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  • 16101.
    Öhman, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Be smart, live long: the relationship between cognitive and non-cognitive abilities and mortality2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    I study the association between cognitive and non-cognitive abilities and mortality, and investigate how well income and education act as proxy measures for ability. The risk of premature mortality is estimated using Cox proportional hazard models with a dataset of 692,303 Swedish men aged 18-20 years, enlisted between the years 1969-1983, and deaths between the years 1969 and 2009. Results suggest that both cognitive and non-cognitive abilities are strongly associated with mortality, independently and through income and education. Non-cognitive ability is a stronger predictor of the risk of mortality than cognitive ability. For middle and high income earners, and individuals with a college education, there are no associations between the abilities and mortality. However, for low income earners and individuals without a college education, cognitive and non-cognitive ability have strong associations with mortality. Results are mainly driven by the bottom of the measured ability distributions.

  • 16102. Öhman, Mattias
    "Be Smart, Live Long: The Relationship Between Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Abilities and Mortality" and "Exogenous Health Information and Individuals' Subjective Well-Being: RD Evidence from a Screening-Program for an Asymptomatic Disease"2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 16103.
    Öhman, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Psychology in Healthcare. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Be smart, live long:the relationship between cognitive and non-cognitiveabilities and mortality2015Report (Other academic)
  • 16104.
    Öhman, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Covid-19-vaccinationsgrad mer jämlik med förbokade tider2023In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, no 42, p. 26-27Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    I en publicerad studie undersökte vi sambandet mellan kognitiv förmåga och benägenheten att vaccinera sig mot covid-19, samt hur denna påverkades av vaccinationsprogrammets utformning.

  • 16105.
    Öhman, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Dani Rodrik: Economics Rules: The Rights and Wrongs of the Dismal Science2018In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, no 6, p. 62-64Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16106.
    Öhman, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Essays on Cognitive Development and Medical Care2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of four self-contained papers.

    Essay I (with Linuz Aggeborn): Fluoridation of the drinking water is a public policy whose aim is to improve dental health. Although the evidence is clear that fluoride is good for dental health, concerns have been raised regarding potential negative effects on cognitive development. We study the effects of fluoride exposure through the drinking water in early life on cognitive and non-cognitive ability, education and labor market outcomes in a large-scale setting. We use a rich Swedish register dataset for the cohorts born 1985-1992, together with drinking water fluoride data. To estimate the effects, we exploit intra-municipality variation of fluoride, stemming from an exogenous variation in the bedrock. First, we investigate and confirm the long-established positive relationship between fluoride and dental health. Second, we find precisely estimated zero-effects on cognitive ability, non-cognitive ability and education for fluoride levels below 1.5 mg/l. Third, we find evidence that fluoride improves later labor market outcomes, which indicates that good dental health is a positive factor on the labor market.

    Essay II: I study the associations between cognitive and non-cognitive abilities and mortality using a population-wide dataset of almost 700,000 Swedish men born between 1950 and 1965. The abilities were measured at the Swedish military enlistment at age 18-20. In addition, I investigate if income and education are good proxies for the abilities. The results suggest that both cognitive and non-cognitive abilities are strongly associated with mortality, but that non-cognitive ability is a stronger predictor. The associations are only partly mediated through income and education. For middle and high income earners and individuals with a college education there are no associations with mortality. However, for low income earners and individuals without a college education, both abilities are strongly associated with mortality. The associations are mainly driven by the bottom of the distributions.

    Essay III (with Matz Dahlberg, Kevin Mani and Anders Wanhainen): We examine how health information affects individuals' well-being using a regression discontinuity design on data from a screening program for an asymptomatic disease, abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). The information provided to the individuals is guided by the measured aorta size and its relation to pre-determined levels. When comparing individuals that receive information that they are healthy with those that receive information that they are in the risk zone for AAA, we find no effects. However, when comparing those that receive information that they have a small AAA, and will be under increased surveillance, with those who receive information that they are in the risk zone, we find a weak positive effect on well-being. This indicates that the positive information about increased surveillance may outweigh the negative information about worse health.

    Essay IV: I estimate the effect of SSRI antidepressants on the risk of mortality for myocardial infarction (MI) patients using Propensity Score Matching on individual health variables such as pharmaceutical drug prescription, patient history and severity of the MI. The effect of antidepressants on mortality is a heavily debated topic. MI patients have an elevated risk of developing depression, and antidepressants are among the most common treatments for depression and anxiety. However, there are indications that some classes of antidepressants may have drug-induced cardiovascular effects and could be harmful for individuals with heart problems, but there is a lack of large-scale studies using credible identification strategies. My findings indicate no increased risk of two-year mortality for MI patients using SSRI. The results are stable for several specifications and robustness checks.

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  • 16107.
    Öhman, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Kunde vi ha fått fler att vaccinera sig mot covid-19 – och snabbare?2023In: Folkvett, ISSN 0283-0795, no 3-4, p. 66-77Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Den mångårige "voffaren" Mattias Öhman, forskare i nationalekonomi vid Institutet för bostads- och urbanforskning vid Uppsala universitet, lyfter fram resultat av en studie som han tillsammans med två kollegor genomförde om samband mellan intelligens och vaccinationsgrad.

  • 16108.
    Öhman, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Smarta och sociala lever längre: sambanden mellan intelligens, social förmåga och mortalitet2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport dokumenteras sambanden mellan intelligens, social förmåga och mortalitet. Resultaten pekar på att både intelligens och social förmåga är negativt kopplade till risken att dö i förtid, men att sambandet är starkast för social förmåga. Mönstren är tydligast bland låginkomsttagare och individer utan högskoleutbildning. Inom dessa grupper, låginkomsttagare respektive ej högskoleutbildade, finns stora skillnader i risken för mortalitet som kan förklaras av skillnader i intelligens och social förmåga.

  • 16109.
    Öhman, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Välgörenhet och social påverkan: Ett fältexperiment om pantning och donationsbenägenhet2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Med ett naturligt fältexperiment studeras betydelsen av social påverkan för individers benägenhet att skänka pengar. Den dominerande teorin inom nationalekonomin som förklaring till välgörenhet är warm glow altruism. Teorin säger att människor skänker pengar på grund av en kombination av altruism och warm glow. Men det finns även teorier som förutsäger att socialt tryck spelar roll. I experimentet ställdes frågor till pantkunder om deras bidrag till välgörenhet. Individerna i behandlingsgruppen blev tillfrågade innan de började panta och kunnat välja om de ska skänka panten. I kontrollgruppen besvarades frågorna efteråt. Resultatet tyder på att social påverkan spelar stor roll för benägenheten att skänka panten.

