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  • 151. Clear, Adrian K.
    et al.
    O’Neill, Kirstie
    Friday, Adrian
    Hazas, Mike
    Lancaster University.
    Bearing an open "Pandora’s Box": HCI for reconciling everyday food and sustainability2016In: ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, ISSN 1073-0516, E-ISSN 1557-7325, Vol. 23, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sustainability of food is a significant global concern with a drastic change required to mitigate complex social, environmental, and economic issues like climate change and food security for an ever increasing population. In this article, we set out to understand the place of food in people’s lives, their mundane yet surprisingly complex ways of sourcing their food, and the processes of transition, past and ongoing, that shape these choices. Our goal is to understand the potential role for digital interactions in supporting the various ways that food consumption can be made more sustainable. To inform this exercise, we specifically set out to contrast the journeys of committed sustainable “food pioneers” with more conventional mainstream consumers recruited in branches of a UK supermarket. This contrast highlights for both groups the various values, and “meaningfulness” attached to foods and meals in people’s lives, and suggests ways in which food choice and pro-sustainable practices can be supported at least in part by new digital technologies.

  • 152.
    Clear, Adrian
    et al.
    Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom.
    Morley, Janine
    Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom.
    Hazas, Mike
    Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom.
    Friday, Adrian
    Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom.
    Bates, Oliver
    Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom.
    Understanding adaptive thermal comfort: New directions for Ubicomp2013In: UbiComp ’13 Proceedings of the 2013 ACM international joint conference on Pervasive and ubiquitous computing, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2013, p. 113-122Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many parts of the world, mechanical heating and cooling is used to regulate indoor climates, with the aim of maintaining a uniform temperature. Achieving this is energy-intensive, since large indoor spaces must be constantly heated or cooled, and the difference to the outdoor temperature is large. This paper starts from the premise that comfort is not delivered to us by the indoor environment, but is instead something that is pursued as a normal part of daily life, through a variety of means. Based on a detailed study of four university students over several months, we explore how Ubicomp technologies can help create a more sustainable reality where people are more active in pursuing and maintaining their thermal comfort, and environments are less tightly controlled and less energy-intensive, and we outline areas for future research in this domain.

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  • 153.
    Collste, Göran
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Palm, Elin
    Linköping University.
    Struntar regeringen i rätten till personlig integritet?2013In: Svenska Dagbladet, Vol. 1 nov.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 154. Corrigan, Lee J.
    et al.
    Peters, Christopher
    Küster, Dennis
    Castellano, Ginevra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Engagement perception and generation for social robots and virtual agents2016In: Toward Robotic Socially Believable Behaving Systems: Volume I, Modeling Emotions, Springer, 2016, p. 29-51Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technology is the future, woven into every aspect of our lives, but how are we to interact with all this technology and what happens when problems arise? Artificial agents, such as virtual characters and social robots could offer a realistic solution to help facilitate interactions between humans and machines—if only these agents were better equipped and more informed to hold up their end of an interaction. People and machines can interact to do things together, but in order to get the most out of every interaction, the agent must to be able to make reasonable judgements regarding your intent and goals for the interaction.We explore the concept of engagement from the different perspectives of the human and the agent. More specifically, we study how the agent perceives the engagement state of the other interactant, and how it generates its own representation of engaging behaviour. In this chapter, we discuss the different stages and components of engagement that have been suggested in the literature from the applied perspective of a case study of engagement for social robotics, as well as in the context of another study that was focused on gaze-related engagement with virtual characters.

  • 155. Corrigan, L.J.
    et al.
    Basedow, C.A.
    Kuster, D.
    Kappas, A.
    Peters, C.
    Castellano, G.
    Perception Matters! Engagement in Task Orientated Social Robotics2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 156.
    Cort, Rebecca
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction.
    Behind the Scenes: Unintended Effects of Increased Technology use in Operational Train Traffic2020In: Swedish Transportation Research Conference 2020, October 21, 2020., 2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information technology has been an increasingly pervasive component of most workplaces throughout the past half-century, and has resulted in changes to how, when and where we work. In operational train traffic, the main actors are traffic controllers and train drivers and their workplaces are no exception to the rapid implementation pace of new IT across society. The work of traffic control is performed in a control room—an environment that has long been technology-intensive, and automation is anticipated to play an even more increasing role in the future. At the same time, the train drivers that traditionally have relied on their “out the window” perception are now requested to work with a variety of modern driver systems and are thus exposed to more information technologies within the cab than ever before. Overall, the last two decades have presented a rapid growth of railway technologies, mostly with the aim to increase capacity. In this talk, I pose the question as to how this has affected the work practices conducted by traffic controllers and train drivers respectively but also how it has affected the collaborative aspects of their work.

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    fulltext
  • 157.
    Cort, Rebecca
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction.
    Getting Work Done: The Significance of the Human in Complex Socio-Technical Systems2021Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to deepen the understanding of the role and relevance of the worker in the functioning of complex socio-technical systems. The perspective adopted is profoundly human-centred and the worker is considered as a resource. This stands in stark contrast to the performance-related measurements and accident investigations which have typically formed much research on work in complex safety-critical systems and conveyed a perspective of the human as merely a system cog. The empirical material in this thesis is based on ethnographic fieldwork in the shape of workplace studies conducted across two distinct work domains: manufacturing and operational train traffic. The studies are informed by distributed cognition (DCog) and activity theory (AT) as prominent theoretical approaches for developing in-depth understandings of how work activities are accomplished in situations where the interplay between humans and their socio-cultural and material environment is of interest. The findings are illustrated by empirical work that provides detailed accounts of work practices derived from a total of four work settings. It is illustrated how acquired experiences and skills allow the workers to simultaneously use and create resources in the socio-material environment. The findings also reveal novel characteristics of adaptations as driven by a human agency rather than being a result of external demands, which is the common view in literature on work in safety-critical domains. Based on the findings, the role of the worker is illustrated as a meaning-making actor – not only participating in, but also actively contributing to the system and its functioning. In that capacity, the worker is acting as a driving force for a process of continuous development, allowing the system to continue to function although frequently exposed to uncertainties and unexpected events. This thesis contributes to a deepened understanding of the role of human workers in socio-technical systems, highlighting how workers are an invaluable asset when it comes to managing large variations and unexpected events in technology-mediated complex work. This contribution is complementary to the current understanding of how to uphold system safety and provides insight into what underlies a mutually beneficial relationship between humans and technology to which both parties can contribute with what they do best.

    List of papers
    1. Tool use and collaborative work of dock assembly in practice
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tool use and collaborative work of dock assembly in practice
    2017 (English)In: Production & Manufacturing Research, ISSN 2169-3277, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 164-190Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In order to deepen the understanding of the intrinsic interactions and interplay between humans, tools, and environment from a systems perspective, research in the wild (RITW) approaches have gained traction during recent decades as they provide a higher ecological validity of findings. This paper presents a RITW study, investigating how assembly, in this case dock assembly of forwarders, was done in practice. As our theoretical foundation, we used the framework of distributed cognition, which is one of the main pillars of RITW. The findings are presented in narrative form, describing and highlighting that the workers achieve an efficient production outcome by being integral parts of the whole production process and doing so through coordination of activities benefitting the shared goal of the distributed socio-technical system.

    Keywords
    DCog, dock assembly, human factors & ergonomics, embodiment, tool use
    National Category
    Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
    Research subject
    User Centred Product Design; Interaction Lab (ILAB)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-333583 (URN)10.1080/21693277.2017.1374890 (DOI)000412286800003 ()2-s2.0-85029912768 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2017-09-26 Created: 2017-11-15 Last updated: 2021-10-29Bibliographically approved
    2. Interruptions in the wild: portraying the handling of interruptions in manufacturing from a distributed cognition lens
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interruptions in the wild: portraying the handling of interruptions in manufacturing from a distributed cognition lens
    2017 (English)In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 85-108Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study examining interruptionsin the wild by portraying the handling of interruptionsin manufacturing from a distributed cognitionlens. By studying how interruptions occur and are handledin the daily activities of a work team at a large foundry forcasting heavy diesel engines, we highlight situations whenthe propagation, transformation, and representation ofinformation are not supported by prescribed work processesand propose recommendations for how this can beamended. The study was conducted by several visits to theaforementioned factory with cognitive ethnography as thebasis for the data collection. The focus was on identifyinginterruptions and analysing these through a distributedcognition framework as an initial step towards studyinginterruptions in a manufacturing environment. The keyfindings include the identification of three, previouslyundefined, types of interruptions and the conclusion thatinterruptions do indeed affect the distributed workload ofthe socio-technical system and thus the overall productionperformance at the casting line.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer, 2017
    Keywords
    Manufacturing, Interruptions, Distributed cognition, Cognitive ethnography
    National Category
    Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
    Research subject
    Technology; Interaction Lab (ILAB); User Centred Product Design
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-333582 (URN)10.1007/s10111-016-0399-6 (DOI)000394999300006 ()2-s2.0-85007170452 (Scopus ID)
    Funder
    EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 314350]
    Available from: 2017-11-15 Created: 2017-11-15 Last updated: 2021-10-29Bibliographically approved
    3. The coordination between train traffic controllers and train drivers: a distributed cognition perspective on railway
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The coordination between train traffic controllers and train drivers: a distributed cognition perspective on railway
    2019 (English)In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 417-443Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Although there has long been a call for a holistic systems perspective to better understand real work in the complex domain of railway traffic, prior research has not strongly emphasised the socio-technical perspective. In operational railway traffic, the successful planning and execution of the traffic are the product of the socio-technical system comprised by both train drivers and traffic controllers. This paper presents a study inspired by cognitive ethnography with the aim to characterise the coordinating activities that are conducted by train traffic controllers and train drivers in the work practices of the socio-technical system of Swedish railway. The theoretical framework of distributed cognition (DCog) is used as a conceptual and analytical tool to make sense of the complex railway domain and the best practices as they are developed and performed “in the wild”. The analysis reveals a pattern of collaboration and coordination of actions among the workers and we introduce the concept of enacted actionable practices as a key concern for understanding how a successfully executed railway traffic emerges as a property of the socio-technical system. The implications for future railway research are briefly discussed.

