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  • 151.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Andres, Jose A.
    The effects of experimentally induced polyandry on female reproduction in a monandrous mating system2006Ingår i: Ethology, ISSN 0179-1613, E-ISSN 1439-0310, Vol. 112, nr 8, s. 748-756Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 152.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Danielsson, I
    Copulatory behavior, genital morphology, and male fertilization success in water striders1999Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 53, nr 1, s. 147-156Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 153.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Danielsson, I
    Postmating sexual selection: the effects of male body size and recovery period on paternity and egg production rate in a water strider1999Ingår i: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 10, nr 4, s. 358-365Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 154.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Edvardsson, M
    Friberg, U
    Nilsson, T
    Sexual conflict promotes speciation in insects2000Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 97, nr 19, s. 10460-10464Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 155.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Fricke, C
    Arnqvist, G
    Patterns of divergence in the effects of mating on female reproductive performance in flour beetles2002Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 56, nr 1, s. 111-120Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 156.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Johansson, F
    Ontogenetic reaction norms of predator-induced defensive morphology in dragonfly larvae1998Ingår i: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 79, nr 6, s. 1847-1858Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 157.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Jones, T M
    Elgar, M A
    Insect behaviour: Reversal of sex roles in nuptial feeding2003Ingår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 424, nr 6947, s. 387-387Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 158.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Kirkpatrick, M
    The evolution of infidelity in socially monogamous passerines: The strength of direct and indirect selection on extrapair copulation behavior in females2005Ingår i: American Naturalist, ISSN 0003-0147, E-ISSN 1537-5323, Vol. 165, nr 5, s. S26-S37Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 159.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Kolm, Niclas
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Population differentiation in the swordtail characin (Corynopoma riisei): a role for sensory drive?2010Ingår i: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 23, nr 9, s. 1907-1918Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sensory drive, where the efficacy of a sexual signal depends on the environment in which it is employed, is a potential mechanism behind divergent evolution of secondary sexual traits. Male swordtail characins are equipped with a narrow and transparent extension of the gill cover with a flag-like structure at its tip. This opercular flag mimics a prey item and is employed by males as a 'lure' to attract the attention of females during mating attempts. We conducted a study of genetic and morphological differentiation across swordtail characin populations throughout their native range in Trinidad. The morphology of the opercular flag varied across populations and several aspects of this variation match the predicted hallmarks of sensory drive. First, morphological differentiation of the flag across populations was unrelated to genetic similarity at neutral genetic markers. Second, the shape of the flag covaried with those aspects of body shape that should reflect adaptation to different feeding regimes. Third, and most importantly, the shape of the flag covaried across populations with those environmental characteristics that should most closely reflect differences in local prey abundance. Overall, our results are consistent with a scenario where the evolution of this male sexual signal tracks food-related shifts in female sensory biases across populations, thus providing at least provisional support for a role for sensory drive in population differentiation.

  • 160.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Martensson, T
    Measurement error in geometric morphometrics: Empirical strategies to assess and reduce its impact on measures of shape1998Ingår i: Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, ISSN 1217-8837, E-ISSN 2064-2474, Vol. 44, nr 1-2, s. 73-96Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 161.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Nilsson, T
    The evolution of polyandry: multiple mating and female fitness in insects2000Ingår i: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 60, s. 145-164Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
  • 162.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Nilsson, T
    Katvala, M
    Mating rate and fitness in female bean weevils2005Ingår i: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 16, nr 1, s. 123-127Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 163.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Novicic, Zorana Kurbalija
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi. Univ Belgrade, Inst Biol Res Sinisa Stankovic, Despot Stefan Blvd 142, Belgrade 11000, Serbia..
    Castro, Jose A.
    Univ Illes Balears, Fac Ciencies, Dept Biol, Lab Genet, Edifici Guillem Colom,Campus UIB, Palma de Mallorca 07122, Balears, Spain..
    Sayadi, Ahmed
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Negative frequency dependent selection on sympatric mtDNA haplotypes in Drosophila subobscura2016Ingår i: Hereditas, ISSN 0018-0661, E-ISSN 1601-5223, Vol. 153, artikel-id 15Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Recent experimental evidence for selection on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has prompted the question as to what processes act to maintain within-population variation in mtDNA. Balancing selection though negative frequency dependent selection (NFDS) among sympatric haplotypes is a possibility, but direct empirical evidence for this is very scarce. Findings: We extend the previous findings of a multi-generation replicated cage experiment in Drosophila subobscura, where mtDNA polymorphism was maintained in a laboratory setting. First, we use a set of Monte Carlo simulations to show that the haplotype frequency dynamics observed are inconsistent with genetic drift alone and most closely match those expected under NFDS. Second, we show that haplotype frequency changes over time were significantly different from those expected under either genetic drift or positive selection but were consistent with those expected under NFSD. Conclusions: Collectively, our analyses provide novel support for NFDS on mtDNA haplotypes, suggesting that mtDNA polymorphism may at least in part be maintained by balancing selection also in natural populations. We very briefly discuss the possible mechanisms that might be involved.

  • 164.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Rowe, L
    Antagonistic coevolution between the sexes in a group of insects2002Ingår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 415, nr 6873, s. 787-789Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 165.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Rowe, L
    Correlated evolution of male and female morphologies in water striders2002Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 56, nr 5, s. 936-947Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 166.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Rowe, Locke
    The shape of preference functions and what shapes them: a comment on Edward2015Ingår i: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 26, nr 2, s. 325-325Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 167.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Sayadi, Ahmed
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Immonen, Elina
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Hotzy, Cosima
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Rankin, Daniel
    Univ Zurich, Inst Evolutionary Biol & Environm Studies, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Tuda, Midori
    Kyushu Univ, Dept Bioresource Sci, Lab Insect Nat Enemies, Fukuoka 8128581, Japan.;Kyushu Univ, Inst Biol Control, Fac Agr, Fukuoka 8128581, Japan..
    Hjelmen, Carl E.
    Texas A&M Univ, Dept Entomol, College Stn, TX 77843 USA..
    Johnston, J. Spencer
    Texas A&M Univ, Dept Entomol, College Stn, TX 77843 USA..
    Genome size correlates with reproductive fitness in seed beetles2015Ingår i: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 282, nr 1815, artikel-id 20151421Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The ultimate cause of genome size (GS) evolution in eukaryotes remains a major and unresolved puzzle in evolutionary biology. Large-scale comparative studies have failed to find consistent correlations between GS and organismal properties, resulting in the 'C-value paradox'. Current hypotheses for the evolution of GS are based either on the balance between mutational events and drift or on natural selection acting upon standing genetic variation in GS. It is, however, currently very difficult to evaluate the role of selection because within-species studies that relate variation in life-history traits to variation in GS are very rare. Here, we report phylogenetic comparative analyses of GS evolution in seed beetles at two distinct taxonomic scales, which combines replicated estimation of GS with experimental assays of life-history traits and reproductive fitness. GS showed rapid and bidirectional evolution across species, but did not show correlated evolution with any of several indices of the relative importance of genetic drift. Within a single species, GS varied by 4-5% across populations and showed positive correlated evolution with independent estimates of male and female reproductive fitness. Collectively, the phylogenetic pattern of GS diversification across and within species in conjunction with the pattern of correlated evolution between GS and fitness provide novel support for the tenet that natural selection plays a key role in shaping GS evolution.

