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  • 151.
    Glass, Jayne
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Bryce, Rosalind
    Combe, Malcolm
    Hutchison, Norman
    Price, Martin Francis
    Schulz, Leonie
    Valero, Diana E
    Research on interventions to manage land markets and limit the concentration of land ownership elsewhere in the world2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In Scotland, there are no restrictions on how much land a single individual can own, and a concentrated pattern of large-scale private land ownership exists, particularly in rural areas. The Scottish Government has made it clear that it believes there is a need for change, stating that its vision is for a fairer or wider and more equitable distribution of land in Scotland, where communities and individuals have access to land and there is greater diversity of land ownership. This study was commissioned to enable the Scottish Land Commission to learn from international experience of imposing limits on who can own land and/or how much land any single individual or entity can own.

    The research identified and described restrictions on land ownership in 22 countries (18 in the EU/EEA). The countries were selected using a set of criteria to ensure lessons were learned from countries with a similar legislative context and characterised by strong regulation, governance and transaction processes, low levels of perceived corruption, and a strong property rights regime. Desk-based research identified the range of interventions in the countries, and findings were cross-checked with country experts to ensure accuracy.

    Interventions in the countries include restrictions that relate to: foreign ownership of land; ownership approval processes; upper and lower area limits; owner characteristics and land use requirements; pre-emptive rights to buy land; and measures to reduce land fragmentation. A range of motivations underpin the implementation of interventions to achieve policy objectives related to land ownership in the various countries. Analysis of the motivations and the interventions allowed countries to be grouped according to the following typology, which identifies ‘foreign interest limiters’, ‘land use stipulators’ and ‘land consolidators’.

    In 18 of the countries considered in the study, some form of approval exists in relation to who can own land. Twelve countries require foreign land acquisitions to be approved prior to completion; processes of this nature exist to check the public interest impacts related to land purchase by a non-citizen. Approval processes are not limited to land acquisitions by foreigners: six countries require the relevant authority to approve all purchases of agricultural land. Underlying concerns tend to include: the local residence of the land owner; protection of agriculture; and the avoidance of land fragmentation. A formal approval process related to the purchase of land or property does not exist in Scotland. Based on the experience in other countries, developing such a framework would not be unusual and may present an opportunity to consolidate what is in the public interest, in terms of who can own land.

    While the ownership of land by foreign interests is subject to regulatory restrictions in nine of the countries, outright bans on foreign ownership are not common (and EU law prevents EU Member States from restricting land purchases by EU citizens). Policy objectives associated with such restrictions generally include: preventing foreign-based speculation in land; controlling the amount and direction of direct foreign investment; ensuring local control over food production; and indirectly controlling immigration. In Scotland, motivations to restrict foreign ownership of large land parcels may be linked to the negative implications of a foreign land owner not being resident on the land, with purchases predominantly for recreational and/or speculative purposes. Where similar concerns have been raised in other countries, approval processes exist to restrict land purchases (regardless of the origin of the purchaser) that may lead to these concerns becoming a reality.In the countries studied, the implementation of restrictions on land ownership was more commonly driven by land speculation than by the intention to limit concentration of ownership. Only a few examples were identified of upper limits to the amount of land that any one individual or entity can own. Where such limits exist, they tend to be targeted at foreign land acquisitions and/or used as planning control mechanisms, rather than being used to restrict ownership rights or as mechanisms for redistribution.

  • 152.
    Glass, Jayne
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    McMorran, Rob
    Currie, Mags
    McKee, Annie J
    Pinker, Annabel
    Reed, M S R
    Meador, J E
    Markantoni, M
    Translating community resilience theory into practice: A deliberative Delphi approach2022Inngår i: Sociologia Ruralis, ISSN 0038-0199, E-ISSN 1467-9523Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the availability of important theoretical insights that could enhance the resilience of rural communities to complex challenges, there is a paucity of guidance on how to apply these insights in practice. This paper therefore presents and assesses a deliberative research process using the Delphi technique to elicit expert knowledge from 22 academics, community practitioners and policy makers working in roles related to community resilience delivery in rural Scotland. The participants co-produced an operational framework for community resilience, with support from researchers who facilitated the three-stage, interactive process. The methodology enabled participants to work together in an iterative and inclusive manner, culminating in the collective development of a conceptual framework consisting of eight resilience-enabling factors and corresponding criteria for monitoring change, which can be used to plan practical action and provide feedback to enable ongoing adaptation. The process also produced an in-depth understanding of participants’ perceptions of rural community resilience, identified key factors that enable or impede rural community resilience, analysed the potential to assess community resilience, and explored scale-related issues. The paper explores the implications of this framework for those working to make rural communities more resilient and reflects on the benefits and wider application of this type of research approach for developing shared understandings of complex concepts.

  • 153.
    Glass, Jayne
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Price, Martin F
    Warren, Charles R
    Scott, Alister
    Lairds, Land and Sustainability: Scottish perspectives on upland management2013Bok (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Scotland is at the heart of modern, sustainable upland management. Large estates cover vast areas of the uplands, with a long, complex and emotive history of ownership and use.In recent decades, the Scottish uplands have increasingly been the arena for passionate debates over large-scale land management issues. Crucially, what kinds of ownership and management will best deliver sustainable futures for upland environments and communities?Although the globally unique dominance of private ownership remains a distinctive characteristic of Scotland’s uplands, increasing numbers of estates are now owned by environmental NGOs and local communities, especially since the Land Reform (Scotland) Act of 2003. A decade after the passage of this landmark Act, this book synthesises research carried out on a diverse range of upland estates by the Centre for Mountain Studies at Perth College, University of the Highlands and Islands. The findings from privately-owned estates as well as those owned by communities, charities and conservation groups will prove enlightening and relevant to upland managers, policy makers, and researchers across Britain and Europe.With the Scottish Government promoting a vision of environmental sustainability, and with the new diversity of ownerships and management now appearing, this timely and topical book investigates the implications of these different types of land ownership for sustainable upland management.

  • 154.
    Glass, Jayne
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling. Natural Resources and Sustainable Development, Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Shucksmith, Mark
    School of Architecture, Planning & Landscape, Newcastle University, UK.
    Chapman, Polly
    Impact Hub Inverness, Inverness, UK.
    Atterton, Jane
    Rural Policy Centre, Scotland's Rural College, Edinburgh, UK.
    Rural lives during COVID-19: crisis, resilience and redistributing societal risk2023Inngår i: Scottish Geographical Journal, ISSN 1470-2541, E-ISSN 1751-665X, s. 1-21Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the redistribution and rescaling of societal risk in rural Britain during the COVID-19 pandemic, as one episode of the permacrisis. Drawing on empirical work in three contrasting areas of Scotland and England, we analyse individuals’ experiences of risk and of the institutions which offer them support in times of crisis (markets, state, voluntary and community organisations, and family and friends). Our findings reveal the unequal distribution of societal risk during the pandemic, exacerbated by a legacy of precariatisation and individualisation in the labour market and welfare reforms. Although the state acted to mitigate risk and financial hardship during the lockdown, it was often voluntary and community organisations that filled the gaps left by the inability of the state to reach effectively into rural areas. Social infrastructure and institutional capital are therefore central to the mitigation of vulnerability and societal risk. This raises important questions about the capacity of institutions to provide support in times of crisis to rural citizens. Unless there is societal pooling of risk through such institutions to ensure social protection and that nobody is disadvantaged by where they live, future episodes of the permacrisis are likely to exacerbate inequalities and vulnerabilities in rural communities.

  • 155.
    Glass, Jayne
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Thomson, Steven
    McMorran, Rob
    Does size really matter? Sustainable development outcomes from different scales of land ownership2020Inngår i: Land Reform in Scotland: History, Law, Policy / [ed] Malcolm Combe , Jayne Glass and Annie Tindley, Edinburgh University Press, 2020, s. 368-387Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter presents the findings of research caried out between 2015 and 2016 to assess the impacts of differing scales of rural land ownership on local social, economic and environmental outcomes in six Scottish parishes.

