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  • 151.
    Lundin, Daniela
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Öckert, Björn
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Maxtaxan inom barnomsorgen – påverkar den hur mycket föräldrarna arbetar?2008In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 36, no 7, p. 19-28Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 152.
    Lundin, Danlela
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Öckert, Björn
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    How far can reduced childcare prices push female labour supply?2008In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 647-659Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exploiting exogenous variation in childcare prices stemming from a childcare price reform, this paper estimates effects of reductions in childcare costs on female labour supply. The reform introduced a cap on childcare prices, and lead to considerable reductions in prices depending on family type and region of residence. Since the price is determined by a handful of observed characteristics, we are able to match households that are similar in all relevant aspects, but experienced quite different price changes. Our difference-in-differences regression matching estimates are very precise, and close to zero.

  • 153.
    Lundin, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    When Does Cooperation Improve Public Policy Implementation?2007In: Policy Studies Journal, ISSN 0190-292X, E-ISSN 1541-0072, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 629-652Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interorganizational cooperation is often considered valuable in the public sector. However, in this article it is suggested that the impact of cooperation on public policy implementation is dependent on the type of policy being carried out. It is argued that complex policies are more effectively put into practice if agencies cooperate a lot, whereas less difficult tasks are handled just as well without interorganizational cooperation. Thus, two policies within the Swedish active labor market policy are examined. The empirical test focuses on the cooperation between Public Employment Service offices and municipal labor market administrations. In agreement with the hypothesis, the findings suggest that policy matters. The implementation of one of the policies - the complex policy - is enhanced if cooperation between agencies increase. On the other hand, cooperation does not improve implementation of the less complex task. The study is based on quantitative data.

  • 154.
    Lundin, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Nordström-Skans, Oskar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Zetterberg, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Leadership Experiences within Civil Organizations and Candidacy in Public Elections: Causal Evidence from a Quasi-Experimental Approach2016In: Political Behavior, ISSN 0190-9320, E-ISSN 1573-6687, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 433-454Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Standing as a candidate in public elections has been characterized as the ultimate act of political participation. We test the hypothesis that acquiring office within civil organizations increases the probability of becoming a candidate in public elections. In order to take self-selection problems into account, we provide quasi-experimental evidence using election discontinuities, in which we compare the likelihood of being nominated for public office between closely ranked winners and losers in Swedish student union (SU) elections. Our original data cover 5,000 SU candidates and register data on their candidacies in public elections (1991–2010). The analysis provides support to the hypothesis: Students elected to SU councils were about 34 percent (6 percentage points) more likely to become a candidate in a public election than SU council candidates who were not elected. The causal impact is fairly stable over time. The analysis makes important contributions to two interrelated bodies of literature: First, it provides political recruitment literature with causal evidence that acquiring leadership experiences at arenas outside of representative democ­ratic institutions facilitate entry into election processes. Second, it provides strong evidence to an increasingly contested issue within political participation research by showing that certain organizational activities increase individuals’ political involvement.

  • 155.
    Lundin, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Thelander, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Öberg, PerOla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Det välgrundade beslutet: om kommunal beredning i kommunstyrelse-, utbildnings-, arbetsmarknads- och miljöärenden2013Report (Refereed)
  • 156.
    Lundin, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Öberg, PerOla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Expert knowledge use and deliberation in local policy making2014In: Policy sciences, ISSN 0032-2687, E-ISSN 1573-0891, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 25-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes the extent to which public administrators make use of expert knowledge (i.e., research or evaluation reports) when they prepare policy advice, and the extent to which politicians deliberate on the information provided to them by the administrators. The study is based on original, quantitative data from local politics in Sweden. We find that expert-informed policy advice from the administrators and critical reflection by the politicians are more pronounced when there is a lot of public attention. Furthermore, administrators use expert information more when they operate in a context in which there are large political disagreements. However, politicians deliberate less on the administrators' policy advices in such environments. Thus, conflict seems to generate a pressure on the administrators to search for expert knowledge. But at the same time, within a context of political disputes, politicians make less effort to understand and critically reflect over the information provided to them by the administration, and are less inclined to change their opinions even if good arguments are presented to them. Thus, the empirical analysis indicates that what role expertise gets in policy making is very much a consequence of the local political environment.