  • 168.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Stojkovic, Biljana
    Department of Evolutionary Biology, Institute for Biological Research, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.; Institute of Zoology, Faculty of Biology, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.
    Rönn, Johanna L.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Immonen, Elina
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    The pace-of-life: A sex-specific link between metabolic rate and life history in bean beetles2017Ingår i: Functional Ecology, ISSN 0269-8463, E-ISSN 1365-2435, Vol. 31, nr 12, s. 2299-2309Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]
    1. Metabolic rate (MR) is a key functional trait simply because metabolism converts resources into population growth rate. Yet, our empirical understanding of the sources of within species variation in MR, as well as of its life history and ecological correlates, is rather limited. Here, we assess whether MR lies at the root of a syndrome of correlated rate-dependent life-history traits in an insect.
    2. Selection for early (E) or late (L) age-at-reproduction for >160 generations in the bean beetle Acanthoscelides obtectus has produced beetles that differ markedly in juvenile development, body size, fecundity schedules, ageing and life span. Here, we use micro-respirometry to test whether this has been associated with the evolution of age- and sex-specific metabolic phenotypes.
    3. We find that mass-specific MR is 18% higher in E lines compared to L lines and that MR decreases more rapidly with chronological, but not biological, age in E lines. Males, under sexual selection to “live-fast-die-young”, show 50% higher MR than females and MR decreased more rapidly with age in males.
    4. Our results are consistent with a central role for MR for the divergence in “pace-of-life” seen in these beetles, supporting the view that MR lies at the root of ecologically relevant life-history trait variation within species.
  • 169.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Thornhill, R
    Evolution of animal genitalia: patterns of phenotypic and genotypic variation and condition dependence of genital and non-genital morphology in water strider (Heteroptera : Gerridae : Insecta)1998Ingår i: Genetical Research, ISSN 0016-6723, E-ISSN 1469-5073, Vol. 71, nr 3, s. 193-212Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 170.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Vellnow, Nikolas
    Rowe, Locke
    The effect of epistasis on sexually antagonistic genetic variation2014Ingår i: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 281, nr 1787, s. 20140489-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is increasing evidence of segregating sexually antagonistic (SA) genetic variation for fitness in laboratory and wild populations, yet the conditions for the maintenance of such variation can be restrictive. Epistatic interactions between genes can contribute to the maintenance of genetic variance in fitness and we suggest that epistasis between SA genes should be pervasive. Here, we explore its effect on SA genetic variation in fitness using a two locus model with negative epistasis. Our results demonstrate that epistasis often increases the parameter space showing polymorphism for SA loci. This is because selection in one locus is affected by allele frequencies at the other, which can act to balance net selection in males and females. Increased linkage between SA loci had more marginal effects. We also show that under some conditions, large portions of the parameter space evolve to a state where male benefit alleles are fixed at one locus and female benefit alleles at the other. This novel effect of epistasis on SA loci, which we term the 'equity effect', may have important effects on population differentiation and may contribute to speciation. More generally, these results support the suggestion that epistasis contributes to population divergence.

  • 171. Aronsen, T.
    et al.
    Mobley, K. B.
    Berglund, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Sundin, Josefin
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Billing, A. M.
    Rosenqvist, G.
    The operational sex ratio and density influence spatial relationships between breeding pipefish2013Ingår i: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 24, nr 4, s. 888-897Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The operational sex ratio (ratio of sexually receptive males to females) has been extensively studied in behavioral ecology, whereas other demographic factors such as the effect of density on mating behavior have received less empirical attention. We manipulated mating competition by establishing breeding populations of the sex-role reversed broad-nosed pipefish (Syngnathus typhle) at 2 sex ratios (male biased or female biased) and 2 densities. We used mean crowding (m*) and the index of association (X) to measure spatial distributions within and between the sexes, respectively, and investigated how these measures reflect the predicted strength of mating competition. In general, female m* increased as fewer males were available for mating, which suggests increased intrasexual competition in the most competitive sex. However, male m* also increased as the operational sex ratio became more female biased, suggesting that m* did not reflect mating competition for males. Association between the sexes (X) was higher under male bias than female bias, probably because males were still available for mating under male bias. In addition, X decreased in the female-biased treatment as the operational sex ratio became even more female biased. Higher density increased m* in both sex ratios and sexes, although for both sexes in the female-biased high-density treatment the operational sex ratio did not influence m*, probably because femalefemale competition inhibits further crowding in this treatment. In this study, we show that the use of m* and X can be a useful tool in behavioral studies but their interpretation requires detailed information about the mating system. Therefore, we recommend caution with their broadscale application.

  • 172. Aronsen, Tonje
    et al.
    Berglund, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Mobley, Kenyon B.
    Ratikainen, Irja I.
    Rosenqvist, Gunilla
    Sex Ratio And Density Affect Sexual Selection In A Sex-Role Reversed Fish2013Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 67, nr 11, s. 3243-3257Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding how demographic processes influence mating systems is important to decode ecological influences on sexual selection in nature. We manipulated sex ratio and density in experimental populations of the sex-role reversed pipefish Syngnathus typhle. We quantified sexual selection using the Bateman gradient (beta'ss), the opportunity for selection (I), and sexual selection (Is), and the maximum standardized sexual selection differential (s(max)). We also measured selection on body length using standardized selection differentials (s') and mating differentials (m'), and tested whether the observed I and Is differ from values obtained by simulating random mating. We found that I, Is, and s'(max), but not beta'(ss), were higher for females under female than male bias and the opposite for males, but density did not affect these measures. However, higher density decreased sexual selection (m similar to but not s') on female length, but selection on body length was not affected by sex ratio. Finally, Is but not I was higher than expected from random mating, and only for females under female bias. This study demonstrates that both sex ratio and density affect sexual selection and that disentangling interrelated demographic processes is essential to a more complete understanding of mating behavior and the evolution of mating systems.