  • 156.
    Godoy, Benigno
    et al.
    Univ Chile, Fac Ciencias Fis & Matemat, Dept Geol, Ctr Excelencia Geotermia Andes CEGA, Plaza Ercilla 803, Santiago, Chile..
    Deegan, Frances M.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    González-Maurel, Osvaldo
    Univ Cape Town, Dept Geol Sci, ZA-7700 Rondebosch, South Africa..
    le Roux, Petrus
    Univ Cape Town, Dept Geol Sci, ZA-7700 Rondebosch, South Africa..
    Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter
    Univ Kiel, Inst Geosci, D-24118 Kiel, Germany.;Jacobs Univ Bremen, Dept Phys & Earth Sci, D-28759 Bremen, Germany..
    Rodríguez, Inés
    Univ Catolica Temuco, Fac Ingn, Dept Obras Civiles & Geol, Rudecindo Ortega 02950, Temuco, Chile.;Univ Catolica Temuco, Fac Ingn, Ctr Invest Evaluac Riesgos & Mitigac Peligros Geo, Geokimun, Rudecindo Ortega 02950, Temuco, Chile..
    Guzmán-Marusic, Gabriela
    Univ Catolica Temuco, Fac Ingn, Ctr Invest Evaluac Riesgos & Mitigac Peligros Geo, Geokimun, Rudecindo Ortega 02950, Temuco, Chile..
    Marín, Carolina
    Teck Resources Chile Limitada, Alonso Cordova 4580,Piso 10, Santiago, Chile..
    Boron isotope variations in a single monogenetic cone: La Poruña (21°53′S, 68°30′W), Central Andes, Chile2023Inngår i: Lithos, ISSN 0024-4937, E-ISSN 1872-6143, Vol. 440, artikkel-id 107030Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    La Poruña is a monogenetic volcano located within the Altiplano-Puna Volcanic Complex (21°-24°S) in the Central Andean subduction zone. Since crustal contamination of Andean magmas is ubiquitous, and because extensive geochemical data exist for La Poruña, we employ this volcano as a case study to examine the behavior of boron isotopes during crustal assimilation. We present whole-rock boron concentration and 11B/10B ratios (as δ11B values) for La Poruña lava samples that were prepared as nano-particulate pressed pellets. La Poruña B contents range from 14 to 20 μg/g and δ11B values range from −1.39 ± 0.54 ‰ (2σ) to +0.94 ± 0.30 ‰ (2σ), which overlap with the range of available whole-rock data for Central Andean lavas. Moreover, La Poruña δ11B values correlate negatively with 87Sr/86Sr ratios from the same samples. Since 87Sr/86Sr is a proxy for crustal contamination at La Poruña, the data lead us to suggest that La Poruña magmas assimilated a low-δ11B, high 87Sr/86Sr component such as Andean continental crust. Mixing models based on B and Sr isotopes support a broadly two-step magma evolution for La Poruña. In step 1, mantle-derived primary melts interacted with boron-rich slab-derived fluids with high δ11B values, which yielded subduction-modified parental magmas with ca. 3 μg/g B and relatively high δ11B values. In step 2, the high δ11B parental magmas ascended through the crust where they assimilated up to 20% crustal material, which further modified their δ11B values and 87Sr/86Sr ratios. In comparison to available regional values for B and δ11B, it appears that La Poruña and nearby volcanic centers shared a similar source and magmatic history, whereas volcanoes south of 23°S differ. We stress, however, that deconvolving the roles of various subduction and crustal inputs in the Central Andes would require further studies on individual volcanoes along the arc.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 157.
    Gonzalez-Maurel, Osvaldo
    et al.
    Univ CapeTown, Dept Geol Sci, ZA-7700 Rondebosch, South Africa.;Univ Catolica Norte, Dept Ciencias Geol, Ave Angamos 0610, Antofagasta, Chile..
    Deegan, Frances
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    le Roux, Petrus
    Univ CapeTown, Dept Geol Sci, ZA-7700 Rondebosch, South Africa..
    Harris, Chris
    Univ CapeTown, Dept Geol Sci, ZA-7700 Rondebosch, South Africa..
    Troll, Valentin R.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling. Uppsala UniUniv Las Palmas Gran Canaria, Inst Estudios Ambientales & Recursos Nat I UNAT, Dept Fis Geol, Las Palmas Gran Canaria, Spain..
    Godoy, Benigno
    Univ Chile, Fac Ciencias Fis & Matemat, Ctr Excelencia Geotermia Andes CEGA, Plaza Ercilla 803, Santiago 803, Chile.;Univ Chile, Fac Ciencias Fis & Matemat, Dept Geol, Plaza Ercilla 803, Santiago 803, Chile..
    Constraining the sub-arc, parental magma composition for the giant Altiplano-Puna Volcanic Complex, northern Chile2020Inngår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 10, nr 1, artikkel-id 6864Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Andean continental arc is built upon the thickest crust on Earth, whose eruption products reflect varying degrees of crustal assimilation. In order to robustly model magma evolution and assimilation at subduction zones such as the Andes, the compositions of parental magmas feeding crustal magma reservoirs need to be defined. Here we present new olivine and clinopyroxene oxygen isotope data from rare mafic volcanic rocks erupted at the margins of the giant Altiplano-Puna Magma Body (APMB) of the Altiplano-Puna Volcanic Complex, Central Andes. Existing olivine and pyroxene delta O-18 values for the Central Andes are highly variable and potentially not representative of sub-arc parental compositions. However, new olivine (n=6) and clinopyroxene (n=12) delta O-18 values of six Central Andean volcanoes presented here display a narrow range, with averages at 6.0 parts per thousand +/- 0.2 (2 sigma S.D.) and 6.7 parts per thousand +/- 0.3 (2 sigma S.D.), consistent with a common history for the investigated minerals. These data allow us to estimate the delta O-18 values of sub-arc, parental melts to ca. 7.0 parts per thousand +/- 0.2 (2 sigma S.D.). Parental melts feeding the APMB and associated volcanic centres are postulated to form in the felsic continental crust following assimilation of up to 28% high-delta O-18 basement rocks by mantle-derived magmas.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 158.
    Goransson, Gunnel
    et al.
    Swedish Geotech Inst, Linköping, Sweden..
    Apler, Anna
    Geol Survey Sweden, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Dahlberg, Anna-Karin
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Aquat Sci & Assessment, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Lofroth, Hjordis
    Swedish Geotech Inst, Linköping, Sweden..
    Josefsson, Sarah
    Geol Survey Sweden, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Wiberg, Karin
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Aquat Sci & Assessment, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Frogner-Kockum, Paul
    Swedish Geotech Inst, Linköping, Sweden..
    Nylander, Per
    Swedish Geotech Inst, Linköping, Sweden..
    Hedfors, Jim
    Swedish Geotech Inst, Linköping, Sweden..
    Snowball, Ian
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Assessing the Risk of Contaminant Dispersion From Fibrous Sediments of Industrial Origin2021Inngår i: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 8, artikkel-id 729243Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Unregulated discharges of wastewater from pulp and paper factories resulted in the formation of relatively thick organic (cellulose) rich sediments in shallow waters along the Swedish coast. These deposits are known as fiberbanks and are contaminated by persistent organic pollutants (POPs), metals and methylmercury, which can be dispersed by diffusion and advective processes coupled to propeller wash, high river discharges, strong wind waves and submarine landslides. Based on a case study of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), one group of prevalent POPs in the fiberbanks, we present a probabilistic approach to estimate the potential risk of dispersion of fiberbank contaminants. The approach allows for estimation of the dispersal pathways that dominates the risk within a given time and provides more insight about the significance of various dispersion processes. We show that it is highly likely that chemical diffusion and advection triggered by ship-induced resuspension will disperse PCBs (sum of seven congeners; sigma 7PCB) above a threshold level for environmental impact, while the likelihood of river and wind-wave generated resuspension dispersion pathways are lower (similar to 20%, respectively). We further show that there is approximately 5% likelihood that a submarine landslide will disperse sigma 7PCB above the threshold level. The study implies that the governing parameters for risk assessment specifically should include reliable data on contaminant concentration, water depth above the fiberbank, estimation of concerned fiberbank areas, time duration of erosive fluid flows and measured diffusion. The approach provides insight into the importance of various dispersion processes. We suggest that it can be applied to support risk assessment, especially when there are limited available data and/or knowledge about the system under study.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 159.
    Gradeen, Rachael
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Utilizing geothermal heat and membrane distillation for sustainable greenhouse horticulture in Alberta, Canada: a multi-criteria analysis2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Growing populations are contributing to resource scarcity, making it ever more important for governments to address resource challenges in a holistic and integrated manner. Energy, water and food are examples of these critical resources, and the province of Alberta in Canada faces an interesting opportunity to tackle all three in tandem. Alberta struggles with food insecurity, with one in ten households affected on an annual basis. The province has the additional issue of an abating fossil fuel-based energy sector. Retrofitting oil and gas wells to harness geothermal heat is a possible initiative that encourages an energy transition and boasts lesser environmental impacts. Further, combining geothermal heat with agricultural greenhouse production and thermally driven water filtration systems has the potential to reduce food insecurity and water scarcity in the province. The system thus handles all three food, energy and water security at once. As such, this report compares the overall sustainability of a conventional, natural gas-burning greenhouse against a novel, geothermally-heated greenhouse featuring thermally driven water filtration (membrane distillation) technology. The area of study is constrained to the greenhouse-rich region in Alberta between Edmonton and Red Deer that also has a high accessibility to geothermal heat. The comparison is conducted through a multi-criteria analysis following economic, social and environmental objectives, and is analyzed using quantitative data, scientific literature and surveys. The results indicate that the novel greenhouse exhibits a higher score as compared to the conventional greenhouse, implying that it is the preferred option on economic, social and environmental bases. The results are in keeping with economic and technical feasibility reports, though they shed new light on the social and environmental aspects – which were under-studied in the province. The geothermally-heated greenhouse system with membrane distillation acts as a holistic solution that targets energy, water and food issues in tandem, while contributing to Canada’s Sustainable Development Goals. The novel greenhouse is an avenue of exploration and development by policy-makers, greenhouse operators and researchers interested in attaining sustainable agriculture in Alberta, Canada.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 160.
    Grandell, Leena
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Höök, Mikael
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Assessing Rare Metal Availability Challenges for Solar Energy Technologies2015Inngår i: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 7, nr 9, s. 11818-11837Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Solar energy is commonly seen as a future energy source with significant potential. Ruthenium, gallium, indium and several other rare elements are common and vital components of many solar energy technologies, including dye-sensitized solar cells, CIGS cells and various artificial photosynthesis approaches. This study surveys solar energy technologies and their reliance on rare metals such as indium, gallium, and ruthenium. Several of these rare materials do not occur as primary ores, and are found as byproducts associated with primary base metal ores. This will have an impact on future production trends and the availability for various applications. In addition, the geological reserves of many vital metals are scarce and severely limit the potential of certain solar energy technologies. It is the conclusion of this study that certain solar energy concepts are unrealistic in terms of achieving TW scales.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 161.
    Granvik, Madeleine
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Kropinova, Elena
    Immanuel Kant Baltic Fed Univ, Kaliningrad, Russia..
    SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE BALTIC SEA REGION2021Inngår i: BALTIC REGION, ISSN 2079-8555, Vol. 13, nr 2, s. 4-6Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 162.
    Guo, Keqiang
    et al.
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, Fuxue Rd 18, Beijing 102249, Peoples R China..
    Zhang, Baosheng
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, Fuxue Rd 18, Beijing 102249, Peoples R China..
    Aleklett, Kjell
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Höök, Mikael
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Production Patterns of Eagle Ford Shale Gas: Decline Curve Analysis Using 1084 Wells2016Inngår i: SUSTAINABILITY, ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 8, nr 10, artikkel-id 973Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes and quantifies characteristic production behavior using historical data from 1084 shale gas wells in the Eagle Ford shale play from 2010 to 2014. Decline curve analysis, using Hyperbolic and Stretched Exponential models, are used to derive average decline rates and other characteristic parameters for shale gas wells. Both Hyperbolic and Stretched Exponential models fit well to aggregated and individual well production data. The hyperbolic model is found to perform slightly better than the Stretched Exponential model in this study. In the Eagle Ford shale play, about 77% of wells reach the peak production of 1644-4932 mil cubic feet per day; the production decline rate of the first year is around 70%, and over the first two years it is around 80%; shale gas wells were estimated to yield estimated ultimate recoverable total resources of 1.41-2.03 billion cubic feet ( 20 years as life span), which is in line with other studies.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 163.
    Gustafsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Sch Forest Management, Box 43, SE-73921 Skinnskatteberg, Sweden; Orebro Cty Adm Board, Environm & Nat Resources, SE-70186 Orebro, Sweden.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling. Swedish Biodivers Ctr, Box 7016, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mikusinski, Grzegorz
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Sch Forest Management, Box 43, SE-73921 Skinnskatteberg, Sweden; Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Ecol, Grimso Wildlife Res Stn, SE-73091 Riddarhyttan, Sweden.
    When development and amphibians meet – a case study of a translocation of great crested newts (Triturus cristatus) in Sweden2016Inngår i: Herpetological Conservation and Biology, ISSN 2151-0733, E-ISSN 1931-7603, Vol. 11, nr 3, s. 552-562Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The Great Crested Newt (Triturus cristatus) is considered threatened throughout Europe; consequently, the species and its breeding habitat are protected in many countries. Translocation of a population is a conservation tool used when habitat occupied by a species is scheduled to be destroyed by human development. The outcome of these translocations is rarely monitored. This study describes and discusses a translocation of T. cristatus in south-central Sweden (Orebro), which occurred because of planned destruction of breeding habitat associated with development of a shopping and industrial area. We provide quantitative data concerning numbers of relocated amphibians and subsequent monitoring in both the pond being destroyed, which is serving as the source of newts to be translocated, and the pond that received the translocated newts. The translocation exemplifies how difficult it is to determine size and conservation value of a population without thorough initial investigations. A large part of the translocated population seemed to disappear at the receiving area, which initially indicated that the translocation was ineffective. Nevertheless, longer term monitoring indicated that a population was established and reproduced in the new habitat. We argue that translocation should never be a first choice to make human development possible but one should always strive for preservation of an existing habitat. However, if a translocation is unavoidable, an appriopriate assessment of the affected population should be performed and a detailed analysis of habitats in the potential receiving areas should be carried out to select an area best fitted for the species in question.

  • 164. Hagedorn, Gregor
    et al.
    Kalmus, Peter
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Joint Inst Reg Earth Syst Sci & Engn, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA.
    Mann, Michael
    Penn State Univ, Ctr Earth Syst Sci, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
    Vicca, Sara
    Univ Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.
    Van den Berge, Joke
    Univ Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.
    van Ypersele, Jean-Pascal
    Catholic Univ Louvain, B-1348 Louvain La Neuve, Belgium.
    Bourg, Dominique
    Univ Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Rotmans, Jan
    Erasmus Univ, NL-3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Kaaronen, Roope
    Univ Helsinki, Helsinki Inst Sustainabil Sci, Fac Social Sci, Helsinki 00014, Finland.
    Rahmstorf, Stefan
    Potsdam Inst Climate Impact Res, D-14473 Potsdam, Germany.
    Kromp-Kolb, Helga
    Univ Nat Resources & Life Sci, Ctr Global Change & Sustainabil, A-1180 Vienna, Austria.
    Kirchengast, Gottfried
    Karl Franzens Univ Graz, Wegener Ctr Climate & Global Change, A-8010 Graz, Austria.
    Knutti, Reto
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Inst Atmospher & Climate Sci, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Seneviratne, Sonia I.
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Inst Atmospher & Climate Sci, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Thalmann, Philippe
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Cretney, Raven
    Univ Waikato, Dept Polit Sci & Publ Policy, Hamilton, Waikato, New Zealand.
    Green, Alison
    Scientists Warning UK, Cambridge, England.
    Anderson, Kevin
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling. Univ Manchester, Manchester, Lancs, England.
    Hedberg, Martin
    Polyfuture Inst SWC, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Douglas
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Environm Sci & Analyt Chem, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kuttner, Amita
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA.
    Hayhoe, Katharine
    Texas Tech Univ, Climate Ctr, Lubbock, TX 79409 USA.
    Concerns of young protesters are justified2019Inngår i: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 364, nr 6436, s. 139-140Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 165.
    Hallqvist, Karl
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Högtempererat borrhålslager för fjärrvärme2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The district heating load is seasonally dependent, with a low load during periods of high ambient temperature. Thermal energy storage (TES) has the potential to shift heating loads from winter to summer, thus reducing cost and environmental impact of District Heat production. In this study, a concept of high temperature borehole thermal energy storage (HT-BTES) together with a pellet heating plant for temperature boost, is presented and evaluated by its technical limitations, its ability to supply heat, its function within the district heating system, as well as its environmental impact and economic viability in Gothenburg, Sweden, a city with access to high quantities of waste heat.