  • 157.
    Lundin, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Öberg, PerOla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Policy Analysis at the Local Level2017In: Routledge Handbook of Comparative Policy Analysis / [ed] Brans, Marleen, Iris Geva-May, and Michael Howlett, New York: Routledge, 2017, 1, p. 131-142Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 158.
    Lundin, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Öberg, PerOla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Josefsson, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    LEARNING FROM SUCCESS: ARE SUCCESSFUL GOVERNMENTS ROLE MODELS?2015In: Public Administration, ISSN 0033-3298, E-ISSN 1467-9299, Vol. 93, no 3, p. 733-752Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Do local governments learn from their successful peers when designing public policies? In spite of extensive research on policy diffusion and learning, there is still a lack of studies on how success relates to learning patterns. We address this deficiency by examining which other governments local administrative units draw lessons from. More precisely, we investigate whether public managers learn from the experiences of local governments whose citizens are satisfied with government services. Using a large dyadic dataset on all Swedish municipalities from 2010, we find that senior public managers in local administrations learn from similar local governments and from neighbours. But we also find clear evidence that they learn from local governments whose citizens are pleased with local public services. This indicates that best practices are spread among local governments.

  • 159. Lundqvist, Helene
    et al.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Stimulating Local Public Employment: Do General Grants Work?2014In: American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, ISSN 1945-7731, E-ISSN 1945-774X, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 167-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We apply the regression kink design to the Swedish grant system and estimate causal effects of intergovernmental grants on local public employment. Our robust conclusion is that grants do not stimulate local public employment. We find no statistically significant effects on total local public employment, and we can exclude even moderate effects. When disaggregating the total effect by sector, we find that personnel in the traditional welfare sectors are unaffected, a conclusion which applies to both publicly and privately employed in these sectors. The only positive and statistically significant effect of grants is that on administrative personnel.

  • 160.
    Mellander, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Svardh, Joakim
    KTH, Educ & Commun Engn Sci ECE, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Context and Implications Document for: Inquiry-based learning put to the test: Medium-term effects of a science and technology for children programme2018In: REVIEW OF EDUCATION, ISSN 2049-6613, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 142-145Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This guide accompanies the following article: Mellander, E. & Svardh, J. 2018 Inquiry-based learning put to the test: Medium-term effects of a science and technology for children programme. Review of Education,

  • 161.
    Mellander, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Svärdh, Joakim
    KTH, Educ & Commun Engn Sci ECE, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Inquiry-based learning put to the test: Medium-term effects of a science and technology for children programme2018In: REVIEW OF EDUCATION, ISSN 2049-6613, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 103-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We evaluate the effects of participation in the Swedish version of the Science and Technology for Children Program on content and process skills in sciences, in grade 9. The Swedish version, called Natural Sciences and Technology for All (NTA), is predominantly employed in grades 1-6. Our outcome measures are scores and grades on nationwide standardised tests, and course grades, in biology, chemistry and physics, for the years 2009 and 2010. A nationally representative random sample of almost 16,000 test-taking students is coupled with multi-level information about the NTA, and background factors. Non-random selection into the programme is addressed by propensity score analysis. The matched sample has almost maximum common support and is well behaved in terms of propensity scores. Accounting for selection is shown to be very important. We find significantly positive effects on national test scores (effect size 0.24) and national test grades for physics, but not for biology and chemistry. With respect to course grades, we find no significant effects at all. We consider explanations for the differences in the estimated effects across science subjects and between types of outcome variables, i.e. national standardised tests versus course grades.

  • 162. Mendes, Rute
    et al.
    van den Berg, Gerard J.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Lindeboom, Maarten
    An empirical assessment of assortative matching in the labor market2010In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 919-929Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In labor markets with worker and firm heterogeneity, the matching between firms and workers may be assortative, meaning that the most productive workers and firms team up. We investigate this with longitudinal population-wide matched employer-employee data from Portugal. Using panel data methods, we quantify a firm-specific productivity term for each firm, and we relate this to the skill distribution of workers in the firm. We find that there is positive assortative matching, in particular among long-lived firms. Using skill-specific estimates of an index of search frictions, we find that the results can only to a small extent be explained by heterogeneity of search frictions across worker skill groups.

  • 163.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Vem ska ansvara för skolan?2006In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 61-64Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 164.
    Mörk, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Sjögren, Anna
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Svaleryd, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Uppsala Center for Fiscal Studies.
    Childcare costs and the demand for children-evidence from a nationwide reform2013In: Journal of Population Economics, ISSN 0933-1433, E-ISSN 1432-1475, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 33-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exploiting the exogenous variation in user fees caused by a Swedish childcare reform, we are able to identify the causal effect of childcare costs on fertility in a context in which childcare enrollment is almost universal, user fees are low, and labor force participation of mothers is very high. Anticipation of a reduction in childcare costs increased the number of first and higher-order births, but only seemed to affect the timing of second births. For families with many children we also find a marginally significant negative income effect on fertility.

