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  • 151.
    Eck, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Raising Rebels: Participation and Recruitment in Civil War2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Why do some individuals choose to participate in rebellion, and what recruitment tactics can rebel groups use to affect this decision? These questions are central to the study of civil war because rebel groups must raise troops in order to challenge the government and to survive as an organization. Indeed, much of the civil war literature builds on participation as a key causal mechanism, yet it is rarely specified in theoretical or empirical models. The dissertation attempts to open this black box by tackling three sets of gaps in the existing literature; these relate to the assumptions made in most studies, the theoretical bases for understanding participation and recruitment, and the record of empirical testing. Essay I examines whether a particular type of recruitment practice, ethnic mobilization, is associated with higher levels of violence. The results show that when rebel groups mobilize along ethnic lines, there is a higher risk for intensified violence. Essay II employs new data on rebel troop size to study what factors affect participation in rebellion. The findings indicate that concerns over personal security rather than economic and social incentives best explain participation. Essay III addresses coerced recruitment, positing that conflict dynamics affect whether rebel groups shift from voluntary to coerced recruitment. Using micro-level data on the conflict in Nepal, the results show that the more losses rebels suffer on the battlefield, the greater the number of individuals they subsequently abduct. Finally, the Nepal case study presented in Essay IV suggests that indoctrination as a recruitment strategy was more important to rebel leaders than other facets of the insurgency. Taken together, this dissertation indicates that there is analytical leverage to be had by examining not only the individual’s decision to participate, but also the rebel group’s recruitment strategy, and that these rebel strategies are flexible and contingent on conflict dynamics.

    List of papers
    1. Recruiting Rebels: Indoctrination and Political Education in Nepal
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Recruiting Rebels: Indoctrination and Political Education in Nepal
    2010 (English)In: The Maoist Insurgency in Nepal: Revolution in the 21st Century, London: Routledge , 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    London: Routledge, 2010
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-17610 (URN)0-415-77717-8 (ISBN)
    Available from: 2008-07-20 Created: 2008-07-20 Last updated: 2010-03-18Bibliographically approved
    2. From Armed Conflict to War: Ethnic Mobilization and Conflict Intensification
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>From Armed Conflict to War: Ethnic Mobilization and Conflict Intensification
    2009 (English)In: International Studies Quarterly, ISSN 0020-8833, E-ISSN 1468-2478, Vol. 53, no 2, 369-388 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a new line of inquiry into ethnicity and armed conflict, asking the question: are conflicts in which rebels mobilize along ethnic lines more likely to see intensified violence than non-ethnically mobilized conflicts? The paper argues that the ascriptive nature of ethnicity eases the identification of potential rebels and facilitates a rebel group’s growth, leading to an increased risk for war. This proposition is empirically tested using a Cox model on all intrastate armed conflicts 1946–2004; the results show that ethnically-mobilized armed conflicts have a 92% higher risk for intensification to war. In extending the analysis, the study finds that the vast majority of conflicts intensified in the first year, but for every year a low-scale conflict remained active thereafter, the risk of intensification increased, peaking around year twelve.

    Keyword
    civil war, civil conflict, ethnic conflict
    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Research subject
    Peace and Conflict Research
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-120217 (URN)10.1111/j.1468-2478.2009.00538.x (DOI)000266637600006 ()
    Available from: 2010-03-10 Created: 2010-03-10 Last updated: 2010-12-29Bibliographically approved
    3. Participation in Rebellion: Rebel Troop Size, 1946-2007
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Participation in Rebellion: Rebel Troop Size, 1946-2007
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the question of participation in rebellion using new time-series data on over 400 rebel groups during the period 1946-2007. Drawing on a number of theoretical literatures, the study investigates factors commonly argued to lead to increased levels of participation. Surprisingly, the study finds that neither material incentives (contraband, oil in conflict zone) nor social incentives (ethnic mobilization) were associated with larger rebel groups. Instead, security concerns are important in determining participation; the study finds that individuals are more likely to join rebel groups when repression is at intermediate levels. The results also find that gdp per capita is robustly correlated with larger troop sizes. This is the first cross-national study to explicitly investigate participation, and its findings present a number of challenges to common arguments within the civil war literature.

