uu.seUppsala University Publications
Change search
Refine search result
123456 151 - 200 of 276
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 151.
    Lindskog, Marcus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Winman, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Juslin, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Calculate or wait: Is man an eager or a lazy intuitive statistician?2013In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592X, Vol. 25, no 8, p. 994-1014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on people’s ability to act as intuitive statisticians has mainly focused on the accuracy of estimates of central tendency and variability. In this paper, we investigate two hypothesised cognitive processes by which people make judgements of distribution shape. The first claims that people spontaneously induce abstract representations of distribution properties from experience, including about distribution shape. The second process claims that people construct beliefs about distribution properties post hoc by retrieval from long-term memory of small samples from the distribution, implying format dependence with accuracy that differs depending on judgement format. Results from two experiments confirm the predicted format dependence, suggesting that people are often constrained by the post hoc assessment of distribution properties by sampling from long-term memory. The results, however, also suggest that, although post hoc sampling from memory seems to be the default process, under certain predictable circumstances people do induce abstract representations of distribution shape.

  • 152.
    Lindskog, Marcus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Winman, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Juslin, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Effects of Response and Presentation Format on Measures of Approximate Number System Acuity2013In: Proceedings of the 35th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society / [ed] M. Knauff, M. Pauen, N. Sebanz, I. Wachsmuth, Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society, Inc., 2013, p. 2908-2913Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human adults, infants, and non-human animals are believed to be equipped with an Approximate Number System (ANS) supporting non-symbolic representations of numerical magnitudes. Recent research has questioned both the validity and reliability of tasks intended to measure acuity in the ANS. Issues with validity and reliability might be due to differences in methodology. In the present study, we compare four tasks designed to measure ANS acuity, using a within-subjects design. The tasks are compared with respect to response and presentation format effects previously studied in the psychophysics literature, but largely ignored in the ANS literature. We find a presentation format effect and show that when non-symbolic numerical stimuli are presented sequentially the magnitude of the second stimulus is overestimated. Further, the results indicate that people’s sensitivity to differentiate between non-symbolic numerosities is dependent on response format. The implications of the results to measures of ANS acuity are discussed.

  • 153.
    Lindskog, Marcus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Winman, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Juslin, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Is it Time Bayes went Fishing?: Bayesian Probabilistic Reasoning in a Category Learning Task2013In: Proceedings of the 35th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society / [ed] M. Knauff, M. Pauen, N. Sebanz, I. Wachsmuth, Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society, Inc., 2013, p. 906-911Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    People have generally been considered poor at probabilistic reasoning, producing subjective probability estimates that far from accord to normative rules. Features of the typical probabilistic reasoning task, however, make strong conclusions difficult. The present study, therefore, combines research on probabilistic reasoning with research on category learning where participants learn base rates and likelihoods in a category-learning task. Later they produce estimates of posterior probability based on the learnt probabilities. The results show that our participants can produce subjective probability estimates that are well calibrated against the normative Bayesian probability and are sensitive to base rates. Further, they have accurate knowledge of both base rate and means of the categories encountered during learning. This indicates that under some conditions people might be better at probabilistic reaso

  • 154.
    Lindskog, Marcus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Winman, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Juslin, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Naïve Point Estimation2013In: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory and Cognition, ISSN 0278-7393, E-ISSN 1939-1285, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 782-800Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The capacity of short-term memory is a key constraint when people make online judgments requiringthem to rely on samples retrieved from memory (e.g., Dougherty & Hunter, 2003). In this article, theauthors compare 2 accounts of how people use knowledge of statistical distributions to make pointestimates: either by retrieving precomputed large-sample representations or by retrieving small samplesof similar observations post hoc at the time of judgment, as constrained by short-term memory capacity(the naı¨ve sampling model: Juslin, Winman, & Hansson, 2007). Results from four experiments supportthe predictions by the naı¨ve sampling model, including that participants sometimes guess values thatthey, when probed, demonstrably know have the lowest probability of occurring. Experiment 1 alsodemonstrated the operations of an unpredicted recognition-based inference. Computational modeling alsoincorporating this process demonstrated that the data from all 4 experiments were better predicted byassuming a post hoc sampling process constrained by short-term memory capacity than by assumingabstraction of large-sample representations of the distribution.

  • 155.
    Lindskog, Marcus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Winman, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Juslin, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Poom, Leo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Measuring acuity of the approximate number system reliably and validly: the evaluation of an adaptive test procedure2013In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 4, p. 510-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two studies investigated the reliability and predictive validity of commonly used measures and models of Approximate Number System acuity (ANS). Study 1 investigated reliability by both an empirical approach and a simulation of maximum obtainable reliability under ideal conditions. Results showed that common measures of the Weber fraction (w) are reliable only when using a substantial number of trials, even under ideal conditions. Study 2 compared different purported measures of ANS acuity as for convergent and predictive validity in a within-subjects design and evaluated an adaptive test using the ZEST algorithm. Results showed that the adaptive measure can reduce the number of trials needed to reach acceptable reliability. Only direct tests with non-symbolic numerosity discriminations of stimuli presented simultaneously were related to arithmetic fluency. This correlation remained when controlling for general cognitive ability and perceptual speed. Further, the purported indirect measure of ANS acuity in terms of the Numeric Distance Effect (NDE) was not reliable and showed no sign of predictive validity. The non-symbolic NDE for reaction time was significantly related to direct w estimates in a direction contrary to the expected. Easier stimuli were found to be more reliable, but only harder (7:8 ratio) stimuli contributed to predictive validity.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 156.
    Lothmann, Claudia
    et al.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Expt Psychol, Oxford OX1 3UD, England;Maastricht Univ, Dept Psychiat & Neuropsychol, Maastricht, Netherlands.
    Holmes, Emily A.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Psychiat, Oxford OX1 3UD, England.
    Chan, Stella W. Y.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Expt Psychol, Oxford OX1 3UD, England;Univ Cambridge, Dept Psychiat, Cambridge CB2 1TN, England.
    Lau, Jennifer Y. F.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Expt Psychol, Oxford OX1 3UD, England.
    Cognitive bias modification training in adolescents: effects on interpretation biases and mood2011In: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, ISSN 0021-9630, E-ISSN 1469-7610, Vol. 52, no 1, p. 24-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Negative biases in the interpretation of ambiguous material have been linked to anxiety and mood problems. Accumulating data from adults show that positive and negative interpretation styles can be induced through cognitive bias modification (CBM) paradigms with accompanying changes in mood. Despite the therapeutic potential of positive training effects, training paradigms have not yet been explored in adolescents. Methods: Eighty-two healthy adolescents (aged 13-17 years) were randomly allocated to either positive or negative CBM training. To assess training effects on interpretation bias, participants read ambiguous situations followed by test sentences with positive or negative interpretations of the situation. Participants rated the similarity of these sentences to the previously viewed ambiguous situations. Training effects on negative and positive affect were assessed using visual analogue scales before and after training. Results: After training, adolescents in the negative condition drew more negative and fewer positive interpretations of new ambiguous situations than adolescents in the positive condition. Within the positive condition, adolescents endorsed more positive than negative interpretations. In terms of mood changes, positive training resulted in a significant decrease in negative affect across participants, while the negative condition led to a significant decrease in positive affect among male participants only. Conclusion: This is the first study to demonstrate the plasticity of interpretation bias in adolescents. The immediate training effects on mood suggest that it may be possible to train a more positive interpretation style in youth, potentially helping to protect against anxiety and depressive symptoms.

