fungal DNA were analyzed by quantitative PCR. MVOCs were sampled on charcoal tubes in 42 TSC flights, and 17 compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with selective ion monitoring (SIM). MVOC levels were compared with levels in homes from Nordic countries. The weight of dust was 1.8 times larger in TSC cabins as compared to LSC cabins (p < 0.001). In cabins with textile seats, the geometric mean (GM) concentrations of Fel d1, Can f1 and Equ cx were 5359 ng g(-1), 6067 ng g(-1), and 13 703 ng g(-1) (GM) respectively. Levels of Fel d1, Can f1 and Equ cx were 50 times, 27 times and 75 times higher respectively, in TSC cabins as compared to LSC cabins (p < 0.001). GM levels of Aspergillus/Penicillium DNA, Aspergillus versicolor DNA, Stachybotrys chartarum DNA and Streptomyces DNA were all higher in TSC as compared to LSC (p < 0.05). The sum of MVOCs in cabin air (excluding butanols) was 3192 ng m(-3) (GM), 3.7 times higher than in homes (p < 0.001) and 2-methyl-1-butanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol concentrations were 15-17 times higher as compared to homes (p < 0.001). Concentrations of isobutanol, 1-butanol, dimethyldisulfide, 2-hexanone, 2-heptanone, 3-octanone, isobutyl acetate and ethyl-2-methylbutyrate were lower in cabin air as compared to homes (p < 0.05). In conclusion, textile seats are much more contaminated by pet allergens and fungal DNA than leather seats. The use of seats with smooth surfaces should be encouraged. The MVOC levels differed between cabin air and homes.

  • 131.
    Fu, Xi
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Lindgren, Torsten
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Norbäck, Dan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Medical Symptoms Among Pilots Associated with Work and Home Environments: A 3-Year Cohort Study2015Ingår i: AEROSPACE MEDICINE AND HUMAN PERFORMANCE, ISSN 2375-6314, Vol. 86, nr 5, s. 458-465Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To study associations between the cockpit environment, psychosocial work environment, home environment, and medical symptoms in a cohort of commercial pilots followed over 3 yr. METHODS: A standardized questionnaire was mailed in February-March 1997 to all Stockholm-based pilots on duty in a Scandinavian flight company (N = 622); 577 (93%) participated. During this time smoking was allowed on long haul flights, but not on shorter flights. Smoking was prohibited on all flights after September 1997. The same questionnaire was sent to the cohort of 577 pilots in February-March 2000; 436 participated (76%). The questionnaire contained questions on symptoms, the psychosocial work environment, and the home environment. Associations were investigated using multiple logistic and ordinal regression. RESULTS: Symptoms were common, especially eye symptoms (38.5%), nose symptoms (39.9%), and tiredness (29.9%). Pilots exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) on long haul flights had more eye symptoms (odds ratio = 1.91) and tiredness (odds ratio = 2.73). These symptoms were reduced when no longer exposed to ETS. Those who started working on long haul flights developed more nose symptoms. Pilots reporting increased work demands developed more nose and dermal symptoms and tiredness and those with decreased work control developed more eye symptoms. Pilots living in new houses, multifamily houses, and in recently painted homes reported more symptoms. CONCLUSION: Eliminating ETS exposure on board reduced medical symptoms. Further work to reduce ETS exposure globally is needed. Psychosocial aspects of the work environment for commercial pilots should be considered, as well as the home environment.

  • 132.
    Fu, Xi
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Lindgren, Torsten
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Wieslander, Gunilla
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Janson, Christer
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Lungmedicin och allergologi.
    Norbäck, Dan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Respiratory Illness and Allergy Related to Work and Home Environment among Commercial Pilots2016Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, nr 10, artikel-id e0164954Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to study associations between work and home environment and prevalence and incidence of respiratory health and a history of atopy in a 3-y cohort of commercial pilots. A questionnaire was mailed in 1997 to all pilots in a Scandinavian airline company (N = 622); 577 (93%) participated. The same questionnaire was sent to the participants 3 years later, 436 participated (76%). There were questions on asthma, respiratory symptoms and infections, allergies, the cabin environment, psychosocial environment and the home environment. Associations were analyzed by multiple logistic regression, calculating odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). The incidence of doctors' diagnosed asthma and atopy were 2.4 and 16.6 per 1000 person years, respectively. Pilots changing type of flight during follow-up got more airway infections (OR = 11.27; 95% CI 2.39-53.14). Those reporting decreased work control (OR = 1.85; 95% CI 1.03-3.31 for 1 unit change) and those with environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) at home (OR = 3.73; 95% CI 1.09-12.83) had a higher incidence of atopy during follow up. Dampness or mould at home was associated with a higher prevalence of asthma symptoms (OR = 3.55; 95% CI 1.43-8.82) and airway infections (OR = 3.12 95% CI 1.27-7.68). Window pane condensation in winter at home, reported at baseline, was associated with increased incidence of asthma symptoms (OR = 4.14; 95% CI 1.32-12.97) and pilots living in newer buildings at baseline had a higher incidence of airway infections (OR = 5.23; 95% CI 1.43-19.10). In conclusion, lack of work control and ETS at home can be a risk factors for development of allergic symptoms in pilots. Window pane condensation at home can be a risk factor for incidence of asthma symptoms. Dampness and mould at home can be a risk factor for prevalence of asthma symptoms and airway infections and living in newer buildings can be a risk factor for incidence of airway infections.