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    Välgörenhet och social påverkan : Ett fältexperiment om pantning och donationsbenägenhet
  • 16110.
    Öhman, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Evren, Aylin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    The largest spender wins? An empirical study of how R&D expenditure drives firm growth in listed Swedish companies.2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study is to enhance the analysis of the impact of R&D expenditure on firms’ growth. This study adopts an OLS regression for a data sample of 46 firms listed on Nasdaq Stockholm for the 2006-2019 period. We present models with R&D expenditure and R&D intensity as the main mechanisms of firm growth, defined as sales growth in this study. Furthermore, firm size, firm age and sector belonging determining the R&D and sales growth relationship are also investigated. We find that R&D intensity has a statistically significant negative impact on firm growth, while R&D expenditure does not show a statistically significant relationship to firm growth. Thus, the results of this paper suggest that devoting a higher proportion of your sales to R&D activities does not translate into firm growth.

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  • 16111.
    Öhman, Torun
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Varnelid, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Belöningssystem i Kina: Hur kinesiska belöningssystem är utformade samt analys av deras utforming2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 16112.
    Öhrlund, Isak
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Demand Side Response: Exploring How and Why Users Respond to Signals Aimed at Incentivizing a Shift of Electricity Use in Time2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With increased weather-dependent electricity production and electrification at the heart of the ongoing transition away from fossil fuels, peaks in electricity demand are set to increase and become increasingly difficult to meet, which threatens the functioning of the electric power systems that our society depends on. Time-varying electricity rates, which aim to incentivize electricity users to shift their electricity use in time, have been proposed as a key instrument in alleviating grid imbalances and bottlenecks. Previous research has found that users respond to such rates by shifting their electricity use in time, but there is great variability in the observed response between studies that remains unexplained. In other words, it is unclear how and why users respond to time-varying rates, and thus how these so called demand side response policies should be designed to provide the best results.

    This thesis aims to improve our understanding of how and why (not) time-varying rates work by exploring how users respond to both price and non-price signals that aim to incentivize a shift of electricity use in time, and what motivates, discourages, enables and hinders them to respond. This is done through four separate studies that are carried out in contexts where users have been involuntarily subjected to interventions that aim to incentivize demand side response. Using several novel methods, research designs and understudied empirical contexts, the studies also illustrate how biases that are commonly observed in the literature can be avoided and how intervention effects that often remain overlooked can be captured.

    The results suggest that users may hold different motives to respond to signals that aim to incentivize a shift of electricity use in time, including non-financial motives such as a care for the environment and a will to meet the expectations of others. The rhythms and schedules of people’s everyday lives are identified as the most important hindrances for people to engage in demand side response. Notably, there is no evident relationship between how much money users may save by responding to a signal and their actual response. Many users do hold expectations of saving money and claim to engage in demand side response as a result of those expectations, but the fact that users are rarely (if ever) informed of whether their expectations are met or not suggests that many users may actually be willing to engage in demand side response with little or no financial reward. However, there is a risk that users who expect to save money may refrain from or stop engaging in demand side response if their expectations are not met, which poses a potential threat to the long-run effectiveness of conventional price-based demand response programs. There is also a risk that users who primarily hold non-financial motives may be discouraged to engage in demand side response if monetary savings is the key selling point of demand response programs. Policymakers, professionals and researchers should explore these risks and alternative policies that address them, particularly policies that may be more appealing to users that hold non-financial motives to engage in demand side response. Doing so will be key to ensure that current and future demand side response policies are cost-efficient and effective, both today and tomorrow.

    List of papers
    1. Identifying and estimating the effects of a mandatory billing demand charge
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Identifying and estimating the effects of a mandatory billing demand charge
    2019 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 237, p. 885-895Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    As peak demand for electricity continues to rise, distributors have begun charging small and medium-sized users for their short term demand rather than just their energy use. This is not only to meet the political aspirations for increased demand-side flexibility that now exist in many corners of the world, but to make sure that users are charged for the costs they incur. As it is only until recently that this type of users have come to face demand charges, there are however very few studies on what the actual effects of such pricing policies are, and those studies that do exist suffer from different methodological shortcomings that reduce their validity as a basis for real-world policy evaluations. This study provides the first state-of-the-art causal analysis of the demand response effects of a billing demand charge involuntarily introduced to small and medium sized users (35–63 A), using novel two-level time series models on retrospective observational consumption and survey data. Our analyses suggest that the tariff has induced an average response of −0.32 kWh/h per user over a two year long posttreatment period in comparison to a matched control group, equal to 7.4% of their hourly average use during the pretreatment period. The response seems to have increased over time and to be greater during wintertime: around −0.70 kWh/h or 16.2% of the treated users’ average hourly use during the pretreatment period. Comparing the individual users’ response to the size of their financial incentive to respond given the new tariff as well as their self-reported perception of the relative importance of electricity expenditures, we did not find any support for the common assumption that users with a higher financial incentive to respond do so to a greater extent. This might suggest that small and medium-sized commercial users, just as residential users, may exhibit non-financial drivers and barriers for engaging in demand response that may be vital to understand as policy makers and industry continue to seek increased demand-side flexibility.

    Keywords
    Demand response; Demand-based; Capacity charge; Capacity-based; Causal inference
    National Category
    Other Social Sciences Other Engineering and Technologies
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-374770 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2019.01.028 (DOI)000459845100066 ()
    Projects
    Marknadsstyrd effekttariff inom eldistributionen
    Funder
    StandUp
    Note

    Projektet finansierades även av Energiforsk (EV32254).

    Available from: 2019-01-24 Created: 2019-01-24 Last updated: 2020-08-25Bibliographically approved
    2. Convenience before coins: Household responses to dual dynamic price signals and energy feedback in Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Convenience before coins: Household responses to dual dynamic price signals and energy feedback in Sweden
    2019 (English)In: Energy Research & Social Science, ISSN 2214-6296, E-ISSN 2214-6326, Vol. 52, p. 236-246Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    To enable and cope with an increase of intermittent electricity generation, the power industry and regulators are trying to incentivise users to use electricity at certain times through dynamic pricing and feedback. The effects of such interventions on patterns of electricity use have been extensively studied, yet little is known about how and why householders do or do not respond to such interventions. Using interviews and activity-based diaries, this study provides a qualitative exploration of how and why householders who are subject to a demand-based time-of-use distribution tariff, real-time retail pricing and real-time feedback, do or do not respond to such interventions in their daily lives. We find that the householders have adapted a range of existing practices and have started to engage in new ones that aim to reduce peak demand during peak hours, partly without the support of feedback. Drawing on theories of practice, we challenge common preconceptions about how and why price signals work by demonstrating how the size of the financial incentive that a price signal provides does not have that much influence on householders’ willingness to engage in demand response. We argue that price signals work by providing new meanings to practices that use electricity, that feedback can mediate these meanings, and that what matters for householders’ willingness to engage in demand response is that the changes they undertake do not cause them any inconvenience by limiting the temporal flexibility of other doings in their daily lives.