    Keyword
    civil conflict, civil war, participation, rebel groups, rebellion, rebels
    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Research subject
    Peace and Conflict Research
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-120218 (URN)
    Available from: 2010-03-10 Created: 2010-03-10 Last updated: 2010-03-18
    4. Coercion in Rebel Recruitment
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Coercion in Rebel Recruitment
    2014 (English)In: Security Studies, ISSN 0963-6412, E-ISSN 1556-1852, Vol. 23, no 2, 364-398 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research on rebel recruitment has focused on the economic and social incentives groups use as enticements, but has overlooked the question of why many armed groups recruit using coercion. The puzzle is why coercion occurs despite alienating civilian populations and being costly in terms of organizational and military effectiveness. I argue that recruitment is a dynamic process and that groups are likely to shift recruitment strategies depending on the exigencies of the conflict. The study tests this argument by examining whether rebels are more likely to employ coercion after suffering losses on the battlefield. Using unique microlevel new data on the conflict in Nepal, the results show that the argument is supported: the more rebel fatalities on the battlefield, the more likely are rebels to employ coercion.

    Keyword
    civil conflict, civil war, rebellion, rebel recruitment, rebel group, rebels, Nepal, coercion
    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Research subject
    Peace and Conflict Research
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-120219 (URN)10.1080/09636412.2014.905368 (DOI)000335942000005 ()
    Available from: 2010-03-10 Created: 2010-03-10 Last updated: 2014-07-02Bibliographically approved
  • 152.
    Eck, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Survey Research in Conflict and Post-Conflict Societies2011In: Understanding peace research: Methods and challenges / [ed] Kristine Höglund and Magnus Öberg, London: Routledge, 2011, 165-182 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 153.
    Egnell, Robert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Lessons from Helmand, Afghanistan: What now for British counterinsurgency?2011In: International Affairs, ISSN 0020-5850, E-ISSN 1468-2346, Vol. 87, no 2, 297-315 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of lessons stand out from the analysis of British operations in Helmand between 2006 and 2010: First, contrary to the legacy, British competence in the field of counterinsurgency is neither natural nor innate through regimental tradition or historical experience. The slow adaptation in Helmand is an indication that the expertise British forces developed in past operations is but a distant folktale within the British Armed Forces. Substantially changed training, painful relearning of counterinsurgency principles, and changed mindsets are therefore necessary to avoid repeated early failures in the future. Moreover, despite eventually adapting tactically to the situation and task in Helmand, the British Armed Forces proved inadequate in dealing with the task assigned to them for two key reasons. First, the resources of the British military are simply too small for large scale complex engagements such as those in Helmand or southern Iraq. Second, the over-arching comprehensive approach, especially the civilian aspects of operations that underpinned Britain’s historical successes with counterinsurgency, is today missing. In the end, the article calls for greater realism about what British contributions to international intervention can achieve – a strategy in tune with actual resources.

  • 154.
    Egnell, Robert
    Institutionen för freds- och konfliktforskning, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    The organised hypocrisy of international state-building2010In: Conflict, Security and Development, ISSN 1467-8802, E-ISSN 1478-1174, Vol. 10, no 4, 465-491 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses the concept of 'organised hypocrisy' as a means of making sense of the inconsistencies and contradictions in contemporary theory and practice of international state-building. While organised hypocrisy in international politics allows states and organisations to maintain systemic stability and legitimacy by managing irreconcilable pressures that might otherwise render them unable to operate effectively, this paper argues that organised hypocrisy also has negative impacts on the operational effectiveness of state-building. It allows organisations to engage in operations without sufficient resources, thereby seriously undermining operational effectiveness and the credibility of international state-building as a legitimate political tool. Organised hypocrisy also creates false expectations among the local and global populations and thereby decreases the credibility of the strategic narrative that is supposed to explain and make sense of the transformation processes to the general public. The paper also explores a number of options for dealing with organised hypocrisy in a way that could improve the effectiveness of international state-building.

  • 155.
    Einarsson, Niels
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Cultural Anthropology and Ethnology.
    Heal, Oliver William
    Heininen, Lassi
    Hoel, Alf Håkon
    Nuttall, Mark
    Young, Oran R. et al
    Social Science and Sustainable Development in the Arctic2001In: North Meets North: Proceedings of the First Northern Research Forum / [ed] Jón Haukur Ingimundarson, Akureyri: Stefansson Arctic Institute/Univ. of Akureyri , 2001, 160-165 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 156.
    Ekstam, Helen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Objective and subjective residential crowding in an everyday housing context:: A study of the crowded population in four different neighbourhoods in Stockholm, SwedenArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective standards in residential crowding are interpreted as universal "needs", regardless of the residents’ "wants". However, due to the seemingly arbitrary interpretations of objective needs, researchers have argued for the incorporation of subjective elements in the study of housing quality. The aim of this paper is to relate objective and subjective residential crowding to the everyday housing situation. Data from a survey that targets the everyday living situation for the residents in Stockholm, Sweden in 2008 are used to identify everyday housing factors. Logistic regression analysis confirms findings from previous research on objective crowding: Families, single parents with children and low-income households are more likely to be crowded than other types of households. Additional OLS regressions, including attitude data on respondents’ everyday housing situation, reveal that crowded residents experience less freedom regarding their dwelling situation than do non-crowded residents. The least amount of freedom is experienced by those who are crowded both according to the Swedish housing standard and according to a subjective measure of crowding.