  • 133.
    Fu, Xi
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Wieslander, Gunilla
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Lindgren, Torsten
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Janson, Christer
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Lungmedicin och allergologi.
    Norbäck, Dan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    A three year follow-up of asthma, respiratory symptoms and self-reported allergy, among pilots and cabin attendants2015Ingår i: Allergy. European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0105-4538, E-ISSN 1398-9995, Vol. 70, nr S101, s. 124-124, artikel-id 248Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 134. Gehring, Ulrike
    et al.
    Gruzieva, Olena
    Agius, Raymond M.
    Beelen, Rob
    Custovic, Adnan
    Cyrys, Josef
    Eeftens, Marloes
    Flexeder, Claudia
    Fuertes, Elaine
    Heinrich, Joachim
    Hoffmann, Barbara
    de Jongste, Johan C.
    Kerkhof, Marjan
    Kluemper, Claudia
    Korek, Michal
    Moelter, Anna
    Schultz, Erica S.
    Simpson, Angela
    Sugiri, Dorothea
    Svartengren, Magnus
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    von Berg, Andrea
    Wijga, Alet H.
    Pershagen, Goeran
    Brunekreef, Bert
    Air Pollution Exposure and Lung Function in Children: The ESCAPE Project2013Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 121, nr 11-12, s. 1357-1364Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: There is evidence for adverse effects of outdoor air pollution on lung function of children. Quantitative summaries of the effects of air pollution on lung function, however, are lacking due to large differences among studies. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to study the association between residential exposure to air pollution and lung function in five European birth cohorts with a standardized exposure assessment following a common protocol. METHODS: As part of the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) we analyzed data from birth cohort studies situated in Germany, Sweden, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom that measured lung function at 6-8 years of age (n = 5,921). Annual average exposure to air pollution [nitrogen oxides (NO2, NOx), mass concentrations of particulate matter with diameters < 2.5, < 10, and 2.5-10 mu m (PM2.5, PM10, and PMcoarse), and PM2.5 absorbance] at the birth address and current address was estimated by land-use regression models. Associations of lung function with estimated air pollution levels and traffic indicators were estimated for each cohort using linear regression analysis, and then combined by random effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Estimated levels of NO2, NOx, PM2.5 absorbance, and PM2.5 at the current address, but not at the birth address, were associated with small decreases in lung function. For example, changes in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) ranged from -0.86% (95% CI: -1.48, -0.24%) for a 20-mu g/m(3) increase in NOx to -1.77% (95% CI: -3.34, -0.18%) for a 5-mu g/m(3) increase in PM2.5. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to air pollution may result in reduced lung function in schoolchildren.

  • 135.
    Ghaffari, Mostafa
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Lost in translation?: Reply2009Ingår i: Occupational Medicine, ISSN 0962-7480, E-ISSN 1471-8405, Vol. 59, nr 3, s. 202-203Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 136.
    Ghaffari, Mostafa
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin. Iran University of Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Department; Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Neuroscience Institute, Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Research Center.
    Alinaghizadeh, Hassan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin. Karolinska Institutet, Division of Family Medicine and Primary Care, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society.
    Ghalichi, Leila
    Iran University of Medical Sciences, School of Public Health, Epidemiology Department.
    Pournik, Omid
    Iran University of Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Community Medicine Department.
    Vingård, Eva
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Assessment of the Psychosocial Work Environment among Health Care Workers and Its Association with Work and Socioeconomic Status2017Ingår i: Archives of neuroscience, ISSN 2322-3944, Vol. 3, artikel-id UNSP e13576Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The health care sector constitutes one of the largest sources of employment worldwide.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the psychosocial status of health care workers and its association with different covariates.

    Methods: Health care workers from different universities, hospitals, clinics, urban and rural health centers took part in this cross-sectional study. The medium version of COPSOQ was used to evaluate the association between COPSOQ and covariates. The multivariate analyses of variance and covariance were employed to determine multivariate and univariate associations between all psychosocial dimensions and covariates.