    Keywords
    Demand response, Demand charge, Real-time pricing, Real-time feedback
    National Category
    Economics and Business
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-379701 (URN)10.1016/j.erss.2019.02.008 (DOI)000468215900021 ()
    Projects
    Marknadsbaserade styrmedel i bostadssektorn
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency, 37589-1
    Available from: 2019-03-19 Created: 2019-03-19 Last updated: 2020-08-06Bibliographically approved
    3. Rising with the sun?: Encouraging solar electricity self-consumption among apartment owners in Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rising with the sun?: Encouraging solar electricity self-consumption among apartment owners in Sweden
    2020 (English)In: Energy Research & Social Science, ISSN 2214-6296, E-ISSN 2214-6326, Vol. 64, article id 101424Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Studies suggest that householders who turn prosumers become more energy aware, change their pattern of electricity use and may even start to engage in other pro-environmental activities. However, few of these studies were equipped to investigate such causal relationships—mainly because most prosumers are inherently self-selected. However, as real estate companies and building owners have begun installing photovoltaics on their customers’ behalf, a new breed of non-self-selected prosumers is emerging, which presents new opportunities to address questions of causality and thus improve our understanding of the possible implications of a more prosumer-dense future. Using a sample of 54 apartment households with a shared rooftop PV installation, this article presents the first causal analysis on non-self-selected prosumers’ response to information about having become prosumers, what that means for themselves and the collective they are part of, how to self-consume solar electricity and why they should do so. Using a stepped wedge design and stratified randomization procedure we were able to design an experimental study with sufficient power. A panel regression model and various statistical analyses on pre and post treatment survey- and electricity use data were used to evaluate the intervention. In line with studies of self-selected prosumers, the self-reported measures suggest that householders have shifted the use of major appliances to increase their self-consumption. However, based on the electricity use data, we find no evidence of a such a shift and no indications of spillovers to other pro-environmental behaviours—highlighting the need to use multiple measures to assess behavioural change.

    Keywords
    Photovoltaics, Electricity use flexibility, Demand response, Non-price intervention, Spillover effect, Causal inference
    National Category
    Economics and Business Energy Systems Applied Psychology
    Research subject
    Engineering Science with specialization in industrial engineering and management
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-403623 (URN)10.1016/j.erss.2020.101424 (DOI)000532669700009 ()
    Projects
    On, off eller mittemellan i flerbostadshus
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency, 44362-1
    Available from: 2020-01-31 Created: 2020-01-31 Last updated: 2020-08-06Bibliographically approved
    4. Opening the black box of demand response: Exploring the cognitive processes
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Opening the black box of demand response: Exploring the cognitive processes
    Show others...
    2024 (English)In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 189, article id 113925Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluations of price-based demand response programs tend to focus on users' electricity use patterns and/or their practical experiences. Less is known about the effects that price-based demand response programs have on cognitive drivers and barriers to energy-using behaviors and habits, or how well these predict timing of households' electricity use. This study seeks to address this gap by evaluating the effects of a mandatory demand-based time-of-use distribution tariff, using electricity-meter and questionnaire data in an intervention and a reference area, and a structural equation model following the theory of planned behavior. Although no effect was found of the tariff on the actual proportion of peak-hour use, there were significant effects on users’ intentions and motivations to shift electricity use to off-peak hours. The absence of effect on the proportion of peak-hour use seems explained by the facts that only a minority of consumers were aware of their tariffs, and by the (at least partially correct) beliefs that consumers used very little electricity and most of it was already used in off-peak hours. The relationships between intentions, drivers and the actual proportion of peak-hour use were stronger in the intervention area, compared to the reference area. Interestingly, this was true not only for the motivation targeted by the tariff, economic savings, but also for sustainability concerns and social norms. This suggests that effects of the tariff may partly run via other non-monetary motivators.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2024
    Keywords
    Demand side response, Energy use flexibility, Time-varying rate, Dynamic pricing, Demand-based tariff, Demand charge, Theory of planned behavior, Attitude, Social norm, Behavioral control
    National Category
    Applied Psychology Energy Systems Economics
    Research subject
    Engineering Science with specialization in industrial engineering and management
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-416906 (URN)10.1016/j.rser.2023.113925 (DOI)001150355100001 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency, 37589-1Energy Research, 32147StandUp
    Note

    Title in the list of papers of Isak Öhrlund's thesis: Opening the black box of demand response

    Available from: 2020-08-06 Created: 2020-08-06 Last updated: 2024-02-21Bibliographically approved
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  • 16113.
    Öhrlund, Isak
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Linné, Åse
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Bartusch, Cajsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Convenience before coins: Household responses to dual dynamic price signals and energy feedback in Sweden2019In: Energy Research & Social Science, ISSN 2214-6296, E-ISSN 2214-6326, Vol. 52, p. 236-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To enable and cope with an increase of intermittent electricity generation, the power industry and regulators are trying to incentivise users to use electricity at certain times through dynamic pricing and feedback. The effects of such interventions on patterns of electricity use have been extensively studied, yet little is known about how and why householders do or do not respond to such interventions. Using interviews and activity-based diaries, this study provides a qualitative exploration of how and why householders who are subject to a demand-based time-of-use distribution tariff, real-time retail pricing and real-time feedback, do or do not respond to such interventions in their daily lives. We find that the householders have adapted a range of existing practices and have started to engage in new ones that aim to reduce peak demand during peak hours, partly without the support of feedback. Drawing on theories of practice, we challenge common preconceptions about how and why price signals work by demonstrating how the size of the financial incentive that a price signal provides does not have that much influence on householders’ willingness to engage in demand response. We argue that price signals work by providing new meanings to practices that use electricity, that feedback can mediate these meanings, and that what matters for householders’ willingness to engage in demand response is that the changes they undertake do not cause them any inconvenience by limiting the temporal flexibility of other doings in their daily lives.

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    fulltext
  • 16114.
    Öhrlund, Isak
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Schultzberg, Mårten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    The relationship between peak electricity demand, peak to off-peak price ratio and enabling technology: A commentary to Arcturus 2.0: A meta-analysis of time-varying rates for electricity2022Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In “Arcturus 2.0: A meta-analysis of time-varying rates for electricity”, Ahmad Faruqui, Sanem Sergici and Cody Warner present a meta-analysis of an impressive collection of studies on the impact of time-varying pricing on peak electricity demand. Based on their analysis, the authors claim to have identified a positive log-linear relationship between peak demand reduction and the peak to off-peak price ratio and that this relationship is moderated by enabling technologies. However, we believe that there are a number of methodological issues and possible biases in the analysis that need to be addressed before we can draw such conclusions.