    Keywords
    Distributed cognition, DCog, Railway, Rail human factors
    National Category
    Interaction Technologies
    Research subject
    Interaction Lab (ILAB)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-364088 (URN)10.1007/s10111-018-0513-z (DOI)000478042500005 ()2-s2.0-85051644932 (Scopus ID)
    Funder
    Swedish Transport Administration
    Available from: 2018-10-23 Created: 2018-10-23 Last updated: 2021-10-29Bibliographically approved
    4. ”We’re Doing This Together”: An in-Depth Analysis of the Teamwork between Train Traffic Controllers and Train Drivers
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>”We’re Doing This Together”: An in-Depth Analysis of the Teamwork between Train Traffic Controllers and Train Drivers
    2020 (English)In: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Computer-Human Interaction Research and Applications / [ed] Andreas Holzinger, Hugo Plácido Silva, Markus Helfert, and Larry Constantine, Portugal, 2020, p. 96-103Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Operational train traffic is executed by train drivers and traffic controllers operating as a tightly coupled team. Although separated in time and space, their work is intertwined to the degree that the realisation of the train traffic depends on successful coordination and collaboration between them. Prior rail research is mostly focused on either one of these two roles, which leaves the collaboration between them understudied. The controller-driver dyad is at the core of operational train traffic and their relationship is of major interest in creating and maintaining a safe and efficient train traffic system. With the use of observations and interviews, this study investigates and analyses the controller-driver dynamic, how they view each other and their collaboration. The findings highlight team spirit and trust within the relationship, and at the same time reveal an underlying relational distance that affects the relationship and their prerequisites for achieving a successful collaboration. Lack of insights into each other’s work and different priorities generate challenges, just as the implementation of new technology and its effects on information distribution. Findings are discussed in the context of obtaining a holistic perspective of operational train traffic, and the fundamental activities that lie at its core.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Portugal: , 2020
    Keywords
    Operational Train Traffic, Train Traffic Controller, Train Driver, Teamwork
    National Category
    Human Computer Interaction
    Research subject
    Human-Computer Interaction
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-424506 (URN)10.5220/0010058000960103 (DOI)000799464300009 ()978-989-758-480-0 (ISBN)
    Conference
    4th International Conference on Computer-Human Interaction Research and Applications (CHIRA) 2020
    Available from: 2020-11-06 Created: 2020-11-06 Last updated: 2022-07-01Bibliographically approved
    5. At the Centre of Coordination for Train Traffic: Activity Theory and Distributed Cognition in times of digitalisation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>At the Centre of Coordination for Train Traffic: Activity Theory and Distributed Cognition in times of digitalisation
    (English)In: Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    Abstract [en]

    The field of computer supported cooperative work (CSCW) is growing extensively, addressing a wide range of coordinative and technological applications from several perspectives. In this paper, we analyse and describe the use of technology in work practices within train traffic control rooms as they unfold in these complex technology-dense environments. With a workplace study, we focus on how traffic controllers and information officers deal with situations involving delays and disruptions of the traffic flow. In particular, we describe how the workers keep the trains running as well as how the activities of traffic controllers and information officers are shaped by the conduct of others, whether they are located in the same space or not. Part of our empirical work is a detailed analysis of the coordinative practices and technology use that is enacted in this setting based on two theories often applied within CSCW: Distributed Cognition (DCog) and Activity Theory (AT). We have three purposes with this paper: 1) addressing to what extent the ongoing digitalisation impacts the technology usage and if there are any novel insights on work practices to CSCW, 2) contributing to the discussion on the future use of DCog and AT in workplace studies in the increasingly digitalised nature of control room work, and 3) stimulating future research into the impacts of digitalisation from the viewpoint of how the workers contribute to upholding the traffic flow and how it should shape future work within operational train traffic from a holistic perspective.

    Keywords
    Activity theory, Centre of coordination, Control room, Distributed Cognition, Operational train traffic, Railway, Theory, Traffic control
    National Category
    Human Computer Interaction
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-456583 (URN)
    Projects
    Socioteknisk systemdesign av framtidens tågtrafiksystem
    Available from: 2021-10-20 Created: 2021-10-20 Last updated: 2021-10-21
    6. Sensing the breakdown: Managing complexity at the railway
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sensing the breakdown: Managing complexity at the railway
    2023 (English)In: Culture and Organization, ISSN 1475-9551, E-ISSN 1477-2760Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the complex and time-critical work practices within operational train traffic in Sweden by reporting on an incident causing an infrastructure breakdown and large traffic disruptions. Based on a workplace study approach, we report on how the control room workers – train traffic controllers and information officers – grasp, make sense of, and handle the consequences of the incident as it unfolds in realtime. We portray how the workers develop and acquire a sense of place in relation to the incident’s severity which is essential for successfully handling the situation. By introducing the ‘sense of place’ concept originally derived from the field of natural resources to the domain of operational train traffic, we provide a deepened understanding of the challenges characterising remote control work from a safety-critical socio-technical systems perspective. Finally, reflections on the application of the ‘sense of place’ concept, safety aspects and directions for future research are provided.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Routledge, 2023
    Keywords
    Socio-technical systems, workplace studies, control room, work practices, railway, sense of place
    National Category
    Human Computer Interaction
    Research subject
    Human-Computer Interaction
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-456580 (URN)10.1080/14759551.2023.2266857 (DOI)
    Projects
    Socioteknisk systemdesign av framtidens tågtrafiksystemTrafikverkets excellenssatsningMänniska och automation i framtida samverkan
    Funder
    Swedish Transport Administration, 2019/8562Swedish Transport Administration, 2020/11957Swedish Transport Administration, 2020/7162
    Available from: 2021-10-20 Created: 2021-10-20 Last updated: 2023-10-12
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    UUThesis_R-Cort-2021
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 158.
    Cort, Rebecca
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    ”We’re Doing This Together”: An in-Depth Analysis of the Teamwork between Train Traffic Controllers and Train Drivers2020In: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Computer-Human Interaction Research and Applications / [ed] Andreas Holzinger, Hugo Plácido Silva, Markus Helfert, and Larry Constantine, Portugal, 2020, p. 96-103Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Operational train traffic is executed by train drivers and traffic controllers operating as a tightly coupled team. Although separated in time and space, their work is intertwined to the degree that the realisation of the train traffic depends on successful coordination and collaboration between them. Prior rail research is mostly focused on either one of these two roles, which leaves the collaboration between them understudied. The controller-driver dyad is at the core of operational train traffic and their relationship is of major interest in creating and maintaining a safe and efficient train traffic system. With the use of observations and interviews, this study investigates and analyses the controller-driver dynamic, how they view each other and their collaboration. The findings highlight team spirit and trust within the relationship, and at the same time reveal an underlying relational distance that affects the relationship and their prerequisites for achieving a successful collaboration. Lack of insights into each other’s work and different priorities generate challenges, just as the implementation of new technology and its effects on information distribution. Findings are discussed in the context of obtaining a holistic perspective of operational train traffic, and the fundamental activities that lie at its core.

  • 159.
    Cort, Rebecca
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    At the Centre of Coordination for Train Traffic: Activity Theory and Distributed Cognition in times of digitalisationIn: Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The field of computer supported cooperative work (CSCW) is growing extensively, addressing a wide range of coordinative and technological applications from several perspectives. In this paper, we analyse and describe the use of technology in work practices within train traffic control rooms as they unfold in these complex technology-dense environments. With a workplace study, we focus on how traffic controllers and information officers deal with situations involving delays and disruptions of the traffic flow. In particular, we describe how the workers keep the trains running as well as how the activities of traffic controllers and information officers are shaped by the conduct of others, whether they are located in the same space or not. Part of our empirical work is a detailed analysis of the coordinative practices and technology use that is enacted in this setting based on two theories often applied within CSCW: Distributed Cognition (DCog) and Activity Theory (AT). We have three purposes with this paper: 1) addressing to what extent the ongoing digitalisation impacts the technology usage and if there are any novel insights on work practices to CSCW, 2) contributing to the discussion on the future use of DCog and AT in workplace studies in the increasingly digitalised nature of control room work, and 3) stimulating future research into the impacts of digitalisation from the viewpoint of how the workers contribute to upholding the traffic flow and how it should shape future work within operational train traffic from a holistic perspective.

  • 160.
    Cort, Rebecca
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Sensing the breakdown: Managing complexity at the railway2023In: Culture and Organization, ISSN 1475-9551, E-ISSN 1477-2760Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the complex and time-critical work practices within operational train traffic in Sweden by reporting on an incident causing an infrastructure breakdown and large traffic disruptions. Based on a workplace study approach, we report on how the control room workers – train traffic controllers and information officers – grasp, make sense of, and handle the consequences of the incident as it unfolds in realtime. We portray how the workers develop and acquire a sense of place in relation to the incident’s severity which is essential for successfully handling the situation. By introducing the ‘sense of place’ concept originally derived from the field of natural resources to the domain of operational train traffic, we provide a deepened understanding of the challenges characterising remote control work from a safety-critical socio-technical systems perspective. Finally, reflections on the application of the ‘sense of place’ concept, safety aspects and directions for future research are provided.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 161.
    Dagan, Ella
    et al.
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA.
    Bertran, Ferran Altarriba
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA.
    Márquez Segura, Elena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Flores, Miguel
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA.
    Isbister, Katherine
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA.
    Demo: A Social Wearable that Affords Vulnerability2019In: UBICOMP/ISWC'19 ADJUNCT: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2019 ACM INTERNATIONAL JOINT CONFERENCE ON PERVASIVE AND UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2019 ACM INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON WEARABLE COMPUTERS, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2019, p. 272-273Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present 'True Colors': a social wearable prototype designed to augment co-located social interaction of players in a LARP (live action role play). We designed it to enable the emergence of rich social dynamics between wearers and non-wearers. True Colors is Y-shaped, worn around the upper body, and has front and back interfaces to distinguish between actions taken by the wearer (front), and actions taken by others (back). To design True Colors, we followed a Research-through-Design approach, used experiential qualities and social affordances to guide our process, and co-designed with LARP designers. 13 True Colors wearables were deployed in a 3-day LARP event, attended by 109 people. From all the functionalities and interactivity the device afforded, players gravitated towards ones that emphasized the social value of experiencing vulnerability as a prompt to get together. This project was recently presented in CHI '19 [1] and may offer useful insights to others in the Ubi-Comp/ISWC community who develop technology to support co-located social experience.