    Results: Most COPSOQ scores showed a good internal consistency and reliability, with total Cronbach’s alpha of 0.76. The study population comprised 7,027 health care workers among whom 64% were female. The results indicated that nurses are more exposed to the psychosocial work environment compared to the other groups of workers within the health care settings.

    Conclusions: Nurses had a significantly higher risk regarding almost all the psychosocial factors. Considering that the main shortage of human resources in our study population belonged to the nursing group, this bad situation is not surprising. Healthcare workers, especially nurses, are facing various psychosocial factors more than other workers are, because all these factors are in the healthcare environment at the same time.

  • 137.
    Ghaffari, Mostafa
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Alipour, Akbar
    Farshad, Ali Asghar
    Jensen, Irene
    Josephson, Malin
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Vingård, Eva
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Effect of psychosocial factors on low back pain in industrial workers2008Ingår i: Occupational Medicine, ISSN 0962-7480, E-ISSN 1471-8405, Vol. 58, nr 5, s. 341-347Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim To test the hypothesis that workplace psychosocial factors such as demand, control, support, job satisfaction and job appreciation can predict the future onset of disabling low back pain (LBP). Methods The present study involved a prospective cohort of 4500 Iranian industrial workers. Data were gathered by means of a self-reported questionnaire about LBP, as well as working life exposure, lifestyle factors, social exposures, co-morbidity, life events and psychosomatic complaints in 2004. All new episodes of disabling LBP resulting in medically certified sick leave during the 1-year follow-up registered by occupational health clinic inside the factory. Results The participation rate was good (85%). A total of 744 subjects reported current LBP (point prevalence cases). A total of 52 (< , 2%) new episodes of disabling LBP were observed during the 1-year follow-up (incident cases). Male employees reported higher demands, lower control and lower support than female employees. Employees with high demands, low control, job strain, low job satisfaction and low job appreciation showed increased odds ratios, and these results were statistically significant. Conclusions Few prospective studies in this field have been published, but all of them are related to industrialized countries. This prospective study suggests the aetiological role of job strain for LBP. The findings of this study indicate a substantial potential for disease prevention and health promotion at the workplace.

  • 138. Ghalichi, Leila
    et al.
    Pournik, Omid
    Ghaffari, Mostafa
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Vingård, Eva
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Sleep Quality among Health Care Workers2013Ingår i: Archives of Iranian Medicine, ISSN 1029-2977, Vol. 16, nr 2, s. 100-103Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sleep problems are common complaints in health care workers that can affect quality of life and productivity, both in patients and healthy individuals. This study evaluates the prevalence of low sleep quality in health care workers with no health issues or complaints of sleep problems. Methods: In this cross-sectional study was conducted on healthy employees of a health care organization in Tehran. The presence of physical and mental health issues and satisfaction from their sleep quality was assessed by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Sleep quality was evaluated by the Persian version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). PSQI scores of 5 or less were considered as good sleep quality. Results: From 925 participants, 56.9% were good sleepers. There was a significant association between poor sleep quality and female sex, divorced, shift-working, and age; it was not associated with education level. Self-rated health (SRH) had a significant positive correlation with sleep quality. Conclusion: Poor sleep quality is common in our study population and associated with a lower SRH. The high prevalence of poor sleep quality in a group of healthy non-complaining employees can be an important early sign of underlying physical or mental health issues. Providing screening and monitoring programs to detect the underlying health conditions and their consequent treatment can promote health and productivity of employees and improve society's health, both directly and indirectly.