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  • 16115.
    Öhrlund, Isak
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Stikvoort, Britt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Schultzberg, Mårten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Bartusch, Cajsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Rising with the sun?: Encouraging solar electricity self-consumption among apartment owners in Sweden2020In: Energy Research & Social Science, ISSN 2214-6296, E-ISSN 2214-6326, Vol. 64, article id 101424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies suggest that householders who turn prosumers become more energy aware, change their pattern of electricity use and may even start to engage in other pro-environmental activities. However, few of these studies were equipped to investigate such causal relationships—mainly because most prosumers are inherently self-selected. However, as real estate companies and building owners have begun installing photovoltaics on their customers’ behalf, a new breed of non-self-selected prosumers is emerging, which presents new opportunities to address questions of causality and thus improve our understanding of the possible implications of a more prosumer-dense future. Using a sample of 54 apartment households with a shared rooftop PV installation, this article presents the first causal analysis on non-self-selected prosumers’ response to information about having become prosumers, what that means for themselves and the collective they are part of, how to self-consume solar electricity and why they should do so. Using a stepped wedge design and stratified randomization procedure we were able to design an experimental study with sufficient power. A panel regression model and various statistical analyses on pre and post treatment survey- and electricity use data were used to evaluate the intervention. In line with studies of self-selected prosumers, the self-reported measures suggest that householders have shifted the use of major appliances to increase their self-consumption. However, based on the electricity use data, we find no evidence of a such a shift and no indications of spillovers to other pro-environmental behaviours—highlighting the need to use multiple measures to assess behavioural change.

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  • 16116. Öhrman, Roger
    ”Bonden här gör vad han vill” – om gotländskt jordbruk under 1800-talet1991In: Bebyggelsehistorisk tidskrift, ISSN 0349-2834, E-ISSN 2002-3812, no 21, p. 113-138Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 16117.
    Öhrn, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Kruse, Alexander
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Samskapande av värde vid användning av digitala tjänster2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien undersöker hur samskapande av värde sker i företag som använder sig av digitala tjänster, samt identifierar eventuella utmaningar som kan uppstå vid den värdeskapande processen. Detta undersöks genom en kvalitativ studie av företag som använder sig av digitala tjänster samt dess kunder. Studiens insamlade empiri består utav intervjuer med företaget, samt intervjuer med fyra av dess kunder. Studien finner att interaktion med kunder, integrering av resurser samt bearbetning av informationsflöden från kunder är grunden för hur samskapande av värde sker i företag som använder sig av digitala tjänster. Informationsflödet kan bearbetas av företaget till operativa resurser och kan öka värdet som sker vid samskapande av värde vid framtida transaktioner. En utmaning som kommer sig av detta är bearbetningen av informationsflödet till operativa resurser som används för att anpassa företagets tjänster till dess kunder.

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  • 16118.
    Öhrn, Nicole
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Johnston, Nikolina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Från idé till handling: En fallstudie om de största barriärerna till en lyckad implementering av centrala mångfaldsinitiativ i en stor organisation2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Allt fler organisationer strävar idag efter att skapa mångfald på arbetsplatsen. Tidigare forskning indikerar positiva effekter för de organisationer som har lyckats med implementeringen av mångfaldsinitiativ, såsom förbättrat finansiellt resultat och ökade marknadsandelar till följd av en bredare kundbas. Implementeringen av mångfaldsinitiativ är dock förknippad med en hel del svårigheter. Tidigare studier har bland annat visat att organisationens storlek, begränsad tillgång till resurser och en oförmåga att acceptera mångfaldsinitiativ kan utgöra barriärer till en lyckad implementering. Syftet med studien är således att utforska de största barriärerna till att implementera centrala mångfaldsinitiativ i en stor organisation. Resultatet av studien ger stöd för tidigare forskning samt belyser nya barriärer som kan utgöra hinder vid implementeringen av mångfaldsinitiativ. De barriärer som upplevdes som störst var en oförmåga att förstå mångfald, olika typer av rädsla hos organisationens medlemmar och brist på engagemang hos högsta ledningen. Studien ämnar även ge förslag på hur organisationer kan komma över de största barriärerna. Resultatet av studien visar att både inspirerande och styrande lösningar kan fungera som potentiella lösningar men att det troligen krävs en balans mellan dessa.

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  • 16119.
    Öhrn, Nicole
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Zamore, Judith
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Communicating Goodness - loud as a lion or silent as a mouse?: A study exploring how companies find the balance in their CSR-communication2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Problem: Corporate social responsibility is said to result in strategic and reputational benefits, however, broadcasting it publicly has been proven to be a delicate matter. While stakeholders expect companies to engage in CSR, they do not appreciate if companies communicate their CSR-activities too loudly. Prior research instead suggests that communicating too extensively could cause skepticism from stakeholders.

    Purpose: This thesis is set to investigate how companies view and handle the challenge of communicating their good deeds, in the specific context of cross-sector collaborations, and how companies balance the need to increase awareness of their social engagements with the risk of inducing skepticism.

    Method: Primary data has been collected from semi-structured interviews within six case companies from different industries.

    Conclusion: Our results show that skepticism per se was not perceived as a problem – one reason could be that most companies chose to avoid communicating extensively. While all companies argued for the importance of doing rather than talking, controversial companies in particular expressed an aversion towards bragging about their collaborations. A difference between controversial and neutral industries could be seen in the way they valued communication. Having the right level of communication, demonstrating authenticity by linking cross-sector collaborations to company characteristics, together with the choice of partners and communicating “through” NPOs were seen as important aspects that could help companies to find the balance. 

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  • 16120.
    Öhrnell, Gunnar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Sun, Yunchen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Attitude, Activity and Destination Brand Identity among Swedish Entrepreneurs in Heritage Tourism: a case study of the UNESCO site of Decorated Farmhouses in Hälsingland2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Being one of the fastest growing industries, tourism has a trend to offer more innovative products and services. New opportunities and challenges have come for entrepreneurs and SMEs. Heritage tourism is one type of experience-based tourism where people can get historical or cultural experience. The potential of heritage tourism has attracted many entrepreneurs. It has been recognised activities are motivated by attitude within an entrepreneurial setting, however how the destination brand identity impacts the relationship from a supplier’s perspective is not clear. This thesis investigates the influence of destination brand on the entrepreneurs in a heritage tourism. A qualitative research design was constructed and the research strategy of a case study of the Swedish World Heritage site of Decorated Farmhouses of Hälsingland (Hälsingegårdar) was chosen. There are only seven farmhouses to represent the UNESCO site and also 34 non-listed farmhouses open to the public. After examining both groups, it could be concluded that the destination brand of a World Heritage Site will motivate the entrepreneurs to look for opportunities, which will strengthen their attitudes. However, the relationship between attitude and activity is weak due to the effect of other external factors. 