  • 157.
    Luoma, Jason B.
    et al.
    Portland Psychotherapy Clin Res & Training Ctr, Portland, OR USA.
    Davis, Alan K.
    Ohio State Univ, Johns Hopkins Sch Med, Ctr Psychedel & Consciousness Res, Coll Social Work,Dept Psychiat, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.
    Watts, Rosalind
    Imperial Coll London, Psychedel Res Grp, London, England.
    McCracken, Lance
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Integrating contextual behavioral science with research on psychedelic assisted therapy: Introduction to the special section2020In: Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, ISSN 2212-1447, Vol. 15, p. 207-209Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Scientific research on the therapeutic use of psychedelics has rapidly expanded over the past decade and, over the next decade, they may be approved for clinical use. Psychedelics have been used for centuries in ritual, community, and spiritual contexts and yet the potential for a scientific approach to these drugs has possibly never been greater than it is now. Modern well controlled trials show preliminary efficacy in relation to a range of different psychological problems. In this introduction we outline the aims of this special issue, present the case for integrating psychedelics and contextual behavioral science, and provide an overview of the papers in the issue.

  • 158. Ma, Wei Ji
    et al.
    Navalpakkam, Vidhya
    Beck, Jeffrey M
    Van den Berg, Ronald
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Pouget, Alexandre
    Behavior and neural basis of near-optimal visual search.2011In: Nature Neuroscience, ISSN 1097-6256, E-ISSN 1546-1726, Vol. 14, no 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to search efficiently for a target in a cluttered environment is one of the most remarkable functions of the nervous system. This task is difficult under natural circumstances, as the reliability of sensory information can vary greatly across space and time and is typically a priori unknown to the observer. In contrast, visual-search experiments commonly use stimuli of equal and known reliability. In a target detection task, we randomly assigned high or low reliability to each item on a trial-by-trial basis. An optimal observer would weight the observations by their trial-to-trial reliability and combine them using a specific nonlinear integration rule. We found that humans were near-optimal, regardless of whether distractors were homogeneous or heterogeneous and whether reliability was manipulated through contrast or shape. We present a neural-network implementation of near-optimal visual search based on probabilistic population coding. The network matched human performance.

  • 159. Ma, Wei Ji
    et al.
    Shen, Shan
    Dziugaite, Gintare
    van den Berg, Ronald
    Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, United States; University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
    Requiem for the max rule?2015In: Vision Research, ISSN 0042-6989, E-ISSN 1878-5646, Vol. 116, no Pt B, p. 179-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In tasks such as visual search and change detection, a key question is how observers integrate noisy measurements from multiple locations to make a decision. Decision rules proposed to model this process have fallen into two categories: Bayes-optimal (ideal observer) rules and ad-hoc rules. Among the latter, the maximum-of-outputs (max) rule has been the most prominent. Reviewing recent work and performing new model comparisons across a range of paradigms, we find that in all cases except for one, the optimal rule describes human data as well as or better than every max rule either previously proposed or newly introduced here. This casts doubt on the utility of the max rule for understanding perceptual decision-making.

  • 160.
    Manninen, Elina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Generalized Identification: Individuals’ levels of identification with groups and its relation to personality2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates a newly developed term coined by the author called generalized identification, which is the tendency that people who identify high with one group tend to identify high with other groups as well, and how personality variables from the Five-Factor model may relate to this tendency. A common component of identification towards 10 preselected groups was calculated (N = 148), with a principal component analysis. The result reveal that the generalized identification account for 41 % of the total variance. A stepwise multiple regression analysis further showed that Openness to Experience and Agreeableness from the Five-Factor model explained 26 % of the variance in the generalized identification. However, due to low reliability when measuring personality traits, the relationship between personality and generalized identification could not be interpreted in a satisfying way, and it needs to be further explored before drawing firm conclusions.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 161.
    Mansson, Johanna
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Lund, Sweden;Skane Univ Hosp, Lund, Sweden.
    Stjernqvist, Karin
    Lund Univ, Lund, Sweden.
    Serenius, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health. Umea Univ, Umea, Sweden.
    Aden, Ulrika
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kallen, Karin
    Lund Univ, Lund, Sweden.
    Agreement Between Bayley-III Measurements and WISC-IV Measurements in Typically Developing Children2019In: Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, ISSN 0734-2829, E-ISSN 1557-5144, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 603-616Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study aim was to explore the relationship between a developmental assessment at preschool age and an intelligence quotient (IQ) assessment at school age. One hundred sixty-two children were assessed at 2.5 years with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-Third Edition (Bayley-III) and then at 6.5 years with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV). The Bayley-III Cognitive Index score was the Bayley entity that showed the highest correlation with WISC-IV Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ; r = .41). There was a significant difference between the individual WISC-IV FSIQ and the Bayley-III Cognitive Index scores. Analyses showed an average difference of -4 units and 95% limits of agreement of -18.5 to 26.4 units. A multivariate model identified the Bayley-III Cognitive Index score as the most important predictor for FSIQ and General Ability Index (GAI), respectively, in comparison with demographic factors. The model explained 24% of the total FSIQ variation and 26% of the GAI variation. It was concluded that the Bayley-III measurement was an insufficient predictor of later IQ.