    The concept has proven potentially environmentally friendly and potentially profitable if its design is balanced to achieve a good enough supply temperature from the HT-BTES. The size of the heat storage, the distance between boreholes and low borehole thermal resistance are key parameters to achieve high temperature. Profitability increases if a location with lower temperature demand, as well as risk of future shortage of supply, can be met. Feasibility also increases if existing pellet heating plant and district heating connection can be used and if lower rate of return on investment can be accepted. Access to HT-BTES in the district heating network enables greater flexibility and availability of production of District Heating, thereby facilitating readjustments to different strategies and policies. However, concerns for the durability of feasible borehole heat exchangers (BHE) exist in high temperature application.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Exjobb Karl Hallqvist
  • 166. Hambäck, P.A.
    et al.
    Dawson, Lucas
    Geranmayeh, Pia
    Jarsjö, J.
    Peacock, M.
    Collentine, D.
    Destouni, G.
    Futter, M.
    Hedman, S.
    Jonsson, S.
    Kačergyté, I.
    Klatt, B.K.
    Lindström, A.
    Nilsson, J.E.
    Pärt, T.
    Schneider, L.
    Strand, J.
    Urrutia Cordero, P.
    Åhlén, D.
    Åhlén, I.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Trade-offs and synergies in the design of multifunctional wetlands: A scaling issue2023Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 862, artikkel-id 160746Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Wetland area in agricultural landscapes has been heavily reduced to gain land for crop production, but in recent years there is increased societal recognition of the negative consequences from wetland loss on nutrient retention, biodiversity and a range of other benefits to humans. The current trend is therefore to re-establish wetlands, often with an aim to achieve the simultaneous delivery of multiple ecosystem services, i.e., multifunctionality. Here we review the literature on key objectives used to motivate wetland re-establishment in temperate agricultural landscapes (provision of flow regulation, nutrient retention, climate mitigation, biodiversity conservation and cultural ecosystem services), and their relationships to environmental properties, in order to identify potential for tradeoffs and synergies concerning the development of multifunctional wetlands. Through this process, we find that there is a need for a change in scale from a focus on single wetlands to wetlandscapes (multiple neighboring wetlands including their catchments and surrounding landscape features) if multiple societal and environmental goals are to be achieved. Finally, we discuss the key factors to be considered when planning for re-establishment of wetlands that can support achievement of a wide range of objectives at the landscape scale.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 167.
    Han, Shangfeng
    et al.
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, Beijing .
    Zhang, Baosheng
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, Beijing .
    Sun, Xiaoyang
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, Beijing .
    Han, Song
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, Beijing .
    Höök, Mikael
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    China's Energy Transition in the Power and Transport Sectors from a Substitution Perspective2017Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 10, nr 5, artikkel-id 600Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Facing heavy air pollution, China needs to transition to a clean and sustainable energy system, especially in the power and transport sectors, which contribute the highest greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The core of an energy transition is energy substitution and energy technology improvement. In this paper, we forecast the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) for power generation in 2030 in China. Cost-emission effectiveness of the substitution between new energy vehicles and conventional vehicles is also calculated in this study. The results indicate that solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind power will be cost comparative in the future. New energy vehicles are more expensive than conventional vehicles due to their higher manufacturer suggested retail price (MSRP). The cost-emission effectiveness of the substitution between new energy vehicles and conventional vehicles would be $96.7/ton or $114.8/ton. Gasoline prices, taxes, and vehicle insurance will be good directions for policy implementation after the ending of subsidies.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 168.
    Hanh, Tong Thi Hai
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling. College of Food Industry, 101 Lê Hữu Trác, P.O. Box 50400, Da Nang, Viet Nam.
    Why are fisheries agencies unable to facilitate the development of alternative livelihoods in small-scale fisheries and aquaculture in the global South?: A case study of the Tam Giang lagoon, Viet Nam2021Inngår i: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 133, artikkel-id 104778Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The establishment of alternative livelihoods in small-scale fisheries is frequently recommended as a way to restore aquatic resources while at the same time improve fishers’ and aquaculturists’ livelihoods. Yet fisheries agencies are often unable to facilitate the development of alternative livelihoods through fisheries policies and management. The aim of this article is to investigate why this is so. Based on a case study of the Tam Giang lagoon, Viet Nam, it finds possible explanation includes: (1) failure to integrate an understanding of the realities of the socio-economic conditions and needs of fishing and aquaculture households; (2) lack of motivation, commitment, and capacity to facilitate alternative livelihoods; and (3) lack of support from local governments. Drawing from the literature on small-scale fisheries in the global South, the article suggests that the development of leadership and provision of knowledge of alternative livelihoods to both fisheries managers and local government leaders can help to address these shortcomings.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 169.
    Hanh, Tong Thi Hai
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Boonstra, Wiebren J.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling. Stockholm Resilience Ctr, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Can income diversification resolve social-ecological traps in small-scale fisheries and aquaculture in the global south?: A case study of response diversity in the Tam Giang lagoon, central Vietnam2018Inngår i: Ecology & Society, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 23, nr 3, artikkel-id 16Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Small-scale fishers and aquaculturists in the global south often face reinforcing feedbacks between resource degradation and livelihood impoverishment, a situation conceptualized as a social-ecological trap. It is argued that these traps can be overcome through income diversification, i.e., livelihoods that are maintained from variable income sources. Our aim was to further scrutinize that claim using the concept of response diversity. To do so, we applied the concept and analyzed income diversification in the Tam Giang lagoon, central Vietnam. Based on our analysis, we argue that high diversity in income activities does not necessarily lead to an escape from social-ecological traps. Although diversity in income activities in the case of the Tam Giang lagoon is relatively high, fisheries-and aquaculture-related income activities continue to dominate livelihood portfolios. The various gear and structures that these activities include all exploit the same ecologies, habitats, and niches of the lagoon. This finding triggers questions concerning the relative contribution of income activities to household income, but also how activities are (differently) connected to natural environments. Income diversification can only sustain natural resources and improve human well-being if it truly transforms livelihoods by connecting local users in new ways to ecologies and societies.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 170.
    Hanh, Tong Thi Hai
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Boonstra, Wiebren J.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling. Stockholm Univ, Stockholm Resilience Ctr, POB 1096, Stockholm, Sweden.
    What prevents small-scale fishing and aquaculture households from engaging in alternative livelihoods?: A case study in the Tam Giang lagoon, Viet Nam2019Inngår i: Ocean and Coastal Management, ISSN 0964-5691, E-ISSN 1873-524X, Vol. 182, artikkel-id 104943Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The adoption of alternative livelihoods is often considered as an effective way to reduce natural resource exploitation and improve local resource users' well-being. Nevertheless, studies demonstrate that especially for small-scale fishing and aquaculture households it often can be hard to engage in alternative livelihoods. The initiation and reproduction of alternative livelihoods are not straightforward but shaped by various social-economic factors and processes operating at different spatial and temporal scales. Yet, studies frequently limit their analysis to household or extra-household levels. This paper develops a conceptual framework for a cross-scale analysis of livelihood diversification and applies it in a case study of small-scale fisheries and aquacultural livelihoods in the Tam Giang lagoon, Viet Nam to explain how social and ecological processes limit and enable engagement in alternative livelihoods. The framework and case study aim to go beyond the identification of single factors to demonstrate combinations of factors and processes, and how these play out differently for generations. From this study, the paper confirms that improvements in education, labour skills and job availability are necessary for the engagement in alternative livelihoods. It further argues that the success of interventions aimed at diversifying rural livelihoods need to consider generational differences within households, and the specific social and ecological contexts in which households are situated.

  • 171.
    Hansson, Sara
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Approaches to the Bioenergy Potential in 2050: An assessment of bioenergy projections2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    There is an abundance of reports and articles on the extent of future bioenergy usage. Decision-makers might turn to bioenergy projections in hopes of making informed decisions for policies or investments. This report aims to highlight irregularities and differences regarding calculations and results in 15 global bioenergy projection studies for the year 2050, and to find underlying connections by applying a metaanalysis with a methodological focus. Statistical distributions were made for the projected global bioenergy potentials. A growth rate study based on the projected global bioenergy potentials was made and used as a simple “reality check”. Regarding Sweden and the EU, it was investigated whether decisions has been made based on estimated bioenergy potentials. The final aim was to make recommendations for bioenergy decision-makers and policy-makers.

    There are many statistical distributions fitting the projections for 2050. The distribution functions showed that with a 95 % confidence level, the bioenergy projections in 2050 is 151.3 EJ. The interquartile range of all studies included in this report for primary bioenergy in the year 2050 was shown to be 120-400 EJ, with minimum value of 30 EJ and maximum of 1600 EJ. A mere third of the projection values were in the vicinity of a linear or exponential trendline based on historical values. The historical annual average growth rate for bioenergy from 1971 to 2011 was found to be 1.9 percent. A higher growth rate is required to achieve the larger quantities that are projected in most studies, the most extreme rate was 7.6 percent, which is far above the average.

    The EU has adopted a biomass action plan partly based on bioenergy projections by the European Energy Agency in 2006. National and international energy projection reports influence Swedish politics, albeit not directly in propositions.

    The difference between individual reports and articles projected bioenergy level in 2050 is significant. It is recommended to read more than one. Most forecasting models and estimates will likely perform poorly numerically, so it is recommended to look for underlying factors, connected longterm trends, or behavioral consequences.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 172.
    Harnett, Claire E.
    et al.
    Univ Coll Dublin, UCD Sch Earth Sci, Dublin 4, Ireland..
    Heap, Michael J.
    Univ Strasbourg, Inst Terre & Environm Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7063, F-67084 Strasbourg, France.;Inst Univ France IUF, F-75231 Paris, France..
    Troll, Valentin R.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling. Uppsala Univ, Ctr Nat Hazards & Disaster Sci CNDS, Villavagen 16, SE-75236 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Deegan, Frances
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling. Uppsala Univ, Ctr Nat Hazards & Disaster Sci CNDS, Villavagen 16, SE-75236 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Walter, Thomas R.
    GFZ German Res Ctr Geosci, D-14473 Potsdam, Germany..
    Large-scale lava dome fracturing as a result of concealed weakened zones2022Inngår i: Geology, ISSN 0091-7613, E-ISSN 1943-2682, Vol. 50, nr 12, s. 1346-1350Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mechanically weakened alteration zones in lava domes are thought to jeopardize their stability. Such zones can be hazardous when concealed within the dome, either because they formed by subsurface hydrothermal circulation or because they formed on the surface but were subsequently buried by renewed lava extrusion. We present a new suite of computa-tional models showing how the size and position of a weakened brittle zone within a dome can affect large-scale fracture formation, displacement, and the collapse mechanism. By combining recent laboratory data for the mechanical behavior of dome rocks with discrete element method models, we show (1) the presence of a weak zone increases instability, which is exacerbated when the size of the zone increases or the zone is positioned off-center; (2) the position of the weak zone changes the deformation mechanism from slumping-type slope de-formation when the zone is positioned centrally, compared with deep-seated rotational slope failure when the zone is positioned toward the dome flank; and finally, (3) dome-cutting tensile fractures form in the presence of a small weak zone (60 m diameter, -14% of dome width), whereas large weak zones (120 m diameter, -27% of dome width) promote the formation of longer and deeper fractures that jeopardize larger dome volumes. Our results corroborate previous field observations at lava domes and indicate that large fracture formation, which greatly influences dome stability and outgassing, can be explained by the presence of con-cealed alteration zones. This improved understanding of the mechanisms responsible for dome instability enables better hazard assessment at volcanoes worldwide.

  • 173.
    Hasselberg, Mollie
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Annegren, Emma
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Metod för utredning av säkerheten på elnätet2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis examines the concept of risk assessment for theSwedish power grid. The aim is further to find an optimal process forhow to conduct risk investigations and analyses for the consultingand engineering firm Pöyry Sweden AB. By presenting relevanttheoretical concepts of risk, security and descriptions of thedifferent stages in a recommended risk assessments process a companyspecific method has been defined. The study is based on interviewswith experts and previous research within the relevant field in orderto create a deeper understanding of the topic. The results show theimportance of choosing a suitable analysing technique to investigateevents that have been identified as risks for the Swedish power grid.These techniques should be chosen with regard to the quantitativedata available and the risks’ characteristics. The risks that havebeen focused on in this study are the ones that have a high impact onthe power system and its reliability but which occur with arelatively low frequency. This can be exemplified with theantagonistic risks which are highly unexpected and can cause greatsocial disasters. Due to the lack of prior experience and statisticalevidence it is advocated that creative processes are an effectivestrategy to identify and evaluate these kinds of risks. Regardingnature related risks the most advantageous method to investigatetheir probabilities and consequences is by using a semi quantitativeapproach. Both expert opinions and quantitative data need to beconsidered to generate the most reliable result.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Metod för utredning av säkerheten på elnätet
  • 174.
    He, Lei
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Consumer Behaviour in Collaborative Consumption: A study of sustainable consumption behavioural change on the online sharing platforms for products2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The urgency for a drastic reduction in greenhouse gas emission is emphasised in the new Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5 °C by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, in order to maintain the security and sustainable development of humanity. As proposed in the report, changing individual consumption behaviour can considerably alleviate the environmental impact of consumption and emissions. However, transforming individual to sustainable consumption behaviour has proven over time to be a challenging task involving all aspects of the society and industry. Sharing practice is a form of collaborative consumption proven to be applicable in fulfilling user needs with minimised environmental impact and material consumption as well as creating a sustainable consumption behaviour. A case study is conducted on the online peer-to-peer stuff sharing platform to discover what challenges users to perform sharing practice, what influences the participation in sharing practice, and what strategy a platform can have to stimulate the participation in sharing practice. The method of this thesis is a qualitative content analysis of the user reviews from the online stuff sharing platform, and the approach is inspired by grounded theory. The findings of the thesis present the difficulties of platform users in sharing practice, i.e. information transparency, arrangement, quality, security, and user knowledge. Also, the findings state the factors underlying identified difficulties, namely social presence, competence in sharing practice, and platform responsibility. The study concludes with strategies that can be applied for optimising sharing practice and platform. Besides, the initiative of the platform is highlighted to create transformation toward sustainable consumption behaviour. Otherwise, the development of sharing practice can be jeopardised. Besides, further research is necessary to establish a holistic outlook of sharing practice and facilitating the transformation toward sustainable consumption.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 175.
    Heap, Michael J.
    et al.
    Univ Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7063, Inst Terre & Environm Strasbourg, 5 Rue Descartes, F-67084 Strasbourg, France.;Inst Univ France IUF, Paris, France..
    Harnett, Claire E.
    Univ Coll Dublin, UCD Sch Earth Sci, Dublin, Ireland..
    Wadsworth, Fabian B.
    Univ Durham, Earth Sci, Sci Labs, Durham DL1 3LE, England..
    Gilg, H. Albert
    Tech Univ Munich, Dept Civil Geo & Environm Engn, Arcisstr 21, D-80333 Munich, Germany..
    Carbillet, Lucille
    Univ Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7063, Inst Terre & Environm Strasbourg, 5 Rue Descartes, F-67084 Strasbourg, France..
    Rosas-Carbajal, Marina
    Univ Paris, CNRS, UMR 7154, Inst Phys Globe Paris, F-75005 Paris, France..
    Komorowski, Jean-Christophe
    Univ Paris, CNRS, UMR 7154, Inst Phys Globe Paris, F-75005 Paris, France..
    Baud, Patrick
    Univ Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7063, Inst Terre & Environm Strasbourg, 5 Rue Descartes, F-67084 Strasbourg, France..
    Troll, Valentin R.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Deegan, Frances
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Holohan, Eoghan P.
    Univ Coll Dublin, UCD Sch Earth Sci, Dublin, Ireland..
    Moretti, Roberto
    Univ Paris, CNRS, UMR 7154, Inst Phys Globe Paris, F-75005 Paris, France.;Inst Phys Globe Paris, Observ Volcanol & Sismol Guadeloupe, F-97113 Gourbeyre, France..
    The tensile strength of hydrothermally altered volcanic rocks2022Inngår i: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, ISSN 0377-0273, E-ISSN 1872-6097, Vol. 428, artikkel-id 107576Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The tensile strength of volcanic rocks is an important parameter for understanding and modelling a wide range of volcanic processes, and in the development of strategies designed to optimise energy production in volcanic geothermal reservoirs. However, despite the near-ubiquity of hydrothermal alteration at volcanic and geothermal systems, values of tensile strength for hydrothermally altered volcanic rocks are sparse. Here, we present an experimental study in which we measured the tensile strength of variably altered volcanic rocks. The alteration of these rocks, quantified as the weight percentage of secondary (alteration) minerals, varied from 6 to 62.8 wt%. Our data show that tensile strength decreases as a function of porosity, in agreement with previous studies, and as a function of alteration. We fit existing theoretical constitutive models to our data so that tensile strength can be estimated for a given porosity, and we provide a transformation of these models such that they are a function of alteration. However, because porosity and alteration influence each other, it is challenging to untangle their individual contributions to the measured reduction in tensile strength. Our new data and previously published data suggest that porosity exerts a first-order role on the tensile strength of volcanic rocks. Based on our data and observations, we also suggest that (1) alteration likely decreases tensile strength if associated with mineral dissolution, weak secondary minerals (such as clays), and an increase in microstructural heterogeneity and (2) alteration likely increases tensile strength if associated with pore- and crack-filling mineral precipitation. Therefore, we conclude that both alteration intensity and alteration type likely influence tensile strength. To highlight the implications of our findings, we provide discrete element method modelling which shows that, following the pressurisation of a dyke, the damage within weak hydrothermally altered host-rock is greater and more widespread than for strong hydrothermally altered host-rock. Because the rocks in volcanic and geothermal settings are likely to be altered, our results suggest that future modelling should consider the tensile strength of hydrothermally altered volcanic rocks.

  • 176.
    Heap, Michael J.
    et al.
    Univ Strasbourg, Inst Phys Globe Strasbourg, Geophys Expt, UMR 7516,CNRS,EOST, 5 Rue Rene Descartes, F-67084 Strasbourg, France..
    Kushnir, Alexandra R. L.
    Univ Strasbourg, Inst Phys Globe Strasbourg, Geophys Expt, UMR 7516,CNRS,EOST, 5 Rue Rene Descartes, F-67084 Strasbourg, France..
    Vasseur, Jeremie
    Ludwig Maximilians Univ Munchen, Earth & Environm Sci, Theresienstr 41, D-80333 Munich, Germany..
    Wadsworth, Fabian B.
    Univ Durham, Dept Earth Sci, Sci Labs, Durham DH1 3LE, England..
    Harle, Pauline
    Univ Strasbourg, Inst Phys Globe Strasbourg, Geophys Expt, UMR 7516,CNRS,EOST, 5 Rue Rene Descartes, F-67084 Strasbourg, France..
    Baud, Patrick
    Univ Strasbourg, Inst Phys Globe Strasbourg, Geophys Expt, UMR 7516,CNRS,EOST, 5 Rue Rene Descartes, F-67084 Strasbourg, France..
    Kennedy, Ben M.
    Univ Canterbury, Dept Geol Sci, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand..
    Troll, Valentin R.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Deegan, Frances
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    The thermal properties of porous andesite2020Inngår i: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, ISSN 0377-0273, E-ISSN 1872-6097, Vol. 398, artikkel-id 106901Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The thermal properties of volcanic rocks are crucial to accurately model heat transfer in volcanoes and in geothermal systems located within volcanic deposits. Here we provide laboratory measurements of thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity for variably porous andesites from Mt. Ruapehu (New Zealand) and variably altered basaltic-andesites from Merapi volcano (Indonesia) measured at ambient laboratory pressure and temperature using the transient hot-strip method. The specific heat capacity of each sample was then calculated using these measured values and the bulk sample density. Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity decrease as a function of increasing porosity, but specific heat capacity does not vary systematically with porosity. For a given porosity, saturation with water increases thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity, but decreases thermal diffusivity. Measurements on samples from Merapi volcano show that, compared to the unaltered samples from Mt. Ruapehu, hydrothermal alteration deceases thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity, and increases specific heat capacity. We use an effective medium approach to parameterise these data, showing that when the porosity and pore-fluid properties are scaled for, the measured values agree well with theoretical predictions. We find that despite the microstructural complexity of the studied andesites, porosity is the principal parameter dictating their thermal properties. To understand whether the measured changes in thermal properties are sufficient to influence natural processes, we model heat transfer from magma to the surrounding host-rock by solving Fick's second law cast in 1D Cartesian (dyke geometry) and cylindrical (conduit geometry) coordinates. We provide models for different host-rock porosities (0-0.6), different initial magmatic temperatures (800-1200 degrees C), and different levels of host-rock alteration. Our modelling shows how the cooling of a dyke and conduit is slowed by a higher host-rock porosity and by increased hydrothermal alteration. The thermal properties provided herein can help improve modelling designed to inform on volcanic and geothermal processes. (C) 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 177.
    Heap, Michael J.
    et al.
    Univ Strasbourg, Inst Terre & Environm Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7063, 5 Rue Descartes, F-67084 Strasbourg, France.;Inst Univ France IUF, Paris, France..
    Troll, Valentin R.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Mineralogi, petrologi och tektonik. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Harris, Chris
    Univ Cape Town, Dept Geol Sci, ZA-7701 Rondebosch, South Africa..
    Gilg, H. Albert
    Tech Univ Munich, Dept Civil Geo & Environm Engn, Arcisstr 21, D-80333 Munich, Germany..
    Moretti, Roberto
    Univ Paris Cite, Inst Phys Globe Paris, CNRS, UMR 7154, F-75005 Paris, France.;Inst Phys Globe Paris, Observ Volcanol & Sismol Guadeloupe, F-97113 Gourbeyre, France..
    Rosas-Carbajal, Marina
    Univ Paris Cite, Inst Phys Globe Paris, CNRS, UMR 7154, F-75005 Paris, France..
    Komorowski, Jean-Christophe
    Univ Paris Cite, Inst Phys Globe Paris, CNRS, UMR 7154, F-75005 Paris, France..
    Baud, Patrick
    Univ Strasbourg, Inst Terre & Environm Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7063, 5 Rue Descartes, F-67084 Strasbourg, France..
    Whole-rock oxygen isotope ratios as a proxy for the strength and stiffness of hydrothermally altered volcanic rocks2022Inngår i: Bulletin of Volcanology, ISSN 0258-8900, E-ISSN 1432-0819, Vol. 84, nr 8, artikkel-id 74Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrothermal alteration is considered to increase the likelihood of dome or flank collapse by compromising stability. Understanding how such alteration influences rock properties, and providing independent metrics for alteration that can be used to estimate these parameters, is therefore important to better assess volcanic hazards and mitigate risk. We explore the possibility of using whole-rock delta O-18 and delta D values and water contents, metrics that can potentially track alteration, to estimate the strength (compressive and tensile) and Young's modulus (i.e. "stiffness") of altered (acid-sulphate) volcanic rocks from La Soufriere de Guadeloupe (Eastern Caribbean). The delta O-18 values range from 5.8 to 13.2 parts per thousand, delta D values from - 151 to - 44 parts per thousand, and water content from 0.3 to 5.1 wt%. We find that there is a good correlation between delta O-18 values and laboratory-measured strength and Young's modulus, but that these parameters do not vary systematically with delta D or water content (likely due to their pre-treatment at 200 degrees C). Empirical linear relationships that allow strength and Young's modulus to be estimated using delta O-18 values are provided using our new data and published data for Merapi volcano (Indonesia). Our study highlights that delta O-18 values can be used to estimate the strength and Young's modulus of volcanic rocks, and could therefore be used to provide parameters for volcano stability modelling. One advantage of this technique is that delta O-18 only requires a small amount of material, and can therefore provide rock property estimates in scenarios where material is limited, such as borehole cuttings or when sampling large blocks is impracticable.

  • 178.
    Heap, Michael J.
    et al.
    Univ Strasbourg, CNRS, Inst Terre & Environm Strasbourg, UMR 7063, 5 Rue Rene Descartes, F-67084 Strasbourg, France.;Inst Univ France IUF, 1 Rue Descartes, F-75231 Paris, France..
    Wadsworth, Fabian B.
    Univ Durham, Sci Labs, Earth Sci, Durham DL1 3LE, England..
    Heng, Zhen
    Northeastern Univ, Ctr Rock Instabil & Seism Res, Shenyang 110819, Peoples R China..
    Xu, Tao
    Northeastern Univ, Ctr Rock Instabil & Seism Res, Shenyang 110819, Peoples R China..
    Griffiths, Luke
    NGI Norwegian Geotech Inst, N-0806 Oslo, Norway..
    Velasco, Andrea Aguilar
    Univ Strasbourg, CNRS, Inst Terre & Environm Strasbourg, UMR 7063, 5 Rue Rene Descartes, F-67084 Strasbourg, France..
    Vaire, Emma
    Univ Strasbourg, CNRS, Inst Terre & Environm Strasbourg, UMR 7063, 5 Rue Rene Descartes, F-67084 Strasbourg, France..
    Vistour, Marie
    Univ Strasbourg, CNRS, Inst Terre & Environm Strasbourg, UMR 7063, 5 Rue Rene Descartes, F-67084 Strasbourg, France..
    Reuschle, Thierry
    Univ Strasbourg, CNRS, Inst Terre & Environm Strasbourg, UMR 7063, 5 Rue Rene Descartes, F-67084 Strasbourg, France..
    Troll, Valentin R.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Deegan, Frances
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Tang, Chun'an
    Dalian Univ Technol, State Key Lab Coastal & Offshore Engn, Dalian 116024, Peoples R China.;China Univ Geosci Wuhan, State Key Lab Geol Proc & Mineral Resources, Wuhan 430074, Peoples R China..
    The tensile strength of volcanic rocks: Experiments and models2021Inngår i: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, ISSN 0377-0273, E-ISSN 1872-6097, Vol. 418, artikkel-id 107348Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The tensile strength of volcanic rock exerts control over several key volcanic processes, including fragmentation and magma chamber rupture. Despite its importance, there is a paucity of laboratory data for the tensile strength of volcanic rocks, leading to an incomplete understanding of the influence of microstructural parameters, such as pore size and shape (factors that vary widely for volcanic rocks), on their tensile strength. To circumvent problems associated with the variability of natural samples, we provide here a systematic study in which we use elastic damage mechanics code "Rock Failure Process Analysis" to perform numerical experiments to better understand the influence of porosity, pore diameter, pore aspect ratio, and pore orientation on the tensile strength of volcanic rocks. We find that porosity and pore diameter exert a first-order control on the tensile strength of volcanic rocks, and that pore aspect ratio and orientation also influence tensile strength. Tensile strength is reduced by up to a factor of two as porosity is increased from 0.05 to 0.35 or as pore diameter is increased from 1 to 2 mm. Small, but systematic, reductions in tensile strength are observed as the angle between the loading direction and the major axis of an elliptical pore is increased from 0 to 90 degrees. The influence of pore aspect ratio (the ratio of the minor to major axis of an ellipse) depends on the pore angle: when the pore angle is 0 degrees, a decrease in pore aspect ratio, from 1 (a circle) to 0.2, increases the tensile strength, whereas the same decrease in pore aspect ratio does not substantially change the tensile strength when the pore angle is 90 degrees. These latter numerical experiments show that the tensile strength of volcanic rocks can be anisotropic. Our numerical data are in broad agreement with new and compiled experimental data for the tensile strength of volcanic rocks. One of the goals of this contribution is to provide better constrained constitutive models for the tensile strength of volcanic rocks for use in volcano modelling. To this end, we present a series of theoretical and semi-empirical constitutive models that can be used to determine the tensile strength of volcanic rocks, and highlight how tensile strength estimations can influence predictions of magma overpressures and assessments of the volume and radius of a magma chamber. (c) 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 179. Hedblom, Marcus
    et al.
    Hedenås, Henrik
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Biodivers Ctr, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Adler, Sven
    Knez, I.
    Mikusiński, Grzegorz
    Svensson, Johan
    Sandström, Stefan
    Sandström, Per
    Wardle, David
    Landscape perception: linking physical monitoring data to perceived landscape properties2020Inngår i: Landscape research, ISSN 0142-6397, E-ISSN 1469-9710, Vol. 45, nr 2, s. 179-192Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in the landscape affect not only people's well-being but also how people perceive and use the landscape. An increasing number of policies have highlighted the importance of conserving a landscape's recreational and aesthetical values. This study develops and evaluates a model that links people's perceptions of a mountain landscape to physical monitoring data. Using a questionnaire, we revealed how respondents working with the Swedish mountains characterise the Magnificent Mountain landscape (as defined by Swedish policy objectives) and translated these characteristics into data from the National Inventory of Landscapes in Sweden (NILS). We found 14 potential indicators that could be derived from the existing NILS physical monitoring data and which could be used to monitor changes in the landscape values as perceived by people. Based on the results, we suggest how to simultaneously utilise field sampling of physical data and field photos to provide temporal information about landscape perception.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 180.
    Helander, Hanna
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Geographic Disparities in Future Global Food Security: Exploring the Impacts of Population Development and Climate Change2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Meeting the food demands of a growing population is one of the currently most critical issues for the world community. Additionally, negative impacts of climate change on agriculture are expected in some densely populated regions of developing economies. In this thesis, I examine spatial patterns of future impacts of population development and climate change on food security and how these impacts correlate with current patterns of food security and poverty. I aim to assess the global spatial patterns of food insecurity, concerning the current situation and future prognosis, to quantify the impact of population development and climate change on food security, and to examine to what extent poverty can explain spatial patterns.

    To identify spatial patterns, I performed a multiple correlation analysis. The aggregated impact estimate of population development and climate change was calculated by adding their respective national predictions. The explanatory power of poverty was evaluated using regression models which contained population development  predictions and current food security as functions of poverty rate. Based on the my results and a literature review I discuss the future geographic disparities of food security and the corresponding consequences for combating hunger.

    My results show that global geographic disparities are likely to increase substantially, mainly because population, and in turn food demand, will increase strongly in sub-Saharan Africa, the region with the highest decline of resources in relation to population. Impacts of climate change show a similar geographic pattern where foodinsecure regions will be affected the most. I found that poverty is a significant explanatory variable for both population growth and food security. The literature review support causality between variables, which places poverty at the core of food security issues. Poverty causes both a barrier to access food markets and population growth,which ultimately decrease food availability. In order to reach zero hunger for the coming generations, there is an urgent need to redistribute resources, change direction in agriculture practices and implement extensive political measures that carefully consider both local and global contexts.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 181.
    Henke, Petter
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    IEA and Oil: Track record analysis and assessment of oil supply scenarios in WEO 2000-20132014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The World Energy Outlook (WEO), an annual publication from the International Energy Agency (IEA), is often considered to be the most authoritative source of future energy scenarios for policy decision makers. The demand and supply scenarios for oil, one of the most irreplaceable resources in the global energy system, are central in each report. For the last decade, the outlook for oil supply in 2030 in the main IEA scenario has been reduced by almost 20 million barrels per day.

    The aim of this study is to examine the revisions to the oil supply scenarios, both at global and individual country level, and note if and how the IEA has motivated these revisions. The accuracy of past WEO scenarios is quantified by track record analysis and the latest WEO scenario is assessed in detail in relation to current scientific literature. Finally, implications of the latest WEO scenario for the long term oil supply are assessed.

    It is noted that the IEA generally motivate upward revisions to their scenarios, while downward revisions are often left unmentioned. Some recent revisions are attributed to the financial crises of 2008 and the largest revision in absolute terms is the gradual downward revision of OPEC production motivated by an underestimation of key producing countries’ will and ability to expand capacity.

    The track record analysis indicates that the accuracy of the IEA scenarios has increased on a five year prediction basis following the extended methodology applied in the WEO 2008. The analysis also shows that the accuracy of scenarios decrease with time. On a ten year horizon, the mean absolute error for the IEA aggregate ‘World oil supply” was estimated to 8.2%.

    The WEO2013 ‘New Policies Scenario’, with a time frame of 2012-2035, was assessed using decline and depletion rate analysis, and compared to empirically proven rates. The scenario was found to provide a realistic but optimistic view of the future of oil supply. An alternative scenario, with depletion rates in line with the fastest observed regional rates, resulted in somewhat lower production rates throughout the scenario time frame.

    A long term extrapolation to year 2100 of the WEO 2013 scenario, based strictly on resource and production data from the WEO reports, indicated that oil supply will reach a peak in 2035 and then enter decline for the remainder of the century. A sensitivity analysis showed that changes to the assumed resource base only moves the peak by a few years, but has a significant effect on the rate of the following decline.      

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 182.
    Hoigt, Julia
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Adoption and sustained use of energy efficient stoves in rural Uganda2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In 2011, Energy saving (mud) stoves were introduced in villages around the Kachung Forestplantation in rural Uganda as part of an effort to support local sustainable development. Initial fieldwork showedthat the stoves had not been adopted as much as the apparent benefits would suggest. This has been a commonissue with improved cooking stove projects around the world. In order to find out why the stoves are notadopted, 67 women in charge of the cooking were interviewed additionally participant observations of cooking,other daily work routines and building stoves conducted, as well as interviews with other relevant stakeholders.Results show that women struggle to find enough firewood and are bothered by the smoke produced whencooking, which makes them generally very interested in improved mud stoves. Indeed many women hadadopted a local version of the mud stove in order to ease the burden of firewood collection. The reason for notadopting a mud stove in general can be mainly attributed to work burden in constructing it. As for the moresophisticated energy saving mud stoves introduced, additional factors were that the implementation strategyshows weaknesses in how the knowledge on how to build the stove is supposed to spread. Further, the stoveintroduced is rather complex in the way it is supposed to be built, which makes it difficult to spread theknowledge of how to build it. The implementation strategy needs to be revised under consideration of the localcircumstances in order to achieve a higher adoption rate.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 183.
    Holder, Peter E.
    et al.
    Carleton Univ, Dept Biol, Fish Ecol & Conservat Physiol Lab, Ottawa, ON K1S 5B6, Canada; Carleton Univ, Inst Environm & Interdisciplinary Sci, Ottawa, ON K1S 5B6, Canada.
    Jeanson, Amanda L.
    Carleton Univ, Dept Biol, Fish Ecol & Conservat Physiol Lab, Ottawa, ON K1S 5B6, Canada; Carleton Univ, Inst Environm & Interdisciplinary Sci, Ottawa, ON K1S 5B6, Canada.
    Lennox, Robert J.
    NORCE Norwegian Res Ctr, Lab Freshwater Ecol & Inland Fisheries, Bergen, Norway.
    Brownscombe, Jacob W.
    Carleton Univ, Dept Biol, Fish Ecol & Conservat Physiol Lab, Ottawa, ON K1S 5B6, Canada; Carleton Univ, Inst Environm & Interdisciplinary Sci, Ottawa, ON K1S 5B6, Canada; Dalhousie Univ, Dept Biol, 1355 Oxford St, Halifax, NS B4H 4R2, Canada.
    Arlinghaus, Robert
    Leibniz Inst Freshwater Ecol & Inland Fisheries, Dept Biol & Ecol Fishes, Muggelseedamm 310, D-12587 Berlin, Germany; Humboldt Univ, Div Integrativer Fisheries Management, Fac Life Sci, Philippstr 13, D-10115 Berlin, Germany.
    Danylchuk, Andy J.
    Univ Massachusetts, Dept Environm Conservat, 160 Holdsworth Way, Amherst, MA 01003 USA.
    Bower, Shannon D.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Hyder, Kieran
    Ctr Environm Fisheries & Aquaculture Sci, Lowestoft NR33 0HT, Suffolk, England.
    Hunt, Len M.
    Ontario Minist Nat Resources & Forestry, Ctr Northern Forest Ecosyst Res, 103-421 James St South, Thunder Bay, ON P7E 2V6, Canada.
    Fenichel, Eli P.
    Yale Sch Forestry & Environm Studies, 195 Prospect St, New Haven, CT 06460 USA.
    Venturelli, Paul A.
    Ball State Univ, Dept Biol, 121 Cooper Bldg, Muncie, IN 47306 USA.
    Thorstad, Eva B.
    Norwegian Inst Nat Res, Postboks 5685, N-7485 Trondheim, Norway.
    Allen, Micheal S.
    Univ Florida, Fisheries & Aquat Sci Program, Nat Coast Biol Stn, 552 First St, Cedar Key, FL 32625 USA.
    Potts, Warren M.
    Rhodes Univ, Dept Ichthyol & Fisheries Sci, POB 94, ZA-6139 Grahamstown, South Africa.
    Clark-Danylchuk, Sascha
    Keep Fish Wet, 11 Kingman Rd, Amherst, MA 01002 USA.
    Claussen, Julie E.
    Fisheries Conservat Fdn, 302 E Green St 2102, Champaign, IL 61820 USA.
    Lyle, Jeremy M.
    Univ Tasmania, Inst Marine & Antarctic Studies, Private Bag 49, Hobart, Tas 7001, Australia.
    Tsuboi, Jun-ichi
    Yamanashi Prefectural Fisheries Technol Ctr, Yamanashi 7, Kai, Yamanashi 4000121, Japan.
    Brummett, Randall
    World Bank, Environm & Nat Resources Dept, 1818 H St NW, Washington, DC 20433 USA.
    Freire, Kátia M. F.
    Univ Fed Sergipe, Lab Ecol Pesqueira, Dept Engn Pesca & Aquicultura, Cidade Univ Prof Jose Alofsio de Campos, BR-49100000 Sao Cristovao, Sergipe, Brazil.
    Tracey, Sean R.
    Univ Tasmania, Inst Marine & Antarctic Studies, Private Bag 49, Hobart, Tas 7001, Australia; Univ Tasmania, Ctr Marine Socioecol, Private Bag 49, Hobart, Tas 7001, Australia.
    Skov, Christian
    Tech Univ Denmark, DTU AQUA, Sect Inland Fisheries & Ecol, Vejlsovej 39, DK-8600 Silkeborg, Denmark.
    Cooke, Steven J.
    Carleton Univ, Dept Biol, Fish Ecol & Conservat Physiol Lab, Ottawa, ON K1S 5B6, Canada; Carleton Univ, Inst Environm & Interdisciplinary Sci, Ottawa, ON K1S 5B6, Canada.
    Preparing for a changing future in recreational fisheries: 100 research questions for global consideration emerging from a horizon scan2020Inngår i: Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, ISSN 0960-3166, E-ISSN 1573-5184, Vol. 30, nr 1, s. 137-151Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recreational fisheries hold immense ecological, social, and economic value. The management of these fisheries is increasingly important as we move forward in the Anthropocene. Recreational fisheries managers face several challenges as fisheries often involve diverse social and ecological systems comprised of complex feedback and stakeholder motivations and needs. Here, we used a horizon scanning exercise to yield 100 research questions related to recreational fisheries science and management in the Anthropocene. Initial research questions (n = 205) were collected from recreational fisheries experts (i.e., stakeholders, managers, researchers) from various sectors (i.e., industry, government, NGOs) and geographic locations (14 countries: Australia, Brazil, Canada, Czech Republic, Germany, Italy, New Zealand, Norway, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, USA). These questions were subsequently categorized, thematized, and refined by our authorship team, eventually yielding what we considered to be the top 100 research questions of relevance to management of recreational fisheries. The key themes include: human dimensions; bioeconomics; resource monitoring and data acquisition; governance; management-regulatory actions; management-stock and habitat enhancement; catch-and-release; impacts of recreational fisheries on populations, communities and ecosystems; threats and sustainability; and angler outreach, education and engagement. It is our intention that this comprehensive and forward-looking list will create a framework to guide future research within this field, and contribute to evidence-based recreational fisheries management and policy.

  • 184.
    Hyttinen, O.
    et al.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Geosci & Geog, POB 64, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    Kotilainen, A. T.
    Geol Survey Finland GTK, Marine Geol, POB 96, FI-02150 Espoo, Finland..
    Virtasalo, J. J.
    Geol Survey Finland GTK, Marine Geol, POB 96, FI-02150 Espoo, Finland..
    Kekalainen, P.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Geosci & Geog, POB 64, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland.;WSP Finland Oy, Heikkilantie 7, FI-00210 Helsinki, Finland..
    Snowball, Ian
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Obrochta, S.
    Akita Univ, Fac Int Resource Sci, 1-1 Tegatagakuen Machi, Akita 0108502, Japan..
    Andren, T.
    Sodertorn Univ, Sch Nat Sci Technol & Environm Studies, SE-14189 Huddinge, Sweden..
    Holocene stratigraphy of the Ångermanälven River estuary, Bothnian Sea2017Inngår i: Geo-Marine Letters, ISSN 0276-0460, E-ISSN 1432-1157, Vol. 37, nr 3, s. 273-288Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the Holocene depositional succession at the IODP Expedition 347 sites M0061 and M0062 in the vicinity of the Ångermanälven River estuary in the Bothnian Sea sector of the Baltic Sea in northern Scandinavia. Site M0061 is located in a coastal offshore setting (87.9 m water depth), whereas site M0062 is fully estuarine (69.3 m water depth). The dataset comprises acoustic profiles and sediment cores collected in 2007 and late 2013 respectively. Three acoustic units (AUs) were recognized. Lowermost AU1 is interpreted as a poorly to discontinuous stratified glaciofluvial deposit, AU2 as a stratified conformable drape of glaciolacustrine origin, and AU3 as a poorly stratified to stratified mud drift. A strong truncating reflector separates AU2 and AU3. Three lithological units (LUs) were defined in the sediment cores. LU1 consists of glaciofluvial sand and silt gradating into LU2, which consists of glaciolacustrine varves. A sharp contact interpreted as a major unconformity separates LU2 from the overlying LU3 (brackish-water mud). In the basal part of LU3, one debrite (site M0061) or two debrites (site M0062) were recognized. Information yielded from sediment physical properties (magnetic susceptibility, natural gamma ray, dry bulk density), geochemistry (total carbon, total organic carbon, total inorganic carbon and nitrogen), and grain size support the LU division. The depositional succession was formally subdivided into two alloformations: the Utansjö Alloformation and overlying Hemsön Alloformation; the Utansjö Alloformation was further subdivided into two lithostratigraphic formations: the Storfjärden and Åbordsön formations. The Storfjärden (sandy outwash) and Åbordsön (glaciolacustrine rhythmite) formations represent a glacial retreat systems tract, which started at ca. 10.6 kyr BP. Their deposition was mainly controlled by meltwater from the retreating ice margin, glacio-isostatic land uplift and the regressive (glacial) lake level. The Hemsön Alloformation (organic-rich brackish-water mud) represents a period of forced regression, starting possibly at ca. 9.5 kyr BP. At about 7 kyr BP, brackish water reached the study area as a result of the mid-Holocene marine flooding of the Baltic Sea Basin, but the rapid land uplift soon surpassed the associated (Littorina) transgression. Changed near-bottom current patterns, caused by the establishment of a permanent halocline, and the reduced sediment consistency caused by increased organic deposition resulted in a sharp and erosional base of the brackish-water mud. Estuarine processes and salinity stratification at site M0062 started to play a more important role. This study applies a combined allostratigraphic and lithostratigraphic approach over the conventional Baltic Sea stages. This approach makes it more straightforward to study this Baltic Sea deglaciation-postglacial sequence and compare it to other formerly glaciated shallow sea estuaries.

  • 185.
    Hyttinen, Outi
    et al.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Geosci & Geog, Helsinki 00014, Finland..
    Krupinski, Nadina Quintana
    Lund Univ, Dept Geol, Solvegatan 12, S-22362 Lund, Sweden..
    Bennike, Ole
    Geol Survey Denmark & Greenland, CF Mollers 8, DK-8000 Aarhus, Denmark..
    Wacker, Lukas
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Lab Ion Beam Phys, Schafmattstr 20, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Filipsson, Helena L.
    Lund Univ, Dept Geol, Solvegatan 12, S-22362 Lund, Sweden..
    Obrochta, Stephen
    Akita Univ, Dept Earth Resource Sci, Tegatagakuen Machi, Akita 0108502, Japan..
    Jensen, Jörn B.
    Geol Survey Denmark & Greenland, CF Mollers 8, DK-8000 Aarhus, Denmark..
    Lougheed, Bryan
    Univ Paris Saclay, CNRS, LSCE, F-91191 Paris, France..
    Ryabchuk, Daria
    AP Karpinsky Russian Geol Res Inst, Srednypr 74, St Petersburg 199106, Russia..
    Passchier, Sandra
    Montclair State Univ, 1 Normal Ave, Montclair, NJ 07043 USA..
    Snowball, Ian
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Herrero-Bervera, Emilio
    Univ Hawaii Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA..
    Andren, Thomas
    Södertörn Univ, Alfred Nobels Alle 7, Flemingsberg, Sweden..
    Kotilainen, Aarno T.
    Geol Survey Finland, Vuorimiehentie 5, FI-02151 Espoo, Finland..
    Deglaciation dynamics of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet in the Kattegat, the gateway between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea Basin2021Inngår i: Boreas, ISSN 0300-9483, E-ISSN 1502-3885, Vol. 50, nr 2, s. 351-368Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an age-depth model based on an ultra-high-resolution, 80-m-thick sedimentary succession from a marine continental shelf basin, the Kattegat. This is an area of dynamic deglaciation of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet during the Late Pleistocene. The Kattegat is also a transitional area between the saline North Sea and the brackish Baltic Sea. As such, it records general development of currents and exchange between these two systems. Data for the succession were provided through the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Site M0060. The site indicates onset of deglaciation at c. 18 ka BP and relatively continuous sedimentation until 13 ka BP. At this point, sediments record a hiatus until c. 9-7 ka BP. The uppermost sedimentary unit contains redeposited material, but it is estimated to represent only the last c. 9-7 ka BP. The age-depth model is based on 17 select, radiocarbon-dated samples and is integrated with a set of physical and chemical proxies. The integrated records provide novel constraints on the timing of major palaeoenvironmental changes, such as the transition from glaciomarine proximal to glaciomarine distal and marine conditions, and their connections to known major events and processes in the region and the North Atlantic. Depositional evidence specifically documents connections between the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet behaviour and atmospheric and oceanic warming. Glacial retreat may have also depended on topographic factors such as changes in basin width and depth, linked to relative sea level changes and land uplift. The results indicate an early response of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet to changing climate, and the ice sheet's possible influence on oceanic circulation during the Late Pleistocene deglaciation.

  • 186. Hällberg, Lars Petter
    et al.
    Stevens, Thomas
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten- och landskapslära.
    Almqvist, Bjarne
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Snowball, Ian
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Wiers, Steffen
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Költringer, Chiara
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten- och landskapslära.
    Lu, Huayu
    Zhang, Hanzhi
    Lin, Zeng
    Magnetic susceptibility parameters as proxies for desert sediment provenance2020Inngår i: Aeolian Research, ISSN 1875-9637, E-ISSN 2212-1684, Vol. 46, artikkel-id 100615Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Magnetic susceptibility in sediments has been thoroughly studied as a paleoenvironmental proxy over the last decades. However, it is unknown to what extent magnetic susceptibility variation is also a diagnostic of different sediment sources. Here we investigate if multiple magnetic susceptibility-based parameters can effectively be used as sediment source indicators. New magnetic property data from the Mu Us and Tengger Deserts in China are compared to previously known sediment provenance based on other well-established proxies. To assess the magnetic properties of these deserts, magnetic susceptibility and its out-of-phase component, its dependence on frequency, temperature and low-field amplitude are analyzed. Our results indicate similar sources for the western Mu Us Desert and the Tengger Desert and a distinct source for the eastern Mu Us, in-line with previously hypothesized provenance patterns. However, magnetic properties within the Tengger Desert sediments are homogenous, which may suggest a uniform provenance for the entire Tengger Desert, that the sediments are greatly reworked, or similar magnetic properties in potential multiple source regions. Magnetite is the major magnetic mineral in the study area and the dominant causes for divergence in magnetic properties are the magnetic mineral concentration and domain state. The results here, in particular from the Mu Us, suggest considerable promise for using magnetic susceptibility parameters in desert sediment provenance research.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 187.
    Hällstrom, Niclas
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, CEMUS.
    Stephens, Jenny C.
    Northeastern University.
    Stoddard, Isak
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    What about Geoengineering?2022Inngår i: The Climate Book / [ed] Greta Thunberg, Penguin, 2022Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 188.
    Håkansson, Ane
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Davour, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Grape, Sophie
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Höök, Mikael
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Lantz, Mattias
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Ottosson, Jan
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Ekonomisk-historiska institutionen.
    Pomp, Stephan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Qvist, Staffan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Svensk elförsörjning i framtiden – en fråga med globala dimensioner: En tvärvetenskaplig rapport från Uppsala universitet2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Svensk elförsörjning
  • 189.
    Höök, Mikael
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Mapping Chinese Supply2018Inngår i: Nature Energy, E-ISSN 2058-7546, Vol. 3, nr 3, s. 166-167Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Documenting the emissions and net energy of a crude supply could be essential to meeting national emission and energy security targets. Using data from hundreds of fields worldwide, a well-to-refinery study presents a high-granularity profile of China’s crude oil supply in terms of emissions and energy return on input.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 190.
    Höök, Mikael
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Globala energisystem. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Li, Junchen
    China University of Petroleum - Beijing.
    Johansson, Kersti
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Globala energisystem.
    Snowden, Simon
    University of Liverpool.
    Growth rates of global energy systems and future outlooks2012Inngår i: Natural Resources Research, ISSN 1520-7439, E-ISSN 1573-8981, Vol. 21, nr 1, s. 23-41Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The world is interconnected and powered by a number of global energy systems using fossil, nuclear, or renewable energy. This study reviews historical time series of energy production and growth for various energy sources. It compiles a theoretical and empirical foundation for understanding the behaviour underlying global energy systems' growth. The most extreme growth rates are found in fossil fuels. The presence of scaling behaviour, i.e. proportionality between growth rate and size, is established. The findings are used to investigate the consistency of several long-range scenarios expecting rapid growth for future energy systems. The validity of such projections is questioned, based on past experience. Finally, it is found that even if new energy systems undergo a rapid "oil boom"-development - i.e. they mimic the most extreme historical events - their contribution to global energy supply by 2050 will be marginal.

  • 191.
    Isacs, Lina
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling. KTH, Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Håkansson, Cecilia
    KTH, Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Valuation of Abiotic Resources in Life Cycle Assessment2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 192.
    Ishihara, Sachiko
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling, CEMUS Research Forum, CEFO. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, CEMUS.
    Tommasini, Aster
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, CEMUS.
    Ponzelar, Charlotte
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fakulteten för utbildningsvetenskaper, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och utbildningsstudier.
    Livmar, Ewa
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, CEMUS.
    The Critical Interference Podcast at CEMUS: Season 2 Episode 22022Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Podcast interview by Daniel Mossberg, Outreach and Educational Coordinator at Centre for Environment and Development Studies (CEMUS), Uppsala University and Swedish University of Agricultural Scieinces, with the authors of the article "Student-led Education for a better world?" Reflections in conversation.

    Article abstract:

    This essay provokes who the “experts” are in discussions about education: why not the students who are most impacted by it? At the Centre for Environment and Development Studies (CEMUS), a joint centre between Uppsala University and Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, students are hired as Course Coordinators (CCs) to develop and facilitate freestanding university courses. This paper is an outcome of a collaborative reflection exercise in the form of a written dialogue between students, CCs, and a guest lecturer of a CEMUS course “Reimagining Education”. This course focused on approaching learning and education on a meta-level where students and their experience become the subject of collaborative learning. By comparing the experience from this course with other courses at CEMUS and beyond, we discuss whether and how CEMUS challenges traditional pedagogies based on teacher-student hierarchies. Both the capacity for CCs to influence the content and pedagogical arrangements as well as the opportunities for non-CC students to take responsibility in steering class discussions were highlighted as empowering experiences. Wereflect upon how this and the use of arts-based pedagogies can lead to fostering community and how it motivates students to collectively engage in their personal learning experiences beyond curriculum goals.

    Read the article here: https://doi.org/10.23865/hu.v11.3006

  • 193.
    Iwinska, Katarzyna
    et al.
    Coll Civitas, PKIN, Pl Defilad 1, Warsaw, Poland.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Pierotti, Livia
    Imperial Coll London, Ctr Environm Policy, London, England.
    Tainio, Marko
    Polish Acad Sci, Syst Res Inst, Warsaw, Poland; Univ Cambridge, Sch Clin Med, MRC Epidemiol Unit, UKCRC Ctr Diet & Act Res CEDAR, Cambridge, England.
    de Nazelle, Audrey
    Imperial Coll London, Ctr Environm Policy, London, England.
    Cycling in Warsaw, Poland - Perceived enablers and barriers according to cyclists and non-cyclists2018Inngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 113, s. 291-301Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cycling in urban environments provides many benefits to people. However, planning of cycling infrastructures in large cities faces numerous challenges and requires better understanding of both the factors enabling cycling as well as barriers to it, determined by particular local context. While there is a growing body of research that tackle the bike transport related questions in Western Europe and the USA, there is relatively little research on that in Central Eastern Europe (CEE), in post-communist countries. In this study we used qualitative and quantitative methods to explore urban cyclists and non-cyclists opinions about the cycling, the perceived problems and obstacles, and perception of the on-going changes in bicycle transportation system in Warsaw, Poland. Although many people see potential advantages of cycling, it is mostly perceived as a leisure time activity. Those who do utilitarian cycling are more acutely aware of the benefits, such as rapidity and flexibility of this mean of transport. The main perceived barriers are linked to lack of good cycling infrastructure in the city, the feeling of insecurity linked to the behaviour of drivers, and to maintenance during winter. In conclusion, our research highlights both the opportunities and challenges linked to the development of improved cycle transportation system, suggesting the need for a range of policies, from the infrastructure improvements and comprehensive planning of the whole transportation system, to improving the driving culture that would support feeling of security of the cyclists.

  • 194.
    Jafarov, Nijat
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    The Role of the Marine Stewardship Council Label on Consumers’ Purchasing Behaviour2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study’s aim was to investigate the decision-making process of consumers when purchasing seafood, with a specific focus on the role of the Marine Stewardship Council eco-label. The Means-End Chain theoretical framework is used to analyse this process. A mixed-method approach was employed, combining laddering interviews to construct a Hierarchical Value Map, and semi-structured thematic interviews to gain a deeper understanding of consumer perceptions and behaviour. The Hierarchical Value Map analysis identified price, origin, and freshness/frost status as the primary factors influencing consumer choices. While eco-labels were considered, they often played a secondary role compared to these attributes. The study revealed varying levels of consumer awareness and trust in eco-labels, highlighting an uneven level of eco-label literacy among different consumer segments. The findings demonstrated that although eco-labels are significant, they face competition from more immediate attributes such as price and origin in shaping consumer behaviour. Trust and education regarding eco-labels are essential in guiding consumers towards more sustainable choices. Future research should focus on strategies to enhance trust in eco-labels and examine the influence of cultural factors on consumer perceptions of sustainable practices. Contributions of this project are seen in valuable insights into the complexities of consumer decision-making in sustainable seafood purchases. It emphasizes the importance of eco-labels in promoting environmental stewardship through market mechanisms.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    The Role of the Marine Stewardship Council label on Consumers’ Purchasing Behaviour
  • 195.
    Jahnke, Marlene
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Marine Sci Tjarno, Stromstad, Sweden;Univ Groningen, Groningen Inst Evolutionary Life Sci, Sect Ecol & Evolutionary Genom Nat GREEN, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Gullstrom, Martin
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Ecol Environm & Plant Sci, Stockholm, Sweden;Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Larsson, Josefine
    Sodertorn Univ, Sch Nat Sci Technol & Environm Studies, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Asplund, Maria E.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Ecol Environm & Plant Sci, Stockholm, Sweden;Univ Gothenburg, Loven Ctr, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Mgeleka, Said
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Ecol Environm & Plant Sci, Stockholm, Sweden;Tanzania Fisheries Res Inst TAFIRI, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Silas, Mathew Ogalo
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Ecol Environm & Plant Sci, Stockholm, Sweden;Tanzania Fisheries Res Inst TAFIRI, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Hoamby, Arielle
    Inst Halieut & Sci Marine Toliara IH SM, Toliara, Madagascar.
    Mahafina, Jamal
    Inst Halieut & Sci Marine Toliara IH SM, Toliara, Madagascar.
    Nordlund, Lina M.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling. Stockholm Univ, Dept Ecol Environm & Plant Sci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Population genetic structure and connectivity of the seagrass Thalassia hemprichii in the Western Indian Ocean is influenced by predominant ocean currents2019Inngår i: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 9, nr 16, s. 8953-8964Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is the first large-scale genetic population study of a widespread climax species of seagrass, Thalassia hemprichii, in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO). The aim was to understand genetic population structure and connectivity of T. hemprichii in relation to hydrodynamic features. We genotyped 205 individual seagrass shoots from 11 sites across the WIO, spanning over a distance of similar to 2,700 km, with twelve microsatellite markers. Seagrass shoots were sampled in Kenya, Tanzania (mainland and Zanzibar), Mozambique, and Madagascar: 4-26 degrees S and 33-48 degrees E. We assessed clonality and visualized genetic diversity and genetic population differentiation. We used Bayesian clustering approaches (TESS) to trace spatial ancestry of populations and used directional migration rates (DivMigrate) to identify sources of gene flow. We identified four genetically differentiated groups: (a) samples from the Zanzibar channel; (b) Mozambique; (c) Madagascar; and (d) the east coast of Zanzibar and Kenya. Significant pairwise population genetic differentiation was found among many sites. Isolation by distance was detected for the estimated magnitude of divergence (D-EST), but the three predominant ocean current systems (i.e., East African Coastal Current, North East Madagascar Current, and the South Equatorial Current) also determine genetic connectivity and genetic structure. Directional migration rates indicate that Madagascar acts as an important source population. Overall, clonality was moderate to high with large differences among sampling sites, indicating relatively low, but spatially variable sexual reproduction rates. The strongest genetic break was identified for three sites in the Zanzibar channel. Although isolation by distance is present, this study suggests that the three regionally predominant ocean current systems (i.e., East African Coastal Current, North East Madagascar Current, and the South Equatorial Current) rather than distance determine genetic connectivity and structure of T. hemprichii in the WIO. If the goal is to maintain genetic connectivity of T. hemprichii within the WIO, conservation planning and implementation of marine protection should be considered at the regional scale-across national borders.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 196.
    Jakobsson, Kristofer
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Söderbergh, Bengt
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Snowden, Simon
    Aleklett, Kjell
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Bottom-up modeling of oil production: A review of approaches2014Inngår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 64, s. 113-123Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Bottom-up models of oil production are continuously being used to guide investments and policymaking. Compared to simpler top-down models, bottom-up models have a number of advantages due to their modularity, flexibility and concreteness. The purposes of this paper is to identify the crucial modeling challenges, compare the different ways in which nine existing models handle them, assess the appropriateness of these models, and point to possibilities of further development. The conclusions are that the high level of detail in bottom-up models is of questionable value for predictive accuracy, but of great value for identifying areas of uncertainty and new research questions. There is a potential for improved qualitative insights through systematic sensitivity analysis. This potential is at present largely unrealized.

  • 197.
    Jiang, Qiang
    et al.
    China Univ Petr, Coll Geosci, State Key Lab Petr Resources & Prospecting, Beijing 102249, Peoples R China.;Curtin Univ, John Laeter Ctr & Inst Geosci Res, Sch Earth & Planetary Sci, Western Australian Argon Isotope Facil, Bentley, Australia.;China Univ Petr, Coll Geosci, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Jourdan, Fred
    Curtin Univ, John Laeter Ctr & Inst Geosci Res, Sch Earth & Planetary Sci, Western Australian Argon Isotope Facil, Bentley, Australia..
    Olierook, Hugo K. H.
    Curtin Univ, John Laeter Ctr, Sch Earth & Planetary Sci, Timescales Mineral Syst Grp, Bentley, Australia..
    Merle, Renaud E.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    An appraisal of the ages of Phanerozoic large igneous provinces2023Inngår i: Earth-Science Reviews, ISSN 0012-8252, E-ISSN 1872-6828, Vol. 237, artikkel-id 104314Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Large igneous provinces (LIPs) are the products of exceptional magmatic events that played important roles in tectonic plate reorganizations, environmental crises, energy resource formation and ore genesis. Studying the ages of LIPs has been crucial for constraining the duration of these magmatic events and deciphering their temporal relationship with associated geological events. There have been a significant number of radio-isotopic dating analyses (e.g., Ar-40/Ar-39, U-Pb) conducted for LIPs, especially in the past decade. These dating results have often been directly accepted and propagated into the literature for geological interpretations, regardless of their reliability and precision. This review compiles all published Ar-40/Ar-39 and U-Pb age determinations for the eighteen Phanerozoic large igneous provinces and critically evaluates each for their statistical robustness and precision. The compiled and filtered age data are easily accessible in an online database (https://shorturl. at/kIQT5) that will be regularly maintained by the authors. Using a filtered dataset of reliable and precise ages, which accounts for similar to 30% of all the originally published ages, we discuss the duration of large igneous provinces and compare their relative timing with mass extinctions and global environmental crises. We find that the filtered datasets indeed provide robust evidence for a short duration of a few million years for some LIPs (i.e., Emeishan LIP, Siberian Traps, Central Atlantic magmatic province, Karoo LIP, Ferrar LIP, Parana-Etendeka LIP, Deccan Traps, and Columbia River basalt group). However, evidence for the claimed short-lived, or long-lived and pulsed magmatism for some LIPs is insufficient (e.g., Yakutsk-Vilyui LIP, Kerguelen LIP, Caribbean LIP, High Arctic LIP, North Atlantic igneous province) and more robust geochronology data are needed to constrain their duration and tempo. The filtered data also strengthen the synchronicity between the peak magmatic phase of most LIPs and their associated environmental crises. Clear correlations are identified between the severity of environmental perturbations and LIPs' magma flux rates and likely their accompanied volatile degassing rates, indicating that LIP-induced rapid and intense volatile degassing may have been an important mechanism for a LIP to trigger the deterioration of the environment and even mass extinction.

  • 198.
    Jiang, Qiang
    et al.
    Curtin Univ, Western Australian Argon Isotope Facil, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia.;Curtin Univ, Inst Geosci Res, Sch Earth & Planetary Sci, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia.;Curtin Univ, John Laeter Ctr, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia..
    Jourdan, Fred
    Curtin Univ, Western Australian Argon Isotope Facil, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia.;Curtin Univ, Inst Geosci Res, Sch Earth & Planetary Sci, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia.;Curtin Univ, John Laeter Ctr, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia..
    Olierook, Hugo K. H.
    Curtin Univ, Inst Geosci Res, Sch Earth & Planetary Sci, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia.;Curtin Univ, John Laeter Ctr, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia.;Curtin Univ, Timesc Mineral Syst Grp, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia..
    Merle, Renaud E.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Bourdet, Julien
    CSIRO Energy Resources, Kensington, WA 6151, Australia..
    Fougerouse, Denis
    Curtin Univ, Inst Geosci Res, Sch Earth & Planetary Sci, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia.;Curtin Univ, John Laeter Ctr, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia.;Curtin Univ, Geosci Atom Probe, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia..
    Godel, Belinda
    CSIRO Mineral Resources, Kensington, WA 6151, Australia..
    Walker, Alex T.
    Curtin Univ, John Laeter Ctr, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia..
    Volume and rate of volcanic CO2 emissions governed the severity of past environmental crises2022Inngår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 119, nr 31, artikkel-id e2202039119Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The emplacement of large igneous provinces (LIPs) has been linked to catastrophic mass extinctions in Earth’s history, but some LIPs are only associated with less severe oceanic anoxic events, and others have negligible environmental effects. Although it is widely accepted that massive magma outpouring can affect the environment through volatile degassing, it remains debated what controls the severity of environmental crises. Here, we demonstrate that the second-most-voluminous Phanerozoic LIP, the Kerguelen LIP, may have contributed to the early Aptian oceanic anoxic event 1a, a global event previously believed to have been caused by the Ontong Java LIP. Geochronological data show that the earliest eruptions of the Kerguelen LIP preceded the onset of oceanic anoxic event 1a by at least ∼5 million years. Analyses of CO2 abundances in melt inclusions combined with Monte Carlo simulations reveal that the volume and degassing rate of CO2 emissions from the Kerguelen LIP are an order of magnitude lower compared to LIPs that caused severe mass extinctions. We propose that the severity of volcanism-related environmental and biotic perturbations is positively correlated with the volume and rate of CO2 emissions. Our results highlight the significant importance of reducing and slowing down CO2 emission in preventing future disastrous environmental consequences.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 199.
    Jiang, Qiang
    et al.
    Curtin Univ, John de Laeter Ctr, Western Australian Argon Isotope Facil, Perth, WA 6845, Australia.;Curtin Univ, Sch Earth & Planetary Sci, Perth, WA 6845, Australia.
    Jourdan, Fred
    Curtin Univ, John de Laeter Ctr, Western Australian Argon Isotope Facil, Perth, WA 6845, Australia.;Curtin Univ, Sch Earth & Planetary Sci, Perth, WA 6845, Australia.
    Olierook, Hugo K. H.
    Curtin Univ, Sch Earth & Planetary Sci, Timescales Mineral Syst Grp, Perth, WA 6845, Australia.;Curtin Univ, John de Laeter Ctr, Perth, WA 6845, Australia.
    Merle, Renaud E.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Verati, Chrystele
    Univ Cote dAzur, Observ Cote dAzur, UMR CNRS Geoazur, 250 Rue Albert Einstein, F-06560 Valbonne, France.
    Mayers, Celia
    Curtin Univ, John de Laeter Ctr, Western Australian Argon Isotope Facil, Perth, WA 6845, Australia.;Curtin Univ, Sch Earth & Planetary Sci, Perth, WA 6845, Australia.
    Ar-40/Ar-39 dating of basaltic rocks and the pitfalls of plagioclase alteration2021Inngår i: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 314, s. 334-357Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ar-40/Ar-39 geochronology is one of the most important techniques for constraining the timing of basaltic events due to the paucity of suitable minerals in basalts for other geochronological techniques such as U-Pb (e.g., zircon, baddeleyite). Among a variety of materials from basaltic rocks that have been used for Ar-40/Ar-39 dating, plagioclase is the most important due to its common presence in basalts as a primary crystallizing phase, and its transparency so that fresh grains can be selected during sample preparation. However, plagioclase Ar-40/Ar-39 geochronology has often been compromised by alteration (e.g., sericitization by hydrothermal events), which, in practice, is difficult to identify using a petrographic microscope when the amount of alteration is low (e.g., <1%). We used laboratory step-heating experiments and theoretical simulations to characterize the Ar-40/Ar-39 age and Ca/K spectra of altered plagioclase so that Ar-40/Ar-39 dating results on altered samples can be identified and better interpreted. The step-heating experiments and theoretical simulations yielded consistent results, and show that with the presence of even a tiny amount of sericite (similar to 0.01% for K-poor samples and similar to 0.1% for K-rich samples), the plagioclase samples yielded alteration plateau ages that are 3%-4% younger than the crystallization age. The difference between the alteration age of sericitized plagioclase and its crystallization age is primarily controlled by the time lapse between the crystallization and sericitization events, but also by the Ca/K ratios of the plagioclase. For plagioclase samples that experienced the same alteration event, the higher the Ca/K ratio is, the more sensitive the Ar-40/Ar-39 age is to alteration. We propose that the alteration signatures of plagioclase can be effectively identified through inspecting the Ar-40/Ar-39 age spectra, the Ca/K spectra, and the degassing curves. We also investigated the effect of sericitization of plagioclase microliths in basaltic groundmass and modelled the Ar-40/Ar-39 age and Ca/K spectra of altered groundmass samples. We validate our approach by revisiting published Ar-40/Ar-39 dating results for large igneous provinces, and showed that these dates should have been interpreted as alteration ages (minimum eruption ages) rather than crystallization ages. Finally, we demonstrate that with high degrees of alteration (similar to 50% for K-poor and >70% for K-rich plagioclase samples), the age of hydrothermal alteration can be successfully dated. (C) 2021 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 200.
    Jiang, Qiang
    et al.
    Curtin Univ, John de Laeter Ctr, Western Australian Argon Isotope Facil, Perth, WA 6845, Australia; Curtin Univ, Sch Earth & Planetary Sci, Perth, WA 6845, Australia.
    Jourdan, Fred
    Curtin Univ, John de Laeter Ctr, Western Australian Argon Isotope Facil, Perth, WA 6845, Australia; Curtin Univ, Sch Earth & Planetary Sci, Perth, WA 6845, Australia.
    Olierook, Hugo K. H.
    Curtin Univ, John de Laeter Ctr, Western Australian Argon Isotope Facil, Perth, WA 6845, Australia; Curtin Univ, Sch Earth & Planetary Sci, Perth, WA 6845, Australia; Curtin Univ, Ctr Explorat Targeting Curtin Node, Sch Earth & Planetary Sci, Timescales Mineral Syst, Perth, WA 6845, Australia.
    Merle, Renaud E.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling. Swedish Museum Nat Hist, S-10405 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Whittaker, Joanne M.
    Univ Tasmania, Inst Marine & Antarctic Studies, Hobart, Tas 7001, Australia.
    Longest continuously erupting large igneous province driven by plume-ridge interaction2021Inngår i: Geology, ISSN 0091-7613, E-ISSN 1943-2682, Vol. 49, nr 2, s. 206-210Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Large igneous provinces (LIPs) typically form in one short pulse of ∼1–5 Ma or several punctuated ∼1–5 Ma pulses. Here, our 25 new 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages for the main construct of the Kerguelen LIP—the Cretaceous Southern and Central Kerguelen Plateau, Elan Bank, and Broken Ridge—show continuous volcanic activity from ca. 122 to 90 Ma, a long lifespan of >32 Ma. This suggests that the Kerguelen LIP records the longest, continuous high-magma-flux emplacement interval of any LIP. Distinct from both short-lived and multiple-pulsed LIPs, we propose that Kerguelen is a different type of LIP that formed through long-term interactions between a mantle plume and mid-ocean ridge, which is enabled by multiple ridge jumps, slow spreading, and migration of the ridge. Such processes allow the transport of magma products away from the eruption center and result in long-lived, continuous magmatic activity.

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