  • 139.
    Gonzalez Lindh, Margareta
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Logopedi. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning, Gävleborg.
    Koyi, Hirsh
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning, Gävleborg.
    Blom Johansson, Monica
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Forskning om funktionshinder och habilitering. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Logopedi.
    Högman, Marieann
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Klinisk fysiologi. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk cellbiologi, Integrativ Fysiologi. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning, Gävleborg. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Vårdvetenskap. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Lung- allergi- och sömnforskning.
    Malinovschi, Andrei
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk cellbiologi, Integrativ Fysiologi. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Klinisk fysiologi.
    Bendrik, Regina
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning, Gävleborg. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Allmänmedicin och preventivmedicin.
    Lisspers, Karin
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning Dalarna. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Allmänmedicin och preventivmedicin.
    Ställberg, Björn
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning i Sörmland (CKFD). Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Allmänmedicin och preventivmedicin.
    Janson, Christer
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Lung- allergi- och sömnforskning.
    Prevalence of subjective swallowing dysfunction in patients with stable COPD: Results from the TIE-study2017Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 140.
    Grooten, Wilhelmus Johannes Andreas
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Div Physiotherapy, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Huddinge, Sweden;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Allied Hlth Profess Funct, Funct Area Occupat Therapy & Physiotherapy, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hansson, Amanda
    Karolinska Inst, Div Physiotherapy, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Huddinge, Sweden;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Allied Hlth Profess Funct, Funct Area Occupat Therapy & Physiotherapy, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Cty Council, Ctr Occupat & Environm Med, Stockholm, Sweden;KTH Royal Inst Technol, Div Ergon, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Kjellberg, Katarina
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Cty Council, Ctr Occupat & Environm Med, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Toomingas, Allan
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Cty Council, Ctr Occupat & Environm Med, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mueller, Mira
    Karolinska Inst, Div Physiotherapy, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Svartengren, Magnus
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Äng, Björn Olov
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning Dalarna. Karolinska Inst, Div Physiotherapy, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Huddinge, Sweden;Dalarna Univ, Sch Educ Hlth & Social Studies, Falun, Sweden.
    Non-participation in initial and repeated health risk appraisals: a drop-out analysis based on a health project2019Ingår i: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 19, artikel-id 130Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Health risk assessment (HRAs) are commonly used by occupational health services (OHS) to aid workplaces in keeping their employees healthy, but for unknown reasons, many employees choose not to participate in the HRAs. The aim of the study was to explore whether demographic, lifestyle and health-related factors in employees are associated with non-participation in initial and repeated HRAs.

    Methods

    In an OHS-based health project, 2022 municipal employees were asked to participate in three repeated HRAs. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used so as to determine associations between non-participating and demographic, lifestyle and health-related factors (e.g. biomarkers).

    Results

    Among the employees who were asked to participate in the health project, more than half did not participate in any HRA and among those who did, more than one third did not participate in repeated HRAs. Young age, male sex and being employed in the Technical department or Health and Social Care department in comparison with being employed in the department for Childcare and Education were factors significantly associated with non-participation in the initial HRA. These factors, together with being on sick leave and having unhealthy dietary habits, were factors associated with non-participation in repeated HRAs.

    Conclusions

    Among the non-participators in initial HRAs and in repeated HRAs younger men and those already related to ill-health were overrepresented. This implicates that health care providers to a higher extent should focus on those most needed and that employers should be more engaged in results of repeated HRA's. Future studies should focus on modifiable variables that could make the HRAs more attractive and inclusive.

  • 141.
    Grooten, Wilhelmus Johannes Andreas
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Div Phys Therapy, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Funct Area Occupat Therapy & Physiotherapy, Allied Hlth Profess Funct, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Müller, Mira
    Forsman, Mikael
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Cty Council, Ctr Occupat & Environm Med, CAMM, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Kjellberg, Katarina
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Cty Council, Ctr Occupat & Environm Med, CAMM, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Toomingas, Allan
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Cty Council, Ctr Occupat & Environm Med, CAMM, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ång, Björn Olov
    Karolinska Inst, Div Phys Therapy, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Funct Area Occupat Therapy & Physiotherapy, Allied Hlth Profess Funct, Stockholm, Sweden.;Dalarna Univ, Sch Educ Hlth & Social Studies, Falun, Sweden..
    Svartengren, Magnus
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Health risk appraisals in Swedish occupational health services2016Ingår i: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 55, nr 4, s. 849-859Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Health risk appraisals (HRAs) in occupational health services (OHS) in Sweden are very commonly used for health promotion issues, but not much research has explored the extent and nature of individual feedback that is provided. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to describe and explore HRAs in OHS regarding the content of the feedback in relation to the individual status and overall employee satisfaction. METHODS: Feedback (evaluation and advice) and employee satisfaction with HRA were studied in employees that participated in health risk appraisals with a specific feedback session (HRA-F) (n = 272) and employees that participated in a single session (HRA-S) (n = 104). Associations between feedback and individual status concerning life style were assessed with Cohen's kappa (k). RESULTS: The employees received mainly information and advice for improvement on health and lifestyle issues (89-100%), while advice for improvement of working conditions was less common (15-59%). The feedback provided on life style was not based on individual status (k < 0.4), except for smoking and risky alcohol consumption (k > 0.55). A great majority of employees reported good overall satisfaction with their HRAs. CONCLUSIONS: The evaluation and feedback given to employees after HRAs should be based more on HRA-results and advice could be focused more on work-related factors.