  • 165.
    Mörk, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. UCLS, UCFS, CESifo, IZA, IEB.
    Sjögren, Anna
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. UCLS.
    Svaleryd, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. UCLS and UCFS.
    Consequences of parental job loss on the familyenvironment and on human capital formation: Evidence from plant closures2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the consequences of mothers’ and fathers’ job loss for parents, families, and children. Rich Swedish register data allow us to identify plant closures and account for non-random selection of workers to closing plants by using propensity score matching and controlling for pre-displacement outcomes. Our overall conclusion is positive: childhood health, educational and early adult outcomes are not adversely affected by parental job loss. Parents and families are however negatively affected in terms of parental health, labor market outcomes and separations. Limited effects on family disposable income suggest that generous unemployment insurance and a dual-earner norm shield families from financial distress, which together with universal health care and free education is likely to be protective for children.

  • 166.
    Mörk, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Sjögren, Anna
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Svaleryd, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Effekter av barnomsorgsavgifter på barnafödandet2009In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 59-69Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 167.
    Mörk, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Sjögren, Anna
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Svaleryd, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Parental unemployment and child health2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze to what extent health outcomes of Swedish children are worse among children whose parents become unemployed. To this end we combine Swedish hospitalization data for 1992-2007 for children 3-18 years of age with register data on parental unemployment. We find that children with unemployed parents are 17 percent more likely to be hospitalized than other children, but that most of the difference is driven by selection. A child fixed-effects approach suggests a small effect of parental unemployment on child health.

  • 168.
    Mörk, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Sjögren, Anna
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Svaleryd, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Parental Unemployment and Child Health2014In: CESifo Economic Studies, ISSN 1610-241X, E-ISSN 1612-7501, Vol. 60, no 2, p. 366-401Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze to what extent health outcomes of Swedish children are worse among children whose parents become unemployed. To this end we combine Swedish hospitalization data for 1992-2007 for children 3-18 years of age with register data on parental unemployment. We find that children with unemployed parents are 17% more likely to be hospitalized than other children, but that most of the difference is driven by selection. A child fixed-effects approach suggests a small effect of parental unemployment on child health. (JEL-codes: I12, J13).

  • 169.
    Mörk, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Svalery, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Sjögren, Anna
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Hellre rik och frisk: Om familjebakgrund och barns hälsa2014Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 170.
    Nilsson, J. Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. Stockholm Univ, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Alcohol Availability, Prenatal Conditions, and Long-Term Economic Outcomes2017In: Journal of Political Economy, ISSN 0022-3808, E-ISSN 1537-534X, Vol. 125, no 4, p. 1149-1207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how a policy that sharply increased alcohol availability during 8.5 months affected the labor productivity of those exposed to it in utero. Compared to the surrounding cohorts, the prenatally exposed children have substantially worse labor market and educational outcomes and lower cognitive and noncognitive ability. Effects on earnings are found throughout the distribution but are largest below the median. Males are more affected than females, consistent with growing evidence that boys are less resilient to early environmental insults. The long-term effects seem primarily driven by changes in prenatal health rather than changes in the childhood environment.

  • 171.
    Nordström Skans, Oskar
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    How does the age structure affect regional productivity?2008In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 15, no 10, p. 787-790Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article studies the effects of a changing age structure on regional productivity using lagged population structure to purge estimates of the influence of endogenous migration. It is shown that workers aged 50-60 years have a positive effect on regional productivity. Together with evidence from previous research showing that the effect of the same age group on unemployment is positive, the results support the notion that well-matched workers gives rise to both high productivity and high unemployment.

  • 172.
    Nordström Skans, Oskar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Edin, Per-Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Holmlund, Bertil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Wage Dispersion Between and Within Plants: Sweden 1985-20002006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper describes the Swedish wage distribution and how it correlates with worker mobility and plant-specific factors. It is well known that wage inequality has increased in Sweden since the mid-1980s. However, little evidence has so far been available as to whether this development reflects increased dispersion between plants, between individuals in the same plant, or both. We use a new linked employer-employee data set and discover that a trend rise in between- plant wage inequality account for the entire increase in wage dispersion. This pattern, which remains when we control for observable individual human capital characteristics, may reflect increased sorting of workers by skill levels and/or increased scope for rent sharing in local wage negotiations. Our discussion suggests that both factors may have become more important.

  • 173.
    Nybom, Martin
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. Stockholm Univ, Swedish Inst Social Res SOFI, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The Distribution of Lifetime Earnings Returns to College2017In: Journal Labor Economics, ISSN 0734-306X, E-ISSN 1537-5307, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 903-952Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    I use Swedish registry data to estimate lifetime earnings returns to college and how they vary with observed and unobserved characteristics. The richness of the data also allows me to examine heterogeneity with respect to cognitive and noncognitive ability and parental earnings. Local instrumental variable analysis is used to recover marginal and average treatment effects under selection on gains. The findings support the notion of self-selection, but mainly on observed characteristics. Returns vary little with parental earnings but substantially with respect to both cognitive and noncognitive ability, thus suggesting important complementarities between formal schooling and informal skills.

  • 174.
    Nybom, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. Stockholm Univ, Swedish Inst Social Res, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stuffier, Jan
    Univ Carlos III Madrid, Getafe, Spain.;Swedish Inst Social Res, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Biases in Standard Measures of Intergenerational Income Dependence2017In: The Journal of human resources, ISSN 0022-166X, E-ISSN 1548-8004, Vol. 52, no 3, p. 800-825Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Estimates of the most common mobility measure, the intergenerational elasticity, can be severely biased if snapshots are used to approximate lifetime income. However, little is known about biases in other popular dependence measures. Using long Swedish income series, we provide such evidence for log-linear and rank correlations, and rank-based transition probabilities. Attenuation bias is considerably weaker in rank-based measures. Life-cycle bias is strongest in the elasticity, moderate in log-linear correlations, and small in rank-based measures. However; there are important exceptions: persistence in the tails of the distribution is considerably higher and long-distance downward mobility lower than estimates from short-run income suggest.

  • 175.
    Nybom, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Stuhler, Jan
    Univ Carlos III Madrid, Madrid, Spain;SOFI, Madrid, Spain.
    Steady-state assumptions in intergenerational mobility research2019In: Journal of Economic Inequality, ISSN 1569-1721, E-ISSN 1573-8701, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 77-97Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 176.
    Olsson, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Thoursie, Peter Skogman
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Sickness insurance and spousal labour supply2015In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 33, p. 41-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analysing a reform in the Swedish public sickness insurance, we find that an increased replacement rate for one spouse has a negative cross effect on the other spouse's labour supply. The cross effects are present in the labour supply margins that workers can easily adjust. For wives of treated husbands, the total number of sick days increases on average 9.1% per month, whereas labour earnings are unchanged. The cross effect on total sick days for husbands to treated wives is 6.1% on average, with no effect on annual labour earnings. The total number of sick days and annual labour earnings for treated spouses are estimated to be unaffected by the reform, which indicates that the cross effects stem specifically from higher insurance coverage for the couples.

  • 177.
    Olsson, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. Res Inst Ind Econ IFN, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Tåg, Joacim
    Res Inst Ind Econ IFN, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Private Equity, Layoffs, and Job Polarization2017In: Journal Labor Economics, ISSN 0734-306X, E-ISSN 1537-5307, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 697-754Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Private equity firms are often criticized for laying off workers, but the evidence on who loses their jobs and why is scarce. This paper argues that explanations for job polarization also explain layoffs after private equity buyouts. Buyouts reduce agency problems, which triggers automation and offshoring. Using rich employer-employee data, we show that buyouts generally do not affect unemployment incidence. However, unemployment incidence doubles for workers in less productive firms who perform routine or offshorable job tasks. Job polarization is also much more marked among workers affected by buyouts than for the economy at large.

  • 178.
    Persson, Mikael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government. Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Karl-Oskar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Oskarsson, Sven
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    How does education affect adolescents'€™ political development?2016In: Economics of Education Review, ISSN 0272-7757, E-ISSN 1873-7382, Vol. 53, p. 182-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper employs a between-grades regression discontinuity design to estimate the causal effect of education on political knowledge, intention to participate and democratic values. Using data on attitudes and knowledge among about 30,000 students from Greece, Norway, Slovenia and Sweden, we employ a fuzzy regression discontinuity design in which we exploit the exogenous variation related to school entry age. By comparing students who are born around the New Year cut-off point we estimate the causal effect of the ninth year of schooling. Results show that an additional year of schooling has no detectable effect on political knowledge, democratic values or political participation.

  • 179.
    Piccarreta, Raffaella
    et al.
    Bocconi University, Department of Decision Sciences.
    Bonetti, Marco
    Bocconi University, Department of Social and Political Sciences.
    Lombardi, Stefano
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Comparing Discrete Time Multi-state Models Using DissimilaritiesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we propose different methods for comparing the predictive performance of non-nested event history models. These models are generally used to study transitions across states and over time in a variety of settings, both in biomedical studies and in the social sciences. Our goal is to compare the ability of competing models to generate trajectories that are similar to those observed in the sample at hand. To this aim, we first introduce alternative distance-based criteria to compare pairwise dissimilarities computed between observed and model-generated sequences. Next, we estimate two alternative discrete time semi-Markov models using data on family formation and childbearing decisions from the Dutch Fertility and Family Surveys study. Finally, we use the estimated models to simulate event histories and to illustrate the proposed comparison criteria.

  • 180. Richardson, Katarina
    et al.
    van den Berg, Gerard J.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Duration dependence versus unobserved heterogeneity in treatment effects: swedish labor market training AND the transition rate to employment2013In: Journal of applied econometrics (Chichester, England), ISSN 0883-7252, E-ISSN 1099-1255, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 325-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of a treatment on the hazard rate of a duration outcome may depend on the elapsed time since treatment. In addition, treatment effects may be heterogeneous across agents. The former gives rise to duration dependence of the treatment effect, whereas unobserved heterogeneity gives rise to spurious duration dependence of the observable hazard rate. We develop a model allowing for duration dependence and unobserved heterogeneity in the treatment effect. The model incorporates a Timing of Events model and allows for selectivity on unobservables. We prove identification, exploiting variation in the timing of treatment and outcome. In the application we analyze the effects of the Swedish vocational employment training program on the individual transition rate from unemployment to work. We demonstrate the appropriateness of the approach by studying the enrollment process. The data cover the population and include multiple unemployment spells for many individuals. The results indicate a large, significantly positive effect on exit to work shortly after exiting the program. The effect at the individual level diminishes after some weeks. When taking account of the time spent in the program, the effect on the mean unemployment duration is small.

  • 181.
    Runeson, Caroline
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala Center for Labor Studies (UCLS), Sweden.
    Lindahl, Erica
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Illness-related absence among preschool children: Insights from a health intervention in Swedish preschools2017In: Journal of Health Economics, ISSN 0167-6296, E-ISSN 1879-1646, Vol. 56, p. 191-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We evaluate the effect of a preschool health intervention aimed at reducing infections through improved hygiene practices and training of the staff. The large-scale design enables us to study heterogeneous effects with respect to several child and preschool characteristics that are related to the level of illness-related absence. We find no reduction, on average, in children's illness-related absence. This conclusion holds across different age groups of preschool children, and for preschools with varying levels of absence before the intervention. We find some suggestive evidence that the intervention may have induced effects operating in different directions: while improved hygiene practices may have reduced illness, stricter guidelines regarding absence during infections seems to have contributed to an increased absence level, resulting in an overall zero effect. Overall, our results suggest that reducing absence through improved hygiene practices is not easily accomplished in a child care setting. (c) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 182. Saez-Marti, Maria
    et al.
    Sjögren, Anna
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Deadlines and distractions2008In: Journal of Economic Theory, ISSN 0022-0531, E-ISSN 1095-7235, Vol. 143, no 1, p. 153-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider a task, demanding a sequence of efforts, that must be completed by a deadline. Effort is not contractible. Agents face shocks to their opportunity cost of time and are sometimes distracted from work. We show that agents who are often distracted may outperform agents who are distracted less often. The reason is that anticipation of distractions induces agents to start earlier for precautionary reasons. Principals can increase the probability of completion, and achieve higher profits, by strategically setting "tight" deadlines, provided that the deadlines can be extended with some positive probability.

  • 183. Scholte, Robert S.
    et al.
    van den Berg, Gerard J.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Lindeboom, Maarten
    Long-run effects of gestation during the Dutch Hunger Winter famine on labor market and hospitalization outcomes2015In: Journal of Health Economics, ISSN 0167-6296, E-ISSN 1879-1646, Vol. 39, p. 17-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Dutch Hunger Winter (1944/45) is the most-studied famine in the literature on long-run effects of malnutrition in utero. Its temporal and spatial demarcations are clear, it was severe, it was not anticipated, and nutritional conditions in society were favorable and stable before and after the famine. This is the first study to analyze effects of in utero exposure on labor market outcomes and hospitalization late in life, and the first to use register data covering the full Dutch population to examine long-run effects of this famine. We provide results of famine exposure by sub-interval of gestation. We find a significantly negative effect of exposure during the first trimester of gestation on employment outcomes 53 or more years after birth. Hospitalization rates in the years before retirement are higher after middle or late gestational exposure.

  • 184.
    Scholte, Robert
    et al.
    SEO Amsterdam Econ, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    van den Berg, Gerard J.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. Univ Bristol, Bristol, Avon, England. IZA, Bonn, Germany..
    Lindeboom, Maarten
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Tinbergen Inst, Amsterdam, Netherlands.;HEB Bergen, Bergen, Norway..
    Deeg, Dorly J. H.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Does the Size of the Effect of Adverse Events at High Ages on Daily-Life Physical Functioning Depend on the Economic Conditions Around Birth?2017In: Health Economics, ISSN 1057-9230, E-ISSN 1099-1050, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 86-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper considers determinants of physical functional limitations in daily-life activities at high ages. Specifically, we quantify the extent to which the impact of adverse life events on this outcome is larger in case of exposure to adverse economic conditions early in life. Adverse life events include bereavement, severe illness in the family, and the onset of chronic diseases. We use a longitudinal data set of individuals born in the first decades of the 20th century. The business cycle around birth is used as an indicator of economic conditions early in life. We find that the extent to which functional limitations suffer from the onset of chronic diseases is larger if the individual was born in a recession. The long-run effect of economic conditions early in life on functional limitations at high ages runs primarily via this life event.

  • 185.
    Selin, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Uppsala Center for Fiscal Studies. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    What happens to the husband's retirement decision when the wife's retirement incentives change?2017In: International Tax and Public Finance, ISSN 0927-5940, E-ISSN 1573-6970, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 432-458Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, I exploit population-wide administrative data and a Swedish occupational pension reform, which primarily affected a subgroup of female workers, to recover the effect of the wife's retirement incentive on the husband's retirement behavior. I estimate a sharp relative decrease in the retirement probability of 63-year-old wives who were treated by the reform. However, there was no significant response of their husbands, and this finding is surprisingly robust. This suggests that cross-effects (from the wife to the husband) are substantially smaller than the direct effects of the wife's own incentive on the wife's retirement.

  • 186.
    Sjögren, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Vikström, Johan
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    How long and how much?: Learning about the design of wage subsidies from policy changes and discontinuities2015In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 34, p. 127-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Employment and wage subsidies are used to combat long-term unemployment, yet there is little research to guide the design of such programs. Discontinuities and changes in the design and implementation of wage subsidies under the Swedish New Start Jobs-policy allow us to study effects of both subsidy rate and subsidy duration. We find that wage subsidies have substantial effect on job-finding rates for those eligible. The effect is stronger for larger subsidies and more than doubles as the length of the subsidy doubles. Although employment drops as subsidies expire, the probability of being employed remains higher for workers finding subsidized employment also after the expiry of the employment subsidies.

  • 187.
    Skans, Iida Hakkinen
    et al.
    Natl Inst Econ Res, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johansson, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. The Swedish National Audit Office, Sweden; IZA. .
    Self-screening Effects of Monitoring: Evidence from a Quasi Experiment in the Swedish Temporary Parental Benefit Program2018In: Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, ISSN 0305-9049, E-ISSN 1468-0084, Vol. 80, no 5, p. 893-904Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Monitoring and screening have been shown to be important to reduce moral hazard in social insurances. This paper empirically investigates whether monitoring in the Swedish temporary parental benefit program affects future benefit take-up. Identification is based on the fact that parents' benefit applications are monitored randomly by the insurer. The estimation results show that parents who are monitored are less likely to apply again in the near future.

  • 188.
    Skans, Oskar Nordstrom
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Liljeberg, Linus
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    The wage effects of subsidized career breaks2014In: Empirical Economics, ISSN 0377-7332, E-ISSN 1435-8921, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 593-617Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article studies how subsidized career breaks affect future labor market performance. The analysis uses a Swedish career break program where applications were accepted until local funds were exhausted. The rejected applicants serve as counterfactuals to derive estimates that are unaffected by selection or omitted variables. The estimated wage effect of a 10-month-long break is negative and in the order of 3 % 1-2 years after the interruption. The average applicant is estimated to have substantially lower returns to experience than the average worker. The results thus show that career breaks are costly, even for groups with low expected returns to experience, and in an environment with very compressed wages. The career breaks also induced an increase in job and task mobility whereas post-leave labor supply remained unaffected except for workers close to retirement.

  • 189. Stenberg, Anders
    et al.
    de Luna, Xavier
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Can adult education delay retirement from the labour market?2012In: Journal of Population Economics, ISSN 0933-1433, E-ISSN 1432-1475, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 677-696Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine whether adult education delays retirement to potentially increase labour force participation among the elderly, a mechanism suggested in the OECD strategy for "active ageing" and the "Lisbon strategy" of the EU. Using register data from Sweden, we analyse transcripts from adult education for the period 1979-2004 and annual earnings 1982-2004. We match samples of treated individuals, in adult education 1986-1989, and untreated on the propensity score. The timing of exit from the workforce is assessed by non-parametric estimation of survival rates in the labour force. The results indicate no effects of adult education on the timing of retirement.

  • 190. Tertilt, Michele
    et al.
    van den Berg, Gerard J.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    The Association Between Own Unemployment and Violence Victimization Among Female Youths2015In: Jahrbücher für Nationalökonomie und Statistik, ISSN 0021-4027, Vol. 235, no 4-5, p. 499-513Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate the association between the unemployment status of young women and the probability that they are subject to violence, using Swedish population register data covering the period 1999-2008. These data contain the highest-level classification of diagnoses made by medical experts at every individual in-patient and out-patient visit to medical care units, including every contact with a physician. We distinguish between domestic and non-domestic violence. It turns out that unemployed women are significantly more likely to be victimized than employed women with the same individual characteristics. This is mostly reflected in indicators of non-domestic violence and long-run abuse among unemployed female youths.

  • 191.
    Vagero, Denny
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Ctr Hlth Equity Studies, CHESS, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pinger, Pia R.
    Univ Bonn, Dept Econ, Adenauerallee 24-42, D-53113 Bonn, Germany;Inst Behav & Inequal, Briq, Bonn, Germany.
    Aronsson, Vanda
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Ctr Hlth Equity Studies, CHESS, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    van den Berg, Gerard J.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. Univ Bristol, Dept Econ, Priory Rd Complex, Bristol BS8 ITU, Avon, England.
    Paternal grandfather's access to food predicts all-cause and cancer mortality in grandsons2018In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 9, article id 5124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of animals and plants suggest that nutritional conditions in one generation may affect phenotypic characteristics in subsequent generations. A small number of human studies claim to show that pre-pubertal nutritional experience trigger a sex-specific transgenerational response along the male line. A single historical dataset, the Overkalix cohorts in northern Sweden, is often quoted as evidence. To test this hypothesis on an almost 40 times larger dataset we collect harvest data during the pre-pubertal period of grandparents (G0, n = 9,039) to examine its potential association with mortality in children (G1, n = 7,280) and grandchildren (G2, n = 11,561) in the Uppsala Multigeneration Study. We find support for the main Overkalix finding: paternal grandfather's food access in pre-puberty predicts his male, but not female, grandchildren's all-cause mortality. In our study, cancer mortality contributes strongly to this pattern. We are unable to reproduce previous results for diabetes and cardiovascular mortality.

  • 192.
    van den Berg, Gerard J.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    On the uniqueness of optimal prices set by monopolistic sellers2007In: Journal of Econometrics, ISSN 0304-4076, E-ISSN 1872-6895, Vol. 141, no 2, p. 482-491Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper considers price determination by monopolistic sellers who know the distribution of valuations among the potential buyers. We derive a novel condition under which the optimal price set by the monopolist is unique. In many settings, this condition is easy to interpret, and it is valid for a very wide range of distributions of valuations. The results carry over to the optimal minimum price in independent private value auctions. In addition, they can be fruitfully applied in the analysis of quantity discount price policies.

  • 193.
    van den Berg, Gerard J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Bergemann, Annette H.
    Caliendo, Marco
    The effect of active labor market programs on not-yet treated unemployed individuals2009In: Journal of the European Economic Association, ISSN 1542-4766, E-ISSN 1542-4774, Vol. 7, no 2-3, p. 606-616Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Labor market programs may affect unemployed individuals' behavior before they enroll. Such ex ante effects are hard to identify without model assumptions. We develop a novel method that relates self-reported perceived treatment rates and job-search behavioral outcomes, like the reservation wage, to each other, among newly unemployed workers. Job search theory is used to derive theoretical predictions. To deal with effect heterogeneity and selectivity, the effects of interest are estimated by propensity score matching. We apply the method to the German active labor market program system, using a novel data set including self-reported assessments of the variables of interest as well as unusually detailed information on behavior, attitudes, and past outcomes. We find that the system generates a negative ex ante effect on the reservation wage and a positive effect on search effort.

  • 194.
    van den Berg, Gerard J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Deeg, Dorly J. H.
    Lindeboom, Maarten
    Portrait, France
    The Role of Early-Life Conditions in the Cognitive Decline due to Adverse Events Later in Life2010In: Economic Journal, ISSN 0013-0133, E-ISSN 1468-0297, Vol. 120, no 548, p. F411-F428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Serious life events, such as the loss of a relative or the onset of a chronic condition may influence cognitive functioning. We examine whether the cognitive impact of such events is stronger if conditions very early in life were adverse, using Dutch longitudinal data of older persons. We exploit exogenous variation in early-life conditions as generated by the business cycle.

  • 195.
    van den Berg, Gerard J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Doblhammer-Reiter, Gabriele
    Christensen, Kaare
    Being Born Under Adverse Economic Conditions Leads to a Higher Cardiovascular Mortality Rate Later in Life: Evidence Based on Individuals Born at Different Stages of the Business Cycle2011In: Demography, ISSN 0070-3370, E-ISSN 1533-7790, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 507-530Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We connect the recent medical and economic literatures on the long-run effects of early-life conditions by analyzing the effects of economic conditions on the individual cardiovascular (CV) mortality rate later in life, using individual data records from the Danish Twin Registry covering births since the 1870s and including the cause of death. To capture exogenous variation of conditions early in life, we use the state of the business cycle around birth. We find significant negative effects of economic conditions around birth on the individual CV mortality rate at higher ages. There is no effect on the cancer-specific mortality rate. From variation within and between monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs born under different conditions, we conclude that the fate of an individual is more strongly determined by genetic and household-environmental factors if early-life conditions are poor. Individual-specific qualities come more to fruition if the starting position in life is better.

  • 196.
    van den Berg, Gerard J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Gupta, Sumedha
    The role of marriage in the causal pathway from economic conditions early in life to mortality2015In: Journal of Health Economics, ISSN 0167-6296, E-ISSN 1879-1646, Vol. 40, p. 141-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the interplay between early-life conditions and marital status, as determinants of adult mortality. We use individual data from Dutch registers (years 1815-2000), combined with business cycle conditions in childhood as indicators of early-life conditions. The empirical analysis estimates bivariate duration models of marriage and mortality, allowing for unobserved heterogeneity. Results show that conditions around birth and school going ages are important for marriage and mortality. Men typically enjoy a protective effect of marriage, whereas women suffer during childbearing ages. However, having been born under favorable economic conditions reduces female mortality during childbearing ages.

  • 197.
    van den Berg, Gerard J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Lundborg, Petter
    Nystedt, Paul
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Critical Periods During Childhood and Adolescence2014In: Journal of the European Economic Association, ISSN 1542-4766, E-ISSN 1542-4774, Vol. 12, no 6, p. 1521-1557Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We identify the ages that constitute sensitive (or critical) periods in children's development towards their adult health status, skills, and human capital. For this, we use data on families migrating into Sweden from countries that are poorer, with less healthy conditions. Late-life health is proxied by adult height and other adult outcomes. The relation between siblings' ages at migration and their adult outcomes allows us to estimate the causal effect of conditions at specific childhood ages. We effectively exploit that, for siblings, the migration occurs simultaneously in calendar time but at different developmental stages (ages). We find evidence that the period just before the puberty growth spurt constitutes a critical period for adult height and we find related critical periods for adult cognition, mental health, and education.

  • 198.
    van den Berg, Gerard J.
    et al.
    Univ Bristol, Bristol, Avon, England.
    Lundborg, Petter
    Lund Univ, Lund, Sweden.
    Vikström, Johan
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    The Economics of Grief2017In: Economic Journal, ISSN 0013-0133, E-ISSN 1468-0297, Vol. 127, no 604, p. 1794-1832Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the short-run and long-run economic impact of one of the largest losses that an individual can face; the death of a child. We utilise unique registers on the entire Swedish population, combining information on the date and cause of death with parental outcomes. We exploit the longitudinal dimension of the data and deal with several selection issues. Losing a child has adverse effects on labour income, employment status, marital status and hospitalisation. The value of policy measures aimed at preventing mortal accidents of children is underestimated if it does not take bereavement effects on parents into account.

  • 199.
    van den Berg, Gerard J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. Univ Mannheim, D-68131 Mannheim, Germany.;Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.;IZA, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Pinger, Pia R.
    Univ Bonn, IZA, Bonn, Germany..
    Schoch, Johannes
    Univ Mannheim, D-68131 Mannheim, Germany..
    Instrumental Variable Estimation of the Causal Effect of Hunger Early in Life on Health Later in Life2016In: Economic Journal, ISSN 0013-0133, E-ISSN 1468-0297, Vol. 126, no 591, p. 465-506Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate average causal effects of early-life hunger on late-life health by applying instrumental variable estimation, using data with self-reported periods of hunger earlier in life, with famines as instruments. The data contain samples from European countries and include birth cohorts exposed to various famines in the twentieth century. We use two-sample IV estimation to deal with imperfect recollection of conditions at very early stages of life. The estimated average causal effects may exceed famine effects by at least a factor three.

  • 200.
    van den Berg, Gerard J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. Univ Bristol, Bristol, Avon, England.
    van der Klaauw, Bas
    Structural empirical evaluation of job search monitoring2019In: International Economic Review, ISSN 0020-6598, E-ISSN 1468-2354, Vol. 60, no 2, p. 879-903Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To evaluate search effort monitoring of unemployed workers, it is important to take account of post-unemployment wages and job-to-job mobility. We structurally estimate a model with search channels, using a controlled trial in which monitoring is randomized. The data include registers and survey data on search behavior. We find that the opportunity to move to better-paid jobs in employment reduces the extent to which monitoring induces substitution toward formal search channels in unemployment. Job mobility compensates for adverse long-run effects of monitoring on wages. We examine counterfactual policies against moral hazard, like reemployment bonuses and changes of the benefits path.

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