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  • 16121.
    Öhrström, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Kritiken om Fairtrade - En fallstudie av två rapporter.2012Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 16122.
    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, Anna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Zander, Ivo (Biträdande redaktör)Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Ur startblocken : svensk innovationskraft II: baserad på Forum for Innovation Managements seminarier och salongsdebatter under 2004-2007 : bidrag från inbjudna medskribenter och intervjupersoner2008Collection (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16123.
    Ökvist, Alice
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Pavlovic, Anica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Management Control Systems and their Connection to Exceptional Growth: an internal perspective2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is concerned with the use of management control systems (MCSs) within high growth firms (HGFs) to support rapid growth. Considering that a lack of MCSs has been identified as a major cause of failure among start-ups, as well as that MCSs have been claimed to enable firms to grow more during their early years, this is a highly interesting topic for scholars as well as entrepreneurs. However, despite the exceptional opportunity that HGFs provide in examining this topic, there is a lack of contemporary research on how HGFs use MCSs to support their growth. To fill this gap a multiple case study was conducted, investigating how Simons’ (1995) levers of control were used to support growth within 12 different HGFs. Through drawing upon data from interviews with 19 different key people it was then found that MCSs support growth in various ways. Different boundary systems were found to increase chances of firm survival and provide a platform for growth. Additionally, the use of interactive systems was identified as a potential characteristic of HGFs. Moreover, the research questions former assumptions on the importance of forecasting.

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  • 16124.
    Ökvist, Sofia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Clausén, Frida
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Värdering av förvaltningsfastigheter: Hur tillförlitlig är verkligt värdemetoden?2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Införandet av IAS 40 medförde förändringar vad gäller värderingen av förvaltningsfastigheter. Fastighetsbolagen fick då möjlighet att värdera sina fastigheter till verkligt värde, vilket skapade en problematik vad gäller tillförlitligheten i värderingen.

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka tillförlitligheten i värderingen av förvaltningsfastigheter. Detta påverkas av ett flertal faktorer som alla har betydelse för värderingens tillförlitlighet. Syftet kommer att uppfyllas genom att belysa begreppet tillförlitlighet utifrån ett antal påverkande faktorer.

    För att undersöka detta har vi genomfört fyra intervjuer med respondenter från fastighetsbolag, en extern värderingsman samt en redovisningsspecialist inom området. Urvalet av intervjurespondenter har skett genom en studie av Sveriges största noterade fastighetsbolag, där hänsyn tagits till vissa utvalda parametrar. Intervjufrågor har utformats utifrån analysmodellen som sedan har legat till grund för uppsatsens empiriavsnitt samt analys.

    I uppsatsen dras slutsatsen att tillförlitligheten vid värderingen av förvaltningsfastigheter till verkligt värde är låg. Detta kan dock förbättras med hjälp av en större mängd presenterad information vad gäller värderingsmodellerna som används, för att därmed öka företagens transparens. På så sätt kan externa intressenter på egen hand avgöra hur tillförlitlig de anser att värderingen i själva verket är.

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  • 16125.
    Önder, Ali Sina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Uppsala Center for Fiscal Studies.
    Portmann, Marco
    University of Fribourg.
    Stadelmann, David
    University of Bayreuth and CREMA..
    No Place like Home: Opinion Formation with Homophily and Implications for Policy Decisions2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate a simple model of opinion diffusion where a local opinion leader acts as the initiator of public discussion. We show the possibility of driving a significant wedge between opinions of two groups that exhibit homophily even though individuals are highly conformist. In particular, we show that there exists an opinion gap between the group which the opinion leader belongs to (referred to as the residence community) and the other group; and this opinion gap is increasing in the relative size of the residence community. Using a unique dataset of national referenda in Switzerland from 2008 to 2012, we show that members of parliament (MPs) match referenda outcomes in their residence communities closer than they do in neighboring communities, and this wedge interacts signicantly with the relative size of the residence community, thus aligning with our theoretical conjectures. We conclude that observed opinion gaps can actually be overrated to the extent that they are driven by structures that underlie the social web of different groups within the society.

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  • 16126.
    Önneslöv, Gustav
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Tigerström, Alexander
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Internationella leverantörsrelationer: En kvalitativ undersökning av Uppsalas bioteknologiska sektor2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates what kind of relations small businesses have with their international suppliers. We want to find out if these are of the close embedded kind or if these relations are at arms length. In the cases we find close relations we also look at what kind of relation it is. This thesis looks at three small biotechnology companies in Uppsala. We find that these companies have a mix of different relations with their suppliers. Among those are embedded relations of social and business type.

  • 16127.
    Öquist, Sofia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Stenmark, Beatrice
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Kvinnor som förebilder: En fallstudie om kvinnors karriäravancemang2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Trots uttalat jämställdhetsarbete syns inga tydliga förbättringar på toppositioner i den svenska företagsvärlden. Denna studie undersöker hur kvinnor kan avancera till toppositioner genom att studera ett företag som gått från manlig till kvinnlig dominans i styrelsen. Resultatet tyder på att de avgörande faktorerna för kvinnors karriäravancemang är graden av könsmedvetenhet, att tala om problemet, vilja till förändring, aktivt jämställdhetsarbete, kvinnliga förebilder och strukturer som främjar lika förutsättningar för män och kvinnor. Teorigenomgången svarar dels på varför kvinnor inte har kommit fram och dels på hur jämställdhet ska uppnås. Den här uppsatsen svarar på hur kvinnor har kommit fram och hur jämställdhet har uppnåtts, vilket är studiens teoretiska och framförallt praktiska bidrag.

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  • 16128.
    Öquist, Viktor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Följderna av ett aktivitetsbaserat kontor: En uppsats gällande produktivitet och arbetsmiljö2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Kontorslösningar med olika typer av utrymmen, så kallade aktivitetsbaserade kontor, blir allt vanligare  bland  svenska  organisationer.  Utspridningen  av  denna  kontorstyp  är  mycket omstridd.  Tydligt  är  att  det  vanligen  pratas  om  ämnet  ur  ett  finansiellt  kostnadssparande perspektiv. I denna uppsats har en fallstudie av en organisation som har genomgått skiftet från ett  klassiskt  cellrumskontor  till  ett  aktivitetsbaserat  kontor.  Uppsatsen  söker  svar  på frågeställningen  Hur  påverkar  implementeringen  av  ett  aktivitetsbaserat  kontor  anställdas produktivitet?. För att undersöka hur produktiviteten har påverkats används en teoretisk modell som  visar  på  en  anställds  produktivitet  är  beroende  av  den  anställdes  välmående  på arbetsplatsen. Sex stycken intervjuer  har hållits och interna dokument från organisationen har varit del av underlaget. Studiens resultat visar på att implementeringen av ett aktivitetsbaserat kontor leder till en förbättring av de anställdas välmående på arbetet och därmed en förbättring i  produktiviteten.  Utöver  detta  framkommer  det  att  organisationen  kraftigt  har  minskat  sin kontorsyta  och  att  det  aktivitetsbaserade  kontoret  därmed  är  en  metod  för  att  spara  pengar. Dessutom har studien funnit att det är av stor vikt att ledarskapet inom en organisation förändras då organisationen går från en klassisk till en aktivitetsbaserad kontorsmiljö.

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  • 16129.
    Örn, Filip
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Död och elände: Spanska sjukan och fattigdomen i Jämtlands län2020Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 16130.
    Örnhjälm, Claudius
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Philosophy.
    Dissertatio politica de foenore, quam ... sub præsidio ... Claudii Arrhenii ... examinandam proponit Petrus J. Schefferus in audit. Gust. majori ad diem [5] Junii anno Christi M.DC.LXXVIII.1678Dissertation (older thesis) (Other academic)
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  • 16131.
    Örnhjälm, Claudius
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Philosophy.
    ...Dissertatio politica de vectigalibus... præside... Claudio Arrhenio... examini modeste subjicit Nicolaus Algreen Sudermannus... A. 1679... Holmiæ, excudit Henricus Keyser...1679Dissertation (older thesis) (Other academic)
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  • 16132.
    Örnqvist, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Globalization, inflation and global output gap2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The inflation rate has been relatively low and stable in Sweden and several other economies around the world in the recent decades. This despite economic conditions that earlier has been associated with increases in the inflation rate. Simultaneously, international integration has increased and the inflation rate seem to co-move to a higher degree across countries than earlier. This set of conditions has brought up the interest for several researchers to re-consider the traditional Phillips curve relationship and evaluate whether domestic inflation rate depends on foreign factors in terms of global resource utilization. This paper address the question of global factors effects on domestic inflation for Sweden using different versions of a Phillips curve equation extended with a trade-weighted global output gap. The results indicate that global output gap affects the inflation rate in Sweden and it seem that these effects have increased over the sample period.  

  • 16133.
    Öskog, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Lidåker, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Internationalisering genom en företagsinkubator: En undersökning av svenska startups inom en expansiv rymdindustri och deras syn på internationaliseringsmöjligheter genom en företagsinkubator2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna kandidatuppsats är att undersöka internationaliseringsstrategier för svenska startups inom den expansiva rymdindustrin, specifikt internationalisering genom branschspecifika företagsinkubatorer, med fokus på den Europeiska Rymdorganisationens Företagsinkubator, ESA BIC. Forskningsmetodiken innefattar genomförandet av semistrukturerade intervjuer med deltagare som representerar ledningen för fyra svenska entreprenörsledda företag inom rymdindustrin, där de får möjlighet att utveckla sina tankar kring företagets internationaliseringsstrategi. Uppsatsens slutsats belyser företagsinkubatorers viktiga roll i att stödja startups internationaliseringsprocess, särskilt när det gäller tillgång till nätverk, finansiering och affärsplanering. Den påvisar även hur entreprenörens egna erfarenhet, existerande nätverk, och förutsättningar påverkar behovet av en inkubator.  Den belyser också utmaningar och strategiska hinder som startups möter i den konkurrenskraftiga rymdindustrin, både inom och utanför inkubatorer. Rymdindustrin är underutforskad inom detta område och därmed ger avhandlingen värdefulla insikter om företagsinkubatorers roll i internationaliseringsprocessen för startups inom rymdindustrin, och framhäver fördelar och utmaningar som är förknippade med detta.

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  • 16134.
    Östberg, Ellen
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Martínez Bergström, Katarina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Att motivera till säkert arbete: Motivation och målsättningsteori i en ny kontext2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Motstridiga mål och människans medvetna eller omedvetna strävan efter bekvämlighet kan leda till problem när företag vill motivera sina medarbetare till att arbeta mot organisationens mål. I ett företag där arbetsmiljön präglas av stora säkerhetsrisker är chefers förmåga att motivera till arbete i enlighet med företagets säkerhetsmål avgörande. En bransch som ofta sammankopplas med säkerhetsrisker är gruvbranschen. Syftet med denna studie är att förklara hur chefer inom ett gruvföretag motiverar sina medarbetare i gruvan att arbeta i enlighet med företagets säkerhetsmål. Studien har en deduktiv ansats där målsättningsteorin används som utgångspunkt. Datainsamlingen utgörs av semistrukturerade intervjuer med personer verksamma på olika befattningsnivåer inom gruvföretaget med den gemensamma nämnaren chefsposition. Studien visar att målsättningsteorin är en fruktbar teoretisk utgångspunkt och att den motivation som målsättning kan ge upphov till skapar möjlighet för chefer att påverka riktning, intensitet och uthållighet i gruvarbetarnas ansträngning. Vidare har tre begreppspar utmärkande för chefernas arbete kunnat urskiljas: generella och specifika metoder, proaktiva och reaktiva medel samt gruppen och individen som mottagare.

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    Att motivera till säkert arbete - Motivation och målsättningsteori i en ny kontext
  • 16135.
    Östberg, Joel
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Gunningberg, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Board of directors’ relationship to environmental sustainability: Differences between insiders and outsiders: A study of inside and outside board members’ cognition and reasoning when engaging in environmental sustainability issues2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to investigate how inside and outside directors differ in their cognition and reasoning in regards to environmental sustainability issues. The theoretical background derives from a cognitive view and Stakeholder theory. The paper is further based on current research regarding insiders’ and outsiders’ relationship to environmental sustainability. In order to capture the cognition and reasoning of insiders and outsiders, a Think-aloud study was conducted, interviewing a total of 20 board members in the food industry. Results from this study showed that, when faced with environmental issues, outsiders are more likely to request, repeat, ponder as well as clarify the information given. Secondly, outsiders are more likely to consider a long-term perspective. Thirdly, outsiders are more likely to consider an environmental view. Lastly, both insiders and outsiders use analogical reasoning when contemplating around environmental issues. However, insiders are more likely to draw experience from their current position or company while outsiders are more likely to draw experience from outside their current position or company when solving environmental issues.

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  • 16136.
    Östberg, Joel
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Sjögren, Emilie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Pris, varumärke och produktbetygs påverkan för hur konsumenter upplever kvalitet: Ett experiment för att undersöka till vilken grad pris, varumärke och produktbetyg påverkar hur konsumenter upplever kvaliteten av en produkt2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Konsumenter vill gärna tro att de fattar rationella beslut utifrån en produkts faktiska egenskaper. Det har däremot visat sig att konsumenter inte alltid är helt rationella utan ofta influeras av en produkts yttre stimuli, som exempelvis pris och varumärke. Vetskapen om hur yttre stimuli faktiskt påverkar konsumenters upplevda kvalitet beroende på produkt är ytterst vital och kan bistå marknadsförare med värdefull information i sitt dagliga arbete. Syftet med uppsatsen att undersöka till vilken grad yttre stimuli i form av pris, varumärke och tidigare konsumenters produktbetyg påverkar konsumentens upplevda kvalitet för en dagligvara respektive en sällanköpsvara. För att besvara syftet har fem hypoteser sammanställts utifrån vald teori. För att undersöka detta har en experimentell undersökning genomförts där respondenterna fick bedöma kvaliteten på två produkter med olika yttre stimuli närvarande. Produkterna var en dagligvara respektive en sällanköpsvara. Yttre stimuli utgjordes av olika experimentvariabler inom kategorierna pris, varumärke och tidigare konsumenters produktbetyg för att undersöka hur konsumenter upplever testprodukternas kvalitet baserat på dessa. Undersökningen indikerar att konsumenter beaktar yttre stimuli när de bedömer kvaliteten på en produkt både för undersökningens dagligvara som sällanköpsvara. Det visade sig även att olika stimuli gav olika stor effekt för hur kvaliteten upplevdes. Det yttre stimuli som visade på störst påverkan för upplevd kvalitet var produktbetyg.

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  • 16137.
    Östberg, Nils
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Bergström, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    To be or not to be – showing up on the first result page: Search engine marketing’s potential effect on brand awareness2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to examine whether search engine marketing may influence consumers’ brand awareness in terms of brand recall and brand recognition. The theoretical background derives from the definition and rationale of brand awareness. The study is further based on a theoretical outline of search engine marketing and its components. Furthermore, the Hierarchy of Effects Model is used in order to describe the steps a company may influence consumers in their purchase process. In order to capture consumers’ reasoning and behaviour in the search engine context, a two-way study approach was conducted. Firstly, by letting ten participants conduct a log related to their search engine behaviour, spanning for a period of ten days. Secondly, by conducting semi-structured interviews, using their logs as a base for further discussions. Results from this study show that search engine marketing can have an effect on consumers’ brand awareness by creating initial awareness or by building upon existing awareness. Secondly, in the context of unknown brands, the results show that it had a particular strong effect on brand recognition among the participants. Thirdly, it appeared that SEM can work as a gateway for brands and an enabler for building a brand attitude amongst its potential customers. Lastly, the website experience is a crucial step for brands in order to positively influence consumers in their purchase process. 

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    To be or not to be – showing up on the first result page
  • 16138.
    Östberg, Sara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Åsbrink, Tilda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Välkomna till verkligheten: En studie om Försvarsmaktens möjligheter att minska soldaters benägenhet till att sluta2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ijuli2010gickSverigefrånallmänvärnplikttillfrivilligmilitärutbildningochyrketsoldatblevenstatliganställningsform.Försvarsmaktenharidagsommålattsoldaternaskastannaimellansextillåttaår.Organisationenuppleverdockinulägetproblemmedenhögpersonalomsättningavsoldatersomväljerattslutaiförtid.SyftetmeddennastudieärattskapaendjupareförståelseförhurchefersomarbetarpåstrategisknivåinomFörsvarsmaktenuppleverproblematikenmeddenhögapersonalomsättningsområderidag,samtvilkamöjligheterdeharattminskasoldaternasbenägenhettillattsluta.StudienäravkvalitativkaraktärochgrundaspåfyrakvalitativaintervjuermedfyraolikachefersomarbetarpåstrategisknivåinomolikaavdelningarpåFörsvarsmakten.Istudienkommerviframtillattchefernaharbegränsademöjlighetertillattminskasoldaternasbenägenhettillattsluta.Dettaberorblandannatpåbegränsademöjligheteratterbjudasoldaternakarriär-­‐ochutvecklingsmöjligheter,skapaettvärdeianställningen,erbjudavarierandearbetsuppgifter,skickasoldaternapåutlandstjänstsamtbegränsademöjligheteriattlevaupptillsoldaternasförväntningarsomdefåttgenomdebilderavFörsvarsmaktensommålasuppimedia.

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    Kandidatuppsats Tilda Åsbrink och Sarah Östberg
  • 16139.
    Östblom, Emil
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Kottorp, Philip
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Krisen, akuten och besluten: En kvalitativ studie om beslutsfattande under kris inom akutsjukhus2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den kris som Covid-19 inneburit för samhället har få likheter med tidigare kriser. Den påverkar hela världen, och har satt en enorm press på sjukvården. Den kris som sjukhusen går igenom påverkar alla delar av verksamheten, inklusive beslutsfattandet. Denna studie undersöker hur en kris påverkar det operativa beslutsfattandet på ledningsnivå inom organisationer. Detta genomförs med hjälp av en fallstudie av hur Södersjukhuset har påverkats av Covid-19-pandemin. Med utgångspunkt i tidigare forskning som säger att beslutsfattande centraliseras vid kriser har beslutsfattande undersökts före och under krisen genom intervjuer och analys av dokument. Resultatet visar att operativa beslut fattas med mindre beslutsunderlag, samt att beslutsprocesser är mer centraliserade och något mer experimentella i kris.

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    fulltext
  • 16140.
    Östborn, Johannes
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Den konkurrensreglerade marknaden: om vägtransportsektorns etableringskontroll och institutionella förhållanden.1997Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 16141.
    Östborn, Johannes
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Fredga, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Handelns första arbetsdomstol? Hall- och manufakturrätten i Stockholm under 1800-talets förra hälft.1994Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
  • 16142.
    Öster, Ella Erika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Sjögren, Emilie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Percy Barnevik’s 200 Advice- Corporate Bullshit or Scientifically Proven Praxis: A picture of how well Guru Theory in general and Percy Barnevik specifically is connected to management research and practice2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Percy Barnevik is one example of a renowned leader publishing a book, “Leadership- 200 advice”, on his experiences as a manager. The overall quantity of this so called Guru Literature on the market demonstrate that it exist a great interest in advice from business leaders but further raise a question of soundness of the advice. The aim with the thesis is to generate a picture of how well Guru Theory in general and Percy Barnevik specifically is connected to management research and practice. What constitute evidence is often debated within the management research field and scholars mean that one cannot assume a fact without any evidence created from research. This leads to a discussion about rigor and relevance and how management research should be designed to create a rigorous study, without overshadowing its practical relevance to the operating business. To answer the research question, interviews were executed with complementary questionnaires. In order to create a picture of what kind of anchoring Barnevik’s advice have in management theory a literature review was conducted. It is possible to see that the majority of the practitioners compared to research have a different level of cohesiveness with Barnevik regarding the studied advice. Practitioners, tend to a high level agree with Barnevik although management research stand for a more hesitant approach. Our conclusions are that management researchers should consider Guru Theory to a greater extent rather than discard it. This we believe could generate relevant research contributions to practitioners and add rigor to an unscientific field of theories 

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  • 16143.
    Öster, Hedvig
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Jonze, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Employer Branding in Human Resource Management: The Importance of Recruiting and Retaining Employees2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Problem: Companies are facing problems concerning the attraction and retention of talented employees, due to the shortage of individuals with competence. Employer Branding is a relatively new concept that can function as an instrument for firms to position themselves as an employer, in order to attract and retain wanted employees.

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to examine the field of Employer Branding in the context of recruitment and retaining. The study examines the questions of how and why Employer Branding is implemented in firms and what role such implementation plays in Human Resource Management, in the context of recruitment and retaining processes.

    Methodology: This study has been made with a qualitative approach, with a descriptive and exploratory purpose a case study approach. Data has primarily been collected through interviews at five different companies with knowledge within the area of Employer Branding.

    Findings: Employer Branding can be utilized both externally to attract potential employees, and internally to increase commitment and loyalty among current employees. In the context of recruitment, Employer Branding can make the process more effective. For the Employer Brand to be trustworthy and successful the consistency between the internal values and the external image is vital.

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    Employer Branding in Human Resource Management
  • 16144.
    Öster, Hedvig
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Winberg, Jessica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Organization and Management of Coopetition: Trust the Competition, Not the Competitor2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the search for innovation, high technology firms in the same industries turn to each other for R&D collaborations. The collaboration form where competitors cooperate have been defined as “coopetition” and the term builds on the interplay between competitive and cooperative forces. While coopetition brings benefits such as shared risks and costs, it implies organizational and managerial challenges as two opposing logics merge. This complexity calls for a deeper understanding of how firms organize and manage coopetition and why they organization and manage coopetition in the way they do. This thesis is set to answer these questions by empirically investigate coopetition at a case firm active in a high technology context with a long experience of collaborating with competitors. By acknowledging coopetition as a phenomenon carried out in the shape of projects, the internal organization and management could been thoroughly understood as project management allows a more detailed view of coopetition. Key findings concludes that in this empirical context, finance is the prior reason for engaging in coopetition, competitive forces are superior to cooperative forces in coopetition projects and that coopetition influence innovation more through contributing with funding than by an exchange of knowledge between competitors. All these aspects are further stated to impact organization and management of coopetition. 

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  • 16145.
    Öster, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Hammarström, Ester
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    The Swedish PR Consulting Industry - Development, Structure, and Professionalism2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There has been a rapid expansion of the PR and information industry during the last few years. An expansion like this might lead to structural changes in an industry. The aim of this thesis is to describe a part of this industry, namely the Swedish PR consulting industry, in terms of its development, structure and professionalism. Web sites of the consultancies in the industry has been analyzed. Furthermore, interviews have been conducted with three leading individuals in the industry. Structural changes can be seen since there is a trend towards further specialization among the consultancies. Some of the most common criteria for an industry to be characterized by professionalism are not achieved, but the industry is characterized by an aim towards increased professionalism.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 16146.
    Österberg, Anton
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Elcar, Alexander
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    En strukturerad kulturplan blir verklighet och styr kulturen rätt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En organisationskultur är en komplex sammansättning av antaganden som planeras av en ledning, men byggs upp av de anställda inom ett företag över en längre tid. En hälsosam företagskultur är en betydande tillgång för ett företag. Den kan stärka samhörigheten, stötta organisationen och stärka produktiviteten. För att en kultur ska fungera som tänkt behöver faktorer såsom kommunikation, delaktighet och samhörighet samexistera. Att bygga en kultur från grunden är en komplicerad process som hänger på att de tänkta “byggklossarna” är tydliga för alla. 

    När en organisation av olika skäl upplever att kulturen behöver reformeras uppstår liknande frågor. Vad vill vi uppnå med den utvecklade kulturen och hur skall den stötta företagets aktiviteter? Hur kan vi få en bred uppslutning och förståelse kring kulturen och kulturarbetet från alla delar av organisationen? 

    Följande studie syftar till att studera hur ett mindre företag aktivt arbetat med att förändra sin företagskultur. I denna förändring var många från organisationen delaktiga. Organisationen i denna studie följde i sin kulturförändring en strukturerad plan med ett antal hörnstenar för att uppnå önskat resultat. I förändringsprocessen användes inget teoretiskt stöd utan arbetet utgick endast från organisationens egna initiativ och erfarenheter. 

    För att studera och analysera vårt utvalda företags kulturarbete har vi använt en analysmodell som bygger på teorin Culture Management Plan (Flamholtz & Randle, 2011). Den omfattar hela processen, från målsättningar med kulturen, skapandet av redskap till genomförandet av kulturreformeringen. 

    För att undersöka detta har fem intervjuer med ledning och medarbetare på företaget gjorts. Företaget verkar inom marknadsföring och har identifierat ett behov att uppdatera företagskulturen. Vårt arbete visar att en ökad delaktighet från hela organisationen kan ha en mycket positiv effekt för utfallet. Vi kan konstatera från vår analys att bolagets process har mycket stora likheter med den föreslagna teoretiska modellen Culture Management Plan. Vi anser att ledningen iGoMoon kan använda modellen som ett stöd i sitt arbete med att på effektivt sätt löpande utveckla kulturen. 

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  • 16147.
    Österberg, Emelie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    The Trend, the Cycle and the Output Gap: A Decomposition of Swedish GDP2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The first aim of this thesis is to decompose real GDP for Swedeninto a trend and a cyclical component. By identifying a state spacerepresentation and using a Kalman filter I find the latent stochastic trendand the stationary cycle. The relationship between the two componentsis studied to find whether it is the stochastic trend or the cycle thataccounts for most of the unexpected variation in real GDP. The secondaim is to compare the extracted cycle to two commonly used indicatorsof the output gap: capacity utilization and unemployment. I find thatthe cycle is quite closely related to both variables, indicating that thecycle reflects the output gap to a large extent.

  • 16148.
    Österberg, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Ett försök till maktanalys av riksdagsdebatten kring kvinnors behörighet till statlig tjänst 1923.1997Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 16149.
    Österbergh, Robert
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Market-assisted Land Reform and Poverty Alleviation in Brazil's Northeast: A Study of the State of Pernambuco2001Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
  • 16150.
    Österdahl, Gabriel
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Hånberg, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Cross-Cultural Training of Expatriates: A Case Study of Ericsson2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Adjustment to a new culture is a slow and step-wise process, which can be facilitated by cross-cultural training. First, a comprehensive review of current theories about cross-cultural adjustment and different training techniques is presented. Then, the study looks at the preparation and training of expatriates at Ericsson in relation to these theories. In-depth interviews with two Area Managers at Ericsson have been carried out in order to establish how the company’s training program is structured. We found that Ericsson follows a sequential model with both pre-departure and post-arrival training, mainly didactic in nature. The pre-departure training is very culturegeneral, whereas the post-arrival training is more specific for the host culture. The post-arrival training is, however, not offered in all host countries. Language training is also offered, and expatriates are encouraged to visit the host country prior to the departure. Many components in Ericsson’s training program are supported by theory,but several other techniques described in the theory are not in use. A suggestion is made to further formalize the post-arrival training and make the overall training more culture-specific.

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    FULLTEXT02
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