  • 157.
    Ekstrand, Moa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Ord men inga visor: En jämförande masterstudie om humanitära organisationers policy kring dialog och mänskliga rättigheter i relation till praktiskt genomförande av flyktingläger2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The average time for an individual to be located in a refugee situation is 17 years. That people are fleeing for such a long period of their life means that a large part of their human rights can easily be neglected. This study examines the humanitarian organizations MSB’s and UN- HCR's implementation of refugee camps and how they allow refugees to play a part in this process. This essay intends to examine the policy the organizations adhere to, namely the in- ternationally recognized handbooks Handbook of Emergencies and The Sphere Project. Em- pirical material is based on a qualitative interview method where a comparison between poli- cy and practice is investigated. Employees of organizations and experts on refugee camp de- sign, management and urban planning have served as respondents in this study. The city planning theory collaborative rationality is used to examine the empirical data to answer how organizations work with refugee camps, if a dialogue processes occur between organizations and refugees, and what benefits the theory can provide. This is followed by a discussion re- garding the human rights of the refugees and whether these are considered in the implementa- tion of the camp. A question raised in the discussion is whether a clarification of the concept could help the organizations' employees to meet the human rights of the refugees. The aim of this thesis is to create an interdisciplinary understanding across disciplinary boundaries. The idea is that the amalgamation of disciplines can improve the humanitarian organizations’ work and aid refugees living conditions. This study highlights a discrepancy in the relation- ship between policy and practice in relation to the procedure manuals, but also in relation to refugees and the satisfaction of human rights. A majority of the respondents testify a wish that a dialogue should be conducted between the organization and the recipients of humanitar- ian aid but that issues such as time pressure, ignorance and power relations complicates this process. What is needed for an improvement of dialogue processes is that the organizations need to take clearer positions on how the practical implementation should play out which would more easily control their employees to execute their work. States need to review their approach to refugees and to take responsibility for the people who need help. Last but not least, the concept of human rights and Nussbaum's definition of it is offered as a suggestion as to how UNHCR and MSB could simplify their work to accommodate that the refugees are treated within the realms of the human rights legislation. 

  • 158.
    Elovaara, Pirjo
    et al.
    BTH.
    Sefyrin, JohannaMittuniversitetet, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.Öhman, May-BrittUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research.Björkman, Christina
    Travelling thoughtfulness: feminist technoscience stories2010Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 159.
    Engberg, Katarina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    To Intervene or Not to Intervene?: The EU and the Military Option in the Lebanon War of 20062010In: Perspectives on European Politics and Society, ISSN 1570-5854, E-ISSN 1568-0258, Vol. 11, no 4, 408-428 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the Lebanon war in the summer of 2006, the EU made an effort to raise its profile in the Middle East, playing a political role more commensurate with European values and interests at stake in its immediate neighbourhood. The EU, already the main provider of humanitarian aid to the region, was expected to provide the bulk of forces to any successor to the UN’s ill fated peacekeeping force UNIFIL I. It was not only UN Secretary General Annan asking Europeans to assume a leading role for the force, but so did Israel, looking for a way out of a war that was not going as expected. For a couple of weeks in July, the EU internally debated the possibility of assuming command and control for the force. France, the prime contender for the role as ‘framework nation’ for the operation, in the end declined to assume the command and control of an EU-led force, instead deciding to put its forces under UN lead and fold its forces into what became UNIFIL II. While it may have been premature for the EU, who initiated its military operations only in 2003, to take on the responsibility for an operation fraught with risks, and possibly also of long duration in the Middle East, the fact that it discussed the possibility at all is indicative of the EU’s ambition in the field of military crisis management and its wish to play a role in case there would in the future be a settlement between Israel and Palestine that would require the presence of international stabilisation forces.