  • 142. Grooten, WJ
    et al.
    Mulder, M
    Josephson, Malin
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Wiktorin, Christina
    The influence of work-related exposures on the prognosis of neck/shoulder pain2007Ingår i: European spine journal, ISSN 0940-6719, E-ISSN 1432-0932, Vol. 16, nr 12, s. 2083-2091Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To determine associations between work-related exposures and the prognosis of self-reported neck/shoulder pain. This prospective cohort study was based on 803 working subjects who reported neck/shoulder pain at baseline. The proportion of subjects who 5-6 years later were symptom-free was calculated. Data concerning work-related biomechanical, psychosocial, and organizational exposures were collected at baseline. The Cox regression analyses were used to calculate the relative chances (RC) of being symptom-free at the end of the study for single exposures, and also for up to three simultaneous work-related exposures. Adjustments were made for sex and age. Only 36% of the subjects were symptom-free 5-6 years later. The relative chance for being symptom-free at the end of the study was 1.32 (95% CI = 0.99-1.74) for subjects who were exposed to sitting >= 75% of the working time and 1.53 (95% CI = 1.02-2.29) for subjects who were exposed to job strain, i.e., the combination of high demands and low decision latitude. The relative chance of being symptom-free at the end of the study was 0.61 (95% CI = 0.40-0.94) for subjects with at least two out of three simultaneous biomechanical exposures at work; manual handling, working with the hands above shoulder level, and working with vibrating tools. In a heterogeneous population with moderate nonspecific neck/shoulder pain, sedentary work enhanced the chance of being symptom-free 5-6 years later, whereas simultaneous exposures to at least two of manual handling, working with hands above shoulder level and working with vibrating tools were associated with a lower chance of being symptom-free at the end of the study. This could imply that subjects with neck/shoulder pain should avoid such simultaneous exposures.

  • 143.
    Gunnarsson, Kristina
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Entrepreneurs and Small-Scale Enterprises: Self Reported Health, Work Conditions, Work Environment Management and Occupational Health Services2010Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focused on factors contributing to improved work environment in small-scale enterprises and sustainable health for the entrepreneurs.

    In Study I, implementation of the provision of Systematic Work Environment Management (SWEM) with and without support was investigated. Two implementation methods were used, supervised and network method. The effect of the project reached the employees faster in the enterprises with the supervised method. In general, the work environment improved in all enterprises. However, extensive support to small-scale enterprises in terms of advice and networking aimed at fulfilling SWEM regulations had limited effect – especially considering the cost of applying these methods.

    Studies II, III, and IV focused on entrepreneurs’ health, work conditions, strategies for maintaining good health, and utilisation of Occupational Health Service (OHS). A closed cohort of entrepreneurs in ten different trades responded to two self-administered questionnaires on health and work conditions, with five years between the surveys: at baseline, 496 entrepreneurs responded, and 251 entrepreneurs responded at follow-up. Differences were tested by Chi2-test, and associations estimated with logistic regression analyses. Qualitative interviews on entrepreneurs’ strategies for maintaining good health were included. In Study II, the most frequently reported complaints, musculoskeletal pain and mental health problems, were associated with poor job satisfaction and poor physical work environment. In Study III, consistent self-reported good health, i.e. good health both at baseline and at follow up, was associated with self-valued good social life when adjusted for physical work conditions and job satisfaction. Entrepreneurs’ strategies for maintaining good health included good planning and control over work, flexibility at work, good social contact with family, friends and other entrepreneurs, and regular physical exercise.

    Study IV concerned entrepreneur’s utilisation of OHS. Entrepreneurs affiliated to OHS had either better or more adverse work conditions than non-affiliated entrepreneurs. Medical care and health check-ups were the services most utilised. Affiliation to OHS correlated with use of specific information sources and active work environment management. The entrepreneurs were not consistently affiliated to OHS over the five-year-period.

