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  • 151.
    Egnell, Robert
    Institutionen för freds- och konfliktforskning, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    The organised hypocrisy of international state-building2010In: Conflict, Security and Development, ISSN 1467-8802, E-ISSN 1478-1174, Vol. 10, no 4, 465-491 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses the concept of 'organised hypocrisy' as a means of making sense of the inconsistencies and contradictions in contemporary theory and practice of international state-building. While organised hypocrisy in international politics allows states and organisations to maintain systemic stability and legitimacy by managing irreconcilable pressures that might otherwise render them unable to operate effectively, this paper argues that organised hypocrisy also has negative impacts on the operational effectiveness of state-building. It allows organisations to engage in operations without sufficient resources, thereby seriously undermining operational effectiveness and the credibility of international state-building as a legitimate political tool. Organised hypocrisy also creates false expectations among the local and global populations and thereby decreases the credibility of the strategic narrative that is supposed to explain and make sense of the transformation processes to the general public. The paper also explores a number of options for dealing with organised hypocrisy in a way that could improve the effectiveness of international state-building.

  • 152.
    Einarsson, Niels
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Cultural Anthropology and Ethnology.
    Heal, Oliver William
    Heininen, Lassi
    Hoel, Alf Håkon
    Nuttall, Mark
    Young, Oran R. et al
    Social Science and Sustainable Development in the Arctic2001In: North Meets North: Proceedings of the First Northern Research Forum / [ed] Jón Haukur Ingimundarson, Akureyri: Stefansson Arctic Institute/Univ. of Akureyri , 2001, 160-165 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 153.
    Ekstam, Helen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Objective and subjective residential crowding in an everyday housing context:: A study of the crowded population in four different neighbourhoods in Stockholm, SwedenArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective standards in residential crowding are interpreted as universal "needs", regardless of the residents’ "wants". However, due to the seemingly arbitrary interpretations of objective needs, researchers have argued for the incorporation of subjective elements in the study of housing quality. The aim of this paper is to relate objective and subjective residential crowding to the everyday housing situation. Data from a survey that targets the everyday living situation for the residents in Stockholm, Sweden in 2008 are used to identify everyday housing factors. Logistic regression analysis confirms findings from previous research on objective crowding: Families, single parents with children and low-income households are more likely to be crowded than other types of households. Additional OLS regressions, including attitude data on respondents’ everyday housing situation, reveal that crowded residents experience less freedom regarding their dwelling situation than do non-crowded residents. The least amount of freedom is experienced by those who are crowded both according to the Swedish housing standard and according to a subjective measure of crowding.

  • 154.
    Ekstrand, Moa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Ord men inga visor: En jämförande masterstudie om humanitära organisationers policy kring dialog och mänskliga rättigheter i relation till praktiskt genomförande av flyktingläger2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The average time for an individual to be located in a refugee situation is 17 years. That people are fleeing for such a long period of their life means that a large part of their human rights can easily be neglected. This study examines the humanitarian organizations MSB’s and UN- HCR's implementation of refugee camps and how they allow refugees to play a part in this process. This essay intends to examine the policy the organizations adhere to, namely the in- ternationally recognized handbooks Handbook of Emergencies and The Sphere Project. Em- pirical material is based on a qualitative interview method where a comparison between poli- cy and practice is investigated. Employees of organizations and experts on refugee camp de- sign, management and urban planning have served as respondents in this study. The city planning theory collaborative rationality is used to examine the empirical data to answer how organizations work with refugee camps, if a dialogue processes occur between organizations and refugees, and what benefits the theory can provide. This is followed by a discussion re- garding the human rights of the refugees and whether these are considered in the implementa- tion of the camp. A question raised in the discussion is whether a clarification of the concept could help the organizations' employees to meet the human rights of the refugees. The aim of this thesis is to create an interdisciplinary understanding across disciplinary boundaries. The idea is that the amalgamation of disciplines can improve the humanitarian organizations’ work and aid refugees living conditions. This study highlights a discrepancy in the relation- ship between policy and practice in relation to the procedure manuals, but also in relation to refugees and the satisfaction of human rights. A majority of the respondents testify a wish that a dialogue should be conducted between the organization and the recipients of humanitar- ian aid but that issues such as time pressure, ignorance and power relations complicates this process. What is needed for an improvement of dialogue processes is that the organizations need to take clearer positions on how the practical implementation should play out which would more easily control their employees to execute their work. States need to review their approach to refugees and to take responsibility for the people who need help. Last but not least, the concept of human rights and Nussbaum's definition of it is offered as a suggestion as to how UNHCR and MSB could simplify their work to accommodate that the refugees are treated within the realms of the human rights legislation. 

  • 155.
    Elovaara, Pirjo
    et al.
    BTH.
    Sefyrin, JohannaMittuniversitetet, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.Öhman, May-BrittUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research.Björkman, Christina
    Travelling thoughtfulness: feminist technoscience stories2010Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 156.
    Engberg, Katarina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    To Intervene or Not to Intervene?: The EU and the Military Option in the Lebanon War of 20062010In: Perspectives on European Politics and Society, ISSN 1570-5854, E-ISSN 1568-0258, Vol. 11, no 4, 408-428 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the Lebanon war in the summer of 2006, the EU made an effort to raise its profile in the Middle East, playing a political role more commensurate with European values and interests at stake in its immediate neighbourhood. The EU, already the main provider of humanitarian aid to the region, was expected to provide the bulk of forces to any successor to the UN’s ill fated peacekeeping force UNIFIL I. It was not only UN Secretary General Annan asking Europeans to assume a leading role for the force, but so did Israel, looking for a way out of a war that was not going as expected. For a couple of weeks in July, the EU internally debated the possibility of assuming command and control for the force. France, the prime contender for the role as ‘framework nation’ for the operation, in the end declined to assume the command and control of an EU-led force, instead deciding to put its forces under UN lead and fold its forces into what became UNIFIL II. While it may have been premature for the EU, who initiated its military operations only in 2003, to take on the responsibility for an operation fraught with risks, and possibly also of long duration in the Middle East, the fact that it discussed the possibility at all is indicative of the EU’s ambition in the field of military crisis management and its wish to play a role in case there would in the future be a settlement between Israel and Palestine that would require the presence of international stabilisation forces.