  • 173. Arvola, Lauri
    et al.
    George, Glen
    Livingstone, David M.
    Järvinen, Marko
    Blenckner, Thorsten
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution.
    Dokulil, Martin T.
    Jennings, Eleanor
    Aonghusa, Caitriona Nic
    Nõges, Peeter
    Nõges, Tiina
    Weyhenmeyer, Gesa. A.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Limnologi.
    The impact of changing climate on the thermal characteristics of lakes2010Ingår i: The impact of climate change on European lakes / [ed] D.G. George, Springer , 2010, s. 85-101Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 174.
    Ashitani, T.
    et al.
    Yamagata Univ, Dept Bioenvirom, Fac Agr, Tsuruoka, Yamagata 9978555, Japan.;Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, Ecol Chem Grp, Dept Chem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Garboui, Samira Sadek
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Schubert, F.
    Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, Ecol Chem Grp, Dept Chem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Vongsombath, C.
    Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, Ecol Chem Grp, Dept Chem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.;Natl Univ Laos NOUL, Viangchan, Laos..
    Liblikas, I.
    Inst Technol, Sect Organ Chem, EE-50411 Tartu, Estonia..
    Palsson, K.
    Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, Ecol Chem Grp, Dept Chem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Borg-Karlson, A. -K
    Activity studies of sesquiterpene oxides and sulfides from the plant Hyptis suaveolens (Lamiaceae) and its repellency on Ixodes ricinus (Acari:Ixodidae)2015Ingår i: Experimental & applied acarology, ISSN 0168-8162, E-ISSN 1572-9702, Vol. 67, nr 4, s. 595-606Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Hyptis suaveolens (Lamiaceae), a plant traditionally used as a mosquito repellent, has been investigated for repellent properties against nymphs of the tick Ixodes ricinus. Essential oils and volatile compounds of fresh and dried leaves, from plants originating from Laos and Guinea-Bissau, were identified by GC-MS and tested in a tick repellency bioassay. All the essential oils were strongly repellent against the ticks, even though the main volatile constituents differed in their proportions of potentially tick repellent chemicals. (+)/(-)-sabinene were present in high amounts in all preparations, and dominated the emission from dry and fresh leaves together with 1,8-cineol and alpha-phellandrene. 1,8-Cineol and sabinene were major compounds in the essential oils from H. suaveolens from Laos. Main compounds in H. suaveolens from Guinea-Bissau were (-)-sabinene, limonene and terpinolene. Among the sesquiterpene hydrocarbons identified, alpha-humulene exhibited strong tick repellency (96.8 %). Structure activity studies of oxidation or sulfidation products of germacrene D, alpha-humulene and beta-caryophyllene, showed increased tick repellent activity: of mint sulfide (59.4 %), humulene-6,7-oxide (94.5 %) and caryophyllene-6,7-oxide (96.9 %). The substitution of oxygen with sulfur slightly lowered the repellency. The effects of the constituents in the oils can then be regarded as a trade off between the subsequently lower volatility of the sesquiterpene derivatives compared to the monoterpenes and may thus increase their potential usefulness as tick repellents.

  • 175.
    Asplund, Linnea
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution.
    Hagenblad, Jenny
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Leino, Matti W.
    Re-evaluating the history of the wheat domestication gene NAM-B1 using historical plant material2010Ingår i: Journal of Archaeological Science, ISSN 0305-4403, E-ISSN 1095-9238, Vol. 37, nr 9, s. 2303-2307Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of agriculture is closely associated with the domestication of wheat, one of the earliest crop species. During domestication key genes underlying traits important to Neolithic agriculture were targeted by selection. One gene believed to be such a domestication gene is NAM-B1, affecting both nutritional quality and yield but with opposite effects. A null mutation, first arisen in emmer wheat, decreases the nutritional quality but delays maturity and increases grain size; previously the ancestral allele was believed lost during the domestication of durum and bread wheat by indirect selection for larger grain. By genotyping 63 historical seed samples originating from the 1862 International Exhibition in London, we found that the ancestral allele was present in two spelt wheat and two bread wheat cultivars widely cultivated at the time. This suggests that fixation of the mutated allele of NAM-B1 in bread wheat, if at all, occurred during modern crop improvement rather than during domestication. We also discuss the value of using archaeological and historical plant material to further the understanding of the development of agriculture.

  • 176.
    Asplund, Linnea
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Leino, Matti W.
    Hagenblad, Jenny
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Allelic Variation at the Rht8 Locus in a 19th Century Wheat Collection2012Ingår i: Scientific World Journal, ISSN 1537-744X, E-ISSN 1537-744X, s. 385610-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Wheat breeding during the 20th century has put large efforts into reducing straw length and increasing harvest index. In the 1920s an allele of Rht8 with dwarfing effects, found in the Japanese cultivar "Akakomugi," was bred into European cultivars and subsequently spread over the world. Rht8 has not been cloned, but the microsatellite marker WMS261 has been shown to be closely linked to it and is commonly used for genotyping Rht8. The "Akakomugi" allele is strongly associated with WMS261-192bp. Numerous screens of wheat cultivars with different geographical origin have been performed to study the spread and influence of the WMS261-192bp during 20th century plant breeding. However, the allelic diversity of WMS261 in wheat cultivars before modern plant breeding and introduction of the Japanese dwarfing genes is largely unknown. Here, we report a study of WMS261 allelic diversity in a historical wheat collection from 1865 representing worldwide major wheats at the time. The majority carried the previously reported 164 bp or 174 bp allele, but with little geographical correlation. In a few lines, a rare 182 bp fragment was found. Although straw length was recognized as an important character already in the 19th century, Rht8 probably played a minor role for height variation. The use of WMS261 and other functional markers for analyses of historical specimens and characterization of historic crop traits is discussed.

  • 177.
    Attermeyer, Katrin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Limnologi.
    Andersson, Sara
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Limnologi.
    Catalán, Núria
    Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), Girona, Spain.
    Einarsdóttir, Karólina
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Limnologi.
    Groeneveld, Marloes M.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Limnologi.
    Szekely, Anna J.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Limnologi.
    Tranvik, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Limnologi.
    Potential terrestrial influence on transparent exopolymer particle (TEP) concentrations in boreal freshwaters2019Ingår i: Journal of limnology, ISSN 1129-5767, E-ISSN 1723-8633, Vol. 64, nr 6, s. 2455-2466Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) are ubiquitous in aquatic ecosystems and contribute, for example, to sedimentation of organic matter in oceans and freshwaters. Earlier studies indicate that the formation of TEP is related to the in situ activity of phytoplankton or bacteria. However, terrestrial sources of TEP and TEP precursors are usually not considered. We investigated TEP concentration and its driving factors in boreal freshwaters, hypoth- esizing that TEP and TEP precursors can enter freshwaters via terrestrial inputs. In a field survey, we measured TEP concentrations and other environmental factors across 30 aquatic ecosystems in Sweden. In a mesocosm experi- ment, we further investigated TEP dynamics over time after manipulating terrestrial organic matter input and light conditions. The TEP concentrations in boreal freshwaters ranged from 83 to 4940 μg Gum Xanthan equivalent L−1, which is comparable to other studies in freshwaters. The carbon fraction in TEP in the sampled boreal freshwaters is much higher than the phytoplanktonic carbon, in contrast to previous studies in northern temperate and Medi- terranean regions. Boreal TEP concentrations were mostly related to particulate organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, and optical indices of terrestrial influence but less influenced by bacterial abundance, bacterial production, and chlorophyll a. Hence, our results do not support a major role of the phytoplankton community or aquatic bac- teria on TEP concentrations and dynamics. This suggests a strong external control of TEP concentrations in boreal freshwaters, which can in turn affect particle dynamics and sedimentation in the recipient aquatic ecosystem.

  • 178.
    Attermeyer, Katrin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Limnologi. WasserCluster Lunz, Lunz Am See, Austria.
    Catalan, Nuria
    Catalan Inst Water Res ICRA, Girona, Spain.
    Einarsdóttir, Karólina
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Limnologi.
    Freixa, Anna
    Catalan Inst Water Res ICRA, Girona, Spain.
    Groeneveld, Marloes M.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Limnologi.
    Hawkes, Jeffrey A.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - BMC, Analytisk kemi.
    Bergquist, Jonas
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - BMC, Analytisk kemi.
    Tranvik, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Limnologi.
    Organic Carbon Processing During Transport Through Boreal Inland Waters: Particles as Important Sites2018Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences, ISSN 2169-8953, E-ISSN 2169-8961, Vol. 123, nr 8, s. 2412-2428Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The degradation and transformation of organic carbon (C) in inland waters result in significant CO2 emissions from inland waters. Even though most of the C in inland waters occurs as dissolved organic carbon (DOC), studies on particulate organic carbon (POC) and how it influences the overall reactivity of organic C in transport are still scarce. We sampled 30 aquatic ecosystems following an aquatic continuum including peat surface waters, streams, rivers, and lakes. We report DOC and POC degradation rates, relate degradation patterns to environmental data across these systems, and present qualitative changes in dissolved organic matter and particulate organic matter during degradation. Microbial degradation rates of POC were approximately 15 times higher compared to degradation of DOC, with POC half-lives of only 17 +/- 3 (mean +/- SE) days across all sampled aquatic ecosystems. Rapid POC decay was accompanied by a shift in particulate C: N ratios, whereas dissolved organic matter composition did not change at the time scale of incubations. The faster degradation of the POC implies a constant replenishment to sustain natural POC concentrations. We suggest that degradation of organic matter transported through the inland water continuum might occur to a large extent via transition of DOC into more rapidly cycling POC in nature, for example, triggered by light. In this way, particles would be a dominant pool of organic C processing across the boreal aquatic continuum, partially sustained by replenishment via flocculation of DOC.

  • 179.
    Attermeyer, Katrin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Limnologi. Leibniz Inst Freshwater Ecol & Inland Fisheries C, Muggelseedamm 310, D-12587 Berlin, Germany..
    Flury, S.
    Leibniz Inst Freshwater Ecol & Inland Fisheries C, Muggelseedamm 310, D-12587 Berlin, Germany.;Univ Geneva, Fac Sci, Blvd Carl Vogt 66, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland..
    Jayakumar, R.
    IITM, IGCS, Madras 600036, Tamil Nadu, India.;IITM, Environm & Water Resources Engn Div, Dept Civil Engn, Madras 600036, Tamil Nadu, India..
    Fiener, P.
    Univ Augsburg, Dept Geog, Alter Postweg 118, D-86159 Augsburg, Germany..
    Steger, K.
    IITM, IGCS, Madras 600036, Tamil Nadu, India..
    Arya, V.
    IITM, Environm & Water Resources Engn Div, Dept Civil Engn, Madras 600036, Tamil Nadu, India..
    Wilken, F.
    Univ Augsburg, Dept Geog, Alter Postweg 118, D-86159 Augsburg, Germany.;BTU, Chair Soil Protect & Recultivat, Konrad Wachsmann Allee 6, D-03013 Cottbus, Germany..
    van Geldern, R.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, GeoZentrum Nordbayern, Schlossgarten 5, D-91054 Erlangen, Germany..
    Premke, K.
    Leibniz Inst Freshwater Ecol & Inland Fisheries C, Muggelseedamm 310, D-12587 Berlin, Germany.;Leibniz Ctr Agr Landscape Res ZALF, Inst Landscape Biogeochem, Eberswalder Str 84, D-15374 Muncheberg, Germany..
    Invasive floating macrophytes reduce greenhouse gas emissions from a small tropical lake2016Ingår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, artikel-id 20424Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Floating macrophytes, including water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), are dominant invasive organisms in tropical aquatic systems, and they may play an important role in modifying the gas exchange between water and the atmosphere. However, these systems are underrepresented in global datasets of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This study investigated the carbon (C) turnover and GHG emissions from a small (0.6 km(2)) water-harvesting lake in South India and analysed the effect of floating macrophytes on these emissions. We measured carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions with gas chambers in the field as well as water C mineralization rates and physicochemical variables in both the open water and in water within stands of water hyacinths. The CO2 and CH4 emissions from areas covered by water hyacinths were reduced by 57% compared with that of open water. However, the C mineralization rates were not significantly different in the water between the two areas. We conclude that the increased invasion of water hyacinths and other floating macrophytes has the potential to change GHG emissions, a process that might be relevant in regional C budgets.

  • 180.
    Attermeyer, Katrin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Limnologi. Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Chemical Analytics and Biogeochemistry, Germany.
    Grossart, Hans-Peter
    Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and InlandFisheries, Experimental Limnology, Germany; Institute for Biochemistry and Biology, Potsdam University, Germany.
    Flury, Sabine
    Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Chemical Analytics and Biogeochemistry, Germany; Faculty of Science, University of Geneva, Switzerland.
    Premke, Katrin
    Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Chemical Analytics and Biogeochemistry, Germany; Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Institute for Landscape Biogeochemistry, Germany.
    Bacterial processes and biogeochemical changes in the water body of kettle holes: mainly driven by autochthonous organic matter?2017Ingår i: Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 1015-1621, E-ISSN 1420-9055, Vol. 79, nr 3, s. 675-687Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Kettle holes are small inland waters formed from glacially-created depressions often situated in agricultural landscapes. Due to their high perimeter-to-area ratio facilitating a high aquatic-terrestrial coupling, kettle holes can accumulate high concentrations of organic carbon and nutrients, fueling microbial activities and turnover rates. Thus, they represent hotspots of carbon turnover in the landscape, but their bacterial activities and controlling factors have not been well investigated. Therefore, we aimed to assess the relative importance of various environmental factors on bacterial and biogeochemical processes in the water column of kettle holes and to disentangle their variations. In the water body of ten kettle holes in north-eastern Germany, we measured several physico-chemical and biological parameters such as carbon quantity and quality, as well as bacterial protein production (BP) and community respiration (CR) in spring, early summer and autumn 2014. Particulate organic matter served as an indicator of autochthonous production and represented an important parameter to explain variations in BP and CR. This notion is supported by qualitative absorbance indices of dissolved molecules in water samples and C:N ratios of the sediments, which demonstrate high fractions of autochthonous organic matter (OM) in the studied kettle holes. In contrast, dissolved chemical parameters were less important for bacterial activities although they revealed strong differences throughout the growing season. Pelagic bacterial activities and dynamics might thus be regulated by autochthonous OM in kettle holes implying a control of important biogeochemical processes by internal primary production rather than facilitated exchange with the terrestrial surrounding due to a high perimeter-to-area ratio.

  • 181. Avia, Komlan
    et al.
    Karkkainen, Katri
    Lagercrantz, Ulf
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Savolainen, Outi
    Association of FLOWERING LOCUS T/TERMINAL FLOWER 1-like gene FTL2 expression with growth rhythm in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris)2014Ingår i: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 204, nr 1, s. 159-170Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the genetic basis of the timing of bud set, an important trait in conifers, is relevant for adaptation and forestry practice. In common garden experiments, both Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) show a latitudinal cline in the trait. We compared the regulation of their bud set biology by examining the expression of PsFTL2, a Pinus sylvestris homolog to PaFTL2, a FLOWERING LOCUS T/TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (FT/TFL1)-like gene, the expression levels of which have been found previously to be associated with the timing of bud set in Norway spruce. In a common garden study, we analyzed the relationship of bud phenology under natural and artificial photoperiods and the expression of PsFTL2 in a set of Scots pine populations from different latitudes. The expression of PsFTL2 increased in the needles preceding bud set and decreased during bud burst. In the northernmost population, even short night periods were efficient to trigger this expression, which also increased earlier under all photoperiodic regimes compared with the southern populations. Despite the different biology, with few limitations, the two conifers that diverged 140 million yr ago probably share an association of FTL2 with bud set, pointing to a common mechanism for the timing of growth cessation in conifers.

  • 182.
    Axelsson, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för evolutionsbiologi. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Ellegren, Hans
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för evolutionsbiologi. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Quantification of Adaptive Evolution of Genes Expressed in Avian Brain and the Population Size Effect on the Efficacy of Selection2009Ingår i: Molecular biology and evolution, ISSN 0737-4038, E-ISSN 1537-1719, Vol. 26, nr 5, s. 1073-1079Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Whether protein evolution is mainly due to fixation of beneficial alleles by positive selection or to random genetic drift has remained a contentious issue over the years. Here, we use two genomewide polymorphism data sets collected from chicken populations, together with divergence data from >5,000 chicken-zebra finch gene orthologs expressed in brain, to assess the amount of adaptive evolution in protein-coding genes of birds. First, we show that estimates of the fixation index (FI, the ratio of fixed nonsynonymous-to-synonymous changes over the ratio of the corresponding polymorphisms) are highly dependent on the character of the underlying data sets. Second, by using polymorphism data from high-frequency alleles, to avoid the confounding effect of slightly deleterious mutations segregating at low frequency, we estimate that about 20% of amino acid changes have been brought to fixation through positive selection during avian evolution. This estimate is intermediate to that obtained in humans (lower) and flies as well as bacteria (higher), and is consistent with population genetics theory that stipulates a positive relationship between the efficiency of selection and the effective population size. Further, by comparing the FIs for common and all alleles, we estimate that approximate to 20% of nonsynonymous variation segregating in chicken populations represent slightly deleterious mutations, which is less than in Drosophila. Overall, these results highlight the link between the effective population size and positive as well as negative selection.

  • 183.
    Baas, Pauline
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    van der Valk, Tom
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Vigilant, Linda
    Ngobobo, Urbain
    Binyinyi, Escobar
    Nishuli, Radar
    Caillaud, Damien
    Guschanski, Katerina
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Population-level assessment of genetic diversity and habitat fragmentation in critically endangered Grauer's gorillas2018Ingår i: American Journal of Physical Anthropology, ISSN 0002-9483, E-ISSN 1096-8644, Vol. 165, nr 3, s. 565-575Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The critically endangered Grauer's gorilla (Gorilla beringei graueri) has experienced an estimated 77% population decline within a single generation. Although crucial for informed conservation decisions, there is no clear understanding about population structure and distribution of genetic diversity across the species' highly fragmented range. We fill this gap by studying several core and peripheral Grauer's gorilla populations throughout their distribution range.

    Materials and Methods: We generated genetic profiles for a sampling of an unstudied population of Grauer's gorillas from within the species' core range at 13 autosomal microsatellite loci and combined them with previously published and newly generated data from four other Grauer's gorilla populations, two mountain gorilla populations, and one western lowland gorilla population.

    Results: In agreement with previous studies, the genetic diversity of Grauer's gorillas is intermediate, falling between western lowland and mountain gorillas. Among Grauer's gorilla populations, we observe lower genetic diversity and high differentiation in peripheral compared with central populations, indicating a strong effect of genetic drift and limited gene flow among small, isolated forest fragments.

    Discussion: Although genetically less diverse, peripheral populations are frequently essential for the long-term persistence of a species and migration between peripheral and core populations may significantly enrich the overall species genetic diversity. Thus, in addition to central Grauer's gorilla populations from the core of the distribution range that clearly deserve conservation attention, we argue that conservation strategies aiming to ensure long-term species viability should include preserving peripheral populations and enhancing habitat connectivity.

  • 184.
    Babiker, Hiba
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Schlebusch, Carina M
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Hassan, Hisham Y
    Jakobsson, Mattias
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Genetic variation and population structure of Sudanese populations as indicated by 15 Identifiler sequence-tagged repeat (STR) loci.2011Ingår i: Investigative Genetics, ISSN 2041-2223, E-ISSN 2041-2223, Vol. 2, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: There is substantial ethnic, cultural and linguistic diversity among the people living in east Africa, Sudan and the Nile Valley. The region around the Nile Valley has a long history of succession of different groups, coupled with demographic and migration events, potentially leading to genetic structure among humans in the region.

    RESULT: We report the genotypes of the 15 Identifiler microsatellite markers for 498 individuals from 18 Sudanese populations representing different ethnic and linguistic groups. The combined power of exclusion (PE) was 0.9999981, and the combined match probability was 1 in 7.4 × 1017. The genotype data from the Sudanese populations was combined with previously published genotype data from Egypt, Somalia and the Karamoja population from Uganda. The Somali population was found to be genetically distinct from the other northeast African populations. Individuals from northern Sudan clustered together with those from Egypt, and individuals from southern Sudan clustered with those from the Karamoja population. The similarity of the Nubian and Egyptian populations suggest that migration, potentially bidirectional, occurred along the Nile river Valley, which is consistent with the historical evidence for long-term interactions between Egypt and Nubia.

    CONCLUSION: We show that despite the levels of population structure in Sudan, standard forensic summary statistics are robust tools for personal identification and parentage analysis in Sudan. Although some patterns of population structure can be revealed with 15 microsatellites, a much larger set of genetic markers is needed to detect fine-scale population structure in east Africa and the Nile Valley.

  • 185.
    Backström, Niclas
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Adaptive evolution in passerine birds2014Ingår i: Encyclopedia of Life Sciences, ISSN 1476-9506, E-ISSN 1476-9506Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptive evolution is the process whereby mutations that provide the carrier with a selective advantage increase in frequency in a population via the process of natural selection. Passerines are widespread, common and long-term targets for field study and they demonstrate a copious diversity in physiological and morphological adaptations to varying habitats, for example, beak size and wing shape, and they are, therefore, an important study system to understand adaptive evolution. Recent technological advancements have made it easier to investigate the mechanistic and evolutionary underpinnings of adaptive evolution by allowing genome sequence data to be generated in almost any species of interest. However, it is important to assess the contribution of neutral forces like demographic events and GC-biased gene conversion before concluding that selection has shaped the patterns observed in genomic data. Initial analyses in passerines have identified candidate genes that might be involved in, for example, song learning, beak morphology, disease resistance, high-altitude adaptation and exploratory behavior, but functional verifications are needed to establish a causative relationship between the identified genes and the traits. Key Concepts:Key Concepts: * Passerines are widespread, generally common and easy targets for field study and they demonstrate a copious diversity in physiological and morphological adaptations to varying habitats and they have, therefore, played an important role in previous studies concerning behaviour, ecology and evolution. * A full understanding of passerine adaptations requires an integrative approach aiming at identifying and characterising both proximate (mechanistic) and ultimate (evolutionary) underpinnings to adaptive traits. * The recent advancements in molecular techniques allows for using both comparative genomics, expression profiling, candidate gene approaches and classical association and QTL mapping strategies to identify the genetic basis of adaptive traits in passerines. * Groundwork studies of ecological genetics and genomics using comparative approaches, expression profiling and candidate genes are now accumulating and in a handful of cases we have an idea about the genetic basis of adaptive traits related to, for example, dietary specialisation, learning, exploratory behaviour, immune response and high-altitude adaptations in passerines. * Demographic history and other neutral processes, for example, GC-biased gene conversion (gcBGC), may mimic signals of selection and it is important to verify findings of adaptive evolution using independent methods.

  • 186.
    Backström, Niclas
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Forstmeier, Wolfgang
    Schielzeth, Holger
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Mellenius, Harriet
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Nam, Kiwoong
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Bolund, Elisabeth
    Webster, Matthew T.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för evolution, genomik och systematik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Öst, Torbjörn
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Schneider, Melanie
    Kempenaers, Bart
    Ellegren, Hans
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    The recombination landscape of the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata genome2010Ingår i: Genome Research, ISSN 1088-9051, E-ISSN 1549-5469, Vol. 20, nr 4, s. 485-495Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the causes and consequences of variation in the rate of recombination is essential since this parameter is considered to affect levels of genetic variability, the efficacy of selection, and the design of association and linkage mapping studies. However, there is limited knowledge about the factors governing recombination rate variation. We genotyped 1920 single nucleotide polymorphisms in a multigeneration pedigree of more than 1000 zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) to develop a genetic linkage map, and then we used these map data together with the recently available draft genome sequence of the zebra finch to estimate recombination rates in 1 Mb intervals across the genome. The average zebra finch recombination rate (1.5 cM/Mb) is higher than in humans, but significantly lower than in chicken. The local rates of recombination in chicken and zebra finch were only weakly correlated, demonstrating evolutionary turnover of the recombination landscape in birds. The distribution of recombination events was heavily biased toward ends of chromosomes, with a stronger telomere effect than so far seen in any organism. In fact, the recombination rate was as low as 0.1 cM/Mb in intervals up to 100 Mb long in the middle of the larger chromosomes. We found a positive correlation between recombination rate and GC content, as well as GC-rich sequence motifs. Levels of linkage disequilibrium (LD) were significantly higher in regions of low recombination, showing that heterogeneity in recombination rates have left a footprint on the genomic landscape of LD in zebra finch populations.

  • 187.
    Backström, Niclas
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för evolution, genomik och systematik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Karaiskou, Nikoletta
    Leder, Erica H.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Primmer, Craig R.
    Qvarnström, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för evolution, genomik och systematik. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Ellegren, Hans
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för evolution, genomik och systematik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    A Gene-Based Genetic Linkage Map of the Collared Flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis) Reveals Extensive Synteny and Gene-Order Conservation During 100 Million Years of Avian Evolution2008Ingår i: Genetics, ISSN 0016-6731, E-ISSN 1943-2631, Vol. 179, s. 1479-1495Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    By taking advantage of a recently developed reference markerset for avian genome analysis we have constructed a gene-basedgenetic map of the collared flycatcher, an important "ecologicalmodel" for studies of life-history evolution, sexual selection,speciation, and quantitative genetics. A pedigree of 322 birdsfrom a natural population was genotyped for 384 single nucleotidepolymorphisms (SNPs) from 170 protein-coding genes and 71 microsatellites.Altogether, 147 gene markers and 64 microsatellites form 33linkage groups with a total genetic distance of 1787 cM. Malerecombination rates are, on average, 22% higher than femalerates (total distance 1982 vs. 1627 cM). The ability to anchorthe collared flycatcher map with the chicken genome via thegene-based SNPs revealed an extraordinary degree of both syntenyand gene-order conservation during avian evolution. The greatmajority of chicken chromosomes correspond to a single linkagegroup in collared flycatchers, with only a few cases of inter-and intrachromosomal rearrangements. The rate of chromosomaldiversification, fissions/fusions, and inversions combined isthus considerably lower in birds (0.05/MY) than in mammals (0.6–2.0/MY).A dearth of repeat elements, known to promote chromosomal breakage,in avian genomes may contribute to their stability. The degreeof genome stability is likely to have important consequencesfor general evolutionary patterns and may explain, for example,the comparatively slow rate by which genetic incompatibilityamong lineages of birds evolves.

  • 188.
    Backström, Niclas
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Lindell, Johan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Zhang, Yu
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Palkopoulou, Eleftheria
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Qvarnström, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Sætre, Glenn-Peter
    Ellegren, Hans
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    A high-density scan of the Z chromosome in ficedula flycatchers reveals candidate loci for diversifying selection2010Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 64, nr 12, s. 3461-3475Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Theoretical and empirical data suggest that genes located on sex chromosomes may play an important role both for sexually selected traits and for traits involved in the build-up of hybrid incompatibilities. We investigated patterns of genetic variation in 73 genes located on the Z chromosomes of two species of the flycatcher genus Ficedula, the pied flycatcher and the collared flycatcher. Sequence data were evaluated for signs of selection potentially related to genomic differentiation in these young sister species, which hybridize despite reduced fitness of hybrids. Seven loci were significantly more divergent between the two species than expected under neutrality and they also displayed reduced nucleotide diversity, consistent with having been influenced by directional selection. Two of the detected candidate regions contain genes that are associated with plumage coloration in birds. Plumage characteristics play an important role in species recognition in these flycatchers suggesting that the detected genes may have been involved in the evolution of sexual isolation between the species.

  • 189.
    Backström, Niclas
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Palkopoulou, Eleftheria
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Qvarnström, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Ellegren, Hans
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    No evidence for Z-chromosome rearrangements between the pied flycatcher and the collared flycatcher as judged by gene-based comparative genetic maps2010Ingår i: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 19, nr 16, s. 3394-3405Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Revealing the genetic basis of reproductive isolation is fundamental for understanding the speciation process. Chromosome speciation models propose a role for chromosomal rearrangements in promoting the build up of reproductive isolation between diverging populations and empirical data from several animal and plant taxa support these models. The pied flycatcher and the collared flycatcher are two closely related species that probably evolved reproductive isolation during geographical separation in Pleistocene glaciation refugia. Despite the short divergence time and current hybridization, these two species demonstrate a high degree of intrinsic post-zygotic isolation and previous studies have shown that traits involved in mate choice and hybrid viability map to the Z-chromosome. Could rearrangements of the Z-chromosome between the species explain their reproductive isolation? We developed high coverage Z-chromosome linkage maps for both species, using gene-based markers and large-scale SNP genotyping. Best order maps contained 57-62 gene markers with an estimated average density of one every 1-1.5 Mb. We estimated the recombination rates in flycatcher Z-chromosomes to 1.1-1.3 cM/Mb. A comparison of the maps of the two species revealed extensive co-linearity with no strong evidence for chromosomal rearrangements. This study does therefore not provide support the idea that sex chromosome rearrangements have caused the relatively strong post-zygotic reproductive isolation between these two Ficedula species.

  • 190.
    Backström, Niclas
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Saetre, Glenn-Peter
    Ellegren, Hans
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Inferring the demographic history of European Ficedula flycatcher populations2013Ingår i: BMC Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1471-2148, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 13, s. 2-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Inference of population and species histories and population stratification using genetic data is important for discriminating between different speciation scenarios and for correct interpretation of genome scans for signs of adaptive evolution and trait association. Here we use data from 24 intronic loci re-sequenced in population samples of two closely related species, the pied flycatcher and the collared flycatcher. Results: We applied Isolation-Migration models, assignment analyses and estimated the genetic differentiation and diversity between species and between populations within species. The data indicate a divergence time between the species of <1 million years, significantly shorter than previous estimates using mtDNA, point to a scenario with unidirectional gene-flow from the pied flycatcher into the collared flycatcher and imply that barriers to hybridisation are still permeable in a recently established hybrid zone. Furthermore, we detect significant population stratification, predominantly between the Spanish population and other pied flycatcher populations. Conclusions: Our results provide further evidence for a divergence process where different genomic regions may be at different stages of speciation. We also conclude that forthcoming analyses of genotype-phenotype relations in these ecological model species should be designed to take population stratification into account.

  • 191.
    Backström, Niclas
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Shipilina, Daria
    Bloom, Mozes
    Edwards, Scott
    Cis-regulatory sequence variation and association with Mycoplasma load in natural populations of the house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus)2013Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 3, nr 3, s. 655-666Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Characterization of the genetic basis of fitness traits in natural populations is important for understanding how organisms adapt to the changing environment and to novel events, such as epizootics. However, candidate fitness-influencing loci, such as regulatory regions, are usually unavailable in nonmodel species. Here, we analyze sequence data from targeted resequencing of the cis-regulatory regions of three candidate genes for disease resistance (CD74, HSP90α, and LCP1) in populations of the house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus) historically exposed (Alabama) and naïve (Arizona) to Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Our study, the first to quantify variation in regulatory regions in wild birds, reveals that the upstream regions of CD74 and HSP90α are GC-rich, with the former exhibiting unusually low sequence variation for this species. We identified two SNPs, located in a GC-rich region immediately upstream of an inferred promoter site in the gene HSP90α, that were significantly associated with Mycoplasma pathogen load in the two populations. The SNPs are closely linked and situated in potential regulatory sequences: one in a binding site for the transcription factor nuclear NFYα and the other in a dinucleotide microsatellite ((GC)6). The genotype associated with pathogen load in the putative NFYα binding site was significantly overrepresented in the Alabama birds. However, we did not see strong effects of selection at this SNP, perhaps because selection has acted on standing genetic variation over an extremely short time in a highly recombining region. Our study is a useful starting point to explore functional relationships between sequence polymorphisms, gene expression, and phenotypic traits, such as pathogen resistance that affect fitness in the wild.

  • 192.
    Backström, Niclas
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Väli, Ulo
    Sex- and species-biased gene flow in a spotted eagle hybrid zone.2011Ingår i: BMC Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1471-2148, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 11Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Recent theoretical and empirical work points toward a significant role for sex-chromosome linked genes in the evolution of traits that induce reproductive isolation and for traits that evolve under influence of sexual selection. Empirical studies including recently diverged (Pleistocene), short-lived avian species pairs with short generation times have found that introgression occurs on the autosomes but not on the Z-chromosome. Here we study genetic differentiation and gene flow in the long-lived greater spotted eagle (Aquila clanga) and lesser spotted eagle (A. pomarina), two species with comparatively long generation times.

    RESULTS: Our data suggest that there is a directional bias in migration rates between hybridizing spotted eagles in eastern Europe. We find that a model including post divergence gene flow fits our data best for both autosomal and Z-chromosome linked loci but, for the Z-chromosome, the rate is reduced in the direction from A. pomarina to A. clanga.

    CONCLUSIONS: The fact that some introgression still occurs on the Z-chromosome between these species suggests that the differentiation process is in a more premature phase in our study system than in previously studied avian species pairs and that could be explained by a shorter divergence time and/or a longer average generation time in the spotted eagles. The results are in agreement with field observations and provide further insight into the role of sex-linked loci for the build-up of barriers to gene flow among diverging populations and species.

  • 193.
    Backström, Niclas
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Zhang, Qu
    Edwards, Scott V.
    Evidence from a House Finch (Haemorhous mexicanus) Spleen Transcriptome for Adaptive Evolution and Biased Gene Conversion in Passerine Birds2013Ingår i: Molecular biology and evolution, ISSN 0737-4038, E-ISSN 1537-1719, Vol. 30, nr 5, s. 1046-1050Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying genes influenced by natural selection can provide information about lineage-specific adaptations, and transcriptomes generated by next-generation sequencing are a useful resource for identifying such genes. Here, we utilize a spleen transcriptome for the house finch (Haemorhous mexicanus), an emerging model for sexual selection and disease ecology, together with previously sequenced avian genomes (chicken, turkey, and zebra finch), to investigate lineage-specific adaptations within birds. An analysis of 4,398 orthologous genes revealed a significantly higher ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions and significantly higher GC content in passerines than in galliforms, an observation deviating from strictly neutral expectations but consistent with an effect of biased gene conversion on the evolutionary rate in passerines. These data also showed that genes exhibiting signs of positive selection and fast evolution in passerines have functional roles related to fat metabolism, neurodevelopment, and ion binding.

  • 194.
    Backéus, Ingvar
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    "Det har vi vetat hela tiden!" - Akademikerna och lövängen för hundra år sedan. [The history of the controversy on the origin of wooded meadows]2019Ingår i: Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-646X, Vol. 113, s. 219-231Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 195.
    Backéus, Ingvar
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Dynamik och evolution på de östafrikanska bergen2017Ingår i: Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-646X, Vol. 111, nr 5, s. 228-239Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A brief overview of the conspicuous alpine flora and vegetation of the East African mountains is presented. 

  • 196.
    Backéus, Ingvar
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Ett etnobotaniskt livsverk2015Ingår i: Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-646X, Vol. 109, nr 6, s. 346-347Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vagn J. Brøndegaard skrev mer än 1600 artiklar om allt som hade med relationen mellan växter och människor att göra. Många av dessa har nu ställts samman i två vackra volymer.

  • 197.
    Backéus, Ingvar
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Gunnar Björkman och hans expedition till Lule lappmark 1924: Gunnar Björkman’s expedition to Swedish Lapland in 19242013Ingår i: Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-646X, Vol. 107, nr 6, s. 354-358Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawings by Torsten Höjer from Gunnar Björkman's botanical expedition to Swedish Lapland in 1924 are presented with some biographical notes on Björkman. The paleontologist  Birger Bohlin also participated.

  • 198.
    Backéus, Ingvar
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Mossflora över Sankta Helena2013Ingår i: Myrinia, ISSN 1102-4194, Vol. 23, s. 84-87Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    A new bryophyte flora of St. Helena in the South Atlantic is presented. Of the known 110 species, 26 are (as presently known) endemic.

  • 199.
    Backéus, Ingvar
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Centrum för biologisk mångfald.
    Om São Tomé, begonior och öar i havet2018Ingår i: Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-646X, Vol. 112, nr 1, s. 32-40Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A brief overview of the vegetation of São Tomë and Príncipe is presented. The several endemic and large species of Begonia on the islands are discussed in more detail.

  • 200.
    Backéus, Ingvar
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Centrum för biologisk mångfald. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Sankta Helena: en hotad endemisk flora. 1. Den ursprungliga floran och vegetationen och den historiska utvecklingen2014Ingår i: Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-646X, Vol. 108, nr 3-4, s. 206-218Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    An overview of the endemic flora and the original vegetation of Saint Helena is given.