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    fulltext
  • 162.
    Dagan, Ella
    et al.
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA.
    Bertran, Ferran Altarriba
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA.
    Márquez Segura, Elena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Flores, Miguel
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA.
    Isbister, Katherine
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA.
    Workshop Presentation of a Social Wearable That Affords Vulnerability2019In: UBICOMP/ISWC'19 ADJUNCT: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2019 ACM INTERNATIONAL JOINT CONFERENCE ON PERVASIVE AND UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2019 ACM INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON WEARABLE COMPUTERS, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2019, p. 461-462Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present 'True Colors,' a social wearable prototype designed to augment co-located social interaction among players in a LARP (live action role play). We designed it to enable the emergence of rich social dynamics between wearers and non-wearers. True Colors is Y-shaped, worn around the upper body, and has distinct front and back interfaces to afford actions taken by the wearer (front), and actions taken by others ( back). To design True Colors [3], we followed a Research-through-Design approach, used experiential qualities and social affordances to guide our process, and co-designed with LARP designers. 13 True Colors wearables were deployed in a 3-day LARP event, attended by 109 people. Out of all the functionalities and interactivity the device afforded, players gravitated most towards those that emphasized the social value of experiencing vulnerability as a prompt to get together.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 163.
    Dagan, Ella
    et al.
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Computat Media Dept, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA..
    Márquez Segura, Elena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Altarriba Bertran, Ferran
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Computat Media Dept, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA..
    Flores, Miguel
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Computat Media Dept, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA..
    Mitchell, Robb
    Univ Southern Denmark, Design & Commun, Odense, Denmark..
    Isbister, Katherine
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Computat Media Dept, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA..
    Design Framework For Social Wearables2019In: DIS '19: Proceedings of the 2019 on Designing Interactive Systems Conference, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) , 2019, p. 1001-1015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wearables are integrated into many aspects of our lives, yet, we still need further guidance to develop devices that truly enhance in-person interactions, rather than detract from them by taking people's attention away from the moment and one another. The value of this paper is twofold: first, we present an annotated portfolio of 'social wearables', namely technology designs worn on the body that augment co-located interaction. The design work described can serve as inspiration for others. Then we propose a design framework for social wearables grounded in prior work, as well as our own design research, that can help designers to ideate by raising valuable questions to begin their inquiry with and use to evaluate their designs. We illustrate the evaluative value of this framework through two social wearable designs, each tested in the appropriate social setting.

  • 164.
    Dagan, Ella
    et al.
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Computat Media Dept, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA.
    Márquez Segura, Elena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Bertran, Ferran Altarriba
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Computat Media Dept, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA.
    Flores, Miguel
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Computat Media Dept, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA.
    Isbister, Katherine
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Computat Media Dept, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA.
    Designing 'True Colors': A Social Wearable that Affords Vulnerability2019In: CHI 2019: Proceedings of the 2019 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2019, article id 33Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vulnerability is a common experience in everyday life and is frequently perceived as a flaw to be excised in technology design. Yet, research indicates it is an essential aspect of wholehearted living among others. In this paper, we present the design and deployment of 'True Colors', a novel wearable device intended to support social interaction in a live action roleplay game (LARP) setting. We describe the Research-through Design process that helped us to discover and articulate the possibility space of vulnerability in the design of social wearables, as support for producing a sense of social empowerment and connection among wearers within the LARP. We draw conclusions that may be of value to others designing wearables and related technologies aimed at supporting co-located social interaction in games/play.

  • 165.
    Dage, Sandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction.
    Att hitta användbarhetsproblem med Google Analytics - är det möjligt?2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The scope of research is usability problems and web analytics. This thesis examines

    whether or nor Google Analytics can point out the usability problems a website has,

    and describes the process of usability analysis of the two websites belonging to the

    organisation ArtDatabanken. The research is divided into two parts. The first part

    describes the collection of the usability problems ArtDatabanken had and what

    usability problems that were identified. The second part describes the

    Google Analytics analysis of the usability problems that were possible to investigate,

    how the study was designed and the result from that investigation. Finally, some

    recommendations are given on how Google Analytics should be improved to more

    effectively find potential usability problems. The results of the research show that

    Google Analytics can find some of the identified usability problems, but the automatic

    implementation and its standard reports is not effective enough. By tracking all of the

    events at the site, a better understanding of what users are doing during their visits

    could be obtained. This together with some changes of the built-in reports would

    increase the possibilities to find potential usability problems by using Google

    Analytics.

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  • 166.
    Daivadanamn, Meena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Cajander, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Huvila, Isto
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM.
    Dahl, Jo-Anne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Empowering towards healthy behaviours2016In: Ending Childhood Obesity: Actions through health and food equity, Uppsala University, 2016, p. 34-39Conference paper (Other academic)
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    Precedings
  • 167.
    Daniels, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Cajander, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    McDermott, Roger
    Using open-ended group projects in HCI courses2013In: Challenges from the Future: Bridging the gaps through HCI education, South Africa: University of Cape Town , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 168.
    de Vries, Katja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law. Stockholm Univ, Swedish Law & Informat Res Inst IRI, Dept Law, Stockholm, Sweden; Lund Univ, Dept Sociol Law, Lund, Sweden; Vrije Univ Brussel, Dept Law, Ctr Law Sci Technol & Soc LSTS, Brussels, Belgium.
    You never fake alone: Creative AI in action2020In: Information, Communication and Society, ISSN 1369-118X, E-ISSN 1468-4462, Vol. 23, no 14, p. 2110-2127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Creative AI (notably GANs and VAEs) can generate convincing fakes of video footage, pictures, graphics, etc. In order to conceptualize the societal role of creative AI a new conceptual toolbox is needed. The paper provides metaphors and concepts for understanding the functioning of creative AI. It shows how the role of creative AI in relation to FAT ideals can be enriched by a dynamic and constructivist understanding of creative AI. The paper proposes to use Greimas' actantial model as a heuristic in the operationalization of this type of understanding of creative AI.

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  • 169.
    Deneke, Julia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Lehane, Darren
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Kandler, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Menchini, Tom
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Laaksoharju, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Obaid, Mohammad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Using rapid prototyping to explore design implications for a pill-dispensing social agent2017In: Proc. 5th International Conference on Human Agent Interaction, New York: ACM Press, 2017, p. 53-59Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The process of managing one's daily intake of medication has been shown to be error-prone for a variety of reasons. In this paper, we explore, through a rapid prototyping approach, the design implications for a social robotic agent intended for dispensing medicine. The process started with initial interviews with medical experts to allow for a better understanding of the design space. Their input helped us realise a low-fidelity, animal-like, robotic prototype for pill-dispensing. We report initial impressions of the prototype from four pharmacists. Based on those findings, we present design implications categorised into: look and feel, social role, desired task, and the agent's presence in a home environment.

  • 170. Deshmukh, A.
    et al.
    Jones, A.
    Janarthanam, S.
    Foster, M.-E.
    Ribeiro, T.
    Corrigan, L.J.
    Aylett, R.
    Paiva, A.
    Papadopoulos, F.
    Castellano, G.
    Empathic Robotic Tutors: Map Guide2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 171.
    Deshmukh, Amol
    et al.
    Heriot Watt Univ, Sch Math & Comp Sci, Edinburgh EH14 4AS, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Janarthanam, Srinivasan
    Heriot Watt Univ, Sch Math & Comp Sci, Edinburgh EH14 4AS, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Hastie, Helen
    Heriot Watt Univ, Sch Math & Comp Sci, Edinburgh EH14 4AS, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Lim, Mei Yii
    Heriot Watt Univ, Sch Math & Comp Sci, Edinburgh EH14 4AS, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Aylett, Ruth
    Heriot Watt Univ, Sch Math & Comp Sci, Edinburgh EH14 4AS, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Castellano, Ginevra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    How expressiveness of a robotic tutor is perceived by children in a learning environment2016In: Proc. 11th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human Robot Interaction, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2016, p. 423-424Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a study investigating the expressiveness of two different types of robots in a tutoring task. The robots used were i) the EMYS robot, with facial expression capabilities, and ii) the NAO robot, without facial expressions but able to perform expressive gestures. Preliminary results show that the NAO robot was perceived to be more friendly, pleasant and empathic than the EMYS robot as a tutor in a learning environment.

  • 172.
    Deshmukh, Amol
    et al.
    Heriot Watt Univ, Sch Math & Comp Sci, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Jones, Aidan
    Univ Birmingham, Sch Elect Elect & Comp Engn, Birmingham, W Midlands, England.
    Janarthanam, Srinivasan
    Heriot Watt Univ, Sch Math & Comp Sci, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Hastie, Helen
    Heriot Watt Univ, Sch Math & Comp Sci, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Ribeiro, Tiago
    INESC ID, GAIPS, Lisbon, Portugal;‎ Inst Super Tecn, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Aylett, Ruth
    Heriot Watt Univ, Sch Math & Comp Sci, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Paiva, Ana
    INESC ID, GAIPS, Lisbon, Portugal;‎ Inst Super Tecn, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Castellano, Ginevra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction. Univ Birmingham, Sch Elect Elect & Comp Engn, Birmingham, W Midlands, England.
    An Empathic Robotic Tutor in a Map Application2015In: Proceedings of the 2015 international conference on autonomous agents & multiagent systems (AAMAS'15), New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2015, p. 1923-1924Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this demonstration, we describe a scenario developed in the EMOTE project [2]. The overall goal of the EMOTE project is to develop an empathic robot tutor for 11-13 year old school students in an educational setting. The pedagogical domain we demonstrate here is to assist students in learning and testing their map-reading skills typically learned as part of the geography curriculum in schools. We demonstrate this scenario with a NAO robot interacting with the students whilst performing map-reading tasks in the form of a game on a touch-screen device.

  • 173.
    Dewe, Hayley
    et al.
    Univ Durham, Durham DH1 3LE, England..
    Gottwald, Janna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bird, Laura-Ashleigh
    UCL, London WC1E 6BT, England..
    Brenton, Harry
    Bespoke VR, London EC2A 4NE, England..
    Dillies, Marco
    Goldsmiths Univ London, London SE14 6NW, England..
    Cowie, Dorothy
    Univ Durham, Durham DH1 3LE, England..
    My Virtual Self: The Role of Movement in Children's Sense of Embodiment2022In: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, ISSN 1077-2626, E-ISSN 1941-0506, Vol. 28, no 12, p. 4061-4072Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are vast potential applications for children's entertainment and education with modern virtual reality (VR) experiences, yet we know very little about how the movement or form of such a virtual body can influence children's feelings of control (agency) or the sensation that they own the virtual body (ownership). In two experiments, we gave a total of 197 children aged 4-14 years a virtual hand which moved synchronously or asynchronously with their own movements and had them interact with a VR environment. We found that movement synchrony influenced feelings of control and ownership at all ages. In Experiment 1 only, participants additionally felt haptic feedback either congruently, delayed or not at all - this did not influence feelings of control or ownership. In Experiment 2 only, participants used either a virtual hand or non-human virtual block. Participants embodied both forms to some degree, provided visuomotor signals were synchronous (as indicated by ownership, agency, and location ratings). Yet, only the hand in the synchronous movement condition was described as feeling like part of the body, rather than like a tool (e.g., a mouse or controller). Collectively, these findings highlight the overall dominance of visuomotor synchrony for children's own-body representation; that children can embody non-human forms to some degree; and that embodiment is also somewhat constrained by prior expectations of body form.

  • 174. Doherty, Gavin
    et al.
    Cajander, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Gulliksen, Jan
    Linehan, Conor
    ACM SIGCHI/EIT health summer school on user-centered design in e-Health2018In: interactions, ISSN 1072-5520, E-ISSN 1558-3449, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 87-87Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 175.
    Dolezel, Michal
    et al.
    Prague University of Economics and Business.
    Cajander, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division Vi3. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Towards Mapping of Information Technology: Induced Alterations in Online Physicians’ Professional Identities2022In: Linköping Electronic Conference Proceedings 187 / [ed] André Henriksen, Elia Gabarron and Vivian Vimarlund, 2022, p. 69-76Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital Patient Contact Technologies (DPCT), including telemedicine solutions and digital tools for text-based communication between patients and physicians, play a major role in today’s healthcare. Professional identity defines norms, principles, and logic that guide one’s professional actions. Presently, little research evidence is available regarding professional identity changes in the context of DPCT implementations. This work theoretically and empirically illustrates the nature of the possible DPCT’ impact on physicians’ professional identities. To this end, a conceptual framework was constructed and the interviews with eight physicians operating an asynchronous healthcare-advice chat service (1177 Vårdguiden) in Uppsala, Sweden were examined. 

  • 176.
    Ebert, Achim
    et al.
    Technische Universität Kaiserslautern, Kaiserslautern, Rheinland-Pfalz, DE.
    Lachmann, ThomasUniversity of Kaiserslautern, Kaiserslautern, Germany.Dreßler, KlausFraunhofer Institute for Industrial Mathematics.Lindblom, JessicaUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division Vi3.Reinhard, RenéFraunhofer Institute for Industrial Mathematics ITWM, Kaiserslautern, Germany.
    Proceedings of the 33rd European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics: Evaluating the Reality–Virtuality Continuum2022Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 177.
    Ebert, Achim
    et al.
    TU Kaiserslautern, Kaiserslautern, Germany.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division Vi3. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Highlights from the 33rd European conference on cognitive ergonomics (ECCE 2022) Evaluating the Reality-Virtuality Continuum2023In: Behavior and Information Technology, ISSN 0144-929X, E-ISSN 1362-3001, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 265-268Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 178.
    Edlund, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Game Design.
    Artificial Intelligence in Games: Faking Human Behavior2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the possibilities of faking human behavior with artificial intelligence in computer games, by using efficient methods that save valuable development time and also creates a more rich experience for the players of a game. The specific implementation of artificial intelligence created and discussed is a neural network controlling a finite-state machine. The objective was to mimic human behavior rather than simulating true intelligence. A 2D shooter game is developed and used for experiments performed with human and artificial intelligence controlled players. The game sessions played were recorded in order for other humans to replay. Both players and spectators of the game sessions left feedbacks and reports that could later be analyzed. The data collected from these experiments was then analyzed, and reflections were made on the entire project. Tips and ideas are proposed to developers of shooter games who are interested in making human-like artificial intelligence. Conclusions are made and extra information is provided in order to further iterate on this research.

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  • 179.
    Ehn, Maria
    et al.
    Mälardalen Univ, Sch Innovat Design & Engn, Box 883, SE-72123 Västerås, Sweden..
    Derneborg, Mattias
    Reg Vastmanland Innovat, Västerås, Sweden..
    Revenäs, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, research centers etc., Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Mälardalen Univ, Sch Hlth Care & Social Welf, Västerås, Sweden.;Västerås Hosp, Orthoped Clin, Västerås, Sweden..
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalen Univ, Sch Innovat Design & Engn, Box 883, SE-72123 Västerås, Sweden..
    User-centered requirements engineering to manage the fuzzy front-end of open innovation in e-health: A study on support systems for seniors' physical activity2021In: International Journal of Medical Informatics, ISSN 1386-5056, E-ISSN 1872-8243, Vol. 154, article id 104547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Although e-health potentials for improving health systems in their safety, quality and efficiency has been acknowledged, a large gap between the postulated and empirically demonstrated benefits of e-health technologies has been ascertained. E-health development has classically been technology-driven, often resulting in the design of devices and applications that ignore the complexity of the real-world setting, thus leading to slow diffusion of innovations to care. Therefore, e-health innovation needs to consider the mentioned complexity already from the start. The early phases of innovation, fuzzy front-end (FFE) defined as "the period between when an opportunity is first considered and when an idea is judged ready for development" has been identified to have the highest impact on the innovation process and its outcome. The FFE has been recognized as the most difficult stage to manage in the innovation process as it involves a high degree of uncertainty. Such a phase becomes even more difficult when different sectors and organizations are involved. Therefore, effective methods for involving different organizations and user groups in the FFE of innovation are needed. Objective: The aim of this study was to manage the FFE of a collaborative, open innovation (OI) process, to define a software system supporting seniors' physical activity (PA) by applying a framework of methods from software requirements engineering (RE) to elicit and analyze needs and requirements of users and stakeholders, as well as the context in which the system should be used. Methods: Needs and requirements of three future user groups were explored through individual-and focus group interviews. Requirements were categorized and analyzed in a workshop with a multidisciplinary team: a system overview was produced by conceptual modelling using elicited functional requirements; high-level non-functional requirements were negotiated and prioritized. Scenario descriptions of system's supportive roles in different phases of a behavioral change process were developed. Results: User-centered RE methods were successfully used to define a system and a high-level requirements description was developed based on needs and requirements from three identified user groups. The system aimed to support seniors' motivation for PA and contained four complementary sub-systems. The outcome of the study was a Concept of Operations (ConOps) document that specified the high-level system requirements in a way that was understandable for stakeholders. This document was used both to identify and recruit suitable industrial partners for the following open innovation development and to facilitate communication and collaboration in the innovation process. Conclusions: Applying software RE methods and involving user groups in the early phases of OI can contribute to the development of new concepts that meet complex real-world requirements. Different user groups can complement each other in conveying needs and requirements from which systems can be designed. Empirical studies

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  • 180.
    Eklund, Lina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Human-Computer Interaction.
    A Shoe Is a Shoe Is a Shoe: Interpersonalization and Meaning-making in Museums - Research Findings and Design Implications2020In: International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, ISSN 1044-7318, E-ISSN 1532-7590, Vol. 36, no 16, p. 1503-1513Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital technology is increasingly used to enhance museum experiences for visitors. Concurrently, research shows that people seldom visit museums alone, yet design often focusses on creating individual experiences. This article addresses this conundrum by examining visitor's social interaction and meaning-making in museums in order to provide empirical results actionable for design. It does so through an ethnographic approach combining observations and extended focus group interviews in an analogue museum. Results highlight how museums are social spaces, made so by active participant visitors. Processes of social meaning-making occur as visitors draw on objects in social identity-making and recontextualization - linking the past to the present -, play, share knowledge, and engage in embodied practices. The study suggests shifting from designing personalized towardinterpersonalexperiences. Four design sensitivities are presented: Interpersonalized meaning-making, playful sociality, social information sharing, and social movement.

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  • 181.
    Eklund, Lina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Waern, Annika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Rajkowska, Paulina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Spence, Jocelyn
    University of Nottingham.
    Ioannidis, Petros
    ITU Copenhagen.
    Løvlie, Anders Sundnes
    ITU Copenhagen .
    Life-cycle Analysis2019Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 182.
    Ekman, Julia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology.
    Exploring Visualization of Sustainability-Related Data in Second-Hand Shopping Application2022Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The demand for transparency within the fashion industry is rising, and retailers are under mounting pressure to become more sustainable. This pressure comes from both consumers becoming more aware of their carbon footprint and from new laws and regulations worldwide. However, the concept green gap indicates that consumers do not behave according to their attitudes. Also, interpreting sustainable related data, such as the amount of emitted CO2e gases, seems to be complex and challenging for consumers to comprehend.

    This master's thesis aims to get insight into issues regarding how retailers currently gather and communicate sustainability data. Further, this thesis explores how this data can be communicated to consumers through data visualization and user interface design. Thematic analysis is applied to data from interviews with companies and retailers. The results of these interviews point to key issues such as resistance against transparency, lack of an industry standard, and complex product life cycles. A number of prototypes are created and designed to inform users about the environmental impacts of garments and their shopping habits. The results from user tests could not measure behavioral changes. However, the tests pointed to the importance of transparent data, abstraction level in the design of environmental impact graphs, and providing context to data for users to be able to act upon.

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  • 183.
    Ekros, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Game Design.
    Modern Virtual Reality. And the effects of affecting human senses to increase immersion2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Modern virtual reality is an ever growing subject in today’s society. I delved deeper into some key moments in the development of modern virtual reality. Oculus Rift has shown incredible potential. Some developments even seek to envelope the human senses in virtual reality as well.   With several different approaches to the same solution there are many ways that the experience can affect the overall immersion of a consumer into the product.

     The tests I performed were primarily focused around the interaction between the human senses and immersion. The immersion can be increased or decreased by basic means of stimulating the human senses. This test was implemented by having volunteers participate in two phases in a supervised environment. In the first phase, the participants were subjected to an increase in immersion by stimulating senses other than their eyes and ears. The second phase involved reducing the participants’ sensory stimulation to see what the difference in immersion would be between the two phases.

     The results of the investigation show that manipulating the human senses does have an impact on immersion when using virtual reality. Immersion can be affected by increasing or decreasing the stimuli for the human senses.

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    Examwork_Virtual_Reality_Immersion_Matthias_Ekros
  • 184.
    Ekström, Ylva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Haftor, Darek
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Jansson, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Monstad, Therese
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Nyström, Anton
    Thorén, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Åhman, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    En studie om att leda digitala transformationer i komplexa verksamheter: Institutionella normer, fysiska rum och digitala verktyg2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande rapport sammanfattar forskningsprojektet “Att leda digital transformation av fysiska rum” som genomförts av forskare vid Uppsala universitet i samverkan med tre partnerorganisationer: Uppsala stadsteater, Svenska Kyrkan, och en nordeuropeisk finanskoncern med huvudkontor i Sverige; projektet samfinansierades av Vinnova under åren 2019-2020. Projektets syfte var att utveckla kunskap om, och verktyg för förståelse av, hur det fysiska rummet och dess digitalisering påverkar interaktionen mellan aktörer bland annat med avseende på kommunikation, tillit och legitimitet. Projektet har genomförts som en komparativ studie av dessa tre tämligen skilda organisationer, som kommit olika långt i relation till digital transformation av deras respektive verksamheter. Forskarna har genomfört intervjuer och observationer på de tre partnerorganisationerna samt gemensamma och organisations-överskridande diskussioner och analyser vid ett flertal workshoppar, där såväl forskare som representanter från partnerorganisationerna deltagit. Rapporten presenterar resultat i form av beskrivningar av specifika situationer i respektive partnerorganisation med betoning på digitaliseringsprocesser med direkt inverkan på det fysiska rummet och de utmaningar som detta leder till. Vidare presenteras analyser och insikter i relation till utmaningarna som digitaliseringen kan ge upphov till och generella, normativa rekommendationer för att vägleda organisationer genom digitala transformationsprocesser. I analysen har framför allt institutionella logiker tillämpats som teoretiskt perspektiv. Studien påvisar betydelsen som de fysiska platserna (t.ex. kontor, scen) utgör för skilda verksamheter, och att användningen av digitala verktyg med syfte att eliminera användningen av fysiska platser kan ge upphov till oförutsedda konsekvenser. 

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  • 185.
    Elfving, Markus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction.
    Althin, Tom
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction.
    Prediktiv analys i människans tjänst2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Predictive Analysis is a process for extracting information from large amounts of data and using it to make qualified predictions about future results. While previously the lack of available data has been a challenge within the field, big questions today are instead how to use the results, and the way in which these are presented in order for the user to be able to take advantage of the information.

    The purpose of this thesis has been to create hypotheses for how predictive analysis can be used in practical decision-making contexts, whereby the decision- maker is under time pressure, especially with regard to how the result can be visualized. This has been done through a case study at the Uppsala Ambulance Monitoring Center. The method used for the study is called Contextual Design, which has helped create an understanding of the users and the system they work in. Using this understanding, a prototype has been created, which has been tested on the users to see how well they have been able to interpret the information that has been visualized.

    Predictive analysis has proved to be helpful primarily in less urgent cases and to help the decision maker to differentiate matters similar to each other. For visualization of the predictive results, it has been found that these is better shown as a comparison between the user's decision hypothesis and historical decision results rather than only as an absolute value. Furthermore, it has been found that a high degree of transparency in the information on which the results are based is preferable, but that it is important that clear explanations are given for the results shown.

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  • 186.
    Eliasson, Nina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    What do you mean?: The consequences of different stakeholders’ logics in machine learning and how disciplinary differences should be managed within an organization2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This research paper identifies the disciplinary differences of stakeholders and its effects on working cross-functional in the context of machine learning. This study specifically focused on 1) how stakeholders with disciplinary differences interpret a search system, and 2) how the multi-disciplines should be managed in an organization. This was studied through 12 interviews with stakeholders from design disciplines, product management, data science and machine learning engineering, followed by a focus group with a participant from each of the different disciplines. The findings were analyzed through a thematic analysis and institutional logics and concluded that the different logics had a high impact on the stakeholders’ understanding of the search system. The research also concluded that bridging the gap between the multi-disciplinary stakeholders are of high importance in context of machine learning. 

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  • 187.
    Englund, Linn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Improving User Experiences to Help Students Know Their Equal Rights and Opportunities2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 188.
    Engwall, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology, Centre for Social Work - CESAR.
    Online activities for individuals with intellectual disabilities at a day centre in the wake of COVID-192023In: British Journal of Learning Disabilities, ISSN 1354-4187, E-ISSN 1468-3156, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 229-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The lockdown of a day centre for individuals with intellectual disabilities led to digital activities instead of traditional physical presence.

    Method: This study is based on 17 interviews with staff of a day centre, directors of day centres and support persons.

    Findings: The purpose of the digital activities was to overcome physical distance and to create “social connectedness” with service users at a day centre. Emphasis was placed on recognisability to meet the needs of the service users. When the lockdown was lifted, service users were included in the production of digital artefacts. There were also obstacles to digitalisation: some service users had no access to Internet or tablets at home, some lawyers forbid the use of common digital programmes and service users were denied being visible on social media, support persons lacked digital competence and were reluctant to digital activities.

    Conclusions: The experiences of digital activities including coproduction of films made individuals with intellectual disabilities active and visible on social media. This might facilitate the possibilities for future digital inclusion in society. The support from staff at the sheltered accommodations was vital and when it succeeded it promoted a more holistic approach to the service users' everyday lives.

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  • 189.
    Ericson, Andreas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction.
    Olson, Molle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction.
    När resenären själv får välja: Lösning för ökat kollektivtrafikresande inom Uppsala län2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the public transport system in the city of Uppsala in Sweden. This thesis bases itself on the fact that the development of a new ticketing and payment system is about to start. The purpose of the thesis is to help increase the number of journeys travelled with public transport. To achieve this, the goal of the thesis is to present a vision for UL’s new payment and ticketing system with concepts of interaction design in mind whilst investigating whether a simplified system might increase travel with public transport.

    The thesis uses surveys, interviews and usability testing of the present-day system. The opinions can be summarised such that people in general find difficulties in grasping the different fare zones of the public transport system and do therefore experience difficulties in buying the correct ticket for their specific journey. 

    The new ticketing system should consist of a redesigned fare structure, where a complete removal of the fare zones would create perhaps the most intuitive ticketing system. The new ticketing system should also be able to handle contactless payments, easing the burden on bus drivers who will not need to issue tickets to passengers. In general, a downscaling of the current ticketing system is preferable to avoid confusing travellers. It is of the essence to consider the ticketing and payment system as a sociotechnical system since investigating neither technology nor people alone will lead to a successfully implemented system. They need to be investigated jointly.

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  • 190.
    Eriksson, Elina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Human-Computer Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Making sense of usability: Organizational change and sensemaking when introducing user-centred systems design in public authorities2009Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Computers have become an everyday encounter, not at least in work settings. These computers must support the user in order for her to work in an effective and efficient manner. The field of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) has among other things been focusing on this issue, and there are numerous methods and activities that aim at helping developers to develop usable computer systems. However, the methods and activities must be used in practice in order to be beneficial, not only within research, thus the methods must make sense to the system developers, as well as the organization in which they shall be applied. Furthermore, the organization must change in order to incorporate these methods and activities, and this change must impact a larger part of the organization than just the IT-department.

    My research has revolved around the introduction of usability methods in public authorities, in particular user-centred systems design (UCSD). My methodology has been action research, which implies a close collaboration with practitioners. Some of the methods used to gather data have been interviews, participatory observations, research diaries and field studies.

    In this licentiate thesis I present my work up to date and the theories that have informed my understanding of organizations and organizational change. Furthermore I have been influenced by the sensemaking theory, which can be used in order to understand how people make sense of technology, methods and organizational change. With the help of these theories, I extend my results further than presented in the papers.

    The notion of organizational change when introducing usability issues has not achieved sufficient attention in the HCI-field. This thesis is a step towards an understanding of this issue. Furthermore, I have, with the results from my papers together with the theories presented shown that although formal documents can be used to promote change, it is not enough. Rather there is a need to further explore the interplay between formal aspects and the situated work, and how to enhance sensegiving in this sensemaking process.

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  • 191.
    Eriksson, Elina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Cajander, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Gulliksen, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Hello World!: Experiencing usability methods without usability expertise2009In: Human-Computer Interaction – INTERACT 2009: Part II, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2009, p. 550-565Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 192.
    Erlandsson, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Human-Computer Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Usability in Transportation: Improving the analysis of cognitive work tasks2006Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In most vehicle domains within the transportation sector, traffic is increasing and vehicles are becoming more technologically advanced. In addition to this, drivers are faced with conflicting goals, such as punctuality, maintaining safety, minimizing fuel consumption, ensuring passenger comfort, etc. When accidents occur, the drivers' actions and mishaps are often in focus, even though the work environment, the organization behind the drivers, and the educational level may provide equally important explanations for incidents and actions.

    In this thesis, factors influencing operators' behaviour are acknowledged and attempts are made to understand how these factors affect vehicle operators in their daily work. Even though modern vehicles are equipped with new technology that supposedly aids drivers, studies of actual work typically reveal that these tools are not necessarily suited for their purpose.

    In a larger perspective, it is necessary not only to improve this technology, but to redesign how vehicle drivers perform their work. In practice, also traditional processes for development of technology affect how the operators work, although then simply a side effect of technology being introduced. Based on a deep understanding of the operators' work, the long-term goal here is to instead design new ways of working that allows the operators to use their skills to do meaningful driving tasks supported by technology.

    To acquire this understanding of how the operators work, a new method of information acquisition has been developed and tested within the rail and marine domains. These studies resulted with an understanding of what train and high-speed ferry operators are occupied with during their journeys, as well as insights into why they perform in certain manners and how they think and reason about these tasks.

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  • 193.
    Erlandsson, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    What's in your mind?: Collegial Verbalisation – An ecological approach to knowledge elicitation2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge elicitation of the work of professional operators, using traditional methods such as concurrent or retrospective verbalization is problematic. Concurrent verbalization distracts the operators from their primary task, and the operators have difficulties in verbalizing about their automated work tasks. Retrospective verbalization on the other hand, suffers from rationalization problems. An operator might give a perfectly good explanation of some action taken and might also be completely confident about truth of the verbalized information, when it in fact is incorrect. To overcome some of these problems, this thesis presents a new complementary verbalization method called Collegial Verbalization (CV).

    The CV-method utilizes the shared knowledge among work colleagues to improve the quality of the resulting information. The method consists roughly of the following steps; (1) Video tape subjects while they are working. (2) Play back interesting events to the subject’s colleagues individually and let them verbalize on the subject’s actions. (3) Compare the colleagues’ verbal reports to each other to find similarities, differences, etc. Throughout my research I have formulated, defined and assessed the new method in detail. The method has been applied to study train drivers, high-speed ferry operators, train traffic dispatchers and the medical staff at intensive care units.

    Comparative studies have shown; (1) that CV-protocols can be used as an independent source of data, (2) that colleagues produce reports with similar characteristics of retrospective verbal reports, (3) that the CV-method can produce more information than retrospective verbalization, because of the advantage of using multiple narrators. When the intention is to gather data as input to design, rather than establishing the original thought processes form the time of the studied events, the CV-method can also produce more reliable information than retrospective verbalization, because of the advantage of using multiple narrators.

    Based on these results, I have concluded that the CV-method has a clear advantage as a complementary information acquisition method, when studying the work of professional operators. The thesis ends with a discussion about several additional possible applications for the CV-method, such as applied team learning or psychological research in the field of decision making.

    List of papers
    1. Augmented reality as a navigation aid for the manoeuvring of High-Speed Crafts
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Augmented reality as a navigation aid for the manoeuvring of High-Speed Crafts
    2004 (English)In: DESIGN 2004 conference, 2004Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-47957 (URN)
    Conference
    Design 2004
    Available from: 2006-11-24 Created: 2006-11-24 Last updated: 2014-05-13
    2. Bridging the gap between analysis and design: Improving existing driver interfaces with tools from the framwork of cognitive work analysis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bridging the gap between analysis and design: Improving existing driver interfaces with tools from the framwork of cognitive work analysis
    2006 (English)In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 41-49Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Two studies of train driving are presented, both within the framework of cognitive work analysis. In the first study, the modelling tool abstraction–decomposition space is adapted to routine conditions, making the analysis more representative for normal procedures. A major contribution to these analyses was the use of the method for ‘collegial verbalisation’. One particular advantage with this method over other verbalisation methods is that it supplies the analysts with data that contain much more information, but not at the expense of being more subjective. On the contrary, this method produces think-aloud protocols from video-recordings that do not have to be interpreted by the researcher. From these analyses, it was possible to distinguish information that is an intrinsic part of the train driver task from information that is dependent on the configuration and design of the current support system. The analyses show that the driver works in three rather separate time intervals with a long-range, a short-term and an immediate sense of perspective. The driver switches between these while travelling between two stations. Based on these behaviour-shaping constraints, a prototype of a planning area of a driver interface was developed, making feed-forward planning possible for the driver. Four design iterations were completed, using a user-centred system design (UCSD) approach. Early tests show that the planning area of the interface supports the feed-forward decision strategy used by drivers who prefer an active driving style. However, the driver group also made substantial changes in the design, indicating that UCSD is an efficient tool in order to capture user competencies, and to bridge the gap between analysis and design.

    Keywords
    cognitive work analysis, driver interface, verbal protocols, user centred system design, participatory design, prototyping
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-78792 (URN)10.1007/s10111-005-0018-4 (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-03-30 Created: 2006-03-30 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    3. Collegial verbalisation: a case study on a new method on information acquisition
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Collegial verbalisation: a case study on a new method on information acquisition
    2007 (English)In: Behaviour & Information Technology, ISSN 0144-929X, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 535-543Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    National Category
    Computer and Information Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-14902 (URN)10.1080/01449290600801934 (DOI)000250361500009 ()
    Available from: 2008-01-31 Created: 2008-01-31 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
    4. Verbal reports and domain-specific knowledge: a comparison between collegial and retrospective verbalisation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Verbal reports and domain-specific knowledge: a comparison between collegial and retrospective verbalisation
    2013 (English)In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 239-254Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    One way to investigate and account for the role of experience in dynamic decision-making tasks is to use a knowledge elicitation method, for example verbal protocols. Recently, methods for verbalisation by other subjects have been suggested as a way to elicit more information on thinking. One of these methods is here investigated in a quasi-experimental study on highly experienced and skilled train dispatchers. Collegial verbalisation is based on the procedure of videotaping practitioners while they perform their normal work tasks in their normal work setting. This is followed up by having a close colleague of the practitioner watch the video recordings and verbalise. The general hypothesis that verbal reports based on collegial verbalisations can provide protocol data that are close to the structure and content of verbal reports based on retrospective verbalisations was investigated. From this systematic comparison it is concluded that collegial verbalisations produce verbal protocols that are close to the retrospective verbal protocols on protocol and topic levels, but not on statement level. From this study, we conclude that the collegial protocols can be used as an independent source of data. It seems possible for a colleague to report verbally on a practitioners' observable behaviour in the same way as when the practitioner is doing a retrospective verbalisation and it may also be possible for a colleague to explain some of the non-observable behaviour of the practitioner.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer London, 2013
    National Category
    Human Computer Interaction
    Research subject
    Human-Computer Interaction
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-183343 (URN)10.1007/s10111-012-0223-x (DOI)000322162100001 ()
    Available from: 2012-03-20 Created: 2012-10-24 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
    5. Collegial verbalisation: The value of verbal reports from colleagues as subjects
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Collegial verbalisation: The value of verbal reports from colleagues as subjects
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Research subject
    Human-Computer Interaction
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-215393 (URN)
    Available from: 2014-01-13 Created: 2014-01-13 Last updated: 2014-05-13
    6. Collegial collaboration for safety: Assessing situation awareness by exploring cognitive strategies
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Collegial collaboration for safety: Assessing situation awareness by exploring cognitive strategies
    2013 (English)In: Past History and Future Challenges of Human Work Interaction Design (HWID): Generating Cross-domain Knowledge about Connecting Work Analysis and Interaction Design / [ed] Torkil Clemmensen, Bengt Sandblad, Arminda Lopes and Jose Abdelnour- Nocera, 2013, p. 35-40Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Series
    Workshop Proceedings Series of the INTERACT 2013 Conference
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Research subject
    Human-Computer Interaction
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-211403 (URN)978-0-620-58037-3 (ISBN)
    Conference
    Workshop at INTERACT 2013 – 14th IFIP TC13 Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Cape Town, South Africa, September 2013
    Available from: 2013-11-22 Created: 2013-11-22 Last updated: 2014-05-13Bibliographically approved
    7. Recognizing complexity: A prerequisite for skilled intuitive judgments and dynamic decisions
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Recognizing complexity: A prerequisite for skilled intuitive judgments and dynamic decisions
    2013 (English)In: SPUDM24: Subjective Probability, Utility, and Decision Making, 2013, p. 194-Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
    National Category
    Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
    Research subject
    Human-Computer Interaction
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-214492 (URN)
    Conference
    SPUDM24 - Subjective Probability, Utility, and Decision Making Conference (SPUDM); 18-22 August 2013; IESE Business School, Barcelona, Spain
    Available from: 2014-01-08 Created: 2014-01-08 Last updated: 2014-05-13Bibliographically approved
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  • 194.
    Erlandsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Jansson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Verbal reports and domain-specific knowledge: a comparison between collegial and retrospective verbalisation2013In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 239-254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One way to investigate and account for the role of experience in dynamic decision-making tasks is to use a knowledge elicitation method, for example verbal protocols. Recently, methods for verbalisation by other subjects have been suggested as a way to elicit more information on thinking. One of these methods is here investigated in a quasi-experimental study on highly experienced and skilled train dispatchers. Collegial verbalisation is based on the procedure of videotaping practitioners while they perform their normal work tasks in their normal work setting. This is followed up by having a close colleague of the practitioner watch the video recordings and verbalise. The general hypothesis that verbal reports based on collegial verbalisations can provide protocol data that are close to the structure and content of verbal reports based on retrospective verbalisations was investigated. From this systematic comparison it is concluded that collegial verbalisations produce verbal protocols that are close to the retrospective verbal protocols on protocol and topic levels, but not on statement level. From this study, we conclude that the collegial protocols can be used as an independent source of data. It seems possible for a colleague to report verbally on a practitioners' observable behaviour in the same way as when the practitioner is doing a retrospective verbalisation and it may also be possible for a colleague to explain some of the non-observable behaviour of the practitioner.

  • 195.
    Faronius Hofmann, Therese
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology.
    Håkansson, Linda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology.
    Visualization Design Effects on Credibility and Data Perception, and the Importance of Digital Interaction2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An effective visualization can often give an insight into data that would otherwise be difficult to analyze. The company Assedon aims to make data understandable to their clients by using data visualization in an interactive user interface.

    The goal of this study was to create an interactive visual representation of data from the Swedish Public Employment Service with the use of dynamically created digital graphs that are considered credible and beneficial for data perception. Moreover, the goal was to study data perception of the digitally displayed and interactive graphs.

    The study was conducted by interviewing 19 people with different backgrounds, using a combination of a qualitative and a quantitative interview technique. The interviewees were shown three different designs of a graph type, and rated the graph as well as commented on the graph.

    The results of this study indicated that a graph is more likely to be perceived as credible if it looks modern and professional. This also means that the design of the graphs needs more attention than people might normally appreciate. The perception of data presented in digitally displayed graphs will be affected by several factors, but most prominently the choice of color can either enhance the perception or confuse. Lastly, interaction with the data will benefit the perception and create another dimension of the data, but only to a certain extent. If the graph is too difficult to evaluate, the purpose of the graph is lost and the interaction becomes a necessity instead of an asset.

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  • 196.
    Feng, Shuang
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Friends or Strangers? Modeling Types of In-game Relationship, Social Capital and Psychological Well-being2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Online games are becoming more and more popular nowadays. Interacting with others in games has also become a channel for establishing or developing social relationships. In this article, the author conducted an online survey (N=165) to study the relationship between types of in-game relationships, social capital, and psychological well-being. In-game relationships mainly include two types: playing games with friends and playing games with strangers. The author used the framework of social capital, which includes bonding and bridging. Regarding psychological well-being, the author selected two indicators related to social aspects, namely loneliness and relatedness. The author constructs a structural equation model. The results show that playing with friends will enable bonding and bridging while playing with strangers will enable bridging. Second, two different social capitals can both increase players’ feelings of relatedness and reduce players’ feelings of loneliness. This shows that social relationships in online games have a certain impact on people's psychological well-being. This research also provides some information for game design and understanding of social relationships in games.

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  • 197.
    Feng, Yuan
    et al.
    Eindhoven Univ Technol, Dept Ind Design, Eindhoven, Netherlands.;Northwestern Polytech Univ, Dept Ind Design, Xian, Peoples R China..
    Perugia, Giulia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Eindhoven Univ Technol, Human Technol Interact Grp, Eindhoven, Netherlands..
    Yu, Suihuai
    Northwestern Polytech Univ, Dept Ind Design, Xian, Peoples R China..
    Barakova, Emilia, I
    Eindhoven Univ Technol, Dept Ind Design, Eindhoven, Netherlands..
    Hu, Jun
    Eindhoven Univ Technol, Dept Ind Design, Eindhoven, Netherlands..
    Rauterberg, G. W. Matthias
    Eindhoven Univ Technol, Dept Ind Design, Eindhoven, Netherlands..
    Context-Enhanced Human-Robot Interaction: Exploring the Role of System Interactivity and Multimodal Stimuli on the Engagement of People with Dementia2022In: International Journal of Social Robotics, ISSN 1875-4791, E-ISSN 1875-4805, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 807-826Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Engaging people with dementia (PWD) in meaningful activities is the key to promote their quality of life. Design towards a higher level of user engagement has been extensively studied within the human-computer interaction community, however, few extend to PWD. It is generally considered that increased richness of experiences can lead to enhanced engagement. Therefore, this paper explores the effects of rich interaction in terms of the role of system interactivity and multimodal stimuli by engaging participants in context-enhanced human-robot interaction activities. The interaction with a social robot was considered context-enhanced due to the additional responsive sensory feedback from an augmented reality display. A field study was conducted in a Dutch nursing home with 16 residents. The study followed a two by two mixed factorial design with one within-subject variable - multimodal stimuli - and one between-subject variable - system interactivity. A mixed method of video coding analysis and observational rating scales was adopted to assess user engagement comprehensively. Results disclose that when additional auditory modality was included besides the visual-tactile stimuli, participants had significantly higher scores on attitude, more positive behavioral engagement during activity, and a higher percentage of communications displayed. The multimodal stimuli also promoted social interaction between participants and the facilitator. The findings provide sufficient evidence regarding the significant role of multimodal stimuli in promoting PWD's engagement, which could be potentially used as a motivation strategy in future research to improve emotional aspects of activity-related engagement and social interaction with the human partner.

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  • 198.
    Fikret, Eliz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Transparent ML Systems for the Process Industry: How can a recommendation system perceived as transparent be designed for experts in the process industry?2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Process monitoring is a field that can greatly benefit from the adoption of machine learning solutions like recommendation systems. However, for domain experts to embrace these technologies within their work processes, clear explanations are crucial. Therefore, it is important to adopt user-centred methods for designing more transparent recommendation systems. This study explores this topic through a case study in the pulp and paper industry. By employing a user-centred and design-first adaptation of the question-driven design process, this study aims to uncover the explanation needs and requirements of industry experts, as well as formulate design visions and recommendations for transparent recommendation systems. The results of the study reveal five common explanation types that are valuable for domain experts while also highlighting limitations in previous studies on explanation types. Additionally, nine requirements are identified and utilised in the creation of a prototype, which domain experts evaluate. The evaluation process leads to the development of several design recommendations that can assist HCI researchers and designers in creating effective, transparent recommendation systems. Overall, this research contributes to the field of HCI by enhancing the understanding of transparent recommendation systems from a user-centred perspective. 

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  • 199.
    Fors, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Problematizing Sustainable ICT2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    How should we understand the relationship between information and communication technology (ICT) and sustainability? Generally, it is assumed that while ICT products contribute to many environmental and social problems as they are produced and disposed of, the potential of using ICT to achieve a more sustainable society is immense. However, despite the fact that such a discourse is favored not only in the industrial but also in the political and academic spheres, we have yet to see this presumed sustainability-related potential of ICT fully exploited.

    This thesis argues that conventional assumptions and understandings related to three abstractions in sustainable ICT research and practice – namely the technological, the social, and the sustainable – contribute to an overly optimistic discourse of sustainable ICT, which favors certain research approaches and practical applications. Adhering to such a discourse risks reinforcing, rather than breaking loose from, an unsustainable status quo. Through problematization, this thesis aims to unveil and challenge such underlying assumptions and understandings, based on insights from the social sciences and philosophy. New assumptions and understandings of sustainable ICT research and practice are suggested, and contribute with a perspective that among other things emphasize the ontological inseparability of the technological and the social, implying an anti-essentialist position embracing the value-ladenness and value and meaning mediatory aspects of such phenomena. The normative contributions include theoretical and methodological approaches to sustainable ICT design and sustainable ICT entrepreneurship – identified as two central practices for sustainable ICT to promote sustainability – that aim to mobilize politically charged discourses of our being together with each other, technologies and nature in order to facilitate collaborative action towards sustainable futures. This thesis should be seen as a critical contribution to fields interested in sustainable ICT, such as ICT for Sustainability (ICT4S) and Sustainable Human-Computer Interaction (SHCI).

    List of papers
    1. ICT and environmental sustainability in a changing society: The view of ecological World Systems Theory
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>ICT and environmental sustainability in a changing society: The view of ecological World Systems Theory
    2015 (English)In: Information Technology and People, ISSN 0959-3845, E-ISSN 1758-5813, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 758-774Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose– The purpose of this paper is to discuss the role of information and communication technology (ICT) for promoting environmental sustainability in a changing society. Isolated studies exist, but few take a holistic view. Derived from a Marxian tradition, the authors propose Ecological World Systems Theory (WST) as a holistic framework to assess the environmental impact of ICT. The theory is adapted responding to theoretical critiques of absence of change, namely state-centrism and structuralism.Design/methodology/approach– Theoretical study. Empirical examples derived from already published literature.Findings– Ecological WST focuses on the unequal distribution of environmental degradation, sees technological development as a zero-sum game rather than cornucopia and holds that technology is often seen as a fetish in today ' s society. The findings are that popular discourses on ICT and sustainability are since the 1990s becoming increasingly cornucopian, while conditions in the ICT value chain are less cornucopian.Research limitations/implications– Theoretical contributions to Marxian critiques of ICT, with more environmental focus than earlier Marxian critiques, for example Fuchs’ work. Develop a theoretical framework for ICT and sustainability which could be compared with works of e.g. Hilty, Patrignani and Whitehouse. The work is mostly based on existing empirical studies, which is a limitation.Practical implications– This theoretical framework implies that unequal environmental degradation in different parts of the world should be taken into account when assessing environmental impact, for example by means of LCA.Social implications– The framework brings together questions of environmental effects of ICT and global justice.Originality/value– The authors apply a rarely discussed theoretical framework to ICT and environmental sustainability. By doing this the authors suggest how the discourses and the value chain of ICT is intrinsically tied to the world system.

    Keywords
    Green computing/Green IT, Socio-technical theory, Literature review, Power, Critical theory, Theory building
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Research subject
    Engineering Science with specialization in industrial engineering and management
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-267400 (URN)10.1108/ITP-09-2014-0219 (DOI)000370546200003 ()
    Available from: 2015-11-22 Created: 2015-11-22 Last updated: 2019-01-27Bibliographically approved
    2. Gamification for Sustainability: Beyond the Ludo-Aesthetical Approach
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gamification for Sustainability: Beyond the Ludo-Aesthetical Approach
    2016 (English)In: The Business of Gamification: A Critical Analysis / [ed] Dymek, M. & Zackariasson, P., Abingdon: Routledge, 2016, 1, p. 163-181Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, using elements from game design in nongaming contexts, gamification, has become a major trend within the industry (Deterding et al. 2011). If we put our trust in Jane McGonigal, consultant and author of the book Reality is Broken: Why Games Make Us Better and How They Can Change the World (2011), gamification has the power to save the world due to its potential to promote desirable behaviors. Al Gore, former vice president of the U.S. and environmentalist, argues that gamification can be effective not least within the area of environmental sustainability, where saving the world is the ultimate goal. By gamifying ordinary life practices, such as recycling, energy saving and sustainable consumption, games could be “the new normal” (Gore 2011). Although gamified solutions have not been developed to a great extent within the area of sustainability yet, appli- cations that promotes energy-efficient behavior, make recycling fun and help us travel more eco-friendly do exist on the market today.

    In this chapter, we aim to describe gamification for sustainability and its challenges for developers and researchers. Furthermore, we will situate it in relation to other ways of promoting sustainable consumption, such as through raising awareness and visualization. In contrast to these two meth- ods, we argue that the main difference is that within gamification, positive, enjoyable and fun affects are mobilized in order to promote the desirable behavior. Although we tie in to the idea of using affects for the promotion of sustainable behavior, we believe that only focusing on positive affects may not be the right way for sustainable gamification. By turning to theories of the Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard (1813–1855), we are able to introduce new ways of conceptualizing affects in the gamification discourse. We argue that in addition to fun and enjoyment, negative or neutral affects such as anxiety could prove productive for gamification for sustainability. As games could be seen as an extension of traditional media such as books or movies (Murray 1995), we further suggest that most gamified applications fail to include important aspects that could prove useful for provoking these productive affects. By drawing on narratological game theory and combining these ideas of games with our philosophical backdrop, we develop a model for conceptualizing approaches to gamification for sustainability. We pro- pose that developers and businesses should seek alternative vistas among a plethora of opportunities presented in this chapter, rather than the most prevalent approach at present (which we call the ludo-aesthetical approach) when developing gamified applications for sustainability. 

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Abingdon: Routledge, 2016 Edition: 1
    Series
    Routledge Advances in Management and Business Studies
    Keywords
    Gamification, Spelifikation, Sustainability, ICT4S, ICT and Sustainability
    National Category
    Media and Communications Philosophy, Ethics and Religion Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-310698 (URN)113882416X (ISBN)978-1138824164 (ISBN)
    Available from: 2016-12-19 Created: 2016-12-19 Last updated: 2019-01-27
    3. “We Started Building Green IT Back in the 1970s”: Making Sense of Sustainable ICT through Organizational History
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>“We Started Building Green IT Back in the 1970s”: Making Sense of Sustainable ICT through Organizational History
    2018 (English)In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 8, article id 2668Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally, research related to Sustainable Information and Communication Technology (Sustainable ICT) has focused on the technological aspects, but there is an emerging stream of research, which looks at Sustainable ICT from the viewpoint of the social sciences. In this paper, we build on and contribute to this research by emphasizing the role of history in the shaping of Sustainable ICT. Rather than seeing the importance of history as pure technological determinism or path dependency, we draw on the historical turn in organizational studies to highlight the idea that history is malleable. This implies that organizational actors can reshape their past from the present, thus creating new conditions for the future. To highlight the importance of this theoretical conceptualization of history, we present a case study of the Nordic ICT company Tieto, where the heat recovery system of the Älvsjö data center (finished in 1978) was reconceptualized as “green” following the Green Information Technology (Green IT) trend in 2007. This way of theorizing organizational history could be used more widely within research into Sustainable ICT in order to understand why Sustainable ICT has become what it is, which also implies that we can re-interpret this history to shape the future of Sustainable ICT.

    Keywords
    Sustainable ICT, Green IT, Organizational history, Sustainable Data Center
    National Category
    Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
    Research subject
    Engineering Science with specialization in industrial engineering and management
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-365902 (URN)10.3390/su10082668 (DOI)000446767700084 ()
    Available from: 2018-11-15 Created: 2018-11-15 Last updated: 2022-02-10Bibliographically approved
    4. An Intuition-Based Approach to Sustainable ICT: Insights from Eco-Ethica
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Intuition-Based Approach to Sustainable ICT: Insights from Eco-Ethica
    2019 (English)In: Tetsugaku Companion to Japanese Ethics and Technology / [ed] Thomas Taro Lennerfors, Kiyoshi Murata, Springer, 2019, p. 181-200Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter we draw on the Japanese philosopher Tomonobu Imamichi in order to further develop our understanding of the relationship between Information and Communications Technology (ICT) and ecological sustainability. Our main contribution is an intuition-based approach to design for sustainability, which, for instance, means to design ICT products in a way that invokes feelings of wastefulness or misuse if used in an unsustainable manner. In contrast to persuasive approaches – which have mainly focused on raising awareness, nudging decisions, or stimulating positive behavior through gamification – we rely on the human tendency to unconsciously and effortlessly formulate mental heuristics or intuitions, when exposed to consistent feedback. The claim is that people can learn to associate perceptual cues with environmental impact, and by that will be empowered to make more sustainable choices. Based on the implications of Imamichi’s Eco-ethica, we suggest that this approach can be more fruitful for encouraging sustainable choices than both awareness raising and behavior manipulation.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer, 2019
    Series
    Tetsugaku Companions to Japanese Philosophy, ISSN 2662-2181, E-ISSN 2662-219X ; 1
    Keywords
    ICT, Sustainability, Intuition-based, design, HCI, Imamichi, Eco-ethica
    National Category
    Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified Philosophy, Ethics and Religion
    Research subject
    Ethics; Philosophy
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-372894 (URN)978-3-319-59025-7 (ISBN)978-3-319-59027-1 (ISBN)
    Available from: 2019-01-09 Created: 2019-01-09 Last updated: 2019-04-26Bibliographically approved
    5. The Individual-Care Nexus: A Theory of Entrepreneurial Care for Sustainable Entrepreneurship
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Individual-Care Nexus: A Theory of Entrepreneurial Care for Sustainable Entrepreneurship
    2019 (English)In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 18, article id 4904Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable entrepreneurship has recently been identified as a promising force to push a sustainable business paradigm shift. A key challenge for researchers and practitioners is thus to understand and promote such practices. However, critics have argued that sustainable entrepreneurship research is heavily reductionist, in the sense that it assumes an independent and rational entrepreneur, with an exclusive focus on entrepreneurial individuals and opportunities. In this paper, we problematize these assumptions and offer an alternative theory of sustainable entrepreneurship based on ethics of care. We introduce the individual-care nexus, where individuals are assumed to be dependent, emotional, and relationally connected. This theoretical development leads to new ways to more accurately grasp the nature of motivations, emotions, traits, and practices in sustainable entrepreneurship. We illustrate our theory with an empirical case of a sustainable entrepreneur within the Green IT movement in Sweden between 2012 and 2017. We argue that our theoretical take on entrepreneurship can both advance research in sustainable entrepreneurship and provide sustainable entrepreneurs with a better understanding of their practices and a new vocabulary.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    MDPI, 2019
    Keywords
    Sustainable Entrepreneurship, Ethics of Care, Mothering, Green IT, Emotions, Motivations, Traits, Care practices
    National Category
    Economics and Business Ethics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-372918 (URN)10.3390/su11184904 (DOI)000489104700090 ()
    Available from: 2019-01-09 Created: 2019-01-09 Last updated: 2022-02-10Bibliographically approved
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  • 200.
    Frestadius, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology.
    Interface Design to Increase Consumers’ Engagement with Energy Usage2022Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Energy feedback systems have the potential to support households in utilizing their energy more efficiently and making sustainable decisions. However, the feedback must be carefully designed and delivered to resonate with the individual and change behavioral patterns. This thesis investigates the prerequisites needed to increase awareness and engagement of energy usage and presents a prototype of an energy feedback mobile application. The requirements were found through a qualitative study where eleven households of GodEl with varying characteristics participated in semi-structured interviews. The responses were analyzed through thematic analysis and contributed to a deeper understanding of an energy feedback system’s user needs and requirements. A prototype was created aiming to meet the needs and requirements found. Results suggest that households respond to feedback individually. However, the data presented in the system must be reliable, relatable, and assist the user in decision-making to accommodate the individual needs of each household. Evaluation through user testing reveals that the prototype would increase the users’ knowledge and awareness. However, the prototype’s effect on behavioral changes could not be confirmed without letting the users test the system over some time in a real-world context.

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