  • 157.
    Engberg, Katarina
    Deputy Director General, Swedish Ministry of Defence.
    To Intervene or Not to Intervene?: The EU and the Military Option in the Lebanon War of 20062010In: Perspectives on European Politics and Society, ISSN 1570-5854, E-ISSN 1568-0258, Vol. 11, no 4, 408-428 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the Lebanon war in the summer of 2006, the EU made an effort to raise its profile in the Middle East, playing a political role more commensurate with European values and interests at stake in its immediate neighbourhood. The EU, already the main provider of humanitarian aid to the region, was expected to provide the bulk of forces to any successor to the UN’s ill fated peacekeeping force UNIFIL I. It was not only UN Secretary General Annan asking Europeans to assume a leading role for the force, but so did Israel, looking for a way out of a war that was not going as expected. For a couple of weeks in July, the EU internally debated the possibility of assuming command and control for the force. France, the prime contender for the role as ‘framework nation’ for the operation, in the end declined to assume the command and control of an EU-led force, instead deciding to put its forces under UN lead and fold its forces into what became UNIFIL II. While it may have been premature for the EU, who initiated its military operations only in 2003, to take on the responsibility for an operation fraught with risks, and possibly also of long duration in the Middle East, the fact that it discussed the possibility at all is indicative of the EU’s ambition in the field of military crisis management and its wish to play a role in case there would in the future be a settlement between Israel and Palestine that would require the presence of international stabilisation forces.

  • 158.
    Engvall, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    A first classification of zoogeomorphological activity and impacts by large mammals in national parks, South Africa2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 159.
    Engvall, Johan
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Euroasian Studies.
    Economic Sources of Stateness: the Case of Kyrgyzstan2006In: Paper presented at the Annual Conference of Eurasian Studies, Indiana University, 8 April 2006, 2006Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 160.
    Engvall, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Euroasian Studies.
    Osmonaliev, Kairat
    Kyrgyz National University.
    Uncertain Future for Kyrgyzstan's Drug Control Agency2006In: Central Asia-Caucasus Analyst, Vol. 8, no 13, 10-11 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Kyrgyzstan’s Drug Control Agency is a key entity in counter-narcotics in Central Asia. The DCA has the status of a law enforcement agency in its own right. It is nevertheless affected both by international and domestic politics. It is entirely funded by the United States, and continued uncertainty regarding Kyrgyz-U.S. relations makes continued funding for the DCA uncertain, just as it the contract is coming up for renewal. Domestically, the DCA suffers from the weakness of its operations in the South, the main locus of drug trafficking. Rumors over imminent changes in leadership further contribute to the DCA’s uncertainty

  • 161.
    Enwall, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Tuvan or Mongol: A Study of Inter-ethnic Relations and Ethnic Definition Strategies among Tuvans and Kazakhs in Western Mongolia2005In: Turkic Languages, Vol. 9, no 1, 93-115 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 162.
    Eriksson, Lolita
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Hjälmeskog, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    The "ideal" food consumer in Home Economics: A study of Swedish textbooks from 1962 to 20112017In: International Journal of Consumer Studies, ISSN 1470-6423, E-ISSN 1470-6431, Vol. 41, no 3, 237-244 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Is the ideal food consumer, educated in Home Economics in Sweden, one who makes sustainable choices? By examining Home Economics textbooks for lower secondary school published from 1962 to 2011, we explored what kind of food consumers emerged and thus open up a discussion on sustainability and food consumption. One standard textbook from each decade, in total six, was included in the study, and the passages dealing with food, as core content, were analyzed. Discourse analysis was used to reveal different characterizations of the ideal consumers, specifically in relation to sustainable food consumption. Three different discourses emerged: (a) the healthy and obedient consumer, (b) the healthy, thrifty, and caring consumer, and (c) the healthy, thrifty, and environmentally conscious consumer. There were both similarities and differences among these consumers, specifically regarding what knowledge they are shown to need and how they are supposed to learn. All three consumers are primarily motivated by health arguments, even though health is related to finances in the second and to both finances and environment in the third case. Furthermore, we found a common tendency for textbooks to express knowledge in a prescriptive way, with the implied belief that people are rational food consumers. This tendency leads us to suggest that the discussion about future consumer education and textbooks could be broadened and strengthened by the inclusion of a participative and critical approach and social responsibility.

  • 163.
    Eriksson, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Bibliographic Overview of International Sanctions Literature2003Report (Other scientific)
  • 164.
    Eriksson, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Att skildra tillståndet i världen2003In: Politologen, Vol. Hösten, 80- p.Article in journal (Other scientific)
  • 165.
    Eriksson, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Targeting the Leadership of Zimbabwe: A Path to Democracy and Normalization?2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is based on a set of interviews and observations from a research mission undertaken in Harare, Zimbabwe in September 2006. As part of a broader dissertation project conducted at the European University Institute in Florence, Italy, this field trip to Zimbabwe was designed to study the impact of targeted sanctions. Of particular concern was the impact of the travel bans and assets freeze measures on targeted individuals applied by the European Union (EU). Other sanctions measures in place, such as the arms embargo or other indirect trade restrictions, are omitted in this study. A set of interviews were conducted with different members of the civil society (both national and international); key representatives of the government of Zimbabwe; political parties (ZANU-PF and MDC factions), foreign embassy representatives, as well as researchers.

    All interviews had an open-ended character with guiding questions. Anonymity was granted to those interviewed. Additionally information public reports, news-articles and monthly bulletins covering African and Zimbabwean issues were used (also news articles from state owed papers) in order to include government perceptions.

    The Human Rights Trust of Southern Africa (SAHRIT) was instrumental in facilitating contacts during the mission, while the Nordic Africa Institute, Uppsala Sweden was supportive in awarding me a travel grant. Hence, both institutions deserve special thanks. It should be noted that some interviews that were made with particular targeted entities of sanctions have been left out here, and will be incorporated in the PhD thesis.