  • 162.
    Marengo, Davide
    et al.
    Univ Turin, Dept Psychol, Via Verdi 10, I-10124 Turin, Italy..
    Giannotta, Fabrizia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Settanni, Michele
    Univ Turin, Dept Psychol, Via Verdi 10, I-10124 Turin, Italy..
    Assessing personality using emoji: An exploratory study2017In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 112, p. 74-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing popularity of text-based computer mediated communication, such as instant messaging and mobile texting, have resulted in the emergence of a new pictographic form of language, i.e. emoji, offering an intuitive and informal way to convey emotions and attitudes, replacing words or phrases in text messages. Based on these characteristics, could identification with emoji be associated with personality? Could they be used instead of text-based items in personality assessment? The present study aimed at exploring these questions. The sample is composed of 234 young adults recruited online (age: M = 24.79, SD = 6.47; 62% female). Participants responded to a brief Big-Five personality questionnaire and a 91-item survey assessing participants' degree of self-identification with emoji selected from the Apple Color Emoji fontset. Results indicated that 36 out of 91 examined emoji are significantly related with three of the Big-Five personality traits - emotional stability, extraversion, and agreeableness - that are consistently linked with emotion and affective processing. Emoji-based measures of these personality traits show moderate-to-large concurrent validity with scores from a validated personality questionnaire (r = 0.6-0.8). Overall, our study advances the idea that emoji might be employed to develop a language-free assessment tool for personality.

  • 163.
    Mattingly, Keith
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Approaching Psychosocial Adaptation to a Post-Crisis Environment through Case Studies of Javanese Disaster Survivors and Refugees in Sweden2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The psychosocial well-being of survivors of armed conflicts, forced displacement, and/or natural disasters is becoming more and more an integral component of holistic humanitarian response. Yet many organisations rely on broad, generalised manuals or guidelines which do not take into account the unique characteristics of societies and target populations. This paper describes the author’s research with disaster survivors in Java, Indonesia, and refugee in Sweden, aiming to characterise the process of recovery, adaptation and integration through beneficiaries’ own words. The author looks at how theory can be applied, such as whether a hierarchy of needs can be universally relevant, how the host Swedish society affects refugees’ experiences, which so-called “states of being” subjects experience, and how religion and cultural differences like individualism and collectivism influence one’s ability to regain psychosocial well-being. The author used both in-depth interviews and quantitative questionnaires to obtain data. Results showed an incredible level of resilience and positivity among all groups, though Indonesians reported family, spirituality and the community as major helping factors, while many refugees in Sweden pointed to their own individual determination and will to succeed. Many Indonesians identified economic livelihood as the biggest remaining gap, while refugees in Sweden spoke of language skills, educational qualifications and employment as keys to success and integration. Many challenges and gaps remain, especially for newly arrived refugees facing an increasingly difficult job market and fewer opportunities. 

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 164.
    Mazyar, Helga
    et al.
    Baylor Coll Med, Houston, TX 77030 USA.
    Van den Berg, Ronald
    Baylor Coll Med, Houston, TX 77030 USA.
    Ma, Wei Ji
    Baylor Coll Med, Houston, TX 77030 USA.
    Does precision decrease with set size?2012In: Journal of Vision, ISSN 1534-7362, E-ISSN 1534-7362, Vol. 12, no 6, article id 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The brain encodes visual information with limited precision. Contradictory evidence exists as to whether the precision with which an item is encoded depends on the number of stimuli in a display (set size). Some studies have found evidence that precision decreases with set size, but others have reported constant precision. These groups of studies differed in two ways. The studies that reported a decrease used displays with heterogeneous stimuli and tasks with a short-term memory component, while the ones that reported constancy used homogeneous stimuli and tasks that did not require short-term memory. To disentangle the effects of heterogeneity and short-memory involvement, we conducted two main experiments. In Experiment 1, stimuli were heterogeneous, and we compared a condition in which target identity was revealed before the stimulus display with one in which it was revealed afterward. In Experiment 2, target identity was fixed, and we compared heterogeneous and homogeneous distractor conditions. In both experiments, we compared an optimal-observer model in which precision is constant with set size with one in which it depends on set size. We found that precision decreases with set size when the distractors are heterogeneous, regardless of whether short-term memory is involved, but not when it is homogeneous. This suggests that heterogeneity, not short-term memory, is the critical factor. In addition, we found that precision exhibits variability across items and trials, which may partly be caused by attentional fluctuations.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 165.
    Mazyar, Helga
    et al.
    Baylor Coll Med, Houston, TX 77030 USA.
    Van den Berg, Ronald
    Baylor Coll Med, Houston, TX 77030 USA.
    Seilheimer, Robert L.
    Baylor Coll Med, Houston, TX 77030 USA.
    Ma, Wei Ji
    Baylor Coll Med, Houston, TX 77030 USA.
    Independence is elusive: set size effects on encoding precision in visual search2013In: Journal of Vision, ISSN 1534-7362, E-ISSN 1534-7362, Vol. 13, no 5, article id 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Looking for a target in a visual scene becomes more difficult as the number of stimuli increases. In a signal detection theory view, this is due to the cumulative effect of noise in the encoding of the distractors, and potentially on top of that, to an increase of the noise (i.e., a decrease of precision) per stimulus with set size, reflecting divided attention. It has long been argued that human visual search behavior can be accounted for by the first factor alone. While such an account seems to be adequate for search tasks in which all distractors have the same, known feature value (i.e., are maximally predictable), we recently found a clear effect of set size on encoding precision when distractors are drawn from a uniform distribution (i.e., when they are maximally unpredictable). Here we interpolate between these two extreme cases to examine which of both conclusions holds more generally as distractor statistics are varied. In one experiment, we vary the level of distractor heterogeneity; in another we dissociate distractor homogeneity from predictability. In all conditions in both experiments, we found a strong decrease of precision with increasing set size, suggesting that precision being independent of set size is the exception rather than the rule.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 166.
    Millroth, Philip
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Juslin, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The decision paradoxes motivating Prospect Theory: The prevalence of the paradoxes increases with numerical ability2019In: Judgment and decision making, ISSN 1930-2975, E-ISSN 1930-2975, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 513-533Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prospect Theory (PT: Kahneman & Tversky, 1979) of risky decision making is based on psychological phenomena (paradoxes) that motivate assumptions about how people react to gains and losses, and how they weight outcomes with probabilities. Recent studies suggest that people's numeracy affect their decision making. We therefore conducted a large-scale conceptual replication of the seminal study by Kahneman and Tversky (1979), where we targeted participants with larger variability in numeracy. Because people low in numeracy may be more dependent on anchors in the form of other judgments we also manipulated design type (within-subject design, vs. single-stimuli design, where participants assess only one problem). The results from about 1,800 participants showed that design type had no effect on the modal choices. The rate of replication of the paradoxes in Kahneman and Tversky was poor and positively related to the participants' numeracy. The Probabilistic Insurance Effect was observed at all levels of numeracy. The Reflection Effects were not fully replicated at any numeracy level. The Certainty and Isolation Effects explained by nonlinear probability weighting were replicated only at high numeracy. No participant exhibited all 9 paradoxes and more than 50% of the participants exhibited at most three of the 9 paradoxes. The choices by the participants with low numeracy were consistent with a shift towards a cautionary non-compensatory strategy of minimizing the risk of receiving the worst possible outcome. We discuss the implications for the psychological assumptions of PT.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 167.
    Monell, Elin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Research and Development, Gävleborg. Karolinska Inst, Ctr Psychiat Res, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Cty Council, Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Clinton, David
    Karolinska Inst, Ctr Psychiat Res, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Cty Council, Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Stockholm, Sweden;Inst Eating Disorders, Oslo, Norway.
    Birgegard, Andreas
    Karolinska Inst, Ctr Psychiat Res, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Cty Council, Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Emotion dysregulation and eating disorders: Associations with diagnostic presentation and key symptoms2018In: International Journal of Eating Disorders, ISSN 0276-3478, E-ISSN 1098-108X, Vol. 51, no 8, p. 921-930Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Emotion dysregulation seems involved in the development, maintenance, and outcome of eating disorders (EDs). The present study aimed to differentiate patients with EDs from a comparison group on emotion dysregulation, and to examine emotion dysregulation in relation to ED diagnostic presentation and ED symptoms.