  • 160.
    Engberg, Katarina
    Deputy Director General, Swedish Ministry of Defence.
    To Intervene or Not to Intervene?: The EU and the Military Option in the Lebanon War of 20062010In: Perspectives on European Politics and Society, ISSN 1570-5854, E-ISSN 1568-0258, Vol. 11, no 4, 408-428 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the Lebanon war in the summer of 2006, the EU made an effort to raise its profile in the Middle East, playing a political role more commensurate with European values and interests at stake in its immediate neighbourhood. The EU, already the main provider of humanitarian aid to the region, was expected to provide the bulk of forces to any successor to the UN’s ill fated peacekeeping force UNIFIL I. It was not only UN Secretary General Annan asking Europeans to assume a leading role for the force, but so did Israel, looking for a way out of a war that was not going as expected. For a couple of weeks in July, the EU internally debated the possibility of assuming command and control for the force. France, the prime contender for the role as ‘framework nation’ for the operation, in the end declined to assume the command and control of an EU-led force, instead deciding to put its forces under UN lead and fold its forces into what became UNIFIL II. While it may have been premature for the EU, who initiated its military operations only in 2003, to take on the responsibility for an operation fraught with risks, and possibly also of long duration in the Middle East, the fact that it discussed the possibility at all is indicative of the EU’s ambition in the field of military crisis management and its wish to play a role in case there would in the future be a settlement between Israel and Palestine that would require the presence of international stabilisation forces.

  • 161.
    Engvall, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    A first classification of zoogeomorphological activity and impacts by large mammals in national parks, South Africa2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 162.
    Engvall, Johan
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Euroasian Studies.
    Economic Sources of Stateness: the Case of Kyrgyzstan2006In: Paper presented at the Annual Conference of Eurasian Studies, Indiana University, 8 April 2006, 2006Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 163.
    Engvall, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Euroasian Studies.
    Osmonaliev, Kairat
    Kyrgyz National University.
    Uncertain Future for Kyrgyzstan's Drug Control Agency2006In: Central Asia-Caucasus Analyst, Vol. 8, no 13, 10-11 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Kyrgyzstan’s Drug Control Agency is a key entity in counter-narcotics in Central Asia. The DCA has the status of a law enforcement agency in its own right. It is nevertheless affected both by international and domestic politics. It is entirely funded by the United States, and continued uncertainty regarding Kyrgyz-U.S. relations makes continued funding for the DCA uncertain, just as it the contract is coming up for renewal. Domestically, the DCA suffers from the weakness of its operations in the South, the main locus of drug trafficking. Rumors over imminent changes in leadership further contribute to the DCA’s uncertainty

  • 164.
    Enwall, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Tuvan or Mongol: A Study of Inter-ethnic Relations and Ethnic Definition Strategies among Tuvans and Kazakhs in Western Mongolia2005In: Turkic Languages, Vol. 9, no 1, 93-115 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 165.
    Eriksson Baaz, Maria
    School of Global Studies.
    Biståndet och partnetskapets problematik2003In: Sverige och de andra: Postkoloniala perspektiv / [ed] Faye, Louis and McEachrane, Michael, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2003Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 166.
    Eriksson Baaz, Maria
    School of Global Studies.
    Börda och stöd: Kongos betydelse för svenskkongolesiska familjer2007In: Globala familjer: Transnationell migration och släktskap / [ed] Eastmond, Marita & Åkesson, Lisa, Hedemora: Gidlunds förlag, 2007Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 167.
    Eriksson Baaz, Maria
    School of Global Studies.
    Ett ömsesidigt beroende: Civil-militära relationer i Kongo2014Other (Other academic)
  • 168.
    Eriksson Baaz, Maria
    School of Global Studies.
    L’inexplicable brutalité de la guerre dans la capital du viol ou de l’ambiguité des représentations de la violence sexuelles au Congo2011In: Ténebres au Paradis : Africaines des Grands Lacs / [ed] Lamazou, Titouan, Paris: Gallimard, 2011Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 169.
    Eriksson Baaz, Maria
    School of Global Studies.
    Media och biståndsorganisationer måste börja ta ansvar2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 170.
    Eriksson Baaz, Maria
    School of Global Studies.
    Mediebilder av biståndet bidrar till rasism2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 171.
    Eriksson Baaz, Maria
    School of Global Studies.
    Migration: Zurückkehren ist riskant: Kongolesen, die aus Europa heimkehren, stoßen auf viele Hürden2015Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 172.
    Eriksson Baaz, Maria
    School of Global Studies, Gothenburg, Sweden; The Nordic Africa Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sammansatt bild av Kongos Moderna historia2012In: Respons : recensionstidskrift för humaniora & samhällsvetenskap, ISSN 2001-2292, no 6, 1-4 p.Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 173.
    Eriksson Baaz, Maria
    School of Global Studies.
    Successive flops and occasional feats: Development contributions and thorny social navigation among Congolese return migrants2015In: Africa's Return Migrants: The New Developers?, London & New York: Zed Books, 2015Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 174.
    Eriksson Baaz, Maria
    School of Global Studies.
    The Complexity of Violence: A critical analysis of sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)2010Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 175.
    Eriksson Baaz, Maria
    School of Global Studies.
    The paternalism of partnership: A postcolonial reading of identity in development aid2005Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development industry has been criticised recently from very diverse quarters. This book is a nuanced and original investigation of Northern donor agency personnel as they deliver aid in Tanzania. The author explores in particular how donor identities are manifested in the practices of development aid, and how calls for equal partnership between North and South are often very different in practice. She demonstrates the conflicts and tensions in the development aid process. These reflect both the longstanding critique of the eurocentric nature of development, and discourse that still assumes images of the superior, initiating, efficient ‘donor‘ as opposed to the inadequate, passive, unreliable ‘partner‘ or recipient.

  • 176.
    Eriksson Baaz, Maria
    School of Global Studies.
    Vem får tala om Afrika?2015Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 177.
    Eriksson Baaz, Maria
    School of Global Studies.
    Willing Reform?: An Analysis of Defence Reform Intitiatives in the DRC2013In: Globalization and Development: Rethinking Interventions and Governance / [ed] Bigsten, A., London & New York: Routledge, 2013, 193-213 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 178.
    Eriksson Baaz, Maria
    et al.
    School of Global Studies.
    Gondola, Didier
    Virunga's White Savior Complex: How the Film Distorts the Politics and People of Congo2015Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 179.
    Eriksson Baaz, Maria
    et al.
    School of Global Studies.
    Stern, Maria
    Fearless Fighters and Submissive Wives: Negotiating Identity among Women Soldiers in the Congo (DRC)2013In: Armed forces and society, ISSN 0095-327X, E-ISSN 1556-0848, Vol. 39, no 4, 711-739 p., 0095-327XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses an underreported aspect of contemporary warring in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC): the experiences of women soldiers and officers in the Congolese national armed forces (Forces Armées de la République Démocratique du Congo [FARDC]). It thus addresses an empirical gap in scholarly and policy knowledge about female soldiers in national armies on the African continent, and the DRC in particular. Based on original interviews, the article explores the way female soldiers in the FARDC understand their identities as “women soldiers” and offers new insight into women soldiers’ role and responsibilities in the widespread violence committed against civilians in the DRC. Moreover, it explores how their understanding of themselves as “women soldiers” both challenges and confirms familiar notions of the army as a masculine sphere. Such insight is important for better understanding the gendered makeup of the military and for contributing to a knowledge base for Security Sector Reform in this violent (post)conflict setting. 

  • 180.
    Eriksson Baaz, Maria
    et al.
    School of Global Studies, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Stern, Maria
    Making sense of violence: voices of soldiers in the Congo (DRC)2008In: Journal of Modern African Studies, ISSN 0022-278X, E-ISSN 1469-7777, Vol. 46, no 1, 57-86 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last years the DRC has made itself known in the world for terrible acts of violence committed by armed men – militia and the regular army – against the civilian population. The voices of the soldiers and combatants have so far been absent in the accounts of this violence. This silence is problematic, both because it makes it harder to understand such violence, but also because it reinforces stereotypes of African warriors as primitive and anarchic, driven by innate violence and tribal hatred. Enquiry into the particular discursive as well as material circumstances of the armed conflict in the DRC, which might better redress the complex and interrelated context in which ‘people in uniforms’ commit violence, is consequently impeded. The story we recount here emerges from soldiers within the main perpetrator of violence in the DRC today: the Integrated Armed Forces. The soldiers’ interview texts challenge the dominant representation of soldiers and combatants in the DRC. The soldiers made sense of the prevalence of violence (in which they too had participated) in several interrelated ways, none of which reflected any expression of ‘natural’ (if dormant) violent tendencies, hatred or vengefulness for the enemy.

  • 181.
    Eriksson Baaz, Maria
    et al.
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Uppsala, Sweden; School of Global Studies, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Stern, Maria
    School of Global Studies, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sexual Violence as a Weapon of War?: Perceptions, Prescriptions, Problems in the Congo and Beyond2013Book (Refereed)
  • 182.
    Eriksson Baaz, Maria
    et al.
    School of Global Studies.
    Stern, Maria
    Studying reform of/in/by the National Armed Forces in the DRC2014In: Studying the Agency of Being Governed / [ed] Stina Hansson, Sofie Hellberg, Maria Stern, New York: Routledge, 2014Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 183.
    Eriksson Baaz, Maria
    et al.
    School of Global Studies.
    Stern, Maria
    The Gendered Subject of Violence in African Conflicts2013In: Routledge Handbook of African Security, New York: Routledge, 2013Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 184.
    Eriksson Baaz, Maria
    et al.
    School of Global Studies.
    Stern, Maria
    Understanding Sexual Violence in Conflict and Post-Conflict Settings2014In: The SAGE Handbook of Feminist Theory, London: Sage Publications, 2014Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 185.
    Eriksson Baaz, Maria
    et al.
    The School of Global Studies, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden; The Nordic Africa Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Stern, Maria
    The School of Global Studies, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Whores, men and other misfits: Undoing 'feminization' in the armed forces in the DRC2011In: African Affairs, ISSN 0001-9909, E-ISSN 1468-2621, Vol. 110, no 441, 563-585 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The global attention focused on sexual violence in the DRC has not only contributed to an image of the Congolese army as a vestige of pre-modern barbarism, populated by rapists, and bearing no resemblance to the world of modern armies; it has also shaped gender and defence reform initiatives. These initiatives have become synonymous with combating sexual violence, reflecting an assumption that the gendered dynamics of the army are already known. Crucial questions such as the ‘feminization’ of the armed forces are consequently neglected. Based on in-depth interviews with soldiers in the Congolese armed forces, this article analyses the discursive strategies male soldiers employ in relation to the feminization of the army. In the light of the need to reform the military and military masculinities, the article discusses how globalized discourses and practices render the Congolese military a highly globalized sphere. It also highlights the particular and local ways in which military identities are produced through gender, and concludes that a simple inclusion of women in the armed forces in order to render men less violent might not have the pacifying effect intended. 

  • 186.
    Eriksson Baaz, Maria
    et al.
    School of Global Studies, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Stern, Maria
    Why Do Soldiers Rape?: Masculinity, Violence, and Sexuality in the Armed Forces in the Congo (DRC)2009In: International Studies Quarterly, ISSN 0020-8833, E-ISSN 1468-2478, Vol. 53, no 2, 495-518 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the ways soldiers in the Congo speak about themassive amount of rape committed by the armed forces in the recentwar in the DRC. It focuses on the reasons that the soldiers give to whyrape occurs. It discusses how the soldiers distinguish between ‘‘lustrapes’’ and ‘‘evil rapes’’ and argues that their explanations of rape mustbe understood in relation to notions of different (impossible) masculinities.Ultimately, through reading the soldiers’ words, we can glimpsethe logics—arguably informed by the increasingly globalized context ofsoldiering—through which rape becomes possible, and even ‘‘normalized’’in particular warscapes.

  • 187.
    Eriksson Baaz, Maria
    et al.
    School of Global Studies.
    Thörn, Håkan
    Eriksson, Catharina
    Den postkoloniala paradoxen, rasismen och det mångkulturella samhället2002In: Globaliseringens kulturer: Den postkoloniala paradoxen, rasismen och det mångkulturella samhället, Nora: Bokförlaget Nya Doxa, 2002Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 188.
    Eriksson Baaz, Maria
    et al.
    School of Global Studies.
    Thörn, HåkanThörn, Catharina
    Globaliseringens kulturer: Den postkoloniala paradoxen, rasismen och det mångkulturella samhället2002Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 189.
    Eriksson Baaz, Maria
    et al.
    School of Global Studies.
    Verweijen, Judith
    Arbiters with guns: The ambiguity of military involvement in civilian disputes in the DR Congo2014In: Third World Quarterly, ISSN 0143-6597, E-ISSN 1360-2241, Vol. 35, no 5, 803-820 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on extensive field research in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DR Congo), this article elucidates the logics, processes and readings surrounding certain ‘extra-military’ practices enacted by the Congolese army, namely the processing of various types of disputes between civilians. Exceeding the boundaries of the domain of ‘public security’, such activities are commonly categorised as ‘corruption’. Yet such labelling, founded on a supposed clear-cut public–private divide, obscures the underlying processes and logics, in particular the fact that these practices are located on a blurred public–private spectrum and result from both civilian demand and military imposition. Furthermore, popular readings of military involvement in civilian disputes are highly ambiguous, simultaneously representing it as ‘abnormal’ and ‘harmful’, and normalising it as ‘making sense’ – reflecting the militarised institutional environment and the weakness of civilian authorities in the eastern DR Congo. Strengthening these authorities will be vital for reducing this practice, which has an enkindling effect on the dynamics of conflict and violence

  • 190.
    Eriksson Baaz, Maria
    et al.
    The School of Global Studies, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden; The Nordic Africa Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Verweijen, Judith
    La ‘mère des armées’ n’est pas encore morte: Des pratiques de justice (in)formelle dans les Forces armées de la République démocratique du Congo2013In: Politique Africaine, ISSN 0244-7827, E-ISSN 2264-5047, Vol. 1, no 129, 49-72 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 191.
    Eriksson Baaz, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government. School of Global Studies.
    Verweijen, Judith
    The Agency of Liminality: Army Wives in the DR Congo and the Tactical Reversal of Militarization2017In: Critical Military Studies, ISSN 2333-7486, E-ISSN 2333-7494, ISSN 2333-7486, Vol. 3, no 3, 267-286 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The inherently unstable boundaries between military and civilian worlds have emerged as a main object of study within the field of critical military studies. This article sheds light on the (re)production of these boundaries by attending to a group that rarely features in the debates on the military/civilian divide: army wives in a ‘non-Northern’ context, more specifically the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Drawing upon the ‘analytical toolbox’ of governmentality, we explore how civilian and military positionalities are called upon, articulated, and subverted in the governing and self-governing of Congolese army wives. We show the decisive importance of these wives’ civilian–military ‘in-betweenness’ both in efforts to govern them and in their exercise of agency, in particular the ways in which they ‘tactically reverse’ militarization. The article also demonstrates the dispersed nature of the governing arrangements surrounding army wives, highlighting the vital role of ‘the civilian’ as well as the ‘agency of those being militarized’ within processes of militarization. By foregrounding the relevance of studying Congolese army wives and their militarization with an analytical toolbox often reserved for so called ‘advanced militaries/societies’, and by revealing numerous similarities between the Congolese and ‘Northern’ contexts, the article also sets out to counter the Euro/US-centrism and ‘theoretical discrimination’ that mark present-day (critical) military studies.

  • 192.
    Eriksson Baaz, Maria
    et al.
    The School of Global Studies, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden; The Nordic Africa Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Verweijen, Judith
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.
    The volatility of a half-cooked bouillabaisse: Rebel-military integration and conflict dynamics in the eastern DRC2013In: African Affairs, ISSN 0001-9909, E-ISSN 1468-2621, Vol. 112, no 449, 563-582 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In early 2012, Congolese army deserters formed the M23 rebel movement. This article analyses the insurgency and other armed group activity in the eastern DRC in the light of the politics of rebel-military integration. It argues that military integration processes have fuelled militarization in three main ways. First, by creating incentive structures promoting army desertion and insurgent violence; second, by fuelling inter- and intra-community conflicts; and third, by the further unmaking of an already unmade army. We argue that this is not merely the product of a 'lack of political will' on behalf of the DRC government, but must be understood in the light of the intricacies of Big Man politics and Kinshasa's weak grip over both the fragmented political-military landscape in the east and its own coercive arm. Demonstrating the link between military integration and militarization, the article concludes that these problems arise from the context and implementation of integration, rather than from the principle of military power sharing itself. It thus highlights the crucial agency of political-military entrepreneurs, as shaped by national-level policies, in the production of 'local violence'.

  • 193.
    Eriksson Baaz, Maria
    et al.
    The School of Global Studies, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; The Nordic Africa Institute in Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Verweijen, Judith
    Stern, Jason
    The national army and armed groups in the eastern Congo: Untangling the Gordian knot of insecurity2013Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 194.
    Eriksson, Lolita
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Hjälmeskog, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    The "ideal" food consumer in Home Economics: A study of Swedish textbooks from 1962 to 20112017In: International Journal of Consumer Studies, ISSN 1470-6423, E-ISSN 1470-6431, Vol. 41, no 3, 237-244 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Is the ideal food consumer, educated in Home Economics in Sweden, one who makes sustainable choices? By examining Home Economics textbooks for lower secondary school published from 1962 to 2011, we explored what kind of food consumers emerged and thus open up a discussion on sustainability and food consumption. One standard textbook from each decade, in total six, was included in the study, and the passages dealing with food, as core content, were analyzed. Discourse analysis was used to reveal different characterizations of the ideal consumers, specifically in relation to sustainable food consumption. Three different discourses emerged: (a) the healthy and obedient consumer, (b) the healthy, thrifty, and caring consumer, and (c) the healthy, thrifty, and environmentally conscious consumer. There were both similarities and differences among these consumers, specifically regarding what knowledge they are shown to need and how they are supposed to learn. All three consumers are primarily motivated by health arguments, even though health is related to finances in the second and to both finances and environment in the third case. Furthermore, we found a common tendency for textbooks to express knowledge in a prescriptive way, with the implied belief that people are rational food consumers. This tendency leads us to suggest that the discussion about future consumer education and textbooks could be broadened and strengthened by the inclusion of a participative and critical approach and social responsibility.

  • 195.
    Eriksson, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Att skildra tillståndet i världen2003In: Politologen, Vol. Hösten, 80- p.Article in journal (Other scientific)
  • 196.
    Eriksson, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Bibliographic Overview of International Sanctions Literature2003Report (Other scientific)
  • 197.
    Eriksson, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Targeting the Leadership of Zimbabwe: A Path to Democracy and Normalization?2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is based on a set of interviews and observations from a research mission undertaken in Harare, Zimbabwe in September 2006. As part of a broader dissertation project conducted at the European University Institute in Florence, Italy, this field trip to Zimbabwe was designed to study the impact of targeted sanctions. Of particular concern was the impact of the travel bans and assets freeze measures on targeted individuals applied by the European Union (EU). Other sanctions measures in place, such as the arms embargo or other indirect trade restrictions, are omitted in this study. A set of interviews were conducted with different members of the civil society (both national and international); key representatives of the government of Zimbabwe; political parties (ZANU-PF and MDC factions), foreign embassy representatives, as well as researchers.

    All interviews had an open-ended character with guiding questions. Anonymity was granted to those interviewed. Additionally information public reports, news-articles and monthly bulletins covering African and Zimbabwean issues were used (also news articles from state owed papers) in order to include government perceptions.

    The Human Rights Trust of Southern Africa (SAHRIT) was instrumental in facilitating contacts during the mission, while the Nordic Africa Institute, Uppsala Sweden was supportive in awarding me a travel grant. Hence, both institutions deserve special thanks. It should be noted that some interviews that were made with particular targeted entities of sanctions have been left out here, and will be incorporated in the PhD thesis.

    Summary and Recommendations are included in the final section

     

     

     

     

  • 198.
    Eriksson, Mikael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Nilsson, Desiree
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Sollenberg, Margareta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Wallensteen, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    States in Armed Conflict 20002001Report (Other academic)
  • 199.
    Eriksson, Mikael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Wallensteen, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Sollenberg, Margareta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Högbladh, Stina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    States in Armed Conflict 20022004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract
  • 200.
    Esswein, Ann
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    The role of community radio in the response and recovery phase of the Gorkha earthquake: A case study research on humanitarian communication in Kathmandu Valley2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When the Gorkha earthquake hit Nepal on 25th April 2015, radio proved to be one of

    the major sources of information. Especially community radio could provide essential

    and life-saving information, reflecting the needs of the affected, local communities.

    Those stations claimed to speak “not about but for the people”. While community radio

    practitioners have repeatedly highlighted the benefits of the participatory approach, the

    linkage between the concept and its implementation when disaster strikes remains

    unexplored.

    Thus, the following thesis is aimed to illuminate the manifold role community radio had

    during the earthquake in 2015. The theoretical framework is based on key concepts such

    as community radio, crisis and humanitarian communication, resilience and Disaster

    Risk Management. The thesis strives to discuss various disciplines as well as

    practitioners and researchers perspectives. For that purpose, normative theory is

    contrasted by a survey with 30 community members, which had been affected by the

    earthquake, five interviews with community radio practitioners, one focus group

    discussion and several key-informant interviews, that I conducted in Nepal in February

    and March 2016. Having identified common challenges and lesson learned, one central

    outcome of this thesis are recommendations that are aimed to foster resilience towards

    future crisis in the earthquake prone country.

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