    Summary and Recommendations are included in the final section

     

     

     

     

  • 166.
    Eriksson, Mikael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Nilsson, Desiree
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Sollenberg, Margareta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Wallensteen, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    States in Armed Conflict 20002001Report (Other academic)
  • 167.
    Eriksson, Mikael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Wallensteen, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Sollenberg, Margareta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Högbladh, Stina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    States in Armed Conflict 20022004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract
  • 168.
    Esswein, Ann
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    The role of community radio in the response and recovery phase of the Gorkha earthquake: A case study research on humanitarian communication in Kathmandu Valley2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When the Gorkha earthquake hit Nepal on 25th April 2015, radio proved to be one of

    the major sources of information. Especially community radio could provide essential

    and life-saving information, reflecting the needs of the affected, local communities.

    Those stations claimed to speak “not about but for the people”. While community radio

    practitioners have repeatedly highlighted the benefits of the participatory approach, the

    linkage between the concept and its implementation when disaster strikes remains

    unexplored.

    Thus, the following thesis is aimed to illuminate the manifold role community radio had

    during the earthquake in 2015. The theoretical framework is based on key concepts such

    as community radio, crisis and humanitarian communication, resilience and Disaster

    Risk Management. The thesis strives to discuss various disciplines as well as

    practitioners and researchers perspectives. For that purpose, normative theory is

    contrasted by a survey with 30 community members, which had been affected by the

    earthquake, five interviews with community radio practitioners, one focus group

    discussion and several key-informant interviews, that I conducted in Nepal in February

    and March 2016. Having identified common challenges and lesson learned, one central

    outcome of this thesis are recommendations that are aimed to foster resilience towards

    future crisis in the earthquake prone country.

  • 169. Findley, Michael
    et al.
    Powell, Josh
    Strandow, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Tanner, Jeff
    The localized geography of foreign aid: A new dataset and application to violent armed conflict2011In: World Development, ISSN 0305-750X, E-ISSN 1873-5991, Vol. 39, no 11, 1995-2009 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Existing foreign aid databases – the OECD’s CRS data and now AidData – are project-based. And yet nearly all empirical analyses using these data aggregate to the country-year level, thereby losing project-specific information. In this paper, we introduce new data on the geographic location of aid projects that have been committed to many African countries between 1989 and 2008. The data enable an examination of project-level information in a wider variety of systematic research contexts. To demonstrate the utility of the new data, we discuss how geographically disaggregated foreign aid and armed conflict data are needed to capture the theoretical mechanisms in the aid-conflict literature. We then map the disaggregated aid and conflict data in Sierra Leone, Angola, and Mozambique as specific examples of how these data could help disentangle competing causal mechanisms linking aid to conflict onset and dynamics. The research provides an important new perspective on the connections between aid and conflict. More generally, it is a crucial first step in geo-referencing and comparing foreign aid projects to various localized development outcomes.

  • 170.
    Fjelde, Hanne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Sins of Omission and Commission: The Quality of Government and Civil Conflict2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Is the risk of civil conflict related to the quality of government? This dissertation contributes to the quantitative research on this topic. First, it provides a more nuanced account of the role of the government in influencing the risk of civil conflict. In doing so, the dissertation bridges a gap between the quantitative literature, which primarily focuses on types of regimes, and the qualitative literature, which emphasizes variations in how political authority is exercised within these institutions. Second, the dissertation introduces novel measures of the quality of government, and tests their association with civil peace across countries, over time. The dissertation consists of an introductory chapter and four separate essays. Essay I examines the risk of conflict across different types of authoritarian regimes. The statistical results suggest that single-party regimes have a lower risk of civil conflict than military and multi-party authoritarian regimes. The finding is attributed to the high capacity for coercion and co-optation within single-party institutions. Essay II studies whether cross-national variations in the occurrence of civil conflict are due to differences in the quality of government. The essay finds that governments that are not able to carry through such basic governing tasks as protecting property rights and providing public goods, render themselves vulnerable to civil conflict. The focus of Essay III is on patronage politics, meaning that rulers rely on the distribution of private goods to retain the support necessary to stay in power. The statistical results suggest that patronage politics per se increase the risk of conflict. The conflict-inducing effect is mediated by large oil-wealth, however, because the government can use the wealth strategically to buy off opposition. Essay IV argues that patronage politics can also lead to violent conflict between groups. The results from a statistical analysis, based on unique sub-national data on inter-group conflict in Nigeria, are consistent with this argument. Taken together, the findings of this dissertation suggest that both the form and degree of government have a significant influence on the risk of civil conflict.

    List of papers
    1. Generals, Dictators, and Kings: Authoritarian Regimes and Civil Conflict, 1973-2004
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Generals, Dictators, and Kings: Authoritarian Regimes and Civil Conflict, 1973-2004
    2010 (English)In: Conflict Management and Peace Science, ISSN 0738-8942, E-ISSN 1549-9219, Vol. 27, no 3, 195-218 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Recent years have seen a surge of literature examining how political institutions influence the risk of civil conflict. A comparatively neglected aspect of this debate has been the heterogeneous impact of different forms of authoritarianism. In this article, I theoretically and empirically unpack the authoritarian regime category. I argue that authoritarian regimes differ both in their capacity to forcefully control opposition and in their ability to co-opt their rivals through offers of power positions and rents. Authoritarian regimes thus exhibit predictable differences in their ability to avoid organized violent challenges to their authority. I examine the association between four types of authoritarian regimes-military, monarchy, single-party, and multi-party electoral autocracies-and the onset of civil conflict from 1973 to 2004. I find that military regimes and multi-party electoral autocracies run a higher risk of armed conflict than single-party authoritarian regimes, which on the other hand seem to have an institutional set-up that makes them particularly resilient to armed challenges to their authority. These findings suggest that the emerging view, that political institutions are not a significant determinant of civil conflict, results from treating a heterogeneous set of authoritarian regimes as homogenous.

    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-109956 (URN)10.1177/0738894210366507 (DOI)000278872600001 ()
    Available from: 2009-11-02 Created: 2009-11-02 Last updated: 2011-01-10Bibliographically approved
    2. Coercion, Co-optation , or Co-operation?: State Capacity and the Risk of Civil War, 1961 - 2004
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Coercion, Co-optation , or Co-operation?: State Capacity and the Risk of Civil War, 1961 - 2004
    2009 (English)In: Conflict Management and Peace Science, ISSN 0738-8942, E-ISSN 1549-9219, Vol. 26, no 1, 05-25 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research identifies state capacity as a crucial determinant of civil peace. Scholars often interpret the association between wealth and peace as state capacity effects, but they have not clearly distinguished the impact of administrative reach and capacity for coercion from those effects that may capture good governance related to the provision of political goods and quality of institutions.We revisit the relationship between state capacity and civil peace by suggesting three different pathways through which the state avoids violent challenges to its authority: coercion, co-optation, and cooperation.We evaluate these three different notions of governing capacity both analytically and empirically, and we find that high levels of government spending on political goods and trustworthy institutions are more significant predictors of civil peace than are states' coercive capacities.The results suggest that civil peace is co-produced by social and state forces, where quasi-voluntary cooperation from society increases state capacity for maintaining peace.This is good news for policies aimed at building state capacity, since there seems to be room for agency beyond simply waiting for societies to become wealthy.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    London: Sage Publication, 2009
    Keyword
    Armed conflict, Civil war, Contract-intensive money, Quality of governance, Relative political capacity, State capacity
    National Category
    Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalization Studies)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-109955 (URN)10.1177/0738894208097664 (DOI)000263161800001 ()
    Available from: 2009-11-02 Created: 2009-11-02 Last updated: 2010-12-30Bibliographically approved
    3. Buying Peace? Oil Wealth, Corruption and Civil War, 1985-99
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Buying Peace? Oil Wealth, Corruption and Civil War, 1985-99
    2009 (English)In: Journal of Peace Research, ISSN 0022-3433, E-ISSN 1460-3578, Vol. 462, no 2, 199-218 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article argues that, contrary to received wisdom, political corruption is not necessarily associated with a higher risk of civil war in oil-rich states. Political corruption can be used to accommodate opposition and placate restive groups by offering private privilege in exchange for political loyalty. Since oil wealth is associated with large rents accruing in state treasuries, it provides an economic foundation for such clientelist rule. This article thus argues that oil-rich governments can use political corruption to buy support from key segments of society, effectively outspending other entrepreneurs of violence. Based on a logit analysis of civil war onsets, 1985-99, the article finds support for this 'co-optation argument'. A negative and statistically significant interaction term between oil production and political corruption is consistent across different models and robust to a number of specifications. While both variables per se increase the risk of conflict overall, higher levels of corruption seem to weaken the harmful impact of oil on the risk of civil war. This finding suggests the need for a more nuanced understanding of the relationship between natural resource wealth, governance and armed conflict. Political corruption has prolonged poverty and bred economic and political inequality in many oil-rich states, but it has also helped cement powerful alliances with a stake in the continuation of the corrupt regimes.

    National Category
    Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalization Studies)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-109953 (URN)10.1177/0022343308100715 (DOI)000264377200003 ()
    Available from: 2009-11-02 Created: 2009-11-02 Last updated: 2010-12-29Bibliographically approved
    4. Sub-National Determinants of Non-State Conflicts in Nigeria, 1991-2006
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sub-National Determinants of Non-State Conflicts in Nigeria, 1991-2006
    2009 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Existing literature on non-state conflict tends to either focus on issues of resource scarcity or on ethnic/religious divisions. Largely overlooked in the empirical literature is the issue of how governance influences the risk that non-state actors take up arms against each other. This paper addresses this issue by examining the occurrence of non-state armed conflicts in Nigeria, claiming more than 7000 lives between 1991 and 2006. I suggest that at the macro level, the government’s strategy of replacing conventional state capacity with a centralized patronage sys- tem, based on purchasing political restraint, explains the proliferation of inter-group violence. Based on the interpretation of non-state conflicts as an expression of institutionalized rent- seeking, I derive testable hypotheses regarding where within a country such conflicts are most likely to occur. Utilizing GIS software and new, unique event based data at the sub-national level in Nigeria, the paper explores local determinants of non-state conflicts. The results lend some support to the notion that non-state actors fight both over wealth and over the political access that secure access to such wealth.

    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-109959 (URN)
    Conference
    the ISA's 50th ANNUAL CONVENTION "EXPLORING THE PAST, ANTICIPATING THE FUTURE"
    Available from: 2009-11-02 Created: 2009-11-02 Last updated: 2014-01-24Bibliographically approved
  • 171.
    Fors, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    The practice of implementing sustainable ICT practices: The case of the Green IT Audit2015In: Proceedings of the 23rd NORDIC ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT conference, Copenhagen, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For several decades, Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have been used by individuals and within organizations in order to increase efficiency. Traditionally, the increased efficiency enabled by ICTs has primarily affected factors such as profitability and time. In recent years, however, ICT has been promoted as an important tool for increasing ecological efficiency, i.e. for sustainability. Although there are several environmental implications related to the ICT sector to take into account, such as the production of electronic waste (e-waste), the extraction of rare earth elements (REEs) and the hazardous production of ICT equipment, the discourse has increasingly shifted towards discussing the positive sides of ICT for sustainability (Author et al., 2014). According to recent reports, the potential of using ICT in order to increase the ecological sustainability of our society is huge. According to GeSI, the Global e-Sustainability Initiative, we will be able to decrease the annual GHG emissions by 9,1 GtCO2e worldwide, as well as creating 29,5 million jobs by using smart solutions enabled by ICT (GeSI, 2008). Some examples of these solutions are digitalization and dematerialization, system integration and process optimization (ibid.) However, as the full potential of smart ICT solutions hinges on that it is implemented and used correctly, we have yet to see the benefits of ICT for ecological sustainability surpass its negative effects (Rattle, 2010).

    By following one initiative for implementing smart ICT solutions in organizations in Sweden, namely the Green IT Audit, we have investigated how the implementation of these sustainable ICT practices takes place in practice (Author, 2013). The Green IT Audit is a consultancy model, developed by TCO Development, which is used to improve the usage of and implement sustainable ICT solutions in organizations. By drawing on practice theory (Schatzki, 1996), this paper explores new ways of explaining how the implementation of sustainable ICT practices could occur. A practice is described by Reckwitz as a “routinised type of behaviour which consists of several elements, interconnected to one another: ... bodily activities, ... mental activities, ‘things’ and their use, a background knowledge in the form of understanding, know-how, states of emotion and motivational knowledge” (2002; p. 249). The routinized way of performing a Green IT Audit in organizations is also constituted by these elements and can thus be declared a practice. Ijab & Molla (2011) suggests that a practice approach provides a “useful lens to garner deeper and holistic understanding of the information systems that organisations develop, deploy, use and integrate for eco-sustainability” (p. 2). What the consultant do and his or her understanding of sustainable ICT will thus affect the way Green IT is explained to the client. In turn, the understanding of the client and their material infrastructure will also affect how the model is implemented in the organization. 

  • 172.
    Forsberg, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Polarization and Ethnic Conflict in a Widened Strategic Setting2008In: Journal of Peace Research, ISSN 0022-3433, E-ISSN 1460-3578, Vol. 45, no 2, 283-300 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethnic groups and conflicts often transcend country borders, indicating that notions of relative strength and resolve may also surpass such borders. This study focuses on the association between ethnic polarization and conflict in a widened strategic environment, encapsulating each state that experiences ethnic conflict and its neighboring states, and involving contagion processes. Two claims are presented. First, when a state experiences ethnic conflict, neighboring states that are ethnically polarized are more likely to also experience ethnic conflict. Second, when a group involved in ethnic conflict has a kinship tie to a group in a neighboring state, the latter group is increasingly likely to be inspired to challenge the government and end up in ethnic conflict. This should be especially likely if the group resides in a state characterized by ethnic polarization. To evaluate these claims, this article employs logit regression on a global dataset covering the period from 1989 to 2004. The empirical analysis supports the first claim; polarized states are indeed associated with an increased likelihood of contagion processes. The findings also demonstrate that kinship links make contagion more likely; however, this effect is not conditioned by the level of ethnic polarization. The results are robust to a series of alternative specifications. In conclusion, these findings point to the importance of incorporating a widened strategic setting in the analysis when examining the association between ethnic polarization and civil conflict.

     

  • 173.
    Forsberg, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Transnational Ethnic Groups as Transmitters of Conflict ContagionManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 174.
    Forsberg, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Refugees and Intrastate Armed Conflict: A Contagion Process ApproachManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 175.
    Forsberg, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Neighbors at Risk: A Quantitative Study of Civil War Contagion2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    While previous research shows that civil wars can spread to neighboring states, we do not know why certain neighbors are more at risk than others. To address this research gap, this dissertation proposes a contagion process approach that can identify the most likely targets of contagion effects from an ongoing conflict. Using data with global coverage, theoretical expectations about why and where civil wars would have contagion effects, are examined in a series of statistical analyses. Paper I argues and empirically supports that a country is more susceptible to contagion effects when it is characterized by ethnic polarization, where few ethnic groups form a delicate balance. Paper II argues and provides evidence that the involvement in conflict by an ethnic group in one country increases the likelihood of ethnic conflict erupting in a neighboring country that shares the same ethnic group. Paper III suggests and finds support that the arrival and long-term hosting of refugees from states in civil conflict make host states more likely to experience civil conflict. Paper IV examines the common notion that the granting of autonomy or independence to separatist groups may spur other ethnic groups to violently pursue similar demands, starting off a domino effect. Using new global data on such territorial concessions, the analysis does not support this version of the “domino theory,” which is popular among policy-makers. In sum, this dissertation contributes by demonstrating the usefulness of the contagion process approach. It offers a more comprehensive view of contagion among neighbors, and as such is able to specify arguments and intuitions in previous research.

    List of papers
    1. Polarization and Ethnic Conflict in a Widened Strategic Setting
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Polarization and Ethnic Conflict in a Widened Strategic Setting
    2008 (English)In: Journal of Peace Research, ISSN 0022-3433, E-ISSN 1460-3578, Vol. 45, no 2, 283-300 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Ethnic groups and conflicts often transcend country borders, indicating that notions of relative strength and resolve may also surpass such borders. This study focuses on the association between ethnic polarization and conflict in a widened strategic environment, encapsulating each state that experiences ethnic conflict and its neighboring states, and involving contagion processes. Two claims are presented. First, when a state experiences ethnic conflict, neighboring states that are ethnically polarized are more likely to also experience ethnic conflict. Second, when a group involved in ethnic conflict has a kinship tie to a group in a neighboring state, the latter group is increasingly likely to be inspired to challenge the government and end up in ethnic conflict. This should be especially likely if the group resides in a state characterized by ethnic polarization. To evaluate these claims, this article employs logit regression on a global dataset covering the period from 1989 to 2004. The empirical analysis supports the first claim; polarized states are indeed associated with an increased likelihood of contagion processes. The findings also demonstrate that kinship links make contagion more likely; however, this effect is not conditioned by the level of ethnic polarization. The results are robust to a series of alternative specifications. In conclusion, these findings point to the importance of incorporating a widened strategic setting in the analysis when examining the association between ethnic polarization and civil conflict.

     

    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Research subject
    Peace and Conflict Research
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-87711 (URN)10.1177/0022343307087185 (DOI)000255002500009 ()
    Available from: 2009-01-08 Created: 2009-01-08 Last updated: 2011-01-11Bibliographically approved
    2. Transnational Ethnic Groups as Transmitters of Conflict Contagion
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Transnational Ethnic Groups as Transmitters of Conflict Contagion
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-107575 (URN)
    Available from: 2009-08-18 Created: 2009-08-18 Last updated: 2010-01-14Bibliographically approved
    3. Refugees and Intrastate Armed Conflict: A Contagion Process Approach
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Refugees and Intrastate Armed Conflict: A Contagion Process Approach
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-107576 (URN)
    Available from: 2009-08-18 Created: 2009-08-18 Last updated: 2010-01-14Bibliographically approved
    4. Do Ethnic Dominoes Fall?: Evaluating Domino Effects of Granting Territorial Concessions to Separatist Groups
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Do Ethnic Dominoes Fall?: Evaluating Domino Effects of Granting Territorial Concessions to Separatist Groups
    2013 (English)In: International Studies Quarterly, ISSN 0020-8833, E-ISSN 1468-2478, Vol. 57, no 2, 329-340 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Forsberg, Erika. (2013) Evaluating Domino Effects of Granting Territorial Concessions to Separatist Groups. International Studies Quarterly, doi: 10.1111/isqu.12006 (c) 2013 International Studies Association There is a commonly expressed concern that granting territorial concessions to separatist groups may create domino effects. However, although this statement is largely undisputed within political rhetoric, no firm conclusions have been provided in previous research. The purpose of this study is to systematically examine whether the granting of territorial concessions to an ethnic group does indeed spur new separatist conflicts. I suggest that such domino effects may be generated by two processes. First, the accommodation of an ethnic group's separatist demands may trigger a general inspiration process among other groups within and across borders. Second, by acquiescing to separatist demands, a government signals that it may also yield to the demands of other groups it confronts, making it more likely that other groups choose to pursue secessionism. Statistical analysis of data on territorial concessions globally 1989-2004 provides no evidence of domino effects. This holds true both within and across borders.

    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-107577 (URN)10.1111/isqu.12006 (DOI)000320561100008 ()
    Available from: 2009-08-18 Created: 2009-08-18 Last updated: 2013-07-22Bibliographically approved
  • 176.
    Forsberg, Erika
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Conflict Diffusion: Ethnic Kin as a Transmitter of Internal Conflict2005Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Is intrastate ethnic conflict contagious; that is, can ethnic conflict in one country increase the likelihood of the onset of ethnic conflict in a nearby country? This diffusion aspect of ethnic con-flict has not been examined systematically in previous studies. The paper considers the role of ethnic kinship as a conflict transmitter. Using a strategic interaction perspective, it is argued that ethnic conflict in one state, in combination with ethnic kin between states, may generate uncer-tainty in one or more neighboring states. Under certain conditions this uncertainty and fear about the future may compel actors in one or more neighboring countries to use violence. For instance, a conflict involving an ethnic group in one state may inspire kin groups in neighboring countries to reevaluate the stability of their own arrangements and challenge the existing power balance. Thus, it is hypothesized that ethnic conflict in one state, in interaction with the existence of shared ethnic kin between two states, increases the likelihood of ethnic conflict erupting in the second state. This hypothesis is assessed using a new global dataset of directed dyads of all neighboring countries in the time-span 1989-2002. The data is analyzed using logistic regression and the findings lend preliminary support for the hypothesis.

  • 177.
    Forsberg, Erika
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Contagion of Ethnic Conflict:: Uncertainty in a Widened Strategic Setting2006Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the conditions under which ethnic conflict may be contagious. Since ethnic conflict and ethnic groups overlap international boundaries, this paper argues that they should be analyzed using a widened notion of a strategic setting. It is suggested that regions encapsulating each conflict and its neighboring states provide such an environment. From a general notion of uncertainty as a key characteristic of the strategic environment, two explanations are outlined. Firstly, it is suggested that the existence of ethnic kin between conflict actors and groups across the borders of the state in conflict is associated with an increased risk of onset of ethnic conflict in the state at risk of contagion. Secondly, if the conflict state and a neighboring state are similar in terms of the factors commonly associated with the onset of violent conflict, here indicated by the level of democracy and economic wealth, the likelihood of ethnic conflict is heightened in the state at risk. The hypotheses are evaluated statistically with new data on the ethnic constituency of actors as well as measures of structural similarities. While the ethnic kin hypothesis is supported in all models tested, the impact of structural similarities cannot be confirmed.

  • 178.
    Forsman, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Mann, Richard P.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Van den Bogaard, Maartje
    Delft University.
    Sandbox University: Estimating Influence of Institutional Action2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 7, e103261- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The approach presented in this article represents a generalizable and adaptable methodology for identifying complexinteractions in educational systems and for investigating how manipulation of these systems may affect educationaloutcomes of interest. Multilayer Minimum Spanning Tree and Monte-Carlo methods are used. A virtual Sandbox Universityis created in order to facilitate effective identification of successful and stable initiatives within higher education, which canaffect students’ credits and student retention – something that has been lacking up until now. The results highlight theimportance of teacher feedback and teacher-student rapport, which is congruent with current educational findings,illustrating the methodology’s potential to provide a new basis for further empirical studies of issues in higher educationfrom a complex systems perspective.

  • 179.
    Fowler, Nina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Project as strategy for the valley of death2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of surviving the “Valley of Death” faced by emerging innovations have routinely focused on financial resources, examining the funding gap between basic research and sustained income (Auerswald and Branscomb, 2003). The interest in government support, universities’ technology transfer offices and investors has provided a range of descriptions of the supporting actors in the environment around academic spin-outs (see for example Grimaldi 2011, King and Levine, 1993, Leydesdorff and Etzkowitz, 1995). However, exploration of the various strategies employed by spin-out founders in their innovation journey have been largely limited to descriptions of intellectual property sharing through mechanisms such as technology licensing, collaborations, etc. (see Rothaermel et al. 2007 for an overview). Such descriptions overwhelmingly focus on the mechanism by which financial resources are directed towards the innovation and the inventors are inevitably forced to surrender a large portion of their ownership rights.

     

    This paper instead offers a description of the strategic use of projects to negotiate the innovation journey into and through externally funded pilots. Further, it identifies the key forces relating to state and project partner actors that enable the strategy. The empirical setting for this analysis is the case of a spin-out based on research taking place at Uppsala University. In 2009 the spin-out, without a steady turnover, and a utility company jointly applied for state funding of a pilot project, the largest of its kind to date. The spin-out would execute the construction and the utility would operate the pilot. However, the project was severely delayed and the utility stepped in to control the design and manufacturing, sending a representative every week to the spin-out facility.

     

    The paper seeks to explore how the project thus acted as a space in which the spin-out and the utility were working together, an opening that would not have been possible had the utility been a customer. Missed deadlines could have resulted in a breach of contract, the utility could have pulled out and the spin-out, with equipment and material investment debts and with no other customers lined up, could have collapsed. Instead, by structuring the activity as a project the utility was enrolled in working towards the conclusion, and invested further through the insertion of a project manager into the spin-out. In this case it could be suggested that the forces usually at play in a purchase agreement are changed by the activity taking on the form of a project, forcing the two actors into collaborative action towards their common goal.

  • 180.
    Fowler, Nina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    The Investigation Toolbox : Hybridity2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The organisational structure of an academic department and its spin-off is examined through the theoretical lens of hybridity. Observed phenomena include the dissemination of intellectual property, the sharing of researchers and other resources, and the cross-boundary nature of the work undertaken. Different aspects of the observed case reveal a variety of types of hybrid activities and characteristics, and raise questions for further research. 

  • 181.
    Fox, Mary-Jane
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Political Culture in Somalia: Tracing Paths to Peace and Conflict2000Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this dissertation is to apply the political culture concept to and then examine its historical implications for the variant conditions of peace and conflict in contemporary Somalia. Within peace and conflict research, political culture is a concept which has not been examined as a possible contributing factor to peace or conflict, and part of this is due to a restricted understanding of it. By relying on existing literature in the field (Diamond, Eckstein, Pye) to expand this concept, it is then applied to the case of Somalia, which currently is divided into three separate entities with three distinct outcomes. These outcomes are observable as the unrecognized state of Somaliland in the northwest, the autonomous Puntland State of Somalia in the northeast, and the southern region of Somalia, particularly the Mogadishu area. The former two are relatively peaceful, economically growing and centrally ruled polities, while the latter region experiences chronic violent conflict, economic uncertainty, and warlord politics. These three distinct outcomes suggest varying political culture legacies. Indicators for the concept are established by utilizing political culture "themes" which have been observed in the relevant literature. Beginning in the early 1800s, a longitudinal study of the development of separate trends in political culture in Somalia is undertaken.

    Distinct regional trends in political culture can be detected as far back in time as the precolonial period in the early 1800s, and these trends only become stronger during the colonial era, when Great Britain established itself as a protectorate in the northwest and Italy attempted to colonize the south and establish control over the northeast. The more positive trends on the northern coastal area appear to have been facilitated by Britain's relative disinterest in conquest and colonization of the area, and the less positive trends in the south were exacerbated by the harsh pratices of Italian colonization and Fascist ideology. With few breaks in these disparate trends over time, and these trends also carrying through to the present, it is suggested that contemporary differences between the regions are at least partly explained by their political culture legacies. Although this does not nullify any contemporary explanations which have been forwarded, it supplements and informs them. This dissertation suggests that in order to understand contemporary peace and conflict or offer prescriptions for prolonged conflict, it is important to identify and recognize the nature of and how deeply rooted these trends of peace and conflict actually are.

  • 182.
    Fox, M.J.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Missing the Boat to Self-Determination:Palestine and Namibia in Retrospect1998In: Arab Studies Quarterly, Vol. 20, no 3, 15-36 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 183.
    Fox, M.J.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Somalia Divided: The African Cerberus (Considerations on Political Culture)1999In: Civil Wars, Vol. 2, no 1, 1-34 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 184.
    Fransson, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology. Network on Humanitarian Action.
    Can social organisations facilitate refugee integration in Sweden?2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 185.
    Fredriksson, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Avd f kvalitetsteknik och statistik.
    TQM as a Support for Societal Development – Experiences From a Swedish Community.2003In: Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, ISSN ISSN 1478-3363, Vol. 14, no 2, 225-233 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 186.
    Fredriksson, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Avd f kvalitetsteknik och statistik.
    A collection of the empirical material to “A Background to the Åseda Case Study”. Research Report 2001:4. Luleå University of Technology, Division of Quality Technology & Statistics, Luleå. (In Swedish)2001Report (Other academic)
  • 187.
    Fredriksson, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Avd f kvalitetsteknik och statistik.
    TQM as a Support for Societal Development – A background Research to Åseda Case Study. Research Report 2001:5. Luleå University of Technology, Division of Quality Technology & Statistics, Luleå. (In Swedish)2001Report (Other academic)
  • 188.
    Fredriksson, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Avd f kvalitetsteknik och statistik.
    Experienced Effects from Applying TQM in Societal Improvement Work. Research Report 2002:3. Luleå University of Technology, Division of Quality Technology & Statistics, Luleå.2002Report (Other academic)
  • 189.
    Fredriksson, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Avd f kvalitets- och miljöledning.
    Total Quality Management on Societal Level.2003In: Kvalitetsmagasinet, ISSN 1104-1579, no 1, 12-13 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 190.
    Fredriksson, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Avd f kvalitets- och miljöledning.
    TQM as Support for Local Development in Society.2003In: Kundorienterat, ISSN 0284-9305, no 1, 11-11 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 191.
    Fredriksson, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Avd f kvalitets- och miljöledning.
    A cooperation Model for the Third Sector Based on Total Quality Management.2005In: Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, ISSN 1478-3363, Vol. 16, no 6, 693-706 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 192.
    Fredriksson, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Avd f kvalitets- och miljöledning.
    Fredriksson, M. (2003c). Local Community Development in Åseda and Seskarö. Two studies of “third person” residents’ opinions. Research Report 2003:8. Luleå University of Technology, Division of Quality & Environmental Management, Luleå. (In Swedish)2003Report (Other academic)
  • 193.
    Fredriksson, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Avd f kvalitets- och miljöledning.
    Fredriksson, M. (2003b). Evaluation of Society Project “Seskarö Future” Phase II “Growth”. Research Report 2003:3. Luleå University of Technology, Division of Quality & Environmental Management, Luleå. (In Swedish)2003Report (Other academic)
  • 194.
    Fredriksson, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Avd f kvalitets- och miljöledning.
    Experienced Effects from Applying TQM in Societal Improvement Work in a Swedish Community.2004In: The TQM Magazine, ISSN 0954-478X, Vol. 16, no 1, 6-13 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 195.
    Fredriksson, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Avd f kvalitets- och miljöledning.
    From Customer Satisfaction to Citizen Interaction: a cooperation model for community development based on Total Quality Management2004Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Current problems with unemployment and the consequences of cut-down in the public sector need appropriate solutions, where private citizens perhaps take on more active roles than today, individually or in groups. The aim with this doctoral thesis is to contribute to one such solution, which is a cooperation model for societal development in local communities, based on Total Quality Management (TQM) and on the participation of many residents. The model is gradually developed with the help of collected experiences and opinions from three stakeholder groups in two different Swedish communities, as well as from general theories and literature. These groups are the quality-project initiators, the community residents and the local politicians. The disposition of the thesis is accordingly.

     

    The thesis contains two case studies. The first one concerns the use of TQM as a support of societal development in a local community. The improvement work is conducted within a non-profit organisation built on voluntary engagement. These experiences have then been compared, in the second case study, to the ones in another community where TQM is not used, but where the ambitions are the same. Here the framework for the improvement work is both a non-profit organisation and a for-profit one.

     

    The analyses indicate that TQM can be used with success within societal development, even if some of its tools or methodologies are interpreted in new ways, or not used at all. As TQM should be applied with regard to the type of organisation and its purpose, a certain flexibility is both expected and helpful. As far as management is concerned, the leadership needs to be “softer” and more diplomatic when managing unpaid volunteers, as compared to the situation in a commercial enterprise. Another observation is that the societal work is best conducted within groups, defined by situations or activities in life or in the society. An active resident can join a group according to interest. This is a modified version of the “quality circles” inherent to TQM. In a separate, and more theoretical study, the issue of adopting TQM to new sectors in society is discussed.

     

    In both the studied societies, there are difficulties to get residents involved or active, which puts into question the mandate with a large community project that aims at improving the quality of life for all residents. There are also difficulties with finding and renewing the leadership, and with communication with, above all, local politicians. Nevertheless, these politicians are in general positive to private initiatives like the ones in the two communities, and consider such projects very important for the future development of rural areas. They think that the experienced weaknesses can be reduced if the improvement work is distinctly defined and organised, if information and communication improve, and if the active residents become more educated about the procedures and limitations of the political governing of the communities.

     

    These and other observations of the two communities lead to a model where a cooperation between societal stakeholders develop in three phases; the start-up, the establishment and the continuation of the work. Each phase is discussed separately, and advice is given how to avoid, or meet, various problems that are likely to appear along the way.

    List of papers
    1. TQM –Terrific Quality Marvel or Tragic Quality Malpractice.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>TQM –Terrific Quality Marvel or Tragic Quality Malpractice.
    2005 (English)In: The TQM Magazine, ISSN 0954-478X, Vol. 17, no 4, 309-321 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Bradford, England: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2005
    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-284413 (URN)
    Available from: 2016-04-18 Created: 2016-04-18 Last updated: 2016-04-22
    2. TQM as a Support for Societal Development – Experiences From a Swedish Community.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>TQM as a Support for Societal Development – Experiences From a Swedish Community.
    2003 (English)In: Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, ISSN ISSN 1478-3363, Vol. 14, no 2, 225-233 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Keyword
    Quality, Societal development
    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-284145 (URN)
    Available from: 2016-04-15 Created: 2016-04-15 Last updated: 2016-04-22
    3. Experienced Effects from Applying TQM in Societal Improvement Work in a Swedish Community.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experienced Effects from Applying TQM in Societal Improvement Work in a Swedish Community.
    2004 (English)In: The TQM Magazine, ISSN 0954-478X, Vol. 16, no 1, 6-13 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Bradford, England: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2004
    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-284409 (URN)
    Available from: 2016-04-18 Created: 2016-04-18 Last updated: 2016-04-22
    4. A cooperation Model for the Third Sector Based on Total Quality Management.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A cooperation Model for the Third Sector Based on Total Quality Management.
    2005 (English)In: Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, ISSN 1478-3363, Vol. 16, no 6, 693-706 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    New York, USA: , 2005
    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-284417 (URN)
    Available from: 2016-04-18 Created: 2016-04-18 Last updated: 2016-04-22
    5. Opinions by Local Politicians on Community Development Projects – two Swedish studies.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Opinions by Local Politicians on Community Development Projects – two Swedish studies.
    2005 (English)In: International Journal of Management Practice, ISSN 1477-9064, E-ISSN 1741-8143, ISSN 1477-9064, Vol. 1, no 4, 309-329 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    InderScience Publishers, 2005
    National Category
    Public Administration Studies
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-284429 (URN)DOI: 10.1504/IJMP.2005.008068 (DOI)
    Available from: 2016-04-18 Created: 2016-04-18 Last updated: 2016-04-22
  • 196.
    Fredriksson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Division of Quality Technology & Statistics.
    TQM as a Support for Societal Development: A tentative model based on experiences from a Swedish community2002Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 197.
    Fredriksson, Maria
    Ingenjörshögskolan i Borås.
    Kvalitetsarbete vid Högskolan i Borås ur ett TQM-perspektiv.2006In: Proceedings från Högskoleverkets årliga kvalitetskonferens i Stockholm 2006, p.58., Stockholm: Högskoleverket , 2006, 58-58 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 198.
    Fredriksson, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Avd f kvalitetsteknik och statistik.
    TQM as a Support for Societal Development2002In: the Seventh World Congress for Total Quality Management and Business Excellence. Make it Happen, Verona, Italy, 25-27 June 2002., 2002, Vol. 1, 243-251 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 199.
    Frida, Möller
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Peter, Wallensteen
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Magnus, Öberg
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Conflict Prevention in Ethnic Conflicts, 1990-19982006Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 200. Fritz, Marie Vafors
    et al.
    Chin, Dorothy
    DeMarinis, Valerie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, The Social Sciences of Religion, Psychology of Religions.
    Stressors, anxiety, acculturation and adjustment among international and North American students2008In: International Journal of Intercultural Relations, ISSN 0147-1767, E-ISSN 1873-7552, Vol. 32, no 3, 244-259 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The acculturation process generally contributes greatly to stress and anxiety levels among international students. The objectives of the present study were: (1) to see whether international students experience more anxiety, irritability, and stress from being apart from family and friends, pressure from school, difficulties with language, work and finances than students with permanent US residency, and (2) to investigate the same stressors in groups within the international student population. Surveys were distributed to 246 students aged 17-51 at an ethnically diverse community college in Southern California, US. Analysis of variance was conducted to investigate group differences between students: permanent US residents vs. international students, and, permanent US residents vs. European and Asian students, respectively. No significant differences were found between international students and students with permanent US residency. However, when the international student population was sub-grouped by above cultural regions a different pattern emerged. Difficulties of not being able to work and of socially related problems were perceived as more severe for the European and the Asian groups, while finance problems were hard for all three groups. The variable of language difficulties was harder for Asian students, while that of stress of being apart from family was harder for students from Europe. Findings are not only congruent with prior research results on international students but also demonstrate that international students with culturally diverse needs should not be considered as one homogenous group. It is suggested that educational systems need to properly adapt in order to accommodate international students' unique cultural needs.

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