    Method/Results: Participants, patients with EDs (N=999) and a student comparison group (N=252), completed the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. Patients were compared to the comparison group and compared by diagnosis regarding emotion dysregulation, and unique associations between emotion dysregulation aspects and ED symptoms were examined. Patients reported greater general emotion dysregulation than the comparison group, especially poorer emotional awareness and clarity. There were very few diagnostic differences. In both patients and the comparison group, limited access to emotion regulation strategies was associated with cognitive ED symptoms, and presence of binge eating in the comparison group. In patients, poor emotional awareness and emotional non-acceptance were additionally associated with cognitive symptoms, and difficulties in impulse control and emotional non-acceptance were associated with binge eating.

    Discussion: Emotion dysregulation is an important transdiagnostic characteristic of ED. Results suggest interventions that enhance emotional awareness and acceptance, as well as emotion regulation skills training, in both ED treatment and prevention.

  • 168. Moreau, David
    et al.
    Gamble, Beau
    Conducting a Meta-Analysis in the Age of Open Science: Tools, Tips, and Practical RecommendationsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychology researchers are rapidly adopting open science practices, yet clear guidelines onhow to apply these practices to meta-analysis remain lacking. In this tutorial, we describe why open science is important in the context of meta-analysis in psychology, and suggest how to adopt the three main components of open science: preregistration, open materials, and open data. We first describe how to make the preregistration as thorough as possible—and how to handle deviations from the plan. We then focus on creating easy-to-read materials (e.g., search syntax, R scripts) to facilitate reproducibility and bolster the impact of a meta-analysis. Finally, we suggest how to organize data (e.g., literature search results, dataextracted from studies) that are easy to share, interpret, and update as new studies emerge.For each step of the meta-analysis, we provide example templates, accompanied by brief video tutorials, and show how to integrate these practices into the Open Science Framework (https://osf.io/q8stz/).

  • 169.
    Murphy, Fionnuala C.
    et al.
    MRC, Cognit & Brain Sci Unit, Cambridge CB2 7EF, England.
    Barnard, Philip J.
    MRC, Cognit & Brain Sci Unit, Cambridge CB2 7EF, England.
    Terry, Kayleigh A. M.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Psychiat, Oxford, England.
    Carthery-Goulart, Maria Teresa
    MRC, Cognit & Brain Sci Unit, Cambridge CB2 7EF, England.
    Holmes, Emily A.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Psychiat, Oxford, England.
    SenseCam, imagery and bias in memory for wellbeing2011In: Memory, ISSN 0965-8211, E-ISSN 1464-0686, Vol. 19, no 7, p. 768-777Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying and modifying the negative interpretation bias that characterises depression is central to successful treatment. While accumulating evidence indicates that mental imagery is particularly effective in the modification of emotional bias, this research typically incorporates static and unrelated ambiguous stimuli. SenseCam technology, and the resulting video-like footage, offers an opportunity to produce training stimuli that are dynamic and self-relevant. Here participants experienced several ambiguous tasks and subsequently viewed SenseCam footage of the same tasks, paired with negative or positive captions. Participants were trained to use mental imagery to inter-relate SenseCam footage and captions. Participants reported increased levels of happy mood, reduced levels of sad mood, and increased task enjoyment following SenseCam review with positive versus negative captions. This shift in emotional bias was also evident at 24-hour follow-up, as participants recollected greater task enjoyment for those tasks previously paired with positive captions. Mental imagery appears to play an important role in this process. These preliminary results indicate that in healthy volunteers, SenseCam can be used within a bias modification paradigm to shift mood and memory for wellbeing associated with performing everyday activities. Further refinements are necessary before similar methods can be applied to individuals suffering from subclinical and clinical depression.

  • 170.
    Möller, Clara
    et al.
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Behav Sci & Learning, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Karlgren, Linda
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Behav Sci & Learning, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Sandell, Anton
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Behav Sci & Learning, Linkoping, SwedenLinkoping Univ, Dept Behav Sci & Learning, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Falkenström, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning i Sörmland (CKFD).
    Philips, Björn
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Behav Sci & Learning, Linkoping, Sweden; Stockholm Cty Council, Ctr Dependency Disorders, Stockholm, Sweden.; Karolinska Inst, Ctr Psychiat Res Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mentalization-based therapy adherence and competence stimulates in-session mentalization in psychotherapy for borderline personality disorder with co-morbid substance dependence2017In: Psychotherapy Research, ISSN 1050-3307, E-ISSN 1468-4381, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 749-765Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To test whether adherence to mentalization-based treatment (MBT) principles predict better patient in-session mentalizing.

    METHODS: Two sessions for each of 15 patients with borderline personality disorder and comorbid substance abuse disorder were rated for MBT adherence and competence. Individual patient statements were rated for Reflective Functioning (RF), therapist statements were rated as demanding RF or not. Data were analysed using multilevel modelling.

    RESULTS: MBT adherence and competence predicted higher session RF (β = .58-.75), even while controlling for pre-treatment RF. In addition, therapist interventions directed toward exploring mental states predicted higher RF of subsequent patient responses (β = .11-.12).

    CONCLUSIONS: MBT adherence and competence were significantly related to patient in-session mentalizing, supporting the validity of MBT principles. Results point to the importance of supervision for therapists to become adherent to MBT principles. The small number of patients and sessions limits generalizability of results.

  • 171.
    Neils, Sabine
    et al.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Fac Psychol & Educ Sci, Univ Leuven, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium.
    Holmes, Emily A.
    MRC, Cognit & Brain Sci Unit, Cambridge, England;Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Palmieri, Rosa
    LUMSA Univ, Taranto, Italy;EMPEA Clin Res Ctr Cognit Behav Psychotherapy, Bari, Italy.
    Bellelli, Guglielmo
    Univ Bari Aldo Moro, Bari, Italy.
    Raes, Filip
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Fac Psychol & Educ Sci, Univ Leuven, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium.
    Thinking back about a positive event: the impact of processing style on positive affect2015In: Frontiers in Psychiatry, ISSN 1664-0640, E-ISSN 1664-0640, Vol. 6, article id 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The manner in which individuals recall an autobiographical positive life event has affective consequences. Two studies addressed the processing styles during positive memory recall in a non-clinical sample. Participants retrieved a positive memory, which was self-generated (Study 1, n=70) or experimenter-chosen (i.e., academic achievement, Study 2, n=159), followed by the induction of one of three processing styles (between-subjects): in Study 1, a "concrete/imagery" vs. "abstract/verbal" processing style was compared. In Study 2, a "concrete/imagery," "abstract/verbal," and "comparative/verbal" processing style were compared. The processing of a personal memory in a concrete/imagery-based way led to a larger increase in positive affect compared to abstract/verbal processing in Study 1, as well as compared to comparative/verbal thinking in Study 2. Results of Study 2 further suggest that it is making unfavorable verbal comparisons that may hinder affective benefits to positive memories (rather than general abstract/verbal processing per se). The comparative/verbal thinking style failed to lead to improvements in positive affect, and with increasing levels of depressive symptoms it had a more negative impact on change in positive affect. We found no evidence that participant's tendency to have dampening thoughts in response to positive affect in daily life contributed to the affective impact of positive memory recall. The results support the potential for current trainings in boosting positive memories and mental imagery, and underline the search for parameters that determine at times deleterious outcomes of abstract/verbal memory processing in the face of positive information.

  • 172.
    Nelis, Sabine
    et al.
    Univ Louvain, Fac Psychol & Educ Sci, B-3000 Louvain, Belgium.
    Debeer, Elise
    Univ Louvain, Fac Psychol & Educ Sci, B-3000 Louvain, Belgium.
    Holmes, Emily A.
    MRC Cognit & Brain Sci Unit, Cambridge, England.
    Raes, Filip
    Univ Louvain, Fac Psychol & Educ Sci, B-3000 Louvain, Belgium.
    Dysphoric students show higher use of the observer perspective in their retrieval of positive versus negative autobiographical memories2013In: Memory, ISSN 0965-8211, E-ISSN 1464-0686, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 423-430Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autobiographical memories are retrieved as images from either a field perspective or an observer perspective. The observer perspective is thought to dull emotion. Positive affect is blunted in depressed mood. Consequently, are positive events recalled from an observer perspective in depressed mood? We investigated the relationship between memory vantage perspective and depressive symptoms in a student sample. Participants completed the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; Williams & Broadbent, 1986) and assessed the perspective accompanying each memory. The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II; Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996) and the Responses to Positive Affect questionnaire (RPA; Feldman, Joormann, & Johnson, 2008) were administered. The results showed a small positive association between depressive symptoms and the use of an observer perspective for positive autobiographical memories, but not for negative memories. Furthermore, comparing a subgroup with clinically significant symptom levels (dysphoric students) with non-dysphoric individuals revealed that dysphoric students used an observer perspective more for positive memories compared with negative memories. This was not the case for non-dysphoric students. The observer perspective in dysphorics was associated with a dampening cognitive style in response to positive experiences.

  • 173.
    Nilsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rieskamp, Jörg
    Department of Psychology, University of Basel.
    Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan
    Department of Psychology, University of Amsterdam.
    Hierarchical Bayesian parameter estimation for cumulative prospect theory2011In: Journal of mathematical psychology (Print), ISSN 0022-2496, E-ISSN 1096-0880, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 84-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cumulative prospect theory (CPT Tversky & Kahneman, 1992) has provided one of the most influential accounts of how people make decisions under risk. CPT is a formal model with parameters that quantify psychological processes such as loss aversion, subjective values of gains and losses, and subjective probabilities. In practical applications of CPT, the model's parameters are usually estimated using a single-participant maximum likelihood approach. The present study shows the advantages of an alternative, hierarchical Bayesian parameter estimation procedure. Performance of the procedure is illustrated with a parameter recovery study and application to a real data set. The work reveals that without particular constraints on the parameter space, CPT can produce loss aversion without the parameter that has traditionally been associated with loss aversion. In general, the results illustrate that inferences about people's decision processes can crucially depend on the method used to estimate model parameters.

  • 174.
    Nilsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Winman, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Juslin, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hansson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Linda is not a bearded lady: Configural weighting and adding as the cause of extension errors2009In: Journal of experimental psychology. General, ISSN 0096-3445, E-ISSN 1939-2222, Vol. 138, no 4, p. 517-534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the configural weighted average (CWA) hypothesis suggesting that extension biases, like conjunction and disjunction errors, occur because people estimate compound probabilities by taking a CWA of the constituent probabilities. The hypothesis suggests a process consistent with well-known cognitive constraints, which nonetheless achieves high robustness and bounded rationality in noisy real-life environments. Predictions by the CWA hypothesis are that in error-free data, conjunction and disjunction errors should be the rule rather than the exception when pairs of statements are randomly sampled from an environment, the rate of extension errors should increase when noise in data is decreased, and that adding a likely component should increase the probability of a conjunction. Four experiments generally verify the predictions by the hypothesis, demonstrating that extension errors are frequent also when tasks are selected according to a representative design.

  • 175.
    Nilsson Jobs, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Inst, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Div Neuropsychiat, Ctr Neurodev Disorders KIND, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Cty Council, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bölte, Sven
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Inst, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Div Neuropsychiat, Ctr Neurodev Disorders KIND, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Cty Council, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden; SCAS, Thunbergsvagen 2, SE-75238 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Spotting Signs of Autism in 3-Year-Olds: Comparing Information from Parents and Preschool Staff2019In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 1232-1241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Preschool informants may provide valuable information about symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in young children. We compared the diagnostic accuracy of ratings by preschool staff with those by parents of 3-year-old children using the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment Preschool Forms. The sample consisted of 32 children at familial risk for ASD without diagnosis, 10 children at risk for ASD with diagnosis, and 14 low-risk typically developing controls. Preschool staff ratings were more accurate than parent ratings at differentiating children with and without ASD, and more closely associated with clinician-rated symptoms. These results point to the value of information from preschool informants in early detection and diagnostic assessments.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 176.
    Nordvall, Anna-Carin
    Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Cue abstraction and Exemplars in Multiple Cue Judgment2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 177. Nordvall, Anna-Carin
    Utslagsbedömningar för polisutbildningen. Pest eller Kolera?2009Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 178.
    Nordvall, Anna-Carin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Enqvist, Tommy
    Uppsala universitet.
    Juslin, Peter
    Uppsala universitet.
    Non-linear Multiple Cue Judgment tasks2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 179.
    Nordvall, Anna-Carin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Enqvist, Tommy
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Juslin, Peter
    Uppsala universitet.
    Non-linear Multiple Cue Judgment tasks2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 180.
    Nordvall, Anna-Carin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Juslin, Peter
    Uppsala universitet.
    Olsson, Henrik
    Uppsala universitet.
    Rules and Exemplars in Multiple-Cue Judgment2001Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 181. Nordvall, Anna-Carin
    et al.
    Karlsson, Linnea
    Umea University.
    Suitability judgments of police applicants – When? Where? How?2009Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 182.
    Nygren, Else
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science. Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction. Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Arg fruktsallad, fönstersjukan och andra fenomen1993Other (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Trots alla fördelar med de nya grafiska gränssnitten blir det inte automatiskt frid och fröjd för en frekvent användare. Det finns det en del problem som fanns med de gamla systemen och som de nya inte löser, dels finns det en del nya problem som kan bli följden av olämplig användning av grafiska gränssnitt. resultat från psykologisk forksning hjälper oss att förstå varför, och vad vi kan göra åt det.

  • 183.
    Nygren, Else
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science. Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction. Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Automatic Information Processing in Document Reading.: A Study of Information Handling in Two Intensive Care Units1989In: Proceedings of the first European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work: London 13-15 Sept, 1989., 1989Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study was made of information handling in intensive care units in two hospitals. In one of the units the information about the patients was read from paper documents whereas in the other unit the same kind of information was read from computer screens. In both units co-operative work was being done with documents or forms containing data regarding seriously ill patients. The results show that in the paper based environment there is a reason to believe that a number of information activities can be automatized in human cognition sense. In the computerized environment however, these same activities seem to require conscious attention thus leading to high attentional demand.

  • 184.
    Nygren, Else
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science. Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction. Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Effektiv presentation för intranät-tillämpningar: Projektredogörelse2000Report (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Projektet har inneburit en mängd studier av intranät. De intranät som studerats har varit från 400 användare till 40.000 användare. Studierna omfattar en tidsperiod om 3 år, från 1997 till 2000. De metoder som använts har varit flera: Läs-Experiment, Observationer, Intervjuer, Enkäter, Layout-analys av intranätsidor.

    Resultatet är kunskap om hur navigering och presentation ska utformas för att intranätet ska fungera som ett smidigt arbetsredskap. Dessa resultat har stor betydelse för arbetslivet eftersom trenden går mot att intranät-baserad information kommer att vara ett viktigt arbetsredskap för en allt större andel av de anställda, även sådana som tidigare inte använt sig av datorer i arbetet.

    Resultaten visar också att intranätet har en stor potential att effektivisera informationsflödet i en organisation. Det nya mer fria informationsflödet påverkar även maktstrukturerna i företagen vilket vore intressant att studera i fortsatt forskning.

  • 185.
    Nygren, Else
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science. Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction. Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Empirical Results relevant to User Interface Design: An overview of the literature1996Report (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    This overview will focus on results from controlled experimental studies that have shown effects that are of interest to user interface design. In an appendix are some pointers to the literature in the field of human-computer interaction.

    The overview will be limited to the most common type of human-computer interaction. That is: one human interacting with a computer by means of a keyboard, a mouse and a graphic display. Other types of interaction will not be considered here, for instance:

    * virtual reality

    * other output devices

    * other input devices

    * interaction by command languages

    * computer supported cooperative work (CSCW)

    * task analysis

    * the design process

    Furthermore the application area concerned will be administrative work in a broad sense. Application areas that will not be considered are, for instance: process control and aviation.

  • 186.
    Nygren, Else
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science. Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction. Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Estetik för dynamiska symboler: Användning av grafik, och symbolspråk för bildskärmsbaserad lägespresentation vid modernt ledningsarbete2004Report (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Hittills har det varit så att papperskartor med överlägg av genomskinliga så kallade ”oleat” har använts för att visa lägen och situationer i samband med ledningsarbete i staber och fält. Allt mer information har nu datoriserats och kan i och med detta visas på bildskärmar istället för, eller som ett komplement till papper och oleat.

    Man kan presentera information i flera lager. Man kan snabbt växla mellan presentationssätt. Man har tillgång till gråskalor, färgnyanser och dynamiska effekter av olika slag.

    Den nya tekniken innebär stora möjligheter att presentera information, men det krävs dock en del kunskap och tankearbete för att utnyttja dessa på ett för användarna smidigt och effektivt sätt.

    Försvarets har idag ett utvidgat uppgiftsfokus. Exempel på nya situationer är terrorist attacker, katastrofbränder och översvämningar.

    Det kommer troligen att bli mer samarbete mellan olika enheter. Förband kan sättas samman med kompetenser från olika organisatoriska enheter.

    Dessutom har Försvaret som mål att öka situationsmedvetenheten genom att minska tiden för loopen ”lägesinformation – beslut – åtgärd – ny lägesinformation”.

    De regler och konventioner som finns för grafiska symboler behöver därför ses över för att passa den nya tekniska och informationsergonomiska miljön. Inför en sådan genomgång är det lämpligt att inleda med en studie av vilka kunskaper som finns att hämta i litteraturen och forskningen.

    Övergången till ny presentationsteknik har genomförts inom exempelvis processindustri och civil flygledning, och det finns lärdomar att hämta. Även dataspelen kan bidra med såväl bra som dåliga exempel på utnyttjande av visuella effekter.

    Detta utredningsarbete har utförts som ett uppdrag inom projektet Dynamiska Verksamhetssymboler, som leds av Lotta Åberg, FMV. Arbetet syftar till att ge en checklista för vilka överväganden som tillkommer i den nya presentationsmiljön.

  • 187.
    Nygren, Else
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science. Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction. Människa-datorinteraktion.
    From paper to computer screen: Human information processing and interfaces to patient data.1997In: IMIA WG6 Conference on Natural Language and Medical Concept Representation. January 19-22, 1997, Jacksonville, Florida, USA, 1997, p. 317-326Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The information tools in medicine have developed over a long time. There are certain reasons why they look the way they do. In a study of the use of the paper-based versions of these tools in daily practise, some interesting observations were made. Experienced physicians showed to have developed perceptual skills that enabled them to use pattern-recognition as a complement to normal reading. The physicians were unable to give verbal accounts of such skills, but nevertheless, the skills were clearly demonstrated in tests. There are reasons to believe that these skills were crucial to the very efficient information processing observed. The shift of media from paper to screen have some consequences that have to be considered. We need to understand these in order to avoid making things that were easy with the paper-tools more difficult in the computerized media, but also to be able to exploit the possibilities offered by the new media for enhancement of human cognitive skills, such as using dynamical pictorial representations, colours, symbols and other visual codes. Medical concept representation is not only a matter of words and terminology. There is also a need for development of representations (2-D, 3-D, virtual reality) that provide overviews in some specific frequently encountered decision-making situations. Such representations should be rich in information content, elaborated and optimized for fast information extraction. Graphical and visual conventions should be developed, that are standardized within a community of collaborators. The conventions should exploit the new medium and capitalize on the available knowledge on human information processing. This is clearly not made today. As an example, most intensive care systems on the market today, present patient data in a way opposed to known principles of human information processing.

  • 188.
    Nygren, Else
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science. Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction. Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Grafiska användargränssnitt, några tips1995Report (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    This report contains a checklist for finding good and bad points in a graphical user interface. The material is normally used in courses given at CMD to professional user interface developers. In group sessions, the participants practise judging the quality of an interface. Each group work with one aspect only, but judges about 5-6 different applications. The following aspects are treated:

    * Disposition of the screen area

    * Menues

    * Orientation and navigation

    * Input sequences

    * Layout

    * Colour coding etc

    * Feedback

    * Icons and buttons

    * Placement of interface elements

    For each aspect there is an explanatory overview text followed by lists of good and bad points.

    This report is in Swedish.

  • 189.
    Nygren, Else
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science. Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction. Människa-datorinteration.
    Interaktionsdesign kompendium2004Report (Other scientific)
  • 190.
    Nygren, Else
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science. Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction. Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Micro tasks in reading: Automatically processed components of the task of reading frequently used documents. Implications for human computer interface design.1991Report (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    In addition to normal reading, knowledge can be gained from a paper document by pattern recognition and encoding of characteristics of the information media. There are reasons to believe that this can be done automatically with very little attentional demand. The knowledge gained is accessible to consciousness and can be used for task components like orientation, navigation, detection of changes and as a complement to normal reading. When information is computerized, and is read from a screen instead of from a paper, the conditions for automaticity are often radically changed. In most casesthe reader has to gain the corresponding knowledge by effortful cognitive processes. This means adding to the cognitive load leaving less attentional capacity for the main task at hand. This problem can be avoided by a careful analysis of a reading task into its automatic and non-automatic components, followed by a dedicated user interface design where information relevant for orientation, navigation etc is presented in a way that the reader can perceive rather than read.

  • 191.
    Nygren, Else
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science. Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction. Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Reading documents in intensive care I: Pattern recognition and encoding of characteristics of the information media1991Report (Other scientific)
  • 192.
    Nygren, Else
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science. Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction. Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Reading documents in intensive care II: Documents used as tools for the control of a dynamic process1991Report (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to understand the role of documentation in an intensive care unit (ICU), where the work was regarded as the control of a dynamic process. the purpose is to get implifications for design of the userinterface of a computerized inforation system. Interviews and observations were performed. Documents of different kinds were analyzed. The results show that documents are used as tools for coordination of values in time, for integration of observations and actions, for evaluation of process history, for controlling the structure of control, and to some extent, for coping with feedback delays. The doucmentation is on the other hand, of little help for surveillande in a minute to minute time scale or in coping with transient events.

  • 193.
    Nygren, Else
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science. Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction. Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Utformning av användargränssnitt. I: Erfarenheter, teorier och förslag till principer1992Report (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Det fins en kolossal mängd literatur om utformning av gränssnitt mellan människa och dator. För den läshungrige finns t ex en sammanställning över området i en bok av tegelstensformat benämnd "Handbook of human-computer interaction", editerad av Helander (1). Boken innehåller ett stort antal referenser till littteratur om olika aspekter på människa-dator interaktion. den här lilla rapporten är en populär beskrivning av några erfarenheter, teorier och förslag till principer som vi tycker är viktiga men som inte tas upp så mycket i andra publikationer.

  • 194.
    Nygren, Else
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science. Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction. Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Utvärdering av sökvägledningar2004Report (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    En utvärdering har genomförts av fyra olika vägledningar för sökning av litteratur på Internet. Sökvägledningarna har tagits fram av olika högskolebibliotek i Sverige. Den tänkta målgruppen är studenter som är ovana vid att söka vetenskaplig litteratur på Internet.

    En inledande bedömning av navigation och presentation visade att de olika sökvägledningarna hade sinsemellan olika utformning vad gäller såväl struktur och navigering som utseende och tilltal. För att utvärdera hur väl de olika sökvägledningarna fungerade för målgruppen genomfördes ett antal användartester i form av observationer.

    För att studera användbarheten hos sökvägledningarna konstruerades ett antal sökuppgifter av olika typer. Sökuppgifterna genomfördes gruppvis så att två eller tre personer arbetade med sökuppgifterna tillsammans och diskuterade högt med varandra. 23 grupper utförde vardera cirka 10 sökuppgifter under cirka en halv timmes tid. De sammanlagt cirka 200 sökningarna dokumenterades med videoinspelning. Resultatet analyserades i termer av söktid, resultat och förekomst av problem.

    Efter sökuppgifternas genomförande fick grupperna reflektera över sina erfarenheter av sökvägledningarna och kommentera detta i en enkät i form av en öppen fråga.

    Resultatet visade att Lilla sökguiden fungerade bäst. Den har en mycket grund struktur och länkar till sökfunktioner ligger förhållandevis högt upp i strukturen. Den använder mycket korta texter.

  • 195.
    Nygren, Else
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science. Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction. Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Utvärdering av ämnesguider: Hur hjälper de studenter att söka information?2006Report (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Ekonomikums bibliotek har tagit fram ämnesguider som är specialanpassade för de olika ämnesområden som biblioteket speciellt betjänar. Föreliggande rapport beskriver en utvärdering av i vilken utsträckning en sådan guide är till hjälp för studenter som ska söka information.

  • 196.
    Nygren, Else
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science. Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction. Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Allard, Alexander
    Between the clicks: Skilled users scanning of pages.1996In: Designing for the Web: Empirical studies. October 30, 1996, Redmond, WA, USA, 1996Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When designing web-pages for intra-net applications the notion of search time become important. In such applications, there are typically a limited set of web-pages which users will traverse frequently. For instance pages including contents lists and lists of links to reference documents. These pages will be scanned many times each day and to achieve efficiency the layout should be chosen to optimize average search time, rather than to optimize legibility for the occasional user. In this paper, we describe some results from a series of experiments on skilled users scanning of a screen display, that are relevant also to web-page design. The effect of variations in page layout features on the average search time was measured. It was found that with a fix page layout, learning takes place so that frequent users develop effective scanning strategies. These strategies are adjusted to the probability of finding interesting information in different locations on the page. It was also found that scanning a horizontal listing of items is slower than scanning a vertical listing of items. Findings further indicate that scanning a single long vertical list is faster than scanning multiple shorter vertical lists. Fixed position is the key to fast scanning. Users learn the location and directs search immediately to the right location on the page. If the target item was given a unique feature, search time was, as expected, significantly decreased. There was no significant difference between the features: colour, shade, space, size and slant.

  • 197.
    Nygren, Else
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science. Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Allard, Alexander
    Lind, Mats
    Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Experiments in visual search I: Effects of patterns of highlighted items on list search1995Report (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    f some of the information items on a structured computer display are highlighted, they can form a figural pattern on the screen. In field studies of computer users at work, we had observed that in some situations, interpretation of a display could be made by mere recognition of such patterns. In two experiments we investigated how figural patterns formed by highlighted items affected search time and visual process ing time in simple decision making tasks. The information items critical for the deci sion were either highlighted and formed a pattern, or, they were not highlighted and no pattern was formed. The results show that search time, as well as visual processing time was significantly and substantially shorter in the pattern conditions compared to the control condition. A model which assumes that highlighting the critical items causes sequential search to be replaced by pattern recognition, predicted the observed response times well. Different methods of highlight: colour; shading; italic font; smaller characters and empty space were equally efficient in reducing search time.

  • 198.
    Nygren, Else
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science. Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Allard, Alexander
    Lind, Mats
    Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Experiments in visual search II: Effects of figural patterns on trend assessment1995Report (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    A common task in many different types of computer work is to scan rows and columns of numerical data and look for trends, increasing or decreasing. In field studies we had observed that skilled users seemed to recognise the figural patterns formed by width variations in columns and use that as a clue in the task of assessing trends. In two experiments we studied assessment of trends. The result show that users can learn to recognise a width variation pattern which is correlated to the presence of a trend, and that recognition of such patterns significantly decrease search time compared to if no such pattern is present. The effect was larger in a vertical orientation compared to a horizontal orientation. Like other studies we also found that scanning for trends gener ally is performed faster in columns than in rows. The findings have implications for the presentation of for instance intensive care data, and process control data, where rows and columns are scanned many times each day.

  • 199.
    Nygren, Else
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science. Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Allard, Alexander
    Lind, Mats
    Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Experiments in visual search III. Effects of patterns of varying probability on scanning strategies1995Report (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    In most real work situations, the probability that an interesting item will be found in a certain position on the screen will be unevenly distributed over the screen area. A fre quent user may learn the probability pattern and adjust his or her scanning strategy to accommodate for this. In an experiment we investigated how scanning strategies were affected by such patterns of unevenly distributed probability. The results showed that users easily learn to adopt their search strategies to patterns of varying probability. The search time was significantly shorter compared to when the probability was evenly distributed over the screen area. Although the subjects in the study were unable to give a correct description of the probability distribution over the screen area, they were nevertheless able to adopt mathematically optimal search strategies.

  • 200.
    Nygren, Else
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science. Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Allard, Alexander
    Lind, Mats
    Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Experiments in visual search IV. Effects of positional correlations on time order assessment1995Report (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    In field studies of computer users at work we had observed that the assessment of order in time between events in graphs and time lists was regarded more effortful in a computerised situation compared to when the same information was read from paper sheets. In an experiment we investigated assessment of order in time between one graph event and one list event. In one condition the time list was presented so that there was a correlation between the position of an event item and the time of the event. In another condition the list was presented without such a correlation. The results show that the task was performed significantly faster if there was a correlation between position and time. This result explains why the computer lists were consid ered effortful to use, since the time lists were presented without any correlation between position and time. in the formerly used paper lists however, there were such a correlation.

123456 151 - 200 of 276
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf