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  • 1551.
    Abdel Aziz Saad, Olivia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, History of Religions.
    Islamism och antirasism: En jämförelse av Sayyid Qutbs rassyn på 1940- och 60-talen2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1552.
    Abdeldaim, Guma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Bacteriology.
    Herrmann, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Bacteriology.
    Korsgaard, J.
    Köpenhamns Universitet.
    Olcén, P.
    Örebro Universitet, klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Virology.
    Strålin, Kristoffer
    Örebro Universitet, klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Is quantitative PCR for the pneumolysin (ply) gene useful for detection of pneumococcal lower respiratory tract infection?2009In: Clinical Microbiology and Infection, ISSN 1198-743X, E-ISSN 1469-0691, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 565-570Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pneumolysin (ply) gene is widely used as a target in PCR assays for Streptococcus pneumoniae in respiratory secretions. However, false-positive results with conventional ply-based PCR have been reported. The aim here was to study the performance of a quantitative ply-based PCR for the identification of pneumococcal lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). In a prospective study, fibreoptic bronchoscopy was performed in 156 hospitalized adult patients with LRTI and 31 controls who underwent bronchoscopy because of suspicion of malignancy. Among the LRTI patients and controls, the quantitative ply-based PCR applied to bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was positive at >/=10(3) genome copies/mL in 61% and 71% of the subjects, at >/=10(5) genome copies/mL in 40% and 58% of the subjects, and at >/=10(7) genome copies/mL in 15% and 3.2% of the subjects, respectively. Using BAL fluid culture, blood culture, and/or a urinary antigen test, S. pneumoniae was identified in 19 LRTI patients. As compared with these diagnostic methods used in combination, quantitative ply-based PCR showed sensitivities and specificities of 89% and 43% at a cut-off of 10(3) genome copies/mL, of 84% and 66% at a cut-off of 10(5) genome copies/mL, and of 53% and 90% at a cut-off of 10(7) genome copies/mL, respectively. In conclusion, a high cut-off with the quantitative ply-based PCR was required to reach acceptable specificity. However, as a high cut-off resulted in low sensitivity, quantitative ply-based PCR does not appear to be clinically useful. Quantitative PCR methods for S. pneumoniae using alternative gene targets should be evaluated.

  • 1553.
    Abdeldaim, Guma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Bacteriology.
    Herrmann, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Bacteriology.
    Mölling, Paula
    Holmberg, Hans
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Virology.
    Olcén, Per
    Strålin, Kristoffer
    Usefulness of real-time PCR for lytA, ply, and Spn9802 on plasma samples for the diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia2010In: Clinical Microbiology and Infection, ISSN 1198-743X, E-ISSN 1469-0691, Vol. 16, no 8, p. 1135-1141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, we evaluated rapid real-time PCR assays for ply, Spn9802, and lytA applied to plasma samples for the detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). In a prospective study of CAP aetiology, an EDTA plasma sample was collected together with blood culture in 92 adult CAP patients and 91 adult controls. Among the 92 CAP patients, lytA PCR was positive in eight (9%), Spn9802 PCR was positive in 11 (12%) and ply PCR was positive in 19 (21%) cases. Of 91 controls, the ply PCR was positive in eight cases (9%), but no positive cases were noted by Spn9802 or lytA PCRs. Ten CAP patients had pneumococcal bacteraemia. Compared to blood culture, PCR for lytA, Spn9802 and ply had sensitivities of 70% (7/10), 60% (6/10) and 70% (7/10), and specificities of 96% (79/82), 94% (77/82) and 85% (70/82) respectively. With blood culture and/or culture of representative sputum, and/or urinary antigen detection, S. pneumoniae was identified in 31 CAP patients. Compared to these tests in combination, PCR for lytA, Spn9802 and ply showed sensitivities of 26% (8/31), 32% (10/31) and 42% (13/31), and specificities of 100% (61/61), 98% (60/61) and 90% (55/61) respectively. We conclude that Spn9802 and lytA PCRs may be useful for the rapid detection of bacteraemic pneumococcal pneumonia, whereas ply PCR is not specific enough for routine use and blood PCR with small plasma volumes is not useful for the detection of nonbacteraemic pneumococcal pneumonia.

  • 1554.
    Abdeldaim, Guma M. K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    PCR detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae in pneumonia patients2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    PCR is a rapid, reproducible method for nucleic acid detection. However, this technology displays significant deficiencies when applied in clinical microbiology. This work’s aim was to improve current diagnostics and provide sensitive and quantitative real-time PCRs.

    Paper I describes the development of a sensitive and specific quantitative real-time PCR for the detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae, based on the Spn9802 DNA fragment. Applied to nasopharyngeal aspirates from 166 pneumonia patients, Spn9802 PCR had a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 98%.

    In Paper II the performance of a ply gene PCR for identification of pneumococcal lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) was evaluated on bronchoalveloar lavage fluids. At the detection limit 103 genome copies/mL, 89% sensitivity but only 43% specificity was achieved.

    Paper III shows that S. pneumoniae DNA is detectable in plasma from acutely febrile patients. Sensitivities were low (26-42%) for detection of pneumococcal pneumonia, for bacteraemic pneumococcal pneumonia they were 60-70%.

    Paper IV describes evaluation of four PCR targets for Haemophilus influenzae detection. A real-time PCR based on the P6 gene was developed and applied to 166 CAP patients, using cut-off of 104 genome copies/mL the assay had a sensitivity of 97% and a specificity of 96%.

    In paper V, the two real-time PCRs presented in papers I and IV were combined with a PCR for detection of Neisseriae meningitidis. The analytical sensitivity of this multiplex real-time PCR was not affected by using a mixture of reagents and a combined DNA standard (S. pneumoniae/H. influenzae) in single tubes. Applied to 156 LRTI patients, this PCR had sensitivities over 90% for S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae, and specificities of 89% and 96%, respectively.

    In conclusion, real-time PCR assays are useful for the diagnosis of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae. They enable detection after antibiotic installation, and quantification increases the etiological specificity of pneumonia.

    List of papers
    1. Toward a quantitative DNA-based definition of pneumococcal pneumonia: a comparison of Streptococcus pneumoniae target genes, with special reference to the Spn9802 fragment
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Toward a quantitative DNA-based definition of pneumococcal pneumonia: a comparison of Streptococcus pneumoniae target genes, with special reference to the Spn9802 fragment
    Show others...
    2008 (English)In: Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease, ISSN 0732-8893, E-ISSN 1879-0070, Vol. 60, no 2, p. 143-150Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The current shift from phenotypically toward genotypically based microbial diagnosis is not unproblematic. A novel quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay based on the Spn9802 DNA fragment was therefore developed for detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Out of 44 bacterial species, only S. pneumoniae and Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae were positive in Spn9802 PCR. In an evaluation on nasopharyngeal aspirates from 166 patients with community-acquired pneumonia, the assay was positive in 49 of 50 culture-positive cases. Of 19 culture-negative but Spn9802 PCR-positive cases, 12 were confirmed as S. pneumoniae by rnpB sequence analysis. With an expanded reference standard, including culture and rnpB sequencing, Spn9802 had a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 98%. A cutoff for clinically significant positivity was 10(4) DNA copies/mL, giving 71% sensitivity and 100% specificity. In conclusion, Spn9802 real-time PCR is highly sensitive and specific. The quantification it provides enables differentiation between pneumococcal pathogenicity and commensalism.

    Keywords
    S. pneumoniae, Pneumonia, Real-time PCR, Spn9802
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-11875 (URN)10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2007.08.010 (DOI)000252915100002 ()17916422 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2008-12-02 Created: 2008-12-02 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
    2. Is quantitative PCR for the pneumolysin (ply) gene useful for detection of pneumococcal lower respiratory tract infection?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is quantitative PCR for the pneumolysin (ply) gene useful for detection of pneumococcal lower respiratory tract infection?
    Show others...
    2009 (English)In: Clinical Microbiology and Infection, ISSN 1198-743X, E-ISSN 1469-0691, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 565-570Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The pneumolysin (ply) gene is widely used as a target in PCR assays for Streptococcus pneumoniae in respiratory secretions. However, false-positive results with conventional ply-based PCR have been reported. The aim here was to study the performance of a quantitative ply-based PCR for the identification of pneumococcal lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). In a prospective study, fibreoptic bronchoscopy was performed in 156 hospitalized adult patients with LRTI and 31 controls who underwent bronchoscopy because of suspicion of malignancy. Among the LRTI patients and controls, the quantitative ply-based PCR applied to bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was positive at >/=10(3) genome copies/mL in 61% and 71% of the subjects, at >/=10(5) genome copies/mL in 40% and 58% of the subjects, and at >/=10(7) genome copies/mL in 15% and 3.2% of the subjects, respectively. Using BAL fluid culture, blood culture, and/or a urinary antigen test, S. pneumoniae was identified in 19 LRTI patients. As compared with these diagnostic methods used in combination, quantitative ply-based PCR showed sensitivities and specificities of 89% and 43% at a cut-off of 10(3) genome copies/mL, of 84% and 66% at a cut-off of 10(5) genome copies/mL, and of 53% and 90% at a cut-off of 10(7) genome copies/mL, respectively. In conclusion, a high cut-off with the quantitative ply-based PCR was required to reach acceptable specificity. However, as a high cut-off resulted in low sensitivity, quantitative ply-based PCR does not appear to be clinically useful. Quantitative PCR methods for S. pneumoniae using alternative gene targets should be evaluated.

    Keywords
    Bronchoalveolar lavage, PCR, pneumolysin, pneumonia, Streptococcus pneumoniae
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-102538 (URN)10.1111/j.1469-0691.2009.02714.x (DOI)000268261300011 ()19416297 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2009-05-07 Created: 2009-05-07 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    3. Usefulness of real-time PCR for lytA, ply, and Spn9802 on plasma samples for the diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Usefulness of real-time PCR for lytA, ply, and Spn9802 on plasma samples for the diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia
    Show others...
    2010 (English)In: Clinical Microbiology and Infection, ISSN 1198-743X, E-ISSN 1469-0691, Vol. 16, no 8, p. 1135-1141Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, we evaluated rapid real-time PCR assays for ply, Spn9802, and lytA applied to plasma samples for the detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). In a prospective study of CAP aetiology, an EDTA plasma sample was collected together with blood culture in 92 adult CAP patients and 91 adult controls. Among the 92 CAP patients, lytA PCR was positive in eight (9%), Spn9802 PCR was positive in 11 (12%) and ply PCR was positive in 19 (21%) cases. Of 91 controls, the ply PCR was positive in eight cases (9%), but no positive cases were noted by Spn9802 or lytA PCRs. Ten CAP patients had pneumococcal bacteraemia. Compared to blood culture, PCR for lytA, Spn9802 and ply had sensitivities of 70% (7/10), 60% (6/10) and 70% (7/10), and specificities of 96% (79/82), 94% (77/82) and 85% (70/82) respectively. With blood culture and/or culture of representative sputum, and/or urinary antigen detection, S. pneumoniae was identified in 31 CAP patients. Compared to these tests in combination, PCR for lytA, Spn9802 and ply showed sensitivities of 26% (8/31), 32% (10/31) and 42% (13/31), and specificities of 100% (61/61), 98% (60/61) and 90% (55/61) respectively. We conclude that Spn9802 and lytA PCRs may be useful for the rapid detection of bacteraemic pneumococcal pneumonia, whereas ply PCR is not specific enough for routine use and blood PCR with small plasma volumes is not useful for the detection of nonbacteraemic pneumococcal pneumonia.

    Keywords
    lytA gene, plasma, ply gene, pneumococcal pneumonia, real-time PCR, Spn9802 fragment, Streptococcus pneumoniae
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-125332 (URN)10.1111/j.1469-0691.2009.03069.x (DOI)000280359900015 ()19832718 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2010-05-17 Created: 2010-05-17 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
    4. Detection of Haemophilus influenzae in respiratory secretions from pneumonia patients by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Detection of Haemophilus influenzae in respiratory secretions from pneumonia patients by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction
    Show others...
    2009 (English)In: Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease, ISSN 0732-8893, E-ISSN 1879-0070, Vol. 64, no 4, p. 366-373Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on the omp P6 gene was developed to detect Haemophilus influenzae. Its specificity was determined by analysis of 29 strains of 11 different Haemophilus spp. and was compared with PCR assays having other target genes: rnpB, 16S rRNA, and bexA. The method was evaluated on nasopharyngeal aspirates from 166 adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia. When 104 DNA copies/mL was used as cutoff limit for the method, P6 PCR had a sensitivity of 97.5% and a specificity of 96.0% compared with the culture. Of 20 culture-negative but P6 PCR-positive cases, 18 were confirmed by fucK PCR as H. influenzae. Five (5.9%) of 84 nasopharyngeal aspirates from adult controls tested PCR positive. We conclude that the P6 real-time PCR is both sensitive and specific for identification of H. influenzae in respiratory secretions. Quantification facilitates discrimination between disease-causing H. influenzae strains and commensal colonization.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2009
    Keywords
    H. influenzae, Pneumonia, Real-time PCR, Outer membrane protein P6, fucK, rnpB
    National Category
    Microbiology in the medical area
    Research subject
    Microbiology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-106189 (URN)10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2009.03.030 (DOI)000269337900002 ()19446978 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2009-06-17 Created: 2009-06-17 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
    5. Multiplex quantitative PCR for detection of lower respiratory tract infection and meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multiplex quantitative PCR for detection of lower respiratory tract infection and meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis
    Show others...
    2010 (English)In: BMC Microbiology, ISSN 1471-2180, E-ISSN 1471-2180, Vol. 10, p. 310-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae cause pneumonia and as Neisseria meningitidis they are important agents of meningitis. Although several PCR methods have been described for these bacteria the specificity is an underestimated problem. Here we present a quantitative multiplex real-time PCR (qmPCR) for detection of S. pneumoniae (9802 gene fragment), H. influenzae (omp P6 gene) and N. meningitidis (ctrA gene). The method was evaluated on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from 156 adults with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) and 31 controls, and on 87 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from meningitis patients.

    Results. The analytical sensitivity was not affected by using a combined mixture of reagents and a combined DNA standard (S. pneumoniae/H. influenzae/N. meningitidis) in single tubes. By blood- and BAL-culture and S. pneumoniae urinary antigen test, S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae were aetiological agents in 21 and 31 of the LTRI patients, respectively. These pathogens were identified by qmPCR in 52 and 72 of the cases, respectively, yielding sensitivities and specificities of 95% and 75% for S. pneumoniae, and 90% and 65% for H. influenzae, respectively. When using a cut-off of 105 genome copies/mL for clinical positivity the sensitivities and specificities were 90% and 80% for S. pneumoniae, and 81% and 85% for H. influenzae, respectively. Of 44 culture negative but qmPCR positive for H. influenzae, 41 were confirmed by fucK PCR as H. influenzae. Of the 103 patients who had taken antibiotics prior to sampling, S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae were identified by culture in 6% and 20% of the cases, respectively, and by the qmPCR in 36% and 53% of the cases, respectively. In 87 CSF samples S. pneumoniae and N. meningitidis were identified by culture and/or 16 S rRNA in 14 and 10 samples and by qmPCR in 14 and 10 samples, respectively, giving a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 100% for both bacteria.

    Conclusions. The PCR provides increased sensitivity and the multiplex format facilitates diagnosis of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and N. meningitidis and the assay enable detection after antibiotic treatment has been installed. Quantification increases the specificity of the etiology for pneumonia.

    Keywords
    S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, N. meningitidis, quantitative multiplex PCR, lower respiratory tract infection
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Research subject
    Clinical Bacteriology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-107967 (URN)10.1186/1471-2180-10-310 (DOI)000285888900001 ()21129171 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2009-09-02 Created: 2009-09-02 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
  • 1555.
    Abdeldaim, Guma M. K.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine, Clinical Bacteriology.
    Herrmann, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine, Clinical Bacteriology.
    PCR detection of haemophilus influenzae from respiratory specimens2013In: PCR Detection of Microbial Pathogens / [ed] Mark Wilks, Humana Press, 2013, 2, p. 115-123Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The detection of Haemophilus influenzae by conventional methods like culture is time-consuming and may give false-negative results, especially during ongoing antibiotic treatment. Therefore, non-culture based methods that are sensitive, specific, and rapid are valuable for early diagnosis and effective therapy. Here we describe a quantitative real-time PCR assay based on the outer membrane P6 gene omp6, to detect H. influenzae and its application on respiratory tract specimens.

  • 1556.
    Abdeldaim, Guma M. K.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine, Clinical Bacteriology.
    Stralin, Kristoffer
    Olcen, Per
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine, Clinical Virology.
    Molling, Paula
    Herrmann, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine, Clinical Bacteriology.
    Quantitative fucK gene polymerase chain reaction on sputum and nasopharyngeal secretions to detect Haemophilus influenzae pneumonia2013In: Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease, ISSN 0732-8893, E-ISSN 1879-0070, Vol. 76, no 2, p. 141-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the fucK gene was developed for specific detection of Haemophilus influenzae. The method was tested on sputum and nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) from 78 patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). With a reference standard of sputum culture and/or serology against the patient's own nasopharyngeal isolate, H. influenzae etiology was detected in 20 patients. Compared with the reference standard, fucK PCR (using the detection limit 10(5) DNA copies/mL) on sputum and NPA showed a sensitivity of 95.0% (19/20) in both cases, and specificities of 87.9% (51/58) and 89.5% (52/58), respectively. In a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, sputum fucK PCR was found to be significantly superior to sputum P6 PCR for detection of H. influenzae CAP. NPA fucK PCR was positive in 3 of 54 adult controls without respiratory symptoms. In conclusion, quantitative fucK real-time PCR provides a sensitive and specific identification of H. influenzae in respiratory secretions.

  • 1557.
    Abdeldaim, Guma M. K.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Bacteriology.
    Strålin, Kristoffer
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Örebro University Hospital.
    Kirsebom, Leif A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology.
    Olcén, Per
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Örebro University Hospital.
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Virology.
    Herrmann, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Bacteriology.
    Detection of Haemophilus influenzae in respiratory secretions from pneumonia patients by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction2009In: Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease, ISSN 0732-8893, E-ISSN 1879-0070, Vol. 64, no 4, p. 366-373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on the omp P6 gene was developed to detect Haemophilus influenzae. Its specificity was determined by analysis of 29 strains of 11 different Haemophilus spp. and was compared with PCR assays having other target genes: rnpB, 16S rRNA, and bexA. The method was evaluated on nasopharyngeal aspirates from 166 adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia. When 104 DNA copies/mL was used as cutoff limit for the method, P6 PCR had a sensitivity of 97.5% and a specificity of 96.0% compared with the culture. Of 20 culture-negative but P6 PCR-positive cases, 18 were confirmed by fucK PCR as H. influenzae. Five (5.9%) of 84 nasopharyngeal aspirates from adult controls tested PCR positive. We conclude that the P6 real-time PCR is both sensitive and specific for identification of H. influenzae in respiratory secretions. Quantification facilitates discrimination between disease-causing H. influenzae strains and commensal colonization.

  • 1558.
    Abdeldaim, Guma M. K.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Bacteriology.
    Strålin, Kristoffer
    Olcén, Per
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Virology.
    Herrmann, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Bacteriology.
    Toward a quantitative DNA-based definition of pneumococcal pneumonia: a comparison of Streptococcus pneumoniae target genes, with special reference to the Spn9802 fragment2008In: Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease, ISSN 0732-8893, E-ISSN 1879-0070, Vol. 60, no 2, p. 143-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current shift from phenotypically toward genotypically based microbial diagnosis is not unproblematic. A novel quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay based on the Spn9802 DNA fragment was therefore developed for detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Out of 44 bacterial species, only S. pneumoniae and Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae were positive in Spn9802 PCR. In an evaluation on nasopharyngeal aspirates from 166 patients with community-acquired pneumonia, the assay was positive in 49 of 50 culture-positive cases. Of 19 culture-negative but Spn9802 PCR-positive cases, 12 were confirmed as S. pneumoniae by rnpB sequence analysis. With an expanded reference standard, including culture and rnpB sequencing, Spn9802 had a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 98%. A cutoff for clinically significant positivity was 10(4) DNA copies/mL, giving 71% sensitivity and 100% specificity. In conclusion, Spn9802 real-time PCR is highly sensitive and specific. The quantification it provides enables differentiation between pneumococcal pathogenicity and commensalism.

  • 1559.
    Abdeldaim, Guma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Bacteriology.
    Strålin, Kristoffer
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro.
    Korsgaard, Jens
    Department of Chest Diseases, Aarhus University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Virology.
    Herrmann, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Bacteriology.
    Multiplex quantitative PCR for detection of lower respiratory tract infection and meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis2010In: BMC Microbiology, ISSN 1471-2180, E-ISSN 1471-2180, Vol. 10, p. 310-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae cause pneumonia and as Neisseria meningitidis they are important agents of meningitis. Although several PCR methods have been described for these bacteria the specificity is an underestimated problem. Here we present a quantitative multiplex real-time PCR (qmPCR) for detection of S. pneumoniae (9802 gene fragment), H. influenzae (omp P6 gene) and N. meningitidis (ctrA gene). The method was evaluated on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from 156 adults with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) and 31 controls, and on 87 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from meningitis patients.

    Results. The analytical sensitivity was not affected by using a combined mixture of reagents and a combined DNA standard (S. pneumoniae/H. influenzae/N. meningitidis) in single tubes. By blood- and BAL-culture and S. pneumoniae urinary antigen test, S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae were aetiological agents in 21 and 31 of the LTRI patients, respectively. These pathogens were identified by qmPCR in 52 and 72 of the cases, respectively, yielding sensitivities and specificities of 95% and 75% for S. pneumoniae, and 90% and 65% for H. influenzae, respectively. When using a cut-off of 105 genome copies/mL for clinical positivity the sensitivities and specificities were 90% and 80% for S. pneumoniae, and 81% and 85% for H. influenzae, respectively. Of 44 culture negative but qmPCR positive for H. influenzae, 41 were confirmed by fucK PCR as H. influenzae. Of the 103 patients who had taken antibiotics prior to sampling, S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae were identified by culture in 6% and 20% of the cases, respectively, and by the qmPCR in 36% and 53% of the cases, respectively. In 87 CSF samples S. pneumoniae and N. meningitidis were identified by culture and/or 16 S rRNA in 14 and 10 samples and by qmPCR in 14 and 10 samples, respectively, giving a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 100% for both bacteria.

    Conclusions. The PCR provides increased sensitivity and the multiplex format facilitates diagnosis of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and N. meningitidis and the assay enable detection after antibiotic treatment has been installed. Quantification increases the specificity of the etiology for pneumonia.

  • 1560.
    Abdeldaim, Guma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine, Clinical Bacteriology. Benghazi Univ, Fac Med, Dept Med Microbiol & Parasitol, Benghazi, Libya..
    Svensson, Erik
    Statens Serum Inst, Int Reference Lab Mycobacteriol, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine, Clinical Virology.
    Herrmann, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine, Clinical Bacteriology.
    Duplex detection of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and medically important non-tuberculosis mycobacteria by real-time PCR based on the rnpB gene2016In: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica (APMIS), ISSN 0903-4641, E-ISSN 1600-0463, Vol. 124, no 11, p. 991-995Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A duplex real-time PCR based on the rnpB gene was developed for Mycobacterium spp. The assay was specific for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTB) and also detected all 19 tested species of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). The assay was evaluated on 404 clinical samples: 290 respiratory samples and 114 from tissue and other nonrespiratory body sites. M. tuberculosis was detected by culture in 40 samples and in 30 samples by the assay. The MTB assay showed a sensitivity similar to Roche Cobas Amplicor MTB-PCR (Roche Molecular Systems, Pleasanton, CA, USA). There were only nine samples with non-tuberculous mycobacteria detected by culture. Six of them were detected by the PCR assay.

  • 1561. Abdelfatah Possnert, Heba
    Detection of Thymidine Kinase 1 Activity in Whole Blood Using an Oligonucleotide System2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s medical science studies, many tumor markers are being used to monitor cancer cell proliferation, but the number of assays for analysis of these markers are few. The aim of this study was to find an easier and more time-efficient way to measure the activity of a specific tumor marker called tymidine kinase 1 (TK1). This tumor marker is an important enzyme involved in cell proliferation and is a key enzyme in the salvage pathway. TK1 activity is related to the occurrence of hematological malignancies and cell activity and therefore have been used as a marker when monitoring this group of patients in treatment. Measurement of the enzyme activity in this study was performed by using an oligonucleotide assay. Detection of the enzyme activity in whole blood and in plasma has not previously been shown. The TK1 activity measured in whole blood and plasma correlated with TK1 activity measured in serum (R2=0,8651 and R2 =0,9845, respectively). It was found that it is possible to determine the TK1 activity in whole blood but only if the activity was measured on the same day as the blood samples were taken. The results shows that the activity measurement of TK1 in plasma and whole blood can be used as a marker to verify patients' therapy in cancer care. This study is only the beginning and further investigations should be made in the future to determine if the method that is subject to this study has the requested effects.

  • 1562.
    Abdelgadir, M
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Elbagir, M
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Eltom, A
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Eltom, M
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Berne, C
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Factors affecting perinatal morbidity and mortality in pregnanciescomplicated by diabetes mellitus in Sudan.2003In: Diabetes Res Clin Pract, Vol. 60, p. 41-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1563.
    Abdelgadir, M
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Elbagir, M
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Eltom, M
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Berne, C
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Ahren, B
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Reduced leptin concentrations in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Sudan.2002In: Metabolism, Vol. 51, p. 304-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1564.
    Abdelgadir, Moawia
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Clinical and Biochemical Features of Adult Diabetes Mellitus in Sudan2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The high prevalence of diabetes mellitus among the Sudanese population is linked to obesity, poor glycaemic control and a high rate of complications. This study investigated 1/ Leptin hormone and its correlations with different biochemical characteristics in Sudanese diabetic subjects, 2/ The impact of glycaemic control on pregnancy outcome in pregnancies with diabetes, 3/ The glycaemic response to Sudanese traditional carbohydrate foods, 4/ The influence of glucose self-monitoring on the glycaemic control among this population, 5/ The health related quality of life in Sudanese subjects with diabetes-related lower limb amputation.

    Leptin was significantly lower in diabetic subjects compared with controls of same BMI in both females (P =0.0001) and males (P =0.019). In diabetic subjects, serum leptin correlated positively with the homeostatic assessment (HOMA) of both beta-cell function (P =0.018) and insulin resistance (P =.038). In controls, leptin correlated only with insulin resistance. Pregnancy complications were higher among diabetic compared with control women (P<0.0001) and varied with the type of diabetes. Infants of diabetic mothers had a higher incidence of neonatal complications than those of non-diabetic women (P<0.0001). In six Sudanese traditional carbohydrate meals over all differences in incremental AUCs were significant for both plasma glucose (P = 0.0092) and insulin (P = 0.0001). Millet porridge and wheat pancakes displayed significantly lower post-prandial glucose and insulin responses, whereas maize porridge induced a higher post-prandial glucose and insulin response. In type 2 diabetic subjects SMBG or SMUG was not related to glycaemic control. In type 1 diabetic subjects, SMBG was significantly associated with better glycaemic control, as assessed by HbA1c (P=0.02) and blood glucose at clinic visits (P=<0.0001), similar associations were found for SMUG respectively. Neither glycaemic control nor glucose self-monitoring was associated with education level. Diabetic subjects with LLA had significantly poorer HRQL compared to a reference diabetic group (P=<0.0001). Duration of diabetes and amputation had negative impact on HRQL in subjects with LLA (P=<0.0001) respectively. Diabetic subjects with LLA had decreased sense of coherence and high presence of symptoms. Improving health services at the primary level is important to reduce the complications and burden of disease in the Sudanese population.

    List of papers
    1. leptin concentrations in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Sudan
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>leptin concentrations in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Sudan
    Show others...
    2002 In: Metabolism, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 304-6Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-94368 (URN)
    Available from: 2006-05-04 Created: 2006-05-04Bibliographically approved
    2. Factors affecting perinatal morbidity and mortality in pregnancies complicated by diabetes mellitus in Sudan
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Factors affecting perinatal morbidity and mortality in pregnancies complicated by diabetes mellitus in Sudan
    Show others...
    2003 In: Diabetes Res Clin Pract, Vol. 60, no 1, p. 41-7Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-94369 (URN)
    Available from: 2006-05-04 Created: 2006-05-04Bibliographically approved
    3. Glycaemic and insulin responses of six traditional Sudanese carbohydrate-rich meals in subjects with Type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Glycaemic and insulin responses of six traditional Sudanese carbohydrate-rich meals in subjects with Type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Show others...
    Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-94370 (URN)
    Available from: 2006-05-04 Created: 2006-05-04Bibliographically approved
    4. The influence of glucose self-monitoring on glycaemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus in Sudan
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The influence of glucose self-monitoring on glycaemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus in Sudan
    2006 (English)In: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, ISSN 0168-8227, E-ISSN 1872-8227, Vol. 74, no 1, p. 90-94Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate the influence of self-monitoring of glucose on the glycaemic control in Sudanese diabetic subjects.

    Subjects and methods: A group of 193 consecutive type 2 and type I diabetic subjects (95 men, 98 women) were studied. In 104 subjects with type 2 diabetes fasting blood glucose was measured using a glucose meter and blood was obtained for serum glucose measurement in the laboratory. In the remaining 89 diabetic subjects random blood glucose was measured using the same glucose meter and a whole blood sample was drawn for laboratory assessment of HbA1c. Data on self-monitoring and other clinical and personal characteristics were recorded.

    Results: More than 75% of either type I and type 2 diabetic patients never self-monitored blood or urine glucose. In type 2 diabetic subjects self-monitoring of blood or urine glucose was not related to glycaemic control. In type I diabetic subjects, however, self-monitoring of blood glucose was significantly associated with better glycaemic control, as assessed by HbA1c (P = 0.02) and blood glucose at clinic visits (P < 0.0001), and similar associations were found for urine glucose self-monitoring (P = 0.04 and 0.02) respectively. Neither glycaemic control nor glucose self-monitoring was associated with education level.

    Conclusions: Self-monitoring of blood glucose was not found to be associated to better glycaemic control in Sudanese subjects with type 2 diabetes. In contrast, self-monitoring of both blood and urine glucose was significantly associated with glycaemic control in subjects with type I diabetes. Self-monitoring of urine glucose could be useful where measurement of blood glucose is not available or affordable.

    Keywords
    diabetes mellitus, self-monitoring, Sudan
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-94371 (URN)10.1016/j.diabres.2006.03.003 (DOI)000240801400013 ()16621118 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2006-05-04 Created: 2006-05-04 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    5. Health related quality of life and sense of coherence in Sudanese diabetic subjects with lower limb amputation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Health related quality of life and sense of coherence in Sudanese diabetic subjects with lower limb amputation
    Show others...
    2009 (English)In: Tohoku journal of experimental medicine, ISSN 0040-8727, E-ISSN 1349-3329, Vol. 217, no 1, p. 45-50Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Quality of life is an important outcome measure in diabetic patients with lower limb amputation (LLA). The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of lower limb amputation on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in Sudanese diabetic subjects. Additionally the Sense of Coherence scale (SOC-13) and a symptom check list was used in subjects with LLA. A total of 60 (M/F; 40/20) diabetic subjects with LLA and 60 (M/F; 23/37) diabetic reference subjects without LLA, were studied. For both groups HRQOL was measured using The Medical Outcomes Study questionnaire (MOS). Subjects with LLA had significantly poorer HRQOL compared to the reference group in most HRQOL domains (p < 0.0001). Duration of diabetes had the greatest negative impact on HRQOL in both groups, those with LLA (p < 0.0001), and in those without LLA (p < 0.0001), although subjects who were amputated earlier had poorer HRQOL than recently amputated (p < 0.0001). Higher SOC scores were recorded in LLA patients who have greater ratings of positive feelings, family satisfaction and sleep in the HRQOL examination (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, Sudanese diabetic subjects with LLA have a poor quality of life. The triad of diabetes duration, symptoms and amputations, has turned to be important risk factor for poorer HRQOL. Functional and mobility status were suggested to be an important determinant of HRQOL among this population. As the Sudanese population has coherent social relationships, this poor performance of the diabetic subjects will certainly increase the burden on the whole family, in both integrity and economical status. Nevertheless, these deep-rooted social interrelations together with increasing diabetes awareness have substantially improved the family satisfaction among our patients.

    Keywords
    Diabetes mellitus, Lower limb amputation, Quality of life, Sense of coherence, Sudan
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-94372 (URN)10.1620/tjem.217.45 (DOI)000262897800007 ()19155607 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2006-05-04 Created: 2006-05-04 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
  • 1565.
    Abdelgadir, Moawia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Abbas, M
    Jarvi, A
    Elbagir, M
    Eltom, M
    Berne, Christian
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Glycaemic and insulin responses of six traditional Sudanese carbohydrate-rich meals in subjects with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.2005In: Diabet Med, ISSN 0742-3071, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 213-217Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1566.
    Abdelgadir, Moawia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Abbas, Mazahir
    Järvi, Anette
    Elbagir, Murtada
    Eltom, Mohamed
    Berne, Christian
    Glycaemic and insulin responses of six traditional Sudanese carbohydrate-rich meals in subjects with Type 2 diabetes mellitusArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 1567.
    Abdelgadir, Moawia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Elbagir, Murtada
    Eltom, Aboud
    Eltom, Mohamed
    Berne, Christian
    Factors affecting perinatal morbidity and mortality in pregnancies complicated by diabetes mellitus in Sudan2003In: Diabetes Res Clin Pract, Vol. 60, no 1, p. 41-7Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1568.
    Abdelgadir, Moawia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Elbagir, Murtada
    Eltom, Mohamed
    Berne, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    The influence of glucose self-monitoring on glycaemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus in Sudan2006In: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, ISSN 0168-8227, E-ISSN 1872-8227, Vol. 74, no 1, p. 90-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate the influence of self-monitoring of glucose on the glycaemic control in Sudanese diabetic subjects.

    Subjects and methods: A group of 193 consecutive type 2 and type I diabetic subjects (95 men, 98 women) were studied. In 104 subjects with type 2 diabetes fasting blood glucose was measured using a glucose meter and blood was obtained for serum glucose measurement in the laboratory. In the remaining 89 diabetic subjects random blood glucose was measured using the same glucose meter and a whole blood sample was drawn for laboratory assessment of HbA1c. Data on self-monitoring and other clinical and personal characteristics were recorded.

    Results: More than 75% of either type I and type 2 diabetic patients never self-monitored blood or urine glucose. In type 2 diabetic subjects self-monitoring of blood or urine glucose was not related to glycaemic control. In type I diabetic subjects, however, self-monitoring of blood glucose was significantly associated with better glycaemic control, as assessed by HbA1c (P = 0.02) and blood glucose at clinic visits (P < 0.0001), and similar associations were found for urine glucose self-monitoring (P = 0.04 and 0.02) respectively. Neither glycaemic control nor glucose self-monitoring was associated with education level.

    Conclusions: Self-monitoring of blood glucose was not found to be associated to better glycaemic control in Sudanese subjects with type 2 diabetes. In contrast, self-monitoring of both blood and urine glucose was significantly associated with glycaemic control in subjects with type I diabetes. Self-monitoring of urine glucose could be useful where measurement of blood glucose is not available or affordable.

  • 1569.
    Abdelgadir, Moawia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Elbagir, Murtada
    Eltom, Mohamed
    Berne, Christian
    Ahren, Bo
    leptin concentrations in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Sudan2002In: Metabolism, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 304-6Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1570.
    Abdelgadir, Moawia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism.
    Karlsson, Anders F.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism.
    Berglund, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Berne, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism.
    Low serum adiponectin concentrations are associated with insulin sensitivity independent of obesity in Sudanese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus2013In: Diabetology and Metabolic Syndrome, ISSN 1758-5996, E-ISSN 1758-5996, Vol. 5, p. 15-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Prevalence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus among Sudanese population was found to be 3.4% and associated with high rates of complications and obesity. Different adipocytokines are secreted from adipose tissues, among them adiponectin, which was shown to have insulins ensitizing properties and anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic effect. The aim of this study was to characterize type 2 diabetes in Sudanese diabetic subjects and controls in respect to hormones influencing or influenced by glucose metabolism. Methods: 104 type 2 diabetic patients (45 men and 59 women), and 75 matched control subjects (34 men and 41 women) were studied. Fasting serum samples were used to measure adiponectin, leptin, insulin, proinsulin, ghrelin and glucose. Body mass index, insulin/proinsulin ratio and (HOMA) insulin resistance and beta cell function were also calculated. Results: Adiponectin serum concentrations were significantly lower in subjects with type 2 diabetes compared with controls subjects (P = 0.002), comparison between males and females did not reach significant levels in both diabetic (P = 0.06) or controls (P = 0.16) groups. In the diabetic group adiponectin correlated positively with serum glucose, negatively with serum proinsulin and HOMA beta cell function (P = 0.03) respectively and serum ghrelin (P = 0.003), but not with BMI, HOMA insulin resistance, insulin or leptin. In controls serum adiponectin correlated negatively with BMI (P = 0.002) but not with other variables. Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that, adiponectin concentrations independent on BMI as a measure of adiposity, were mostly linked to insulin sensitivity and not to insulin resistance in Sudanese type 2 diabetic subjects, where race specific regulation mechanisms or different type 2 diabetes phenotype suggested being a major contributory factor in clarification the findings of this study.

  • 1571.
    Abdelgadir, Moawia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Shebeika, Wafaa
    Eltom, Mohamed
    Berne, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Wikblad, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Health related quality of life and sense of coherence in Sudanese diabetic subjects with lower limb amputation2009In: Tohoku journal of experimental medicine, ISSN 0040-8727, E-ISSN 1349-3329, Vol. 217, no 1, p. 45-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quality of life is an important outcome measure in diabetic patients with lower limb amputation (LLA). The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of lower limb amputation on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in Sudanese diabetic subjects. Additionally the Sense of Coherence scale (SOC-13) and a symptom check list was used in subjects with LLA. A total of 60 (M/F; 40/20) diabetic subjects with LLA and 60 (M/F; 23/37) diabetic reference subjects without LLA, were studied. For both groups HRQOL was measured using The Medical Outcomes Study questionnaire (MOS). Subjects with LLA had significantly poorer HRQOL compared to the reference group in most HRQOL domains (p < 0.0001). Duration of diabetes had the greatest negative impact on HRQOL in both groups, those with LLA (p < 0.0001), and in those without LLA (p < 0.0001), although subjects who were amputated earlier had poorer HRQOL than recently amputated (p < 0.0001). Higher SOC scores were recorded in LLA patients who have greater ratings of positive feelings, family satisfaction and sleep in the HRQOL examination (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, Sudanese diabetic subjects with LLA have a poor quality of life. The triad of diabetes duration, symptoms and amputations, has turned to be important risk factor for poorer HRQOL. Functional and mobility status were suggested to be an important determinant of HRQOL among this population. As the Sudanese population has coherent social relationships, this poor performance of the diabetic subjects will certainly increase the burden on the whole family, in both integrity and economical status. Nevertheless, these deep-rooted social interrelations together with increasing diabetes awareness have substantially improved the family satisfaction among our patients.

  • 1572.
    Abdel-Hafiez, Mahmoud
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics. Ctr High Pressure Sci & Technol Adv Res, Shanghai 201203, Peoples R China;Harvard Univ, Lyman Lab Phys, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA;Natl Univ Sci & Technol MISiS, Moscow 119049, Russia.
    Thiyagarajan, R.
    Ctr High Pressure Sci & Technol Adv Res, Shanghai 201203, Peoples R China.
    Majumdar, Arnab
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Ahuja, Rajeev
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Luo, Wei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Vasiliev, A. N.
    Natl Univ Sci & Technol MISiS, Moscow 119049, Russia;Natl Res South Ural State Univ, Chelyabinsk 454080, Russia;Moscow MV Lomonosov State Univ, Moscow 119991, Russia.
    Maarouf, A. A.
    Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal Univ, Inst Res & Med Consultat, Dept Phys, Dammam 31441, Saudi Arabia.
    Zybtsev, S. G.
    RAS, Inst Radioengn & Elect, Moscow 125009, Russia.
    Pokrovskii, V. Ya
    RAS, Inst Radioengn & Elect, Moscow 125009, Russia.
    V-Zaitsev-Zotov, S.
    RAS, Inst Radioengn & Elect, Moscow 125009, Russia.
    Pavlovskiy, V. V.
    RAS, Inst Radioengn & Elect, Moscow 125009, Russia.
    Pai, Woei Wu
    Natl Taiwan Univ, Ctr Condensed Matter Sci, Taipei 106, Taiwan;Natl Taiwan Univ, Dept Phys, Taipei 10610, Taiwan.
    Yang, W.
    Ctr High Pressure Sci & Technol Adv Res, Shanghai 201203, Peoples R China.
    Kulik, L. , V
    Pressure-induced reentrant transition in NbS3 phases: Combined Raman scattering and x-ray diffraction study2019In: Physical Review B, ISSN 2469-9950, E-ISSN 2469-9969, Vol. 99, no 23, article id 235126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the evolution of charge density wave states under pressure for two NbS3 phases: triclinic (phase I) and monoclinic (phase II) at room temperature. Raman and x-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques are applied. The x-ray studies on the monoclinic phase under pressure show a compression of the lattice at different rates below and above similar to 7 GPa but without a change in space group symmetry. The Raman spectra of the two phases evolve similarly with pressure; all peaks almost disappear in the similar to 6-8 GPa range, indicating a transition from an insulating to a metallic state, and peaks at new positions appear above 8 GPa. The results suggest suppression of the ambient charge-density waves and their subsequent recovery with new orderings above 8 GPa.

  • 1573. Abdel-Halim, S M
    et al.
    Ostenson, C-G
    Andersson, A
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Andersson, A
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Andersson, A
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Jansson, L
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Efendic, S
    A defective stimulus-secretion coupling rather than glucotoxicity mediates the impaired insulin secretion in the mildly diabetic F1 hybrids of GK-Wistar rats.1995In: Diabetes, Vol. 44, p. 1280-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1574.
    Abdelhamid, Hani Nasser
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Inorgan & Struct Chem, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Berzelii Ctr EXSELENT Porous Mat, Dept Mat & Environm Chem, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Huang, Zhehao
    Stockholm Univ, Inorgan & Struct Chem, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Berzelii Ctr EXSELENT Porous Mat, Dept Mat & Environm Chem, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    El-Zohry, Ahmed
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Zheng, Haoquan
    Stockholm Univ, Inorgan & Struct Chem, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Berzelii Ctr EXSELENT Porous Mat, Dept Mat & Environm Chem, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zou, Xiaodong
    Stockholm Univ, Inorgan & Struct Chem, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Berzelii Ctr EXSELENT Porous Mat, Dept Mat & Environm Chem, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    A Fast and Scalable Approach for Synthesis of Hierarchical Porous Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks and One-Pot Encapsulation of Target Molecules2017In: Inorganic Chemistry, ISSN 0020-1669, E-ISSN 1520-510X, Vol. 56, no 15, p. 9139-9146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A trimethylamine (TEA)-assisted synthesis approach that combines the preparation of hierarchical porous zeolitic, imidazolate framework ZIF-8, nanoparticles and one-pot encapsulation of target molecules is presented. Two dye molecules, rhodamine B (RhB) and methylene blue (MB), and one protein (bovine serum albumin, BSA) were, tested as the target molecules. The addition of TEA into the solution of zinc nitrate promoted the formation of ZnO nanocrystals, which rapidly transformed to ZIF-8 nanoparticles after the addition of the linker 2-methylimidazole (Hmim): Hierarchical porous dye@ZIF-8 nanoparticles with high crystallinity, large BET surface areas (1300-2500 m(2)/g), and large pore Volatiles (0.5-1.0 cm(3)/g) could be synthesized. The synthesis procedure was fast (down to 2 min) and scalable. The Hmim/Zn ratio could be greatly reduced (down to 2:1) compared to previously reported ones. The surface areas, and the mesopore size, structure, and density could be modified by changing the TEA or dye concentrations, or by postsynthetic treatment using reflux in methanol. This synthesis and one-pot encapsulation approach is simple and can be readily scaled Up. The photophysical properties such as lifetime and photostability of the dyes could be tuned via encapsulation. The lifetimes of the encapsulated dyes were increased by 3-27-fold for RhB@ZIF-8 and by 20-fold for MB@ZIF-8, compared to those of the corresponding free dyes. The synthesis approach is general, which was successfully applied for encapsulation of protein BSA. It could also be extended for the synthesis of hierarchical porous cobalt-based ZIP (dye@ZIF-67).

  • 1575.
    Abdelhamid, Hani Nasser
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Mat & Environm Chem, Berzelii Ctr EXSELENT Porous Mat, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Assiut Univ, Dept Chem, Assiut 71515, Egypt.
    Wilk-Kozubek, Magdalena
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Mat & Environm Chem, Berzelii Ctr EXSELENT Porous Mat, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;PORT Polish Ctr Technol Dev, Dept Nanotechnol, 147 Stablowicka St, PL-54066 Wroclaw, Poland.
    El-Zohry, Ahmed
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Gomez, Antonio Bermejo
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Organ Chem, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Valiente, Alejandro
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Organ Chem, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Martin-Matute, Belen
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Organ Chem, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mudring, Anja-Verena
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Mat & Environm Chem, Berzelii Ctr EXSELENT Porous Mat, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zou, Xiaodong
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Mat & Environm Chem, Berzelii Ctr EXSELENT Porous Mat, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Luminescence properties of a family of lanthanide metal-organic frameworks2019In: Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, ISSN 1387-1811, E-ISSN 1873-3093, Vol. 279, p. 400-406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two isostructural series of lanthanide metal-organic frameworks denoted as SUMOF-7II (Ln) and SUMOF-7IIB (Ln) (Ln = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, and Gd) were synthesized using4,4',4 ''-(pyridine-2,4,6-triyl)tris(benzoic acid) (H(3)L2) and a mixture of H(3)L2 and 4,4',4 ''-(benzene-1,3,5-triyl)tris(benzoic acid) (H3BTB) as linkers, respectively. Both series were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal analysis (TGA), and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Photoluminescence measurements show that Eu-MOFs demonstrate a red emission while Pr- and Nd-MOFs display an emission in the near-infrared (NIR) range. On the other hand, La-, Ce-, Sm- and Gd-MOFs exhibit only a ligand-centered emission. The average luminescence lifetimes in the SUMOF-7IIB series are 1.3-1.4-fold longer than the corresponding ones in the SUMOF-7II series. SUMOF-7IIs show a good photo- and thermal stability. Altogether, the properties of SUMOF-7II and SUMOF-7IIB render them promising materials for applications including sensing, biosensing, and telecommunications.

  • 1576. Abdel-Hamid, Mohammed K
    et al.
    Macgregor, Kylie A
    Odell, Luke R
    Chau, Ngoc
    Mariana, Anna
    Whiting, Ainslie
    Robinson, Phillip J
    McCluskey, Adam
    1,8-Naphthalimide derivatives: new leads against dynamin I GTPase activity.2015In: Organic and biomolecular chemistry, ISSN 1477-0520, E-ISSN 1477-0539, Vol. 13, no 29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fragment-based in silico screening against dynamin I (dynI) GTPase activity identified the 1,8-naphthalimide framework as a potential scaffold for the design of new inhibitors targeting the GTP binding pocket of dynI. Structure-based design, synthesis and subsequent optimization resulted in the development of a library of 1,8-naphthalimide derivatives, called the Naphthaladyn™ series, with compounds 23 and 29 being the most active (IC50 of 19.1 ± 0.3 and 18.5 ± 1.7 μM respectively). Compound 29 showed effective inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis (IC50(CME) 66 μM). The results introduce 29 as an optimised GTP-competitive lead Naphthaladyn™ compound for the further development of naphthalimide-based dynI GTPase inhibitors.

  • 1577.
    Abdellah, Mohamed
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry. South Valley Univ, Qena Fac Sci, Dept Chem, Qena 83523, Egypt..
    El-Zohry, Ahmed M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Antila, Liisa J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Windle, Christopher D.
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Chem, Christian Doppler Lab Sustainable SynGas Chem, Lensfield Rd, Cambridge CB2 1EW, England..
    Reisner, Erwin
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Chem, Christian Doppler Lab Sustainable SynGas Chem, Lensfield Rd, Cambridge CB2 1EW, England..
    Hammarström, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Time-Resolved IR Spectroscopy Reveals a. Mechanism with TiO2 as a Reversible Electron Acceptor in a TiO2-Re Catalyst System for CO2 Photoreduction2017In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 139, no 3, p. 1226-1232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Attaching the phosphonated molecular catalyst [(ReBr)-Br-I(bpy)-(CO)(3)](0) to the wide-bandgap semiconductor TiO2 strongly enhances the rate of visible-light-driven reduction of CO2 to CO in dimethylformamide with triethanolamine (TEOA) as sacrificial electron donor. Herein, we show by transient mid-IR spectroscopy that the mechanism of catalyst photoreduction is initiated by ultrafast electron injection into TiO2, followed by rapid (ps-ns) and sequential two-electron oxidation of TEOA that is coordinated to the Re center. The injected electrons can be stored in the conduction band of TiO2 on an ms-s time scale, and we propose that they lead to further reduction of the Re catalyst and completion of the catalytic cycle. Thus, the excited Re catalyst gives away one electron and would eventually get three electrons back. The function of an electron reservoir would represent a role for TiO2 in photocatalytic CO2 reduction that has previously not been considered. We propose that the increase in photocatalytic activity upon heterogenization of the catalyst to TiO2 is due to the slow charge recombination and the high oxidative power of the Re-II species after electron injection as compared to the excited MLCT state of the unbound Re catalyst or when immobilized on ZrO2, which results in a more efficient reaction with TEOA.

  • 1578.
    Abdellah, Mohamed
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Div Chem Phys, Box 124, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.;Lund Univ, NanoLund, Box 124, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.;South Valley Univ, Qena Fac Sci, Dept Chem, Qena 83523, Egypt..
    Poulsen, Felipe
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Chem, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Zhu, Qiushi
    Lund Univ, Div Chem Phys, Box 124, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.;Lund Univ, NanoLund, Box 124, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Zhu, Nan
    Tech Univ Denmark, Dept Chem, Kemitorvet Bldg 207, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark.;Dalian Univ Technol, Zhang Dayu Sch Chem, Dalian 116024, Peoples R China..
    Zidek, Karel
    Acad Sci Czech Republ, Inst Plasma Phys, Reg Ctr Special Opt & Optoelect Syst TOPTEC, Za Slovankou 1782-3, Prague 18200 8, Czech Republic..
    Chabera, Pavel
    Lund Univ, Div Chem Phys, Box 124, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.;Lund Univ, NanoLund, Box 124, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Corti, Annamaria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Hansen, Thorsten
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Chem, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Chi, Qijin
    Tech Univ Denmark, Dept Chem, Kemitorvet Bldg 207, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark..
    Canton, Sophie E.
    DESY, Attosecond Sci Grp, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.;ELI HU Nonprofit Ltd, ELI ALPS, Dugonics Ter 13, H-6720 Szeged, Hungary..
    Zheng, Kaibo
    Lund Univ, Div Chem Phys, Box 124, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.;Lund Univ, NanoLund, Box 124, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.;Qatar Univ, Coll Engn, Gas Proc Ctr, POB 2713, Doha, Qatar..
    Pullerits, Tonu
    Lund Univ, Div Chem Phys, Box 124, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.;Lund Univ, NanoLund, Box 124, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Drastic difference between hole and electron injection through the gradient shell of CdxSeyZn1−xS1−y quantum dots2017In: Nanoscale, ISSN 2040-3364, E-ISSN 2040-3372, Vol. 9, no 34, p. 12503-12508Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ultrafast fluorescence spectroscopy was used to investigate the hole injection in CdxSeyZn1-xS1-y gradient core-shell quantum dot (CSQD) sensitized p-type NiO photocathodes. A series of CSQDs with a wide range of shell thicknesses was studied. Complementary photoelectrochemical cell measurements were carried out to confirm that the hole injection from the active core through the gradient shell to NiO takes place. The hole injection from the valence band of the QDs to NiO depends much less on the shell thickness when compared to the corresponding electron injection to n-type semiconductor (ZnO). We simulate the charge carrier tunneling through the potential barrier due to the gradient shell by numerically solving the Schrodinger equation. The details of the band alignment determining the potential barrier are obtained from X-ray spectroscopy measurements. The observed drastic differences between the hole and electron injection are consistent with a model where the hole effective mass decreases, while the gradient shell thickness increases.

  • 1579.
    Abdellah, Mohamed
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry. South Valley Univ, Qena Fac Sci, Dept Chem, Qena 83523, Egypt.
    Zhang, Shihuai
    Dalian Univ Technol, DUT KTH Joint Educ & Res Ctr Mol Devices, State Key Lab Fine Chem, Dalian 116024, Peoples R China..
    Wang, Mei
    Dalian Univ Technol, DUT KTH Joint Educ & Res Ctr Mol Devices, State Key Lab Fine Chem, Dalian 116024, Peoples R China..
    Hammarström, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Competitive Hole Transfer from CdSe Quantum Dots to Thiol Ligands in CdSe-Cobaloxime Sensitized NiO Films Used as Photocathodes for H-2 Evolution2017In: ACS Energy Letters, ISSN 2380-8195, Vol. 2, no 11, p. 2576-2580Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantum dot (QD) sensitized NiO photocathodes rely on efficient photoinduced hole injection into the NiO valence band. A system of a mesoporous NiO film co-sensitized with CdSe QDs and a molecular proton reduction catalyst was studied. While successful electron transfer from the excited QDs to the catalyst is observed, most of the photogenerated holes are instead quenched very rapidly (ps) by hole trapping at the surface thiols of the capping agent used as linker molecules. We confirmed our conclusion by first using a thiol free capping agent and second varying the thiol concentration on the QD's surface. The later resulted in faster hole trapping as the thiol concentration increased. We suggest that this hole trapping by the linker limits the H-2 yield for this photocathode in a device.

  • 1580.
    Abdelmoniem, Amr M.
    et al.
    Cairo Univ, Dept Chem, Fac Sci, Giza, Egypt.
    Elnagdi, Mohamed H.
    Cairo Univ, Giza, Egypt;Kuwait Univ, Safat, Kuwait.
    Elsehemy, Mohamed S.
    Cairo Univ, Dept Chem, Fac Pharm, Giza, Egypt.
    El-Seedi, Hesham R.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Farmakognosi. Menoufia Univ, Dept Chem, Fac Sci, Shibin Al Kawm 32512, Egypt.
    Abdelhamid, Ismail A.
    Cairo Univ, Dept Chem, Fac Sci, Giza, Egypt.
    Synthesis, Chemistry and Utilities of Diaminoazoles with Special Reference to 3,5-Diaminopyrazoles2018In: Current Organic Synthesis, ISSN 1570-1794, E-ISSN 1875-6271, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 487-514Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Although the chemistry of heteroaromatic monoamino azoles has been surveyed more than once in the last decade, the chemistry of the di- and triaminoazoles has not been reviewed. In this article we will survey the synthesis, chemistry and utility of the diaminoazoles. In this review, the chemistry of the diaminoazoles as well as their most important utilities will be surveyed. Objective: The review focuses on recent progress in diaminoazoles (i.e. diaminopyrazoles, diaminoimidazoles, diaminotriazoles and diaminothiazole) with especial references to diaminopyrazoles. The synthesis as well as pharmaceutical utilities are reported. There are several methods for synthesis of diaminopyrazoles. 3,5-Diaminopyrazole and its derivatives are prepared through the reaction of malononitrile or arylhydrazononitrile with hydrazine derivatives. 3,4-Diaminopyrazoles are prepared via nitration of 3-aminopyrazole with subsequent reduction of the produced compound. The diaminopyrazoles have several applications in cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. They also have useful utilities as a constituent in oxidative hair dyes. Conclusion: We managed to report the common methods for the synthesis of diaminoazoles with especial reference to aminopyrazoles that are prepared through the reaction of malononitrile or hydrazononitriles with hydrazine derivatives. Some important applications that include pharmaceutical utilities such as hair dye constituents are reported.

  • 1581.
    Abd-Elrady, E.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Automatic control. AUTOMATIC CONTROL.
    A nonlinear approach to harmonic signal modeling2004In: Signal Processing, Vol. 84, no 1, p. 163-195Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1582.
    Abd-Elrady, E.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Automatic control. AUTOMATIC CONTROL.
    An adaptive grid point algorithm for harmonic signal modeling,2001Report (Other scientific)
  • 1583.
    Abd-Elrady, E.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Automatic control. AUTOMATIC CONTROL.
    An adaptive grid point algorithm for harmonic signal modeling2002In: Proc. of The 15th IFAC World Congress on Automatic Control, Barcelona, Spain, July 21-26,, 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1584.
    Abd-Elrady, E.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Automatic control.
    An adaptive grid point algorithm for harmonic signal modeling2002In: Preprint of Reglermöte, Linköping, Sweden, May 29-30., 2002Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 1585.
    Abd-Elrady, E.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Automatic control. AUTOMATIC CONTROL.
    Convergence of the RPEM as applied to harmonic signal modeling2000Report (Other scientific)
  • 1586.
    Abd-Elrady, E.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Automatic control. AUTOMATIC CONTROL.
    Study of a nonlinear recursive method for harmonic signal modeling2001In: Proc. of The 20th IASTED International Conference on Modeling, Identification and Control, Innsbruck, Austria, Feb. 19-22,, 2001Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1587.
    Abd-Elrady, E
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Automatic control. AUTOMATIC CONTROL.
    Schoukens, J
    Least squares periodic signal modeling using orbits of nonlinear ODE's and fully automated spectral analysis2005In: Automatica, Vol. 41, no 5, p. 857-862Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1588.
    Abd-Elrady, E
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Automatic control. AUTOMATIC CONTROL.
    Schoukens, J
    Least squares periodic signal modeling using orbits of nonlinear ODE's and fully automated spectral analysis2004In: Proc 6th IFAC Symposium on Nonlinear Control Systems, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1589.
    Abd-Elrady, E
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Automatic control. AUTOMATIC CONTROL.
    Schoukens, J
    Least squares periodic signal modeling using orbits of nonlinear ODE's and fully automated spectral analysis2004In: Preprint of Reglermöte, Gothenburg, Sweden, May 26-27, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1590.
    Abd-Elrady, E
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Automatic control. AUTOMATIC CONTROL.
    Söderström, T
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Automatic control. AUTOMATIC CONTROL.
    Bias analysis in least squares estimation of periodic signals using nonlinear ODEs2004Report (Other scientific)
  • 1591.
    Abd-Elrady, E
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Automatic control. AUTOMATIC CONTROL.
    Söderström, T
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Automatic control. AUTOMATIC CONTROL.
    Bias analysis in LS estimation of periodic signals using nonlinear ODE's2005In: Proc IFAC 16th World Congress, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1592.
    Abd-Elrady, Emad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Systems and Control. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Automatic control.
    Harmonic signal modeling based on the Wiener model structure2002Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The estimation of frequencies and corresponding harmonic overtones is a problem of great importance in many situations. Applications can, for example, be found in supervision of electrical power transmission lines, in seismology and in acoustics. Generally, a periodic function with an unknown fundamental frequency in cascade with a parameterized and unknown nonlinear function can be used as a signal model for an arbitrary periodic signal. The main objective of the proposed modeling technique is to estimate the fundamental frequency of the periodic function in addition to the parameters of the nonlinear function.

    The thesis is divided into four parts. In the first part, a general introduction to the harmonic signal modeling problem and different approaches to solve the problem are given. Also, an outline of the thesis and future research topics are introduced.

    In the second part, a previously suggested recursive prediction error method (RPEM) for harmonic signal modeling is studied by numerical examples to explore the ability of the algorithm to converge to the true parameter vector. Also, the algorithm is modified to increase its ability to track the fundamental frequency variations.

    A modified algorithm is introduced in the third part to give the algorithm of the second part a more stable performance. The modifications in the RPEM are obtained by introducing an interval in the nonlinear block with fixed static gain. The modifications that result in the convergence analysis are, however, substantial and allows a complete treatment of the local convergence properties of the algorithm. Moreover, the Cramér–Rao bound (CRB) is derived for the modified algorithm and numerical simulations indicate that the method gives good results especially for moderate signal to noise ratios (SNR).

    In the fourth part, the idea is to give the algorithm of the third part the ability to estimate the driving frequency and the parameters of the nonlinear output function parameterized also in a number of adaptively estimated grid points. Allowing the algorithm to automatically adapt the grid points as well as the parameters of the nonlinear block, reduces the modeling errors and gives the algorithm more freedom to choose the suitable grid points. Numerical simulations indicate that the algorithm converges to the true parameter vector and gives better performance than the fixed grid point technique. Also, the CRB is derived for the adaptive grid point technique.

  • 1593.
    Abd-Elrady, Emad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Systems and Control. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Automatic control.
    Nonlinear Approaches to Periodic Signal Modeling2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Periodic signal modeling plays an important role in different fields. The unifying theme of this thesis is using nonlinear techniques to model periodic signals. The suggested techniques utilize the user pre-knowledge about the signal waveform. This gives these techniques an advantage as compared to others that do not consider such priors.

    The technique of Part I relies on the fact that a sine wave that is passed through a static nonlinear function produces a harmonic spectrum of overtones. Consequently, the estimated signal model can be parameterized as a known periodic function (with unknown frequency) in cascade with an unknown static nonlinearity. The unknown frequency and the parameters of the static nonlinearity are estimated simultaneously using the recursive prediction error method (RPEM). A treatment of the local convergence properties of the RPEM is provided. Also, an adaptive grid point algorithm is introduced to estimate the unknown frequency and the parameters of the static nonlinearity in a number of adaptively estimated grid points. This gives the RPEM more freedom to select the grid points and hence reduces modeling errors.

    Limit cycle oscillations problem are encountered in many applications. Therefore, mathematical modeling of limit cycles becomes an essential topic that helps to better understand and/or to avoid limit cycle oscillations in different fields. In Part II, a second-order nonlinear ODE is used to model the periodic signal as a limit cycle oscillation. The right hand side of the ODE model is parameterized using a polynomial function in the states, and then discretized to allow for the implementation of different identification algorithms. Hence, it is possible to obtain highly accurate models by only estimating a few parameters.

    In Part III, different user aspects for the two nonlinear approaches of the thesis are discussed. Finally, topics for future research are presented.

  • 1594.
    Abd-Elrady, Emad
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Systems and Control. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Automatic control.
    Söderström, Torsten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Systems and Control. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Automatic control.
    Wigren, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Systems and Control. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Automatic control.
    Periodic signal analysis using orbits of nonlinear ODEs based on the Markov estimate2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1595.
    Abd-Elrady, Emad
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Systems and Control. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Automatic control.
    Söderström, Torsten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Systems and Control. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Automatic control.
    Wigren, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Systems and Control. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Automatic control.
    Periodic signal modeling based on Liénard's equation2003Report (Other academic)
  • 1596.
    Abd-Elrady, Emad
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Systems and Control. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Automatic control.
    Söderström, Torsten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Systems and Control. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Automatic control.
    Wigren, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Systems and Control. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Automatic control.
    Periodic signal modeling based on Liénard's equation2004In: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, ISSN 0018-9286, E-ISSN 1558-2523, Vol. 49, no 10, p. 1773-1778Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1597.
    Abdelrahman, Wedissa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Reprocessing of reflection seismic data from the Skåne area, southern Sweden2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Seismic reflection surveying is a powerful method to explore the structures of the Earth’s

    crust and describe it is layers. It is also used extensively in the oil industry.

    Offshore seismic profiles were acquired in southern Sweden (Skane area) for petroleum exploration

    purposes, but no productive fields were discovered in that area. The seismic reflection data were

    collected and processed in the 1970s.

    The purpose of this thesis is to reprocess some of the seismic profiles from the 1970s with new

    processing programs to improve the results and compare it with the previous results. Offshore lines

    208, 206, 212 have been selected in this project because they cross each other and are close to a

    borehole with sonic data. The borehole lies close to lines 208 and 212 as seen from the Skane area

    map.

    Also this report can be used to introduce the reader to fundamentals of seismic data processing.

    The processing was done using Claritas software by applying standard processing steps to produce

    migrated stacked sections for every line as a final product.

  • 1598. Abdelrazek, Fathya
    et al.
    Skytt, Bernice
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Aly, Magda
    El-Sabour, Mona Abd
    Ibrahim, Naglaa
    Engström, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Leadership and management skills of first-line managers of elderly care and their work environment2010In: Journal of Nursing Management, ISSN 0966-0429, E-ISSN 1365-2834, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 736-745Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim To study the leadership and management skills of first-line managers (FLMs) of elderly care and their work environment in Egypt and Sweden. Background FLMs in Egypt and Sweden are directly responsible for staff and quality of care. However, FLMs in Sweden, in elderly care, have smaller units/organizations to manage than do their colleagues in Egypt. Furthermore, family care of the elderly has been the norm in Egypt, but in recent years institutional care has increased, whereas in Sweden, residential living homes have existed for a longer period. Methods A convenience sample of FLMs, 49 from Egypt and 49 from Sweden, answered a questionnaire measuring leadership and management skills, structural and psychological empowerment, job satisfaction and psychosomatic health. Results In both countries, FLMs' perceptions of their leadership and management skills and psychological empowerment were quite high, whereas scores for job satisfaction and psychosomatic health were lower. FLMs had higher values in several factors/study variables in Egypt compared with in Sweden. Conclusion and implications The work environment, both in Egypt and Sweden, needs to be improved to increase FLMs' job satisfaction and decrease stress. The cultural differences and levels of management have an effect on the differences between the two countries.

  • 1599.
    AbdelRehim, M
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry.
    Karlen, A
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry.
    Zhang, L
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry.
    Kamel, M
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry.
    Hassan, M
    Enantiomer separation of underivatized tocainide and related compounds by CGC using ammonia as carrier gas1996In: JOURNAL OF MICROCOLUMN SEPARATIONS, Vol. 8, p. 151-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1600.
    Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy.
    Influence of ammonia as carrier gas on separation and detection performance in capillary gas chromatography 1994Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
29303132333435 1551 - 1600 of 252498
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