    Delarbeten
    1. Systematic Work Environment Management: Experiences from Implementation in Swedish Small-scale Enterprises
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Systematic Work Environment Management: Experiences from Implementation in Swedish Small-scale Enterprises
    2010 (Engelska)Ingår i: Industrial Health, ISSN 0019-8366, E-ISSN 1880-8026, Vol. 48, nr 2, s. 185-196Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Small-scale enterprises face difficulties in fulfilling the regulations for organising Systematic Work Environment Management. This study compared three groups of small-scale manufacturing enterprises with and without support for implementing the provision. Two implementation methods, supervised and network method, were used. The third group worked according to their own ideas. Twenty-three enterprises participated. The effects of the implementation were evaluated after one year by semi-structured dialogue with the manager and safety representative. Each enterprise was classified on compliance with ten demands concerning the provision. The work environment was estimated by the WEST-method. Impact of the implementation on daily work was also studied. At the follow-up, the enterprises in the supervised method reported slightly more improvements in the fulfilment of the demands in the provision than the enterprises in the network method and the enterprises working on their own did. The effect of the project reached the employees faster in the enterprises with the supervised method. In general, the work environment improved to some extent in all enterprises. Extensive support to small-scale enterprises in terms of advise and networking aimed to fulfil the regulations of Systematic Work Environment Management had limited effect - especially considering the cost of applying these methods.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Medicin och hälsovetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-126489 (URN)10.2486/indhealth.48.185 (DOI)000276256000008 ()20424349 (PubMedID)
    Tillgänglig från: 2010-06-15 Skapad: 2010-06-15 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-12Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Self rated health and working conditions of small-scale enterprisers in sweden
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Self rated health and working conditions of small-scale enterprisers in sweden
    2007 (Engelska)Ingår i: Industrial Health, ISSN 0019-8366, E-ISSN 1880-8026, Vol. 45, nr 6, s. 775-780Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This study was an investigation of prevalence and associations between self-rated health and working conditions for small-scale enterprisers in a county in Sweden. A postal questionnaire was answered by 340 male and 153 female small-scale enterprisers in different sectors, with a response rate of 66%. For comparative purposes, data from a population study of 1,699 employees in private companies was included in the analyses. Differences were tested by Chi²-test and associations were presented as odds ratios (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI). The frequency of health problems in male enterprisers was higher than in employees in the private sector, while the frequency of health problems in female enterprisers was equal to that of the control employees. The main findings highlighted that male enterprisers reported higher rate of health problems and female enterprisers equal rate compared with employees in the private sector. Enterprisers stated musculoskeletal pain (women 59%, men 56%) and mental health problems (women 47%, men 45%) as the most frequent health problems. Poor job satisfaction, reported by 17% of the females and 20% of the male enterprisers, revealed an OR of 10.42 (95% CI 5.78-18.77) for poor general health. For the enterprisers, the most frequent complaints, musculoskeletal pain and mental health problems, were associated with poor job satisfaction and poor physical work environment. An association between poor general health and working as an enterpriser remained after adjusting for working conditions, sex and age.

    Nyckelord
    Small-scale enterpriser, Self-rated health, Working conditions, Small-scale enterprises, SSE, Occupational health
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Medicin och hälsovetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-14821 (URN)10.2486/indhealth.45.775 (DOI)000251975000008 ()18212472 (PubMedID)
    Tillgänglig från: 2008-01-31 Skapad: 2008-01-31 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-11Bibliografiskt granskad
    3.
    Posten kunde inte hittas. Det kan bero på att posten inte längre är tillgänglig eller att du har råkat ange ett felaktigt id i adressfältet.
    4.
    Posten kunde inte hittas. Det kan bero på att posten inte längre är tillgänglig eller att du har råkat ange ett felaktigt id i adressfältet.
  • 144.
    Gunnarsson, Kristina
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Andersson, Ing-Marie
    Josephson, Malin
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Swedish Entrepreneurs' Use of Occupational Health Services2011Ingår i: AAOHN Journal, ISSN 0891-0162, Vol. 59, nr 10, s. 437-445Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Small-scale enterprises are less often covered by occupational health services and have insufficient awareness about health and risks in the work environment. This study investigated how Swedish entrepreneurs in small-scale enterprises use occupational health services. The study used a questionnaire sent in two waves, 5 years apart. At baseline, 496 entrepreneurs responded, and 251 participated 5 years later. The questionnaire included items about affiliation with and use of occupational health services, physical and psychosocial work environments, work environment management, sources of work environment information, and membership in professional networks. Only 3% of entrepreneurs without employees and 19% of entrepreneurs with employees were affiliated with an occupational health service. Entrepreneurs affiliated with occupational health services were more active in work environment management and gathering information about the work environment. The occupational health services most used were health examinations, health care, and ergonomic risk assessments. Affiliation with occupational health services was 6% at both measurements, 4% at baseline, and 10% 5 years later.

  • 145.
    Gunnarsson, Kristina
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Andersson, Ing-Marie
    Rosén, Gunnar
    Systematic Work Environment Management: Experiences from Implementation in Swedish Small-scale Enterprises2010Ingår i: Industrial Health, ISSN 0019-8366, E-ISSN 1880-8026, Vol. 48, nr 2, s. 185-196Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Small-scale enterprises face difficulties in fulfilling the regulations for organising Systematic Work Environment Management. This study compared three groups of small-scale manufacturing enterprises with and without support for implementing the provision. Two implementation methods, supervised and network method, were used. The third group worked according to their own ideas. Twenty-three enterprises participated. The effects of the implementation were evaluated after one year by semi-structured dialogue with the manager and safety representative. Each enterprise was classified on compliance with ten demands concerning the provision. The work environment was estimated by the WEST-method. Impact of the implementation on daily work was also studied. At the follow-up, the enterprises in the supervised method reported slightly more improvements in the fulfilment of the demands in the provision than the enterprises in the network method and the enterprises working on their own did. The effect of the project reached the employees faster in the enterprises with the supervised method. In general, the work environment improved to some extent in all enterprises. Extensive support to small-scale enterprises in terms of advise and networking aimed to fulfil the regulations of Systematic Work Environment Management had limited effect - especially considering the cost of applying these methods.

  • 146.
    Gunnarsson, Kristina
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Josephson, Malin
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Entrepreneurs' Self-reported Health, Social Life, and Strategies for Maintaining Good Health2011Ingår i: Journal of Occupational Health, ISSN 1341-9145, E-ISSN 1348-9585, Vol. 53, nr 3, s. 205-213Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: This study investigated the association between self-reported good health and self-valued good social life. An additional aim was to examine entrepreneur's strategies for maintaining good health. Methods: The study design included a two-wave questionnaire, with five years between the surveys (2001 and 2006), and qualitative interviews. The study group consisted of 246 entrepreneurs from the central region of Sweden and represented ten different trades. Entrepreneurs reporting good health in both 2001 and 2006 were compared with entrepreneurs reporting poor health on both occasions or with inconsistent answers. Six of the entrepreneurs were strategically chosen for the interview study. Results: Consistent good health was reported by 56% of the entrepreneurs. Good social life in 2001 was associated with an increased odds ratio (OR) for consistent good health when the analyses were adjusted for physical work conditions and job satisfaction (OR 2.12, 95% CI 1.07-4.17). Findings for good leisure time, weekly moderate physical exercise, and a rating of work being less or equally important as other life areas, were similar but not statistically significant when job satisfaction was considered in the analyses. Strategies for maintaining good health included good planning and control over work, flexibility at work, good social contact with family, friends and other entrepreneurs, and regular physical exercise. Conclusion: This study demonstrated an association between self-reported good health and good social life for entrepreneurs in small-scale enterprises. In addition, the entrepreneurs emphasised strategies such as planning and control over work and physical exercise are important for maintaining good health.

  • 147.
    Gunnarsson, Kristina
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Vingård, Eva
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Josephson, Malin
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Self rated health and working conditions of small-scale enterprisers in sweden2007Ingår i: Industrial Health, ISSN 0019-8366, E-ISSN 1880-8026, Vol. 45, nr 6, s. 775-780Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was an investigation of prevalence and associations between self-rated health and working conditions for small-scale enterprisers in a county in Sweden. A postal questionnaire was answered by 340 male and 153 female small-scale enterprisers in different sectors, with a response rate of 66%. For comparative purposes, data from a population study of 1,699 employees in private companies was included in the analyses. Differences were tested by Chi²-test and associations were presented as odds ratios (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI). The frequency of health problems in male enterprisers was higher than in employees in the private sector, while the frequency of health problems in female enterprisers was equal to that of the control employees. The main findings highlighted that male enterprisers reported higher rate of health problems and female enterprisers equal rate compared with employees in the private sector. Enterprisers stated musculoskeletal pain (women 59%, men 56%) and mental health problems (women 47%, men 45%) as the most frequent health problems. Poor job satisfaction, reported by 17% of the females and 20% of the male enterprisers, revealed an OR of 10.42 (95% CI 5.78-18.77) for poor general health. For the enterprisers, the most frequent complaints, musculoskeletal pain and mental health problems, were associated with poor job satisfaction and poor physical work environment. An association between poor general health and working as an enterpriser remained after adjusting for working conditions, sex and age.

