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  • 151.
    Nordvall, Anna-Carin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Enqvist, Tommy
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Juslin, Peter
    Uppsala universitet.
    Non-linear Multiple Cue Judgment tasks2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 152.
    Nordvall, Anna-Carin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Juslin, Peter
    Uppsala universitet.
    Olsson, Henrik
    Uppsala universitet.
    Rules and Exemplars in Multiple-Cue Judgment2001Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 153. Nordvall, Anna-Carin
    et al.
    Karlsson, Linnea
    Umea University.
    Suitability judgments of police applicants – When? Where? How?2009Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 154.
    Nygren, Else
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science. Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction. Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Arg fruktsallad, fönstersjukan och andra fenomen1993Other (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Trots alla fördelar med de nya grafiska gränssnitten blir det inte automatiskt frid och fröjd för en frekvent användare. Det finns det en del problem som fanns med de gamla systemen och som de nya inte löser, dels finns det en del nya problem som kan bli följden av olämplig användning av grafiska gränssnitt. resultat från psykologisk forksning hjälper oss att förstå varför, och vad vi kan göra åt det.

  • 155.
    Nygren, Else
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science. Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction. Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Automatic Information Processing in Document Reading.: A Study of Information Handling in Two Intensive Care Units1989In: Proceedings of the first European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work: London 13-15 Sept, 1989., 1989Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study was made of information handling in intensive care units in two hospitals. In one of the units the information about the patients was read from paper documents whereas in the other unit the same kind of information was read from computer screens. In both units co-operative work was being done with documents or forms containing data regarding seriously ill patients. The results show that in the paper based environment there is a reason to believe that a number of information activities can be automatized in human cognition sense. In the computerized environment however, these same activities seem to require conscious attention thus leading to high attentional demand.

  • 156.
    Nygren, Else
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science. Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction. Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Effektiv presentation för intranät-tillämpningar: Projektredogörelse2000Report (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Projektet har inneburit en mängd studier av intranät. De intranät som studerats har varit från 400 användare till 40.000 användare. Studierna omfattar en tidsperiod om 3 år, från 1997 till 2000. De metoder som använts har varit flera: Läs-Experiment, Observationer, Intervjuer, Enkäter, Layout-analys av intranätsidor.

    Resultatet är kunskap om hur navigering och presentation ska utformas för att intranätet ska fungera som ett smidigt arbetsredskap. Dessa resultat har stor betydelse för arbetslivet eftersom trenden går mot att intranät-baserad information kommer att vara ett viktigt arbetsredskap för en allt större andel av de anställda, även sådana som tidigare inte använt sig av datorer i arbetet.

    Resultaten visar också att intranätet har en stor potential att effektivisera informationsflödet i en organisation. Det nya mer fria informationsflödet påverkar även maktstrukturerna i företagen vilket vore intressant att studera i fortsatt forskning.

  • 157.
    Nygren, Else
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science. Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction. Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Empirical Results relevant to User Interface Design: An overview of the literature1996Report (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    This overview will focus on results from controlled experimental studies that have shown effects that are of interest to user interface design. In an appendix are some pointers to the literature in the field of human-computer interaction.

    The overview will be limited to the most common type of human-computer interaction. That is: one human interacting with a computer by means of a keyboard, a mouse and a graphic display. Other types of interaction will not be considered here, for instance:

    * virtual reality

    * other output devices

    * other input devices

    * interaction by command languages

    * computer supported cooperative work (CSCW)

    * task analysis

    * the design process

    Furthermore the application area concerned will be administrative work in a broad sense. Application areas that will not be considered are, for instance: process control and aviation.

  • 158.
    Nygren, Else
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science. Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction. Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Estetik för dynamiska symboler: Användning av grafik, och symbolspråk för bildskärmsbaserad lägespresentation vid modernt ledningsarbete2004Report (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Hittills har det varit så att papperskartor med överlägg av genomskinliga så kallade ”oleat” har använts för att visa lägen och situationer i samband med ledningsarbete i staber och fält. Allt mer information har nu datoriserats och kan i och med detta visas på bildskärmar istället för, eller som ett komplement till papper och oleat.

    Man kan presentera information i flera lager. Man kan snabbt växla mellan presentationssätt. Man har tillgång till gråskalor, färgnyanser och dynamiska effekter av olika slag.

    Den nya tekniken innebär stora möjligheter att presentera information, men det krävs dock en del kunskap och tankearbete för att utnyttja dessa på ett för användarna smidigt och effektivt sätt.

    Försvarets har idag ett utvidgat uppgiftsfokus. Exempel på nya situationer är terrorist attacker, katastrofbränder och översvämningar.

    Det kommer troligen att bli mer samarbete mellan olika enheter. Förband kan sättas samman med kompetenser från olika organisatoriska enheter.

    Dessutom har Försvaret som mål att öka situationsmedvetenheten genom att minska tiden för loopen ”lägesinformation – beslut – åtgärd – ny lägesinformation”.

    De regler och konventioner som finns för grafiska symboler behöver därför ses över för att passa den nya tekniska och informationsergonomiska miljön. Inför en sådan genomgång är det lämpligt att inleda med en studie av vilka kunskaper som finns att hämta i litteraturen och forskningen.

    Övergången till ny presentationsteknik har genomförts inom exempelvis processindustri och civil flygledning, och det finns lärdomar att hämta. Även dataspelen kan bidra med såväl bra som dåliga exempel på utnyttjande av visuella effekter.

    Detta utredningsarbete har utförts som ett uppdrag inom projektet Dynamiska Verksamhetssymboler, som leds av Lotta Åberg, FMV. Arbetet syftar till att ge en checklista för vilka överväganden som tillkommer i den nya presentationsmiljön.

  • 159.
    Nygren, Else
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science. Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction. Människa-datorinteraktion.
    From paper to computer screen: Human information processing and interfaces to patient data.1997In: IMIA WG6 Conference on Natural Language and Medical Concept Representation. January 19-22, 1997, Jacksonville, Florida, USA, 1997, p. 317-326Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The information tools in medicine have developed over a long time. There are certain reasons why they look the way they do. In a study of the use of the paper-based versions of these tools in daily practise, some interesting observations were made. Experienced physicians showed to have developed perceptual skills that enabled them to use pattern-recognition as a complement to normal reading. The physicians were unable to give verbal accounts of such skills, but nevertheless, the skills were clearly demonstrated in tests. There are reasons to believe that these skills were crucial to the very efficient information processing observed. The shift of media from paper to screen have some consequences that have to be considered. We need to understand these in order to avoid making things that were easy with the paper-tools more difficult in the computerized media, but also to be able to exploit the possibilities offered by the new media for enhancement of human cognitive skills, such as using dynamical pictorial representations, colours, symbols and other visual codes. Medical concept representation is not only a matter of words and terminology. There is also a need for development of representations (2-D, 3-D, virtual reality) that provide overviews in some specific frequently encountered decision-making situations. Such representations should be rich in information content, elaborated and optimized for fast information extraction. Graphical and visual conventions should be developed, that are standardized within a community of collaborators. The conventions should exploit the new medium and capitalize on the available knowledge on human information processing. This is clearly not made today. As an example, most intensive care systems on the market today, present patient data in a way opposed to known principles of human information processing.

  • 160.
    Nygren, Else
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science. Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction. Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Grafiska användargränssnitt, några tips1995Report (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    This report contains a checklist for finding good and bad points in a graphical user interface. The material is normally used in courses given at CMD to professional user interface developers. In group sessions, the participants practise judging the quality of an interface. Each group work with one aspect only, but judges about 5-6 different applications. The following aspects are treated:

    * Disposition of the screen area

    * Menues

    * Orientation and navigation

    * Input sequences

    * Layout

    * Colour coding etc

    * Feedback

    * Icons and buttons

    * Placement of interface elements

    For each aspect there is an explanatory overview text followed by lists of good and bad points.

    This report is in Swedish.

  • 161.
    Nygren, Else
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science. Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction. Människa-datorinteration.
    Interaktionsdesign kompendium2004Report (Other scientific)
  • 162.
    Nygren, Else
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science. Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction. Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Micro tasks in reading: Automatically processed components of the task of reading frequently used documents. Implications for human computer interface design.1991Report (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    In addition to normal reading, knowledge can be gained from a paper document by pattern recognition and encoding of characteristics of the information media. There are reasons to believe that this can be done automatically with very little attentional demand. The knowledge gained is accessible to consciousness and can be used for task components like orientation, navigation, detection of changes and as a complement to normal reading. When information is computerized, and is read from a screen instead of from a paper, the conditions for automaticity are often radically changed. In most casesthe reader has to gain the corresponding knowledge by effortful cognitive processes. This means adding to the cognitive load leaving less attentional capacity for the main task at hand. This problem can be avoided by a careful analysis of a reading task into its automatic and non-automatic components, followed by a dedicated user interface design where information relevant for orientation, navigation etc is presented in a way that the reader can perceive rather than read.

  • 163.
    Nygren, Else
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science. Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction. Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Reading documents in intensive care I: Pattern recognition and encoding of characteristics of the information media1991Report (Other scientific)
  • 164.
    Nygren, Else
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science. Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction. Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Reading documents in intensive care II: Documents used as tools for the control of a dynamic process1991Report (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to understand the role of documentation in an intensive care unit (ICU), where the work was regarded as the control of a dynamic process. the purpose is to get implifications for design of the userinterface of a computerized inforation system. Interviews and observations were performed. Documents of different kinds were analyzed. The results show that documents are used as tools for coordination of values in time, for integration of observations and actions, for evaluation of process history, for controlling the structure of control, and to some extent, for coping with feedback delays. The doucmentation is on the other hand, of little help for surveillande in a minute to minute time scale or in coping with transient events.

  • 165.
    Nygren, Else
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science. Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction. Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Utformning av användargränssnitt. I: Erfarenheter, teorier och förslag till principer1992Report (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Det fins en kolossal mängd literatur om utformning av gränssnitt mellan människa och dator. För den läshungrige finns t ex en sammanställning över området i en bok av tegelstensformat benämnd "Handbook of human-computer interaction", editerad av Helander (1). Boken innehåller ett stort antal referenser till littteratur om olika aspekter på människa-dator interaktion. den här lilla rapporten är en populär beskrivning av några erfarenheter, teorier och förslag till principer som vi tycker är viktiga men som inte tas upp så mycket i andra publikationer.

  • 166.
    Nygren, Else
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science. Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction. Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Utvärdering av sökvägledningar2004Report (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    En utvärdering har genomförts av fyra olika vägledningar för sökning av litteratur på Internet. Sökvägledningarna har tagits fram av olika högskolebibliotek i Sverige. Den tänkta målgruppen är studenter som är ovana vid att söka vetenskaplig litteratur på Internet.

    En inledande bedömning av navigation och presentation visade att de olika sökvägledningarna hade sinsemellan olika utformning vad gäller såväl struktur och navigering som utseende och tilltal. För att utvärdera hur väl de olika sökvägledningarna fungerade för målgruppen genomfördes ett antal användartester i form av observationer.

    För att studera användbarheten hos sökvägledningarna konstruerades ett antal sökuppgifter av olika typer. Sökuppgifterna genomfördes gruppvis så att två eller tre personer arbetade med sökuppgifterna tillsammans och diskuterade högt med varandra. 23 grupper utförde vardera cirka 10 sökuppgifter under cirka en halv timmes tid. De sammanlagt cirka 200 sökningarna dokumenterades med videoinspelning. Resultatet analyserades i termer av söktid, resultat och förekomst av problem.

    Efter sökuppgifternas genomförande fick grupperna reflektera över sina erfarenheter av sökvägledningarna och kommentera detta i en enkät i form av en öppen fråga.

    Resultatet visade att Lilla sökguiden fungerade bäst. Den har en mycket grund struktur och länkar till sökfunktioner ligger förhållandevis högt upp i strukturen. Den använder mycket korta texter.

  • 167.
    Nygren, Else
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science. Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction. Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Utvärdering av ämnesguider: Hur hjälper de studenter att söka information?2006Report (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Ekonomikums bibliotek har tagit fram ämnesguider som är specialanpassade för de olika ämnesområden som biblioteket speciellt betjänar. Föreliggande rapport beskriver en utvärdering av i vilken utsträckning en sådan guide är till hjälp för studenter som ska söka information.

  • 168.
    Nygren, Else
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science. Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction. Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Allard, Alexander
    Between the clicks: Skilled users scanning of pages.1996In: Designing for the Web: Empirical studies. October 30, 1996, Redmond, WA, USA, 1996Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When designing web-pages for intra-net applications the notion of search time become important. In such applications, there are typically a limited set of web-pages which users will traverse frequently. For instance pages including contents lists and lists of links to reference documents. These pages will be scanned many times each day and to achieve efficiency the layout should be chosen to optimize average search time, rather than to optimize legibility for the occasional user. In this paper, we describe some results from a series of experiments on skilled users scanning of a screen display, that are relevant also to web-page design. The effect of variations in page layout features on the average search time was measured. It was found that with a fix page layout, learning takes place so that frequent users develop effective scanning strategies. These strategies are adjusted to the probability of finding interesting information in different locations on the page. It was also found that scanning a horizontal listing of items is slower than scanning a vertical listing of items. Findings further indicate that scanning a single long vertical list is faster than scanning multiple shorter vertical lists. Fixed position is the key to fast scanning. Users learn the location and directs search immediately to the right location on the page. If the target item was given a unique feature, search time was, as expected, significantly decreased. There was no significant difference between the features: colour, shade, space, size and slant.

  • 169.
    Nygren, Else
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science. Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Allard, Alexander
    Lind, Mats
    Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Experiments in visual search I: Effects of patterns of highlighted items on list search1995Report (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    f some of the information items on a structured computer display are highlighted, they can form a figural pattern on the screen. In field studies of computer users at work, we had observed that in some situations, interpretation of a display could be made by mere recognition of such patterns. In two experiments we investigated how figural patterns formed by highlighted items affected search time and visual process ing time in simple decision making tasks. The information items critical for the deci sion were either highlighted and formed a pattern, or, they were not highlighted and no pattern was formed. The results show that search time, as well as visual processing time was significantly and substantially shorter in the pattern conditions compared to the control condition. A model which assumes that highlighting the critical items causes sequential search to be replaced by pattern recognition, predicted the observed response times well. Different methods of highlight: colour; shading; italic font; smaller characters and empty space were equally efficient in reducing search time.

  • 170.
    Nygren, Else
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science. Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Allard, Alexander
    Lind, Mats
    Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Experiments in visual search II: Effects of figural patterns on trend assessment1995Report (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    A common task in many different types of computer work is to scan rows and columns of numerical data and look for trends, increasing or decreasing. In field studies we had observed that skilled users seemed to recognise the figural patterns formed by width variations in columns and use that as a clue in the task of assessing trends. In two experiments we studied assessment of trends. The result show that users can learn to recognise a width variation pattern which is correlated to the presence of a trend, and that recognition of such patterns significantly decrease search time compared to if no such pattern is present. The effect was larger in a vertical orientation compared to a horizontal orientation. Like other studies we also found that scanning for trends gener ally is performed faster in columns than in rows. The findings have implications for the presentation of for instance intensive care data, and process control data, where rows and columns are scanned many times each day.

  • 171.
    Nygren, Else
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science. Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Allard, Alexander
    Lind, Mats
    Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Experiments in visual search III. Effects of patterns of varying probability on scanning strategies1995Report (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    In most real work situations, the probability that an interesting item will be found in a certain position on the screen will be unevenly distributed over the screen area. A fre quent user may learn the probability pattern and adjust his or her scanning strategy to accommodate for this. In an experiment we investigated how scanning strategies were affected by such patterns of unevenly distributed probability. The results showed that users easily learn to adopt their search strategies to patterns of varying probability. The search time was significantly shorter compared to when the probability was evenly distributed over the screen area. Although the subjects in the study were unable to give a correct description of the probability distribution over the screen area, they were nevertheless able to adopt mathematically optimal search strategies.

  • 172.
    Nygren, Else
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science. Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Allard, Alexander
    Lind, Mats
    Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Experiments in visual search IV. Effects of positional correlations on time order assessment1995Report (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    In field studies of computer users at work we had observed that the assessment of order in time between events in graphs and time lists was regarded more effortful in a computerised situation compared to when the same information was read from paper sheets. In an experiment we investigated assessment of order in time between one graph event and one list event. In one condition the time list was presented so that there was a correlation between the position of an event item and the time of the event. In another condition the list was presented without such a correlation. The results show that the task was performed significantly faster if there was a correlation between position and time. This result explains why the computer lists were consid ered effortful to use, since the time lists were presented without any correlation between position and time. in the formerly used paper lists however, there were such a correlation.

  • 173.
    Nygren, Else
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science. Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction. Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Haya, Glenn
    Widmark, Wilhelm
    Studenters upplevelse av samsökningsverktyg: Metalib and Google Scholar2006In: INFOtrend: Nordisk tidskrift för informationsspecialister, ISSN 1653-0225, Vol. 61, no 3, p. 75-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tanken att använda en samlad sökingång för att nå den ökade mängden akademiska databaser är av stort intresse för biblioteksvärlden. Ett symptom på detta är att många stora akademiska bibliotek har köpt, eller är på väg att köpa in, en biblioteksportal. Portalen är en programvara som kan användas för att göra samsökningar i en mängd olika databaser. År 2005 erbjöd Libris de svenska akademiska biblioteken ett samarbetsprojekt kring portalvaran Metalib. Majoriteten av biblioteken gick med i projektet. Vid sidan av de olika portalprogrammen finns Google Scholar som också erbjuder en samlad ingång till den vetenskapliga forskningen. Syftet med Google Scholar och Metalib är således desamma trots att funktionaliteten och presentationerna skiljer sig åt. Att nå mer kunskap om hur väl dessa verktyg möter brukarnas förväntningar och hur de i praktiken används är mycket essentiellt för bibliotek som kämpar med att integrera dessa med andra biblioteksresurser.

    I det specifika sammanhanget som denna studie undersökt, det vill säga studenter som söker material till sina uppsatser, har Google Scholar haft en högre användbarhet än Metalib. Detta är baserat på det faktum att studenterna som använde Google Scholar var mer framgångsrika i att hitta relevanta artiklar. Detta gällde även efter undervisning då studenterna som använde Google Scholar fick en högre procent av dokument med hög kvalitet i jämförelse med dem som sökte med Metalib. Slutsatsen stöds även av resultaten från frågeformulären där studenterna skriver att de är mer nöjda med upplevelsen och resultaten från användande av Google Scholar. Detta gäller speciellt gränssnittets enkelhet och att man finner relevanta dokument. Detta sägs trots att Google Scholar hade några brister i funktionaliteten som problem med irrelevanta resulat och den dåliga precisionen i sökningarna.

  • 174.
    Nygren, Else
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science. Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction. Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Haya, Glenn
    Widmark, Wilhelm
    Students experience of Metalib and Google Scholar2006Report (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The report describes a study in which 32 C/D level students searched for material for their thesis using the search tools Google Scholar and Metalib. Half of the subjects had prior instruction in using the tools. Results consist of answers to a questionnaire, analysis of amount and type of documents found, and time spent on different search activities. The study concludes that overall, students were not very satisfied with either tool. However, Google Scholar performed relatively better in almost all measurements. Results for both tools were improved by instruction in terms of number of documents saved (Metalib, Google Scholar) and type of document saved (Google Scholar).

  • 175.
    Nygren, Else
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science. Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction. Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Henriksson, Peter
    Reading the Medical Record I. Analysis of physicians ways of reading the medical record1994In: Yearbook of Medical Informatics 94: Advanced communications in health care, Schattauer, Stuttgart, , 1994, p. 187-198Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 176.
    Nygren, Else
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science. Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction. Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Henriksson, Peter
    Reading the medical record.I. Analysis of physicians ways of reading the medical record1992In: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicin, Vol. 39, p. 1992-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Physicians were interviewed about their routines in everyday use of the medical record. From the interviews, we conclude that the medical record is a well functioning working instrument for the experienced physician. Using the medical record as a basis for decision making involves interpretation of format, layout and other textual features of the type-written data. Interpretation of these features provides effective guidance in the process of searching, reading and assessing the relevance of different items of information in the record. It seems that this is a skill which is an integrated part of diagnostic expertise. This skill plays an important role in decision making based on the large amount of information about a patient that can be found in the medical record. This finding has implications for the design of user interfaces for reading computerized medical records.

  • 177.
    Nygren, Else
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science. Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction. Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Johnson, Mats
    Henriksson, Peter
    Reading the medical record II. Design of a human-computer interface for basic reading of computerized medical records.1992In: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, Vol. 39, p. 13-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A user interface for reading the medical record was designed and implemented on a work-station with a 19 inch colour screen. The text is presented on imitations of paper-pages. The pages are organized in bundles which are dynamically connected to scrollable index-lists. The turning of pages on the screen is the fundamental concept of the interface. A page can be turned by a mouse-click or by a circular mouse-movement. Elaborated feedback is given to the user in order to provide effortless orientation and navigation. The interface supports the basic ways of use identified in our analyses of reading habits. It also enables human perceptual and cognitive skills to be used. It seems very easy to learn and efficient in use.

  • 178.
    Nygren, Else
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science. Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction. Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Lind, Mats
    Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Utformning av användargränssnitt. II.: Förslag till en uppsättning av byggbara dialogelement1993Report (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    En uppsättning av dialogelement för administrativa system presenteras och diskuteras. Idag finns avancerade programvaror för konstruktion av användargränssnitt (sk UIMS). Våra erfarenheter är att gränssnitt uppbyggda med dessa moderna verktyg ibland ger upphov till kognitiva problem för frekventa användare, den nya tekniken till trots. Dessa problem gäller orienteringen i en informationsmängd, dvs att snabbt och utan ansträngning veta var man är och vart man ska härnäst. Ett annat problem gäller sammanvägningen av information som inte kan betraktas samtidigt. Dagens system för uppbyggnad av grafiska användargränssnitt använder sig huvudsakligen av dialogelementen scrollbara fönster, ikoner, knappar, och rullgardinsmenyer. Som ett komplement till dessa föreslår vi några nya dialogelement. Ett sådant är det dynamiska dokumentet, som innebär stöd för att presentera information på fsta sidor, med sidbläddring som alternativ till scrollning. Andra element är avbildande ikoner som komplement till symboliska ikoner samt olika typer av index kopplade till grupper av sidor, buntar. Dessa nya dialogelement gör det möjligt att presentera information så att man behåller många av papperets fördelar men ändå utnyttjar datorns kapacitet. Möjligheter och problem med att implementera de nya dilogelementen diskuteras med utgångspunkt från de programvaror för konstruktion av användargränssnitt som finns på marknaden.

  • 179.
    Ojala, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Regulating worry, promoting hope: How children, adolescents, and young adults cope psychologically with climate change.2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 180.
    Olsson, Anna-Carin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Enqvist, Tommy
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Juslin, Peter
    Uppsala universitet.
    Non-linear Multiple Cue Judgment tasks2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 181.
    Olsson, August
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Collsiöö, Astrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ekonomisk rationalitet: en effekt av indoktrinering, matematiska färdigheter eller bara ett påhitt?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ekonomisk teori bygger på antagandet att människor är ekonomiskt rationella trots att modern psykologisk forskning visar på att detta inte är en deskriptiv bild av människors faktiska handlade. Denna studie jämförde ekonomer, matematiker och humanister i början samt i slutet på sin utbildning för att undersöka två hypoteser; Dels om ekonomisk rationalitet är något inlärt som påverkas av normativ ekonomisk utbildning, dels ifall ekonomisk rationalitet snarare beror på graden av matematiska färdigheter. Denna studie påvisade en signifikant interaktionseffekt mellan utbildning och studietid på ett sådant sätt att studenter inom ekonomi och matematik verkar öka sin grad av ekonomisk rationalitet på grund av sin utbildning samtidigt som studenter inom humaniora inte gör det. Detta tyder på att träning i matematiskt tänkande ökar graden av ekonomisk rationalitet.

  • 182.
    Olsson, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Psychosocial oncology and supportive care.
    Kinsten, Anna
    Theorell, Töres
    Using breathing in psychophysiological stress profiling2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 183.
    Olsson, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Psychosocial oncology and supportive care.
    von Schéele, Bo
    Theorell, Töres
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Heart Rate Variability During Choral Singing2013In: Music and medicine, ISSN 1943-8621, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 52-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary research implies that choral singing is beneficial to health. Singing various kinds of songs with varied emphasis, emotion and tempo gives rise to diverse physiological responses. Breathing is assumed to be synchronized during choral singing and breathing has major influence on heart rate variability (HRV). In this study, we compare HRV responses during choral singing with slow breathing exercises. Thirteen amateur singers´ HRV were studied during a rehearsal of four songs framed by two slow breathing exercises without audience. The heart rate was generally higher and HRV generally lower during singing compared to the slow breathing conditions. During singing, but not during slow breathing, peak HRV-frequency showed considerable variation among participants. This could be due either to a low degree of synchronization of breathing during singing or other factors overruling the effects of breathing on HRV.

  • 184.
    Persson, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Making Head or Tail of the Hippocampus: A Long-Axis Account of Episodic and Spatial Memory2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    While episodic and spatial memory both depend on the hippocampus, opposite gender differences in these functions suggest they are partly separate, with different neural underpinnings. The anterior and posterior hippocampus differ  in structure and whole-brain connectivity, and studies point to the posterior hippocampus being more involved in spatial memory while the anterior hippocampus’ role in episodic memory is less clear. This thesis aims to explore the role of the anterior and posterior hippocampus, and associated brain regions, in episodic and spatial memory. Paper I studied gender differences in hippocampal activation underlying differences in spatial memory performance. Better performance in men was accompanied by greater right-lateralization of hippocampal activation compared to women. Paper II investigated regions of gray matter that covaried in volume with the anterior and posterior hippocampus, and whether these covariance patterns depended on gender and were related to behavior. The anterior and posterior hippocampus showed different patterns of covariance, with the anterior hippocampus covariance pattern observed in women and the posterior hippocampus covariance pattern primarily in men. Paper III considered whether the location of hippocampal recruitment in episodic memory depends on memory content. Verbal stimuli were associated with more anterior, and left-lateralized, encoding activations than pictorial stimuli, which in turn were associated with more posterior and bilateral encoding activations. This was not observed during retrieval. Paper IV investigated whether resting-state connectivity associated with the anterior and posterior hippocampus predicts episodic and spatial memory performance, respectively. Resting-state connectivity associated with the anterior, not posterior, hippocampus predicted episodic memory performance, while resting-state connectivity associated with the posterior, not anterior, hippocampus predicted spatial memory performance. This thesis lends further support to differences in function and structure between the anterior and posterior hippocampus suggesting that these two sub–segments play different roles in episodic and spatial memory. Further, it suggests that gender differences in anterior and posterior hippocampus function underlies gender differences in episodic and spatial memory, respectively. Considering the anterior and posterior hippocampus, as well as men and women, separately, is hence important when studying the effect of age and pathology on the hippocampus and associated memory functions.

    List of papers
    1. Remembering our origin: Gender differences in spatial memory are reflected in gender differences in hippocampal lateralization
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Remembering our origin: Gender differences in spatial memory are reflected in gender differences in hippocampal lateralization
    Show others...
    2013 (English)In: Behavioural Brain Research, ISSN 0166-4328, E-ISSN 1872-7549, Vol. 256, p. 219-228Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Gender differences in spatial memory favoring men are frequently reported, and the involvement of the hippocampus in these functions is well-established. However, little is known of whether this behavioral gender difference is mirrored in a gender difference in hippocampal function. Here we assessed hippocampal activity, using functional MRI, while 24 men and women moved through three-dimensional virtual mazes (navigation phase) of varying length, and at the end-point estimated the direction of the starting-point (pointing phase). Men were indeed more accurate than women at estimating direction, and this was especially true in longer mazes. Both genders activated the posterior hippocampus throughout the whole task. During the navigation phase, men showed a larger activation in the right hippocampus than women, while in the pointing phase, women showed a larger activation in the left hippocampus than men. Right-lateralized activation during the navigation phase was associated with greater task performance, and may reflect a spatial strategy that is beneficial in this task. Left-sided activation during the pointing phase might reflect a less efficient post hoc verbal recapitulation of the route. This study is the first to identify neural correlates of the commonly observed male advantage in recalling one's original position, and points to hippocampal lateralization as a possible explanation for this behavioral gender difference.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-207612 (URN)10.1016/j.bbr.2013.07.050 (DOI)000328094100027 ()23938766 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2013-09-17 Created: 2013-09-17 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    2. Sex differences in volume and structural covariance of the anterior and posterior hippocampus
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sex differences in volume and structural covariance of the anterior and posterior hippocampus
    Show others...
    2014 (English)In: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, no 99, p. 215-25Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Sex differences in episodic and spatial memory are frequently observed, suggesting that there may be sex-related structural differences in the hippocampus (HC). Earlier findings are inconsistent, possibly due to a known variability along the hippocampal longitudinal axis. Here, we assessed potential sex differences in hippocampal volume and structural covariance with the rest of the brain in young men and women (N=76), considering the anterior (aHC) and posterior (pHC) hippocampus separately. Women exhibited a larger pHC than men adjusted for brain size. Using partial least squares, we identified two significant patterns of structural covariance of the aHC and pHC. The first included brain areas that covaried positively and negatively in volume with both the aHC and pHC in men, but showed greater covariance with the aHC than pHC in women. The second pattern revealed distinct structural covariance of the aHC and pHC that showed a clear difference between men and women: in men the pHC showed reliable structural covariance with the medial and lateral parietal lobes and the prefrontal cortex, whereas in women the aHC showed reliable structural covariance with the anterior temporal lobe bilaterally. This pattern converges with resting state functional connectivity of the aHC and pHC and suggests that these hippocampal sections interact with different brain regions, consistent with a division of labor with regards to episodic and spatial memory. Our findings lend support to a division of the HC into an anterior and posterior part and identify sex as a potential moderating factor when investigating hippocampal structure and connectivity.

    National Category
    Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-225425 (URN)10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.05.038 (DOI)000339860000023 ()24857714 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2014-06-03 Created: 2014-06-03 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
    3. Hippocampal hemispheric and long-axis differentiation of stimulus content during episodic memory encoding and retrieval: An activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hippocampal hemispheric and long-axis differentiation of stimulus content during episodic memory encoding and retrieval: An activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis
    2015 (English)In: Hippocampus, ISSN 1050-9631, E-ISSN 1098-1063, Vol. 25, no 12, p. 1614-1631Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    While there is ample evidence that the hippocampus is functionally heterogeneous along its longitudinal axis, there is still no consensus regarding its exact organization. Whereas spatial memory tasks frequently engage the posterior hippocampus, the regions engaged during episodic memory are more varying and may depend on the specific nature of the stimuli. Here, we investigate the effect of stimulus content on the location of hippocampal recruitment during episodic memory encoding and retrieval of pictorial and verbal material with a meta-analysis approach, using activation likelihood estimation and restricting the analysis to the hippocampus. Verbal material was associated with left-lateralized anterior activation, compared to pictorial material that recruited a more posterior aspect of the hippocampus, primarily within the right hemisphere. This effect held for encoding of both single items and item-item associations but was less clear during retrieval. The findings lend further support to a functional subdivision of the hippocampus along its longitudinal axis and indicate that the content of episodic memories is one factor that determines the location of hippocampal recruitment.

    Keywords
    meta-analysis; hippocampus; episodic memory; spatial memory; activation likelihood estimation; encoding; retrieval
    National Category
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-259778 (URN)10.1002/hipo.22482 (DOI)000368281700012 ()26108671 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2015-08-11 Created: 2015-08-11 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
    4. Predicting episodic and spatial memory performance from hippocampal resting-state functional connectivity: evidence for an anterior-posterior division of function
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Predicting episodic and spatial memory performance from hippocampal resting-state functional connectivity: evidence for an anterior-posterior division of function
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-259780 (URN)
    Available from: 2015-08-11 Created: 2015-08-11 Last updated: 2015-09-29
  • 185.
    Poom, Leo
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Olsson, Henrik
    Binding feature dimensions in visual short-term memory2009In: Acta Psychologica, ISSN 0001-6918, E-ISSN 1873-6297, Vol. 131, no 1, p. 85-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We explored several possible influences on binding in visual short-term memory (VSTM) performance. The task was to report whether a test object was the same (‘‘old” trials) or different (‘‘new” trials) from any of the sample objects seen a second ago. The objects were composed of two features that varied from continuous to discrete shapes and colors. In ‘‘old” trials the test object appeared either in the same or different position. In ‘‘new” trials the test object differed along both features, requiring storage of only one feature per object; along one feature, requiring no binding but storage of all features; or it was created by recombining features from the sample, which requires binding. Existing storage hypotheses are unable to explain the similar sensitivity (d0) obtained in the two last conditions when position remained the same and may suggest that links are created between positions and features. Highest sensitivity occurred when the test object remained at the same position, required no binding, and discrete features were used. Object-type x position, and feature combination x position interactions occurred, suggesting different storage modes depending on whether objects change position during retention.

  • 186.
    Pyykkö, Juha
    et al.
    Univ Tampere, Fac Med & Life Sci, Tampere Ctr Child Hlth Res, Tampere, Finland.
    Forssman, Linda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Maleta, Kenneth
    Univ Malawi, Coll Med, Sch Publ Hlth & Family Med, Dept Publ Hlth, Blantyre, Malawi.
    Ashorn, Per
    Univ Tampere, Fac Med & Life Sci, Tampere Ctr Child Hlth Res, Tampere, Finland;Tampere Univ Hosp, Dept Paediat, Tampere, Finland.
    Ashorn, Ulla
    Univ Tampere, Fac Med & Life Sci, Tampere Ctr Child Hlth Res, Tampere, Finland.
    Leppänen, Jukka M.
    Univ Tampere, Fac Med & Life Sci, Tampere Ctr Child Hlth Res, Tampere, Finland.
    Early development of visual attention in infants in rural Malawi2019In: Developmental Science, ISSN 1363-755X, E-ISSN 1467-7687, Vol. 22, no 5, article id e12761Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eye tracking research has shown that infants develop a repertoire of attentional capacities during the first year. The majority of studies examining the early development of attention comes from Western, high-resource countries. We examined visual attention in a heterogeneous sample of infants in rural Malawi (N = 312-376, depending on analysis). Infants were assessed with eye-tracking-based tests that targeted visual orienting, anticipatory looking, and attention to faces at 7 and 9 months. Consistent with prior research, infants exhibited active visual search for salient visual targets, anticipatory saccades to predictable events, and a robust attentional bias for happy and fearful faces. Individual variations in these processes had low to moderate odd-even split-half and test-retest reliability. There were no consistent associations between attention measures and gestational age, nutritional status, or characteristics of the rearing environment (i.e., maternal cognition, psychosocial well-being, socioeconomic status, and care practices). The results replicate infants' early attentional biases in a large, unique sample, and suggest that some of these biases (e.g., bias for faces) are pronounced in low-resource settings. The results provided no evidence that the initial manifestation of infants' attentional capacities is associated with risk factors that are common in low-resource environments.

  • 187.
    Runeson, Sverker
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Direkt perception - perceptuell kompetens2005In: Vår tids psykologi, 2005Chapter in book (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 188.
    Runeson, Sverker
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Andersson, Isabell E. K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Achievement of Specificational Information Usage with True and False Feedback in Learning a Visual Relative-Mass Discrimination Task2007In: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, ISSN 0096-1523, E-ISSN 1939-1277, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 163-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Participants' usage of informational variables in learning visual relative-mass discrimination in collisions was tracked by means of PROBIT correlations. Four groups received feedback that was true or accorded with either of three non-specificational cue variables. A majority in each group adopted the feedback but several participants defied the false feedback. Unlike in previous research, the fit to data of the relative-mass invariant could not be bettered by post hoc linear combinations of the cues. Discriminability was lower in the use of the invariant. Analytic complexity was rejected as an explanation for discriminability differences. A "smart mechanism" for pickup of the relative-mass invariant was developed as an extension of G. Johansson's (1950/1994) vector model.

  • 189.
    Rydell, Ann-Margret
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Brocki, Karin C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Cognitive and Emotional Profiles of CU Traits and Disruptive Behavior in Adolescence: a Prospective Study2019In: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, ISSN 0091-0627, E-ISSN 1573-2835, Vol. 47, no 6, p. 1039-1051Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we followed 82–90 adolescents, 50% boys, from 15 to 16 years, investigating CU traits and disruptive behaviors as predictors of cognitive skills and arousal to emotional pictures. At age 15, CU traits were rated by adolescents and disruptive (aggregated ADHD-ODD-delinquent) behaviors were rated by parents and adolescents. At age 16, executive function, reaction time variability (RTV), IQ and arousal to negative pictures were assessed. The results showed that, with control for disruptive behaviors, CU traits predicted lower RTV, higher IQ and lower arousal to negative pictures. With control for CU traits, disruptive behaviors predicted lower spatial working memory, lower interference control and higher RTV. Our findings are of theoretical and clinical relevance as they point to highly diverging cognitive and emotional profiles of CU traits and disruptive behaviors.

  • 190.
    Rydén, Lars
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala Centre for Sustainable Development, CSD Uppsala, The Baltic University Programme.
    Leal Filho, Walter
    Technical University of Hamburg Harburg.
    Skubala, Piotr
    University of Silesia, Katowice.
    Kronlid, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    21. Behaviour and the Environment: Ethics, Education, and Lifestyle2003In: Environmental Science: Understanding, protecting and managing the environment in the Baltic Sea Region / [ed] Lars Rydén, Pawel Migula and Magnus Andersson, Uppsala: Baltic University Press , 2003, 1, p. 630-661Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 191. Räterlinck, Lennart Eric Henry
    Genom den dunkla natten: Karin Boyes Kris och längtan efter pånyttfödelsen2018In: Divan. Tidskrift för psykoanalys och kultur, ISSN 1101-1408, no 3-4, p. 120-126Article, book review (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ibland kan en roman tolkas som en avspegling av en enskild människas liv och lidande – och vid läsningen av Janssons bok (Själens krypta. En essä om Karin Boyes roman Kris) förstår vi att Kris ses som just en spegling av Boyes existentiella kamp med kärleken och begäret samt olika moraliska, religiösa och estetiska föreställningar. Den allmänmänskliga förbindelsen mellan Malin Forst, huvudpersonen i Kris, och vi som läser skildringen av hennes existentiella kamp med begärets makt, den personliga tron och samhällsordningens krav, är av stor betydelse för Janssons analys. Hos Malin möter vi ett lidande och ett raseri, en vilja till uppror och förnyelse, företeelser som givetvis inte är helt identiska med kännetecknen för vår egen kamp, men som ändå resonerar i djupet av våra erfarenheter av samhällets normer och villkor samt begärets och skönhetens kraft. Lidandet förenar oss i ett gemensamt öde, inte nödvändigtvis i bemärkelse av förutbestämmelse och slutlig undergång, men som en grunderfarenhet i all mänsklig tillvaro och medvaro. På detta vis blir Malins röst till precis det som poeten och författaren Ingeborg Bachmann har beskrivit som "jagets mirakel": det jag vars röst "frigör sig från den uniforma kören, från den tigande församlingen" och lidandet till trots triumferar som en "platshållare för den mänskliga rösten".

    Boyes självmord, oavsett om vi ser det som avsiktligt eller inte, blir till en bokstavlig och slutgiltig version av det som Lacan kallade för passage à l'acte: en handling utan addressat som innebär ett fullständigt kapande av alla sociala band, det individuella subjektets yttersta upplösande och absoluta utträde ur den symboliska ordningen. Tragiken i denna handling blir desto större eftersom Boye, med författaren och litteraturvetaren Johan Svedjedals ord, var en människa som "trodde på den nya dagens gryning, på färdens tjusning, livets kraft. Varför skulle annars så många av hennes verk sluta med en scen av pånyttfödelse?" (cit. i Jansson, s. 205). Till detta kan vi tillägga några ord ur det poetiska avsnittet i slutet av Janssons bok: "I döden återvände hon till skapelsens ögonblick. Befriad från all ångest fann hon frid och ett nytt oändligt liv" (s. 211). Kanske kan vi avslutningsvis säga att det är ett liv vars oändlighet och storslagna mångfald ständigt lever vidare och föds på nytt varje gång vi tar del av Karin Boyes författarskap, inte minst när vi läser Kris och i romanen ser ett uttryck för "ett patos för den utsatta och plågade människan: genom att slå upp grindarna till det andligas realitet har huvudpersonen tagit på sig varje människas öde, din och min lycka och olycka. I hennes tragiska andetag kan var och en av oss återupptäcka sig själv" (s. 12).

  • 192.
    Sandblad, Bengt
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Lind, Mats
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Nygren, Else
    Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction. Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Design of human-computer interfaces in health care, based on task analysis and theories of human cognition1992In: Proceedings of MEDINFO 92, 1992Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computer supported work activities in health care are very sensitive to disturbances caused by badly designed user interfaces. A methodology for experimental design of systems and interfaces is described, based on task and expectation analysis. Knowledge from perceptual and cognitive psychology let us understand more about human information handling and about requirements for design of efficient user interfaces. An example of how the methods and design principles can be used in practise is given.

  • 193.
    Sandblad, Bengt
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Lind, Mats
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Nygren, Else
    Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction. Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Kognitiva arbetsmiljöproblem och gränssnittsdesign.1992Report (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Begreppet arbetsmiljö är komplext. Olika problem i arbetslivet, t ex fysiska, psykosociala, innehållsmässiga, organisatoriska mm samverkar. Ska vi kunna nå fram till "det goda arbetet" fordras att vi får större förståelse för hur dessa faktorer samverkar, samt att vi utvecklar metoder för förbättringar som bygger på ett sådant helhetsperspektiv på arbetssituationen. I en arbetssituation är det viktigt att de som utför arbetet förstår skeendet samt att de kan påverka och styra de ingående arbetsprocesserna så att man kna uppfylla målen för verksamheten. det finns ofta olika slags hinder för att man ska kunna klara av detta. En viktig klass av problem är de som vi kallar kognitiva arbetsmiljöproblem. med kognitiva arbetsmiljöproblem menar vi alla sådana hinder av olika ursprung som försvårar och förhindrar förståelse, möjligheter till överblick, påverkan samt kontroll och styrning av arbetsprocesserna. Det kan anses vara välbelagt att sådana arbetsmiljöproblem ofta är mycket påtagliga i arbetslivet, speciellt då ny och avancerad teknik och datoriserade informationssystem införs. Problemen leder bl a till olika slags stressreaktioner och på sikt dåliga arbetsprestationer, ineffektivitet, belastningsbesvär och annan ohälsa. En viktig del av de kognitiva arbetsmiljöproblemen som uppstår vid användning av datoriserade informationssystem är relaterade till gränssnittet, den "yta" emot datorsystemet som användaren interagerar med. Vi har formulerat en konceptuell modell för mänsklig informationhantering i en datoriserad arbetsmiljö, användbar för att studera kognitiva problem relaterade till interaktionen mellan ett datorsystem och en användare. Baserat på denna modell har vi utvecklat preliminära metoder för beskrivning och analys av informationsanvändning i en arbetssituation samt för design av gränssnitt vilket kan understödja denna. Metoderna, vilka beskrivs utförligare i andra CMD-rapporter, refereras kortfattat. Det är viktigt att vi ytterligare utvecklar vår förståelse för detta problemområde, samt att vi tar fram sådanan metoder och tekniker för design och konstruktion av gränssnitt som kan bidraga till att minska de kognitiva arbetsmiljöproblemen.

  • 194.
    Shareef, Zeinab
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Logopedi.
    Ordflöde och läsförmåga hos studenter med och utan dyslexi: En undersökning av FAS, djurflöde och verbflöde2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Verbal fluency is commonly measured in cognitive assessments and has been shown to measure aspects of verbal ability and executive function, as well as to involve specific cortical areas during performance. Verbal fluency tasks, in which participants generate words during a given time limit, have been used in research and assessments of neurobiological disorders and impairments. Dyslexia is a neurobiologically based reading disorder that is characterized by difficulties in word decoding and spelling. Research on verbal fluency in individuals with dyslexia shows that semantic and letter fluency is impaired. However, studies show inconsistent results. This study examines performance on semantic fluency (animals), action fluency (verbs), and letter fluency (FAS) in 42 students with developmental dyslexia (DD, n = 16) and a control group with typical reading development (TD, n = 26). Participants also perform a test battery that measures reading and phonological abilities, amongst others. Additionally, it is examined if verbal fluency performance can contribute to predicting reading ability, when phonological awareness and rapid automatized naming (RAN) are taken into account. Results show that verbal fluency performance was impaired in the DD group, and that action and letter fluency were relatively more impaired than semantic fluency. A backward elimination regression showed that action fluency and phonological awareness were significant predictors of reading ability, together explaining 48 % of the variance. The impaired verbal fluency ability is discussed in relation to factors such as education and cognitive abilities. Further, the findings point to a possible unique connection between action fluency and reading ability in students, in addition to phonological awareness. The possibility that the relationship between action fluency and reading may be partly explained by common neurocognitive underpinnings is discussed. These novel findings indicate that action fluency has a pertinent role in reading ability and dyslexia, which should be further examined.

  • 195. Staats, Henk
    et al.
    Hartig, Terry
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Alone or with a friend: A social context for psychological restoration and environmental preferences2004In: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 199-211Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 196.
    Stattin, Håkan
    et al.
    Univ Orebro, Sch Law Psychol & Social Work, Youth & Soc, SE-70182 Orebro, Sweden..
    Enebrink, Pia
    Karolinska Inst, Div Psychol, Dept Clin Neurosci, S-10401 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ozdemir, Metin
    Univ Orebro, Sch Law Psychol & Social Work, Youth & Soc, SE-70182 Orebro, Sweden..
    Giannotta, Fabrizia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A National Evaluation of Parenting Programs in Sweden: The Short-Term Effects Using an RCT Effectiveness Design2015In: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, ISSN 0022-006X, E-ISSN 1939-2117, Vol. 83, no 6, p. 1069-1084Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: We evaluated the effectiveness of 4 parent-training programs for children with externalizing problems. We tested the effectiveness of 3 behavioral programs (Comet, Cope, and Incredible Years) and 1 nonbehavioral program (Connect) in reducing child behavior problems and attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, in improving positive parenting and parenting competence, and in decreasing negative parenting and parents' stress and depressive symptoms. Method: This national study was designed as a randomized-controlled effectiveness trial (RCT). The treatments were carried out in 30 clinical and community-based practices. Parents of 908 children (ages 3-12 years) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 parent training programs available at each practice, or to a wait-list condition, where parents had sought help from regular services. Before and after treatment, parents rated child behavior problems and parenting strategies. Results: At posttreatment, children whose parents had received interventions showed a strong decrease in child conduct problems and a moderate to strong decrease in ADHD symptoms. About half of parents whose children scored over the 95th percentile on the behavior measures (Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory, Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham Rating Scale), a clinically meaningful cutoff, reported that their children were no longer above the cutoff after the intervention. Parents showed considerably less negative behaviors toward their children at posttest compared with pretest; they increased in parental competence, and decreased in both stress and depressive symptoms. Overall, the behavioral programs were more effective than the nonbehavioral program. Conclusions: The results support the general efficacy of parent training in a short-term perspective.

  • 197.
    Stening, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordin, Kristin
    Persson, Jonas
    Kalpouzos, Grégoria
    Larsson, Elna-Marie
    Eriksson, Elias
    Zetterberg, Henrik
    Söderlund, Hedvig
    Age effects on hippocampal volume and episodic and spatial memory vary as a function of APOE status and sexManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 198.
    Stening, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Persson, Jonas
    Eriksson, Elias
    Wahlund, Lars-Olof
    Zetterberg, Henrik
    Söderlund, Hedvig
    Specific patterns of whole-brain structural covariance of the anterior and posterior hippocampus in young APOE ε4 carriersManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 199.
    Strandell, Jacob
    University of Copenhagen.
    Self-esteem in action: From direct causality to motive and mediator of self-performative action2017In: Culture & Psychology, ISSN 1354-067X, E-ISSN 1461-7056, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 74-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-esteem research has been in “crisis” during the last decade, due to the lack of strong, consistent correlations between self-esteem and behavioral outcomes. Some researchers have interpreted this as indicating that self-esteem is inconsequential in many important areas of life. However, the model of direct causality used in correlational research, between a general self-esteem trait and specific behaviors, may be unrealistic. In contrast, this paper develops a model of self-esteem-motivated behaviour as originating from past, current or future (desired) self-concepts. This model shows how an interaction of catalytic factors determines how self-esteem influences behaviour. That is, what “self-esteem” actually “does.” By clarifying the different ways in which self-esteem affects behavior, the model shows that construing self-esteem as a passive variable with direct causal influence on behavior is inadequate and misleading and that previous contradictory results are a consequence of this misconceptualization and subsequent reification of self-esteem. Because self-esteem and the self-concept are inseparable (one is an attitude towards the other) self-esteem-motivated behavior is always about self-construction, and thus performative. Future self-esteem research and theory should therefore focus on how people seek to enact, maintain, or defend a desired identity through performative actions.

  • 200.
    Sundh, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. joakim.sundh@psyk.uu.se.
    Cognitive Strategies When Integrating Mutually Dependent Probabilities2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores human cognitive processes in conjunctive and disjunctive probability integration. It examines both independent probabilities and probabilities sharing a simple dependence structure created from interconnectivity, i.e. from mutual interaction in a shared environment. Participants deferred to a mean heuristic when the dependence structure was strong enough to make this a valid approximation and to exemplar memory in other cases. Qualitative insight in the underlying dependence structure was typically low, though there were a small number of participants who attempted use of truncated multiplicative strategies consistent with probability theory and who, consequently, reached a partial insight in the nature of the dependence structure. This implies that although people are in most cases either unable or disinclined to use probability theory when integrating probabilities they are still quite adept at finding adaptive strategies for the task at hand. The main drawback of these strategies is that they will lead to errors and bias if the context changes, however they are likely to outperform naïve application of probability theory in environments where interconnectivity and mutual dependence is the norm.

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