  • 148.
    Gunnbjörnsdottir, Maria I
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Lungmedicin och allergologi.
    Norbäck, Dan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Björnsson, Eythor
    Soon, Argo
    Jarvis, Deborah
    Jögi, Rain
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Lungmedicin och allergologi.
    Indermitte, Ene
    Gislason, David
    Gislason, Thorarinn
    Janson, Christer
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Lungmedicin och allergologi.
    Indoor environment in three North European cities in relationship to atopy and respiratory symptoms2009Ingår i: Clinical Respiratory Journal, ISSN 1752-6981, Vol. 3, nr 2, s. 85-94Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) I, the lowest prevalence of asthma and atopy was found in Reykjavik (Iceland)  and Tartu (Estonia). The aim of this study was to compare home environments in Reykjavik and Tartu to a town with a higher prevalence of asthma and atopy (Uppsala, Sweden) in an attempt to identify factors   in the indoor environment that could explain these differences. A random sample of 129 ECRHS II participants was included in this analysis at each of the three study centres. The subjects answered a questionnaire, blood was analysed for specific immunoglobulin E, a   methacholine test was performed and home indoor measurements were taken. The prevalence of atopy was 11.9% in Reykjavik, 35.5% in Uppsala and   28.2% in Tartu (P < 0.04). The level of indoor cat allergen was significantly lower in Reykjavik compared with Uppsala (P = 0.05). No mite allergens were identified in the 41 homes investigated in   Reykjavik, while this was the case in 16% and 72% of the households in Uppsala and Tartu, respectively (P = 0.001). A positive association was found between asthma symptoms and cat allergen levels [odds ratio 1.53 (95% confidence interval 1.04-2.24)], while the levels of viable moulds were significantly associated with increased bronchial responsiveness.   Indoor exposure to allergens, moulds and bacteria was lower in Reykjavik than in the Swedish and Estonian centres. This finding indicates that the lower prevalence of allergic sensitization in Reykjavik may partly be related to lower indoor allergen exposure. Please cite this paper as: Gunnbjornsdottir MI, NorbAck D, Bjornsson E, Soon A, Jarvis D, Jogi R, Gislason D, Gislason T and Janson C. Indoor environment in three North European cities in relationship to atopy and respiratory symptoms. The Clinical Respiratory Journal 2009; 3: 85-94.

  • 149. Gutleb, Arno C.
    et al.
    Arvidsson, Dan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysiologi och utvecklingsbiologi, Ekotoxikologi.
    Örberg, Jan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysiologi och utvecklingsbiologi, Ekotoxikologi.
    Larsson, Sune
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Ortopedi.
    Skaare, Janneche Utne
    Aleksandersen, Mona
    Ropstad, Erik
    Lind, Monica
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Effects on bone tissue in ewes (Ovies aries) and their foetuses exposed to PCB 118 and PCB 1532010Ingår i: Toxicology Letters, ISSN 0378-4274, E-ISSN 1879-3169, Vol. 192, nr 2, s. 126-133Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether low levels of mono-ortho PCB 118 and di-ortho PCB 153, affect bone composition and strength in ewes (Dala breed) and their foetuses following exposure starting at conception and ending a week before expected delivery. In male foetuses, trabecular bone mineral content at the metaphysis was almost 30% lower in the PCB 118 (49mug/kg body wt/day) group compared to the control group (corn oil) (ANCOVA, P<0.05). In female foetuses of the PCB 153 (98mug/kg body wt/day) group trabecular cross-sectional area at the metaphysis was 19% smaller than in the controls (ANCOVA, P<0.05). At the diaphysis a smaller marrow cavity area (up to 24% reduction) was observed in female and male foetuses exposed to PCB 153 compared with controls (ANCOVA, P<0.05). There were also significant differences at the mid diaphyseal measure point between the PCB 153 and the control group females (ANCOVA, P<0.05). Cortical and total bone mineral density, cortical thickness were significantly higher, endosteal circumference shorter and marrow cavity significantly smaller in the PCB 153 group (ANCOVA, P<0.05). In conclusion there were gender dependent effects on bone tissue and cortical bone was more affected than trabecular bone.

  • 150. Haeger-Eugensson, Marie
    et al.
    Ferm, Martin
    Elfman, Lena
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Use of a 3-D Dispersion Model for Calculation of Distribution of Horse Allergen and Odor around Horse Facilities2014Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 11, nr 4, s. 3599-3617Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in equestrian sports has increased substantially during the last decades, resulting in increased number of horse facilities around urban areas. In Sweden, new guidelines for safe distance have been decided based on the size of the horse facility (e.g., number of horses) and local conditions, such as topography and meteorology. There is therefore an increasing need to estimate dispersion of horse allergens to be used, for example, in the planning processes for new residential areas in the vicinity of horse facilities. The aim of this study was to develop a method for calculating short- and long-term emissions and dispersion of horse allergen and odor around horse facilities. First, a method was developed to estimate horse allergen and odor emissions at hourly resolution based on field measurements. Secondly, these emission factors were used to calculate concentrations of horse allergen and odor by using 3-D dispersion modeling. Results from these calculations showed that horse allergens spread up to about 200 m, after which concentration levels were very low (<2 U/m(3)). Approximately 10% of a study-group detected the smell of manure at 60m, while the majority80%-90%detected smell at 60 m or shorter distance from the manure heap. Modeling enabled horse allergen exposure concentrations to be determined with good time resolution.

1234567 101 - 150 av 628
RefereraExporteraLänk till träfflistan
Permanent länk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf