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  • 1751.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics. Karolinska Institutet.
    Editorial - The Santa Body Size Index (SBSI)2007In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 10, no 12, p. 1415-1416Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1752.
    Yngve, Agneta
    et al.
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekelund, Ulf
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Social Marketing in Public Health Nutriton: also for Nordic countries?2001In: Physical activity: a part of healthy eating? : report from a Nordic Seminar, Lahti, Finland, February 2000 / [ed] Mikael Fogelholm, København, 2001, p. 79-87Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1753.
    Yngve, Agneta
    et al.
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekelund, Ulf
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Social Marketing in Public Health Nutriton: also for Nordic countries?2001In: Physical activity: a part of healthy eating? : report from a Nordic Seminar, Lahti, Finland, February 2000 / [ed] Mikael Fogelholm, København, 2001, p. 79-87Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1754.
    Yngve, Agneta
    et al.
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Kylberg, Elisabeth
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Breast-feeding in Europe - rationale and prevalence, challenges and possibilities for promotion2001In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 4, no 6A, p. 1353-1355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The status reports and other information collected showed that interpretation of the data on breast-feeding prevalence and duration collected at national or regional level within European countries is difficult, since this information is not collected in every country or it is gathered under different criteria. However, there seem to be vast differences in prevalence of breast-fed children and breast-feeding duration between European countries and possibly within countries. There is a need to establish monitoring systems enabling comparability of data between countries. Assessing determinants for breast-feeding is required as well. There are a number of important consensus documents supporting breast-feeding action. These documents are related to either one or more of the following categories: health benefits of breast-feeding; recommendations regarding breast-feeding duration and exclusiveness; providing guidance on breast-feeding promotion. Current recommendation is exclusive breast-feeding for 6 months.

  • 1755.
    Yngve, Agneta
    et al.
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden .
    Sjöström, Michael
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; Department of Physical Education and Health, University of Örebro, Örebro, Sweden .
    Breastfeeding determinants and a suggested framework for action in Europe2001In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 4, no 2B, p. 729-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a background paper for the EURODIET initiative. A number of international initiatives and documents were identified, such as the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative, the International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes and a number of consensus reports from professional groups, that propose ways forward for breastfeeding promotion. These point at a range of initiatives on different levels. The determinants for successful breastfeeding have to be identified. They can be categorised into five groups; socio-demographic, psycho-social, health care related, community- and policy attributes. A framework for future breastfeeding promoting efforts on European level is suggested, within which these determinants are considered. A common surveillance system needs to be built in Europe, where determinants of breastfeeding are included. There is also a need for a surveillance system which makes it possible to use the collected data on local level, not only on national and supranational level. Combined with a thorough review of the effectiveness of already existing breastfeeding promotion programmes, a co-ordinated EU-EFTA action plan on breastfeeding should be formulated and implemented within a few years. Urgent action could take place in parallel, especially targeting young, low-income, less educated mothers.

  • 1756.
    Yngve, Agneta
    et al.
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Sjöström, Michael
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Breastfeeding in countries of the European Union and EFTA: current and proposed recommendations, rationale, prevalence, duration and trends2001In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 4, no 2B, p. 631-645Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recommendations suggest exclusive breast feeding for at least the first 4 to 6 months after birth. Paradoxically, an overwhelming proportion of breast feeding (BF) data in Europe refers to all BF, i.e. not only exclusive but also partial BF (including formula, juices, water, sweetened water etc). This makes it difficult to estimate to what extent the recommendations are met. There is currently strong evidence for recommending exclusive breast feeding for at least 6 months. Exclusive BF has progressively gained scientific support. Prevention of infections, allergies and chronic diseases and a favourable cognitive development are highlighted in the recent scientific literature. Further long-term studies on the effects of BF on prevention of chronic disease in the adult are needed. Great differences exist in BF prevalence and duration both within and between European countries. Trends point towards higher prevalence and duration, with some exceptions. Young mothers breast feed less than older mothers; single and/or less educated mothers breast feed less than married mothers with more education. However, inefficient and unreliable monitoring systems prevail, and the data are scarce, not only on exclusive BF but also on demographic, socio-economic, psychosocial and medical determinants of BF patterns. National BF coordinators have not been appointed in many countries, and only every second country has promotion of BF incorporated into their national plan of action for nutrition.

    Conclusions: Efficient surveillance systems, comparable across Europe and using common definitions and methodology, need to be developed. These should include determinants of breast feeding. A European consensus conference should urgently be organised, in which strategies for successful promotion of exclusive BF should be particularly considered. There is now strong evidence for a recommendation to breast feed exclusively for about 6 months, which is more than the duration recommended previously.

  • 1757.
    Yngve, Agneta
    et al.
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; Department of Physical Education and Health, University of Örebro, Örebro, Sweden:.
    Warm, Daniel
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; Institue of Human Nutrition, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.
    Margetts, Barrie
    Institue of Human Nutrition, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.
    Rodrigo, Carmen Pérez
    Community Nutrition Unit, Department of Public Health, Bilbao, Spain.
    Nissinen, Aulikki
    Department of Community Health and General Practice, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland.
    Effective promotion of healthy nutrition and physical activity in Europe requires skilled and competent people: European Master's Programme in Public Health Nutrition1999In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 2, no 3A, p. 449-452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scientists in basic research and epidemiology deliver messages to policy makers. Effective population based strategies then require people trained and competent in the discipline of Public Health Nutrition (PHN). Since 1997, a European Master's Programme in PHN has been undergoing planning and implementation with the aid of funding from the European Commission (DGV). PHN is used as a broad term covering Nutrition and Physical Activity as well as Health Promotion and Disease Prevention.

    The partners in this project are academic departments from 17 countries. The students will undertake core modules and electives for a year and a half, followed by a research project for six months. In order to set up formalised procedures for the evaluation of the quality assurance of individual modules from across Europe, a quality assurance system has been set up.

    The academic year 1999-2000 will allow an opportunity for Universities and Institutes to start new modules, to develop other modules, assess the movement of students between modules, tackle funding issues and allow further marketing of the programme. Future activities include strengthening of the European Network for Public Health Nutrition (ENPHN), the establishment of a consortium with universities, the co-ordination of programme activities with other European Master's Programmes in Public Health, and the incorporation of new Member States from Eastern Europe.

    We can look forward to a new brand of professionals, who are truly European in their training, but who also have an integrated view of nutrition and physical activity, health promotion and disease prevention and who are prepared for policy making, action planning, implementation and evaluation.

  • 1758.
    Yngve, Agneta
    et al.
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences at Novum, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Strindlund, Åsa
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences at Novum, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences at Novum, Huddinge, Sweden.
    The development of a European master programme in public health nutrition2003In: Forum of nutrition, ISSN 1660-0347, Vol. 56, p. 135-136Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1759.
    Yngve, Agneta
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Biosci & Nutr, S-10401 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tseng, Marilyn
    Haapala, Irja
    Hodge, Allison
    A robust and knowledgeable workforce is essential for public health nutrition policy implementation2012In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 15, no 11, p. 1979-1980Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 1760.
    Yngve, Agneta
    et al.
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden .
    Warm, D
    Institute of Human Nutrition, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom.
    Landman, J
    Queen Margaret University College, Edinburgh, United Kingdom; Nutrition Society, London, United Kingdom .
    Sjöström, M
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge, Sweden; Department of Physical Education and Health, University of Örebro, Sweden.
    A european master's programme in public health nutrition2001In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 4, no 6A, p. 1389-1391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effective population-based strategies require people trained and competent in the discipline of Public Health Nutrition. Since 1997, a European Master's Programme in Public Health Nutrition has been undergoing planning and implementation, by establishing initial quality assurance systems with the aid of funding from the European Commission (DG SANCO/F3). Partners from 17 European countries have been involved in the process. A European Network of Public Health Nutrition has been developed and accredited by the European Commission.

  • 1761.
    Yngve, Agneta
    et al.
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition/Biosciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden;.
    Wolf, Alexandra
    nstitute for Nutritional Sciences, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Poortvliet, Eric
    Department of Biosciences, Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Elmadfa, Ibrahim
    nstitute for Nutritional Sciences, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Brug, Johannes
    Department of Public Health, Erasmus University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Ehrenblad, Bettina
    Department of Biosciences, Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Franchini, Bela
    Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Haraldsdóttir, Jóhanna
    Research Department of Human Nutrition, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Krølner, Rikke
    Department of Social Medicine, Institute of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Maes, Lea
    Department of Public Health, Ghent University, Ghent , Belgium.
    Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen
    Community Nutrition Unit, Bilbao, Spain.
    Sjoström, Michael
    Department of Biosciences, Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Thórsdóttir, Inga
    Unit for Nutrition Research, Landspitali University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland; Department of Food Science, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Klepp, Knut-Inge
    Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway .
    Fruit and vegetable intake in a sample of 11-year-old children in 9 European countries: the pro children cross-sectional survey2005In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 49, no 4, p. 236-245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: An adequate fruit and vegetable intake provides essential nutrients and nutritive compounds and is considered an important part of a healthy lifestyle. No simple instrument has been available for the assessment of fruit and vegetable intake as well as its determinants in school-aged children applicable in different European countries. Within the Pro Children Project, such an instrument has been developed. This paper describes the cross-sectional survey in 11-year-olds in 9 countries.

    METHODS: The cross-sectional survey used nationally, and in 2 countries regionally, representative samples of schools and classes. The questionnaires, including a precoded 24-hour recall component and a food frequency part, were completed in the classroom. Data were treated using common syntax files for portion sizes and for merging of vegetable types into four subgroups.

    RESULTS: The results show that the fruit and vegetable intake in amounts and choice were highly diverse in the 9 participating countries. Vegetable intake was in general lower than fruit intake, boys consumed less fruit and vegetables than girls did. The highest total intake according to the 24-hour recall was found in Austria and Portugal, the lowest in Spain and Iceland.

    CONCLUSION: The fruit and vegetable intake in 11-year-old children was in all countries far from reaching population goals and food-based dietary guidelines on national and international levels.

  • 1762.
    Yu, Zhaohua
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology.
    Persson, Rolf
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Öhgren, Johan
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Sandberg, Stig
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Hörberg, Ulf
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Berglund, Folke
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Karlsson, Kjell
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Steinvall, Ove
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Söderberg, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology.
    Green light laser exposure at 532nm near the exposure limit during a human volunteer vehicle driving task does not alter structure or function in the visual system2014In: Journal of laser applications, ISSN 1042-346X, E-ISSN 1938-1387, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 022009-1-022009-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to verify nonexistence of clinically important pathological effects to the visual system after exposure to 532 nm green laser light close to the exposure limit. The present medical surveillance of vision and visual health reported in this paper is the conjunction with a study of driver performance in the presence of 532 nm laser induced glare. The driving time varied between 25 and 55 s, depending on background luminance. The laser was on during the complete test drive. The peak corneal irradiance typically was 3.5Wm2 in one test drive. Considering a typical test drive, the typical time integrated corneal radiant exposure for one test drive was estimated to be 53 J/m2. The number of test drives varied among drivers but was typically 50, thus resulting in a cumulative corneal exposure dose of approximately 2.7 kJ/m2. Altogether, ten subjects were recruited according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. All ten subjects were examined for visual acuity, intraocular pressure, contrast sensitivity, color vision, monocular reading speed, and eye structure with clinical slit-lamp microscopy examination and indirect retinoscopy. All subjects were examined before exposure, immediately after exposure, and finally within an interval between 1 week and 4 weeks after exposure. There was no significant change of visual acuity, intraocular pressure, contrast sensitivity, color vision, or monocular reading speed between before and after exposure. No abnormal ocular structure was detected after exposure. This study demonstrates that close to exposure limit, exposure to 532 nm green laser light during a vehicle driving task does not induce structural or functional damage to the human visual system as observed in the interval minutes to weeks after exposure.

  • 1763.
    Yuan, Beibei
    et al.
    Division of Global Health (IHCAR), Department of Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Målqvist, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Trygg, Nadja
    Division of Global Health (IHCAR), Department of Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Qian, Xu
    School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
    Ng, Nawi
    Unit of Epidemiology and Global Health, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Thomsen, Sarah
    Division of Global Health (IHCAR), Department of Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    What interventions are effective on reducing inequalities in maternal and child health in low- and middle-income settings?: A systematic review2014In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 14, p. 634-Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The deadline for achieving Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 is approaching, but inequalities between disadvantaged and other populations is a significant barrier for progress towards achieving these goals. This systematic review aims to collect evidence about the differential effects of interventions on different sociodemographic groups in order to identify interventions that were effective in reducing maternal or child health inequalities. Methods: We searched the PubMed, EMBASE and other relevant databases. The reference lists of included reviews were also screened to find more eligible studies. We included experimental or observational studies that assessed the effects of interventions on maternal and child health, but only studies that report quantitative inequality outcomes were finally included for analysis. Results: 22 articles about the effectiveness of interventions on equity in maternal and child health were finally included. These studies covered five kinds of interventions: immunization campaigns, nutrition supplement programs, health care provision improvement interventions, demand side interventions, and mixed interventions. The outcome indicators covered all MDG 4 and three MDG 5 outcomes. None of the included studies looked at equity in maternal mortality, adolescent birth rate and unmet need for family planning. The included studies reported inequalities based on gender, income, education level or comprehensive socioeconomic status. Stronger or moderate evidence showed that all kinds of the included interventions may be more effective in improving maternal or child health for those from disadvantaged groups. Conclusion: Studies about the effectiveness of interventions on equity in maternal or child health are limited. The limited evidence showed that the interventions that were effective in reducing inequity included the improvement of health care delivery by outreach methods, using human resources in local areas or provided at the community level nearest to residents and the provision of financial or knowledge support to demand side.

  • 1764.
    Zander, Viktoria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning i Sörmland (CKFD). Karolinska Inst, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Swedish Red Cross Univ Coll, Dept Nursing & Care, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Christensson, Kyllike
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Müllersdorf, Maria
    Sch Hlth Care & Social Welf, Eskilstuna, Vasteras, Sweden.
    Rehabilitation of Women From the Middle East Living With Chronic Pain-Perceptions From Health Care Professionals.2014In: Health Care for Women International, ISSN 0739-9332, E-ISSN 1096-4665, Vol. 11, p. 1194-1207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Meeting patients from other countries constitutes a challenge for health care. The purpose of this study was to increase knowledge about tacit understandings of treatment in practice by determining the perceptions of chronic pain and rehabilitation directed to resettled women from the Middle East, from a variety of health care professionals within primary care. Based on the results, we find a need to support and increase knowledge among health care professionals to involve the patient and consider her beliefs, expectations, background, current life situation, and spirituality, and to involve family in rehabilitation.

  • 1765.
    Zanetti, Daniela
    et al.
    Stanford Univ, Sch Med, Dept Med, Div Cardiovasc Med, 300 Pasteur Dr,Mail Code 5773, Stanford, CA 94305 USA;Stanford Univ, Sch Med, Stanford Cardiovasc Inst, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.
    Tikkanen, Emmi
    Stanford Univ, Sch Med, Dept Med, Div Cardiovasc Med, 300 Pasteur Dr,Mail Code 5773, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.
    Gustafsson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular epidemiology. Stanford University School of Medicine, CA..
    Priest, James R.
    Stanford Univ, Sch Med, Div Cardiol, Dept Pediat, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.
    Burgess, Stephen
    Univ Cambridge, Biostat Unit, MRC, Cambridge, England;Univ Cambridge, Dept Publ Hlth & Primary Care, Cambridge, England.
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular epidemiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Stanford Univ, Sch Med, Dept Med, Div Cardiovasc Med, 300 Pasteur Dr,Mail Code 5773, Stanford, CA 94305 USA;Stanford Univ, Sch Med, Stanford Cardiovasc Inst, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.
    Birthweight, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, and Cardiovascular Disease Addressing the Barker Hypothesis With Mendelian Randomization2018In: CIRCULATION-GENOMIC AND PRECISION MEDICINE, ISSN 2574-8300, Vol. 11, no 6, article id UNSP e002054Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Low birthweight has been associated with a higher risk of hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), and cardiovascular disease. The Barker hypothesis posits that intrauterine growth restriction resulting in lower birthweight is causal for these diseases, but causality is difficult to infer from observational studies. METHODS: We performed regression analyses to assess associations of birthweight with cardiovascular disease and T2D in 237 631 individuals from the UK Biobank. Further, we assessed the causal relationship of such associations using Mendelian randomization. RESULTS: In the observational analyses, birthweight showed inverse associations with systolic and diastolic blood pressure (beta, -0.83 and -0.26; per raw unit in outcomes and SD change in birthweight; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.90 to -0.75 and -0.31 to -0.22, respectively), T2D (odds ratio, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.79-0.87), lipid-lowering treatment (odds ratio, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.81-0.86), and coronary artery disease (hazard ratio, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.78-0.94), whereas the associations with adult body mass index and body fat (beta, 0.04 and 0.02; per SD change in outcomes and birthweight; 95% CI, 0.03-0.04 and 0.01-0.02, respectively) were positive. The Mendelian randomization analyses indicated inverse causal associations of birthweight with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, 2-hour glucose, coronary artery disease, and T2D and positive causal association with body mass index but no associations with blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that lower birthweight, used as a proxy for intrauterine growth retardation, is causally related with increased susceptibility to coronary artery disease and T2D. This causal relationship is not mediated by adult obesity or hypertension.

  • 1766.
    Zeeb, H.
    et al.
    Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol BIPS, Bremen, Germany.
    Phillimore, J.
    Univ Birmingham, Inst Superdivers, Birmingham, W Midlands, England.
    Knecht, M.
    Univ Bremen, Dept Anthropol & Cultural Res, Bremen, Germany.
    Padilla, B.
    Univ Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Bradby, Hannah
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Pemberton, S.
    Univ Keele, Keele, Staffs, England.
    Brand, T.
    Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol BIPS, Bremen, Germany.
    Transnational healthcare usage in superdiverse neighbourhoods: survey results from European countries2018In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 28, no Supplement: 1, p. 43-43Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 1767.
    Zelaya Blandon, Elmer
    et al.
    Asociac Desarrollo Econ & Sostenible El Espino AP, Chinandega, Nicaragua.;UNAN Leon, Leon, Nicaragua..
    Källestål, Carina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Peña, Rodolfo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health. Pan Amer Hlth Org, San Salvador, El Salvador..
    Pérez, Wilton
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Berglund, Staffan
    Malmo Univ, Fac Hlth & Soc, Malmo, Sweden..
    Contreras, Mariela
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Persson, Lars-Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, Dept Infect Dis Epidemiol, London, England..
    Breaking the cycles of poverty: Strategies, achievements, and lessons learned in Los Cuatro Santos, Nicaragua, 1990-20142017In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 10, article id 1272884Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In a post-war frontier area in north-western Nicaragua that was severely hit by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, local stakeholders embarked on and facilitated multi-dimensional development initiatives to break the cycles of poverty. Objective: The aim of this paper is to describe the process of priority-setting, and the strategies, guiding principles, activities, achievements, and lessons learned in these local development efforts from 1990 to 2014 in the Cuatro Santos area, Nicaragua. Methods: Data were derived from project records and a Health and Demographic Surveillance System that was initiated in 2004. The area had 25,893 inhabitants living in 5,966 households in 2014. Results: A participatory process with local stakeholders and community representatives resulted in a long-term strategic plan. Guiding principles were local ownership, political reconciliation, consensus decision-making, social and gender equity, an environmental and public health perspective, and sustainability. Local data were used in workshops with communities to re-prioritise and formulate new goals. The interventions included water and sanitation, house construction, microcredits, environmental protection, school breakfasts, technical training, university scholarships, home gardening, breastfeeding promotion, and maternity waiting homes. During the last decade, the proportion of individuals living in poverty was reduced from 79 to 47%. Primary school enrolment increased from 70 to 98% after the start of the school breakfast program. Under-five mortality was around 50 per 1,000 live births in 1990 and again peaked after Hurricane Mitch and was approaching 20 per 1,000 in 2014. Several of the interventions have been scaled up as national programs. Conclusions: The lessons learned from the Cuatro Santos initiative underline the importance of a bottom- up approach and local ownership of the development process, the value of local data for monitoring and evaluation, and the need for multi-dimensional local interventions to break the cycles of poverty and gain better health and welfare.

  • 1768.
    Zethelius, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Kapitel 11: Fetma och övervikt2009In: Diabetes / [ed] Carl-David Agardh, Christian Berne, Stockholm: Liber , 2009, 4. uppl., p. 114-126Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1769.
    Zetterlund, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hälsofrämjande fysisk aktivitet hos personer under adjuvant cancerbehandling relaterad till fatigue, livskvalitet samt self-efficacy2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) and low quality of life are prevalent among people undergoing adjuvant cancer treatment. Health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA) protects from these negative consequences. HEPA in turn, is influenced by exercise-related self-efficacy.

    Aim

    To describe levels of HEPA among people undergoing adjuvant cancer treatment at diagnosis and after six months, and to determine if those with a stable a HEPA had lower CRF, higher quality of life and exercise-related self-efficacy compared to those without a stable HEPA.

    Method

    Cohort study with a comparative, prospective design. Baseline and six-months data (n=45) were collected from a larger longitudinal study, by accelerometer (SWA) and three questionnaires (FACIT-F, EORTC QLQ C30, EBSS). Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and independent t-test (P <0.10).

    Result

    Among the 45 included, 26 (48%) had a stable HEPA. This group was significantly different at six months compared to the group without a stable HEPA in CRF: (M=41, SD=10.3) to (M=33, SD=10.6), t(43)=7.3, p=0.027, general quality of life (M=72, SD=19.7) to (M=60, SD=19.4), t(43)=11.4, p=0.010, perceived function: (M=87, SD=13.3) to (M=76, SD=16.5), t (43)=11.0, p=0.014 and perceived symptoms: (M=14, SD=10.0) to (M=23, SD=18.1), t(43)= - 9.4, p=0.031. No difference was found between the groups regarding exercise-related self-efficacy.

    Conclusion

    The results indicated that a large proportion of people undergoing adjuvant cancer treatment have a stable HEPA and these people report better health such as lower CRF and higher quality of life compared to those without a stable HEPA. Larger studies are needed to allow firm conclusions.

  • 1770.
    Zhao, Zhuohui
    et al.
    Fudan Univ, Minist Educ, Key Lab Publ Hlth Safety, Sch Publ Hlth,Minist Hlth,Key Lab Hlth Technol As, Shanghai 200433, Peoples R China..
    Chen, Renjie
    Fudan Univ, Minist Educ, Key Lab Publ Hlth Safety, Sch Publ Hlth,Minist Hlth,Key Lab Hlth Technol As, Shanghai 200433, Peoples R China.;Fudan Univ, Shanghai Key Lab Atmospher Particle Pollut & Prev, Shanghai 200433, Peoples R China..
    Lin, Zhijing
    Fudan Univ, Minist Educ, Key Lab Publ Hlth Safety, Sch Publ Hlth,Minist Hlth,Key Lab Hlth Technol As, Shanghai 200433, Peoples R China..
    Cai, Jing
    Fudan Univ, Minist Educ, Key Lab Publ Hlth Safety, Sch Publ Hlth,Minist Hlth,Key Lab Hlth Technol As, Shanghai 200433, Peoples R China.;Fudan Univ, Shanghai Key Lab Atmospher Particle Pollut & Prev, Shanghai 200433, Peoples R China..
    Yang, Yingying
    Fudan Univ, Minist Educ, Key Lab Publ Hlth Safety, Sch Publ Hlth,Minist Hlth,Key Lab Hlth Technol As, Shanghai 200433, Peoples R China..
    Yang, Dandan
    Shanghai Key Lab Meteorol & Hlth, Shanghai, Peoples R China..
    Norbäck, Dan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Kan, Haidong
    Fudan Univ, Minist Educ, Key Lab Publ Hlth Safety, Sch Publ Hlth,Minist Hlth,Key Lab Hlth Technol As, Shanghai 200433, Peoples R China.;Fudan Univ, Shanghai Key Lab Atmospher Particle Pollut & Prev, Shanghai 200433, Peoples R China..
    Ambient carbon monoxide associated with alleviated respiratory inflammation in healthy young adults2016In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 208, p. 294-298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is increasing controversy on whether acute exposure to ambient carbon monoxide (CO) is hazardous on respiratory health. We therefore performed a longitudinal panel study to evaluate the acute effects of ambient CO on fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), a well-established biomarker of airway inflammation. We completed 4-6 rounds of health examinations among 75 healthy young adults during April to June in 2013 in Shanghai, China. We applied the linear mixed-effect model to investigate the short-term associations between CO and FeNO. CO exposure during 2-72 h preceding health tests was significantly associated with decreased FeNO levels. For example, an interquartile range increase (0.3 mg/m(3)) of 2-h CO exposure corresponded to 10.6% decrease in FeNO. This association remained when controlling for the concomitant exposure to co-pollutants. This study provided support that short-term exposure to ambient CO might be related with reduced levels of FeNO, a biomarker of lower airway inflammation.

  • 1771. Zheng, Yi Wu
    et al.
    Lai, Xu Xin
    Zhao, De Yu
    Zhang, Chun Qing
    Chen, Jian Jun
    Zhang, Luo
    Wei, Qing Yu
    Chen, Shi
    Liu, En Mei
    Norbäck, Dan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Gjesing, Birgitte
    Zhong, Nan Shan
    Spangfort, D Michael
    Indoor Allergen Levels and Household Distributions in Nine Cities Across China2015In: Biomedical and environmental sciences, ISSN 0895-3988, E-ISSN 2214-0190, Vol. 28, no 10, p. 709-717Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Chinese allergic subjects have high levels of sensitization to house dust mite (HDM) and other indoor allergens. This study quantifies common indoor allergen levels in Chinese households.

    METHODS: Dust samples were collected from nine cities. Major allergens Der p 1 and Der f 1 from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and D. farinae, and specific antigens of Blomia tropicalis, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Acarus siro, and cockroach species Blattella germanica and Periplaneta americana were measured by ELISA.

    RESULTS: HDM allergens were found in dust samples from bedding in 95% of the Chinese households. The median levels varied from <0.006 to 9.2 µg/g of dust, depending on the city. The percentages of households having HDM allergen levels associated with the risk of developing allergy sensitization and asthma were 65% and 25%, respectively. Specific antigens of the storage mite and cockroach were only found in samples from the southern and tropical regions of China. Levels of mite allergens were generally higher in samples from bedding compared to samples from the living room, even for storage mites, whereas levels of cockroach antigens were higher in the living room samples.

    CONCLUSION: HDM allergens are present in bedding dust samples from most Chinese households. Cities in southern and central China have relatively high levels of HDM major allergens compared to cities in northern and western China. Antigens of storage mites and cockroaches are not as common as HDM allergens.

  • 1772. Zhong, Jia
    et al.
    Karlsson, Oskar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Center for Molecular Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wang, Guan
    Li, Jun
    Guo, Yichen
    Lin, Xinyi
    Zemplenyi, Michele
    Sanchez-Guerra, Marco
    Trevisi, Letizia
    Urch, Bruce
    Speck, Mary
    Liang, Liming
    Coull, Brent A
    Koutrakis, Petros
    Silverman, Frances
    Gold, Diane R
    Wu, Tangchun
    Baccarelli, Andrea A
    B vitamins attenuate the epigenetic effects of ambient fine particles in a pilot human intervention trial2017In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 114, no 13, p. 3503-3508Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Acute exposure to fine particle (PM2.5) induces DNA methylation changes implicated in inflammation and oxidative stress. We conducted a crossover trial to determine whether B-vitamin supplementation averts such changes. Ten healthy adults blindly received a 2-h, controlled-exposure experiment to sham under placebo, PM2.5 (250 μg/m(3)) under placebo, and PM2.5 (250 μg/m(3)) under B-vitamin supplementation (2.5 mg/d folic acid, 50 mg/d vitamin B6, and 1 mg/d vitamin B12), respectively. We profiled epigenome-wide methylation before and after each experiment using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip in peripheral CD4(+) T-helper cells. PM2.5 induced methylation changes in genes involved in mitochondrial oxidative energy metabolism. B-vitamin supplementation prevented these changes. Likewise, PM2.5 depleted 11.1% [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.4%, 21.7%; P = 0.04] of mitochondrial DNA content compared with sham, and B-vitamin supplementation attenuated the PM2.5 effect by 102% (Pinteraction = 0.01). Our study indicates that individual-level prevention may be used to complement regulations and control potential mechanistic pathways underlying the adverse PM2.5 effects, with possible significant public health benefit in areas with frequent PM2.5 peaks.

  • 1773.
    Zhou, Ang
    et al.
    Univ South Australia, Australian Ctr Precis Hlth, Adelaide, SA, Australia.
    Taylor, Amy E.
    Univ Bristol, MRC Integrat Epidemiol Unit IEU, Bristol, Avon, England;Univ Bristol, UKCTAS, Bristol, Avon, England;Univ Bristol, Sch Expt Psychol, Bristol, Avon, England.
    Karhunen, Ville
    Univ Oulu, Ctr Life Course Hlth Res, Oulu, Finland;Oulu Univ Hosp, Oulu, Finland.
    Zhan, Yiqiang
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rovio, Suvi P.
    Univ Turku, Res Ctr Appl & Prevent Cardiovasc Med, Turku, Finland.
    Lahti, Jari
    Helsinki Collegium Adv Studies, Helsinki, Finland;Univ Helsinki, Dept Psychol & Logoped, Fac Med, Helsinki, Finland.
    Sjögren, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Byberg, Liisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Lyall, Donald M.
    Univ Glasgow, Inst Hlth & Wellbeing, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland.
    Auvinen, Juha
    Univ Oulu, Ctr Life Course Hlth Res, Oulu, Finland;Oulu Univ Hosp, Unit Primary Hlth Care, Oulu, Finland.
    Lehtimaki, Terho
    Univ Tampere, Fac Med & Life Sci, Fimlab Labs, Dept Clin Chem, Tampere, Finland;Univ Tampere, Fac Med & Life Sci, Finnish Cardiovasc Res Ctr Tampere, Tampere, Finland.
    Kahonen, Mika
    Univ Tampere, Dept Clin Physiol, Tampere Univ Hosp, Tampere, Finland;Univ Tampere, Fac Med & Life Sci, Tampere, Finland.
    Hutri-Kahonen, Nina
    Univ Tampere, Fac Med & Life Sci, Tampere, Finland;Univ Tampere, Tampere Univ Hosp, Dept Pediat, Tampere, Finland.
    Perala, Mia Maria
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Dept Publ Hlth Solut, Helsinki, Finland.
    Michaëlsson, Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Mahajan, Anubha
    Wellcome Ctr Human Genet, Nuffield Dept Med, Oxford OX3 7BN, England.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Power, Chris
    UCL Great Ormond St Inst Child Hlth, Populat Policy & Practice, London WC1N 1EH, England.
    Eriksson, Johan G.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Gen Practice & Primary Hlth Care, Helsinki, Finland;Helsinki Univ Hosp, Helsinki, Finland;Folkhalsan Res Ctr, Helsinki, Finland.
    Raitakari, Olli T.
    Univ Turku, Res Ctr Appl & Prevent Cardiovasc Med, Turku, Finland;Turku Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Physiol & Nucl Med, Turku, Finland.
    Hagg, Sara
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Veijola, Juha
    Univ Oulu, Dept Psychiat, Res Unit Clin Neurosci, Oulu, Finland;Univ Hosp Oulu, Dept Psychiat, Oulu, Finland.
    Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta
    Univ Oulu, Ctr Life Course Hlth Res, Oulu, Finland;Oulu Univ Hosp, Unit Primary Hlth Care, Oulu, Finland;Imperial Coll London, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, MRC PHE Ctr Environm & Hlth, London, England;Univ Oulu, Bioctr Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Munafo, Marcus R.
    Univ Bristol, MRC Integrat Epidemiol Unit IEU, Bristol, Avon, England;Univ Bristol, UKCTAS, Bristol, Avon, England;Univ Bristol, Sch Expt Psychol, Bristol, Avon, England.
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular epidemiology. Stanford Univ, Div Cardiovasc Med, Dept Med, Sch Med, Stanford, CA 94305 USA;Stanford Univ, Stanford Cardiovasc Inst, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.
    Llewellyn, David J.
    Univ Exeter, Med Sch, Exeter, Devon, England.
    Hypponen, Elina
    Univ South Australia, Australian Ctr Precis Hlth, Adelaide, SA, Australia;UCL Great Ormond St Inst Child Hlth, Populat Policy & Practice, London WC1N 1EH, England;South Australian Hlth & Med Res Inst, Adelaide, SA, Australia.
    Habitual coffee consumption and cognitive function: a Mendelian randomization meta-analysis in up to 415,530 participants2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 7526Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coffee's long-term effect on cognitive function remains unclear with studies suggesting both benefits and adverse effects. We used Mendelian randomization to investigate the causal relationship between habitual coffee consumption and cognitive function in mid-to later life. This included up to 415,530 participants and 300,760 coffee drinkers from 10 meta-analysed European ancestry cohorts. In each cohort, composite cognitive scores that capture global cognition and memory were computed using available tests. A genetic score derived using CYP1A1/2 (rs2472297) and AHR (rs6968865) was chosen as a proxy for habitual coffee consumption. Null associations were observed when examining the associations of the genetic score with global and memory cognition (beta = -0.0007, 95% C.I. -0.009 to 0.008, P = 0.87; beta = -0.001, 95% C.I. -0.005 to 0.002, P = 0.51, respectively), with high consistency between studies (P-heterogeneity > 0.4 for both). Domain specific analyses using available cognitive measures in the UK Biobank also did not support effects by habitual coffee intake for reaction time, pairs matching, reasoning or prospective memory (P >= 0.05 for all). Despite the power to detect very small effects, our meta-analysis provided no evidence for causal long-term effects of habitual coffee consumption on global cognition or memory.

  • 1774.
    Zhou, Bin
    et al.
    Imperial Coll London, London W2 1PG, England.
    Bentham, James
    Imperial Coll London, London W2 1PG, England;Univ Kent, Canterbury, Kent, England.
    Di Cesare, Mariachiara
    Middlesex Univ, London, England.
    Bixby, Honor
    Imperial Coll London, London W2 1PG, England.
    Danaei, Goodarz
    Harvard TH Chan, Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA USA.
    Hajifathalian, Kaveh
    Cleveland Clin, Cleveland, OH USA.
    Taddei, Cristina
    Imperial Coll London, London W2 1PG, England.
    Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M.
    Univ Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru.
    Djalalinia, Shirin
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Tehran, Iran. Minist Hlth & Med Educ, Qods, Iran.
    Khatibzadeh, Shahab
    Brandeis Univ, Waltham, MA USA.
    Lugero, Charles
    Mulago Hosp, Kampala, Uganda.
    Peykari, Niloofar
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Tehran, Iran. Minist Hlth & Med Educ, Qods, Iran;Minist Hlth & Med Educ, Tehran, Iran.
    Zhang, Wan Zhu
    Uganda Heart Inst, Kampala, Uganda.
    Bennett, James
    Imperial Coll London, London W2 1PG, England.
    Bilano, Ver
    Imperial Coll London, London W2 1PG, England.
    Stevens, Gretchen A.
    World Hlth Org, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Cowan, Melanie J.
    World Hlth Org, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Riley, Leanne M.
    World Hlth Org, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Chen, Zhengming
    Univ Oxford, Oxford, England.
    Hambleton, Ian R.
    Univ West Indies, Kingston, Barbados.
    Jackson, Rod T.
    Univ Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Kengne, Andre Pascal
    South African Med Res Council, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa.
    Khang, Young-Ho
    Seoul Natl Univ, Seoul, South Korea.
    Laxmaiah, Avula
    Natl Inst Nutr, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.
    Liu, Jing
    Capital Med Univ, Beijing An Zhen Hosp, Beijing, Peoples R China;Capital Med Univ, Beijing Zhen Hosp, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Malekzadeh, Reza
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Tehran, Iran. Minist Hlth & Med Educ, Qods, Iran;Shiraz Univ Med Sci, Shiraz, Iran.
    Neuhauser, Hannelore K.
    Robert Koch Inst, Berlin, Germany;Robert Koch Inst, Berlin, Germany;German Ctr Cardiovasc Res, Munich, Germany;German Ctr Cardiovascular Res, Gottingen, Germany.
    Soric, Maroje
    Univ Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia;Univ Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Starc, Gregor
    Univ Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia;Univ Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Sundström, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Woodward, Mark
    Univ Oxford, Oxford, England;Univ Oxford, Oxford, England;Univ New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia;Univ New South Wales, Kensington, NSW, Australia.
    Ezzati, Majid
    Imperial Coll London, London W2 1PG, England.
    Abarca-Gomez, Leandra
    Caja Costarricense Seguro Social, San Jose, Costa Rica.
    Abdeen, Ziad A.
    Al Quds Univ, Al bireh, Palestine.
    Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M.
    Birzeit Univ, Birzeit, Israel.
    Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin
    Inst Mexicano Seguro Social, Mexico City, DF, Mexico.
    Adams, Robert J.
    Univ Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia.
    Aekplakorn, Wichai
    Mahidol Univ, Salaya, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand.
    Afsana, Kaosar
    BRAC, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.
    Inst Nacl Ciencias Med & Nutr Salvador Zubiran, Mexico City, DF, Mexico.
    Agyemang, Charles
    Univ Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Ahmad, Noor Ani
    Minist Hlth Malaysia, Putrajaya, Malaysia.
    Ahmadvand, Alireza
    Non Communicable Dis Res Ctr, Shiraz, Iran.
    Ahrens, Wolfgang
    BIPS, Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol, Bremen, Germany.
    Ajlouni, Kamel
    Natl Ctr Diabet & Endocrinol, Amman, Jordan.
    Akhtaeva, Nazgul
    Kazakh Natl Med Univ, Alma Ata, Kazakhstan.
    Al-Raddadi, Rajaa
    King Abdulaziz Univ, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
    Ali, Mohamed M.
    World Hlth Org, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Ali, Osman
    Univ Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia.
    Alkerwi, Ala'a
    Luxembourg Inst Hlth, Strassen, Luxembourg.
    Aly, Eman
    World Hlth Org Reg Off Eastern Mediterranean, Nasr City, Egypt.
    Amarapurkar, Deepak N.
    Bombay Hosp & Med Res Ctr, Bombay, Maharashtra, India;Med Res Ctr, Bombay, Maharashtra, India.
    Amouyel, Philippe
    Lille Univ & Hosp, Lille, France.
    Amuzu, Antoinette
    London Sch Hyg Trop Med, London, England.
    Andersen, Lars Bo
    Western Norway Univ Appl Sci, Bergen, Norway.
    Anderssen, Sigmund A.
    Norwegian Sch Sport Sci, Oslo, Norway.
    Angquist, Lars H.
    Frederiksberg Univ Hosp, Frederiksberg, Denmark;Bispebjerg Hosp, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Anjana, Ranjit Mohan
    Madras Diabet Res Fdn, Madras, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Ansong, Daniel
    Komfo Anokye Teaching Hosp, Kumasi, Ghana.
    Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Tunis, Tunisia.
    Araujo, Joana
    Univ Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Ariansen, Inger
    Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Oslo, Norway.
    Aris, Tahir
    Minist Hlth Malaysia, Putrajaya, Malaysia.
    Arlappa, Nimmathota
    Natl Inst Nutr, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.
    Arveiler, Dominique
    Strasbourg Univ & Hosp, Strasbourg, France.
    Aryal, Krishna K.
    Nepal Hlth Res Council, Kathmandu, Nepal.
    Aspelund, Thor
    Univ Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Assah, Felix K.
    Univ Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon.
    Assuncao, Maria Cecilia F.
    Univ Fed Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil.
    Avdicova, Maria
    Reg Author Publ Hlth, Banska Bystrica, Slovakia.
    Azevedo, Ana
    Univ Porto, Med Sch, Porto, Portugal.
    Azizi, Fereidoun
    Shahid Beheshti Univ Med Sci, Tehran, Iran.
    Babu, Bontha V.
    Indian Council Med Res, New Delhi, India.
    Bahijri, Suhad
    King Abdulaziz Univ, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
    Balakrishna, Nagalla
    Natl Inst Nutr, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.
    Bamoshmoosh, Mohamed
    Univ Sci & Technol, Taizi, Yemen.
    Banach, Maciej
    Bandosz, Piotr
    Banegas, Jose R.
    Univ Autonoma Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Barbagallo, Carlo M.
    Univ Palermo, Palermo, Italy.
    Barcelo, Alberto
    Pan Amer Hlth Org, Washington, DC USA.
    Barkat, Amina
    Univ Mohammed V Rabat, Rabat, Morocco.
    Barros, Aluisio J. D.
    Univ Fed Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil.
    Barros, Mauro V.
    Univ Pernambuco, Recife, PE, Brazil.
    Bata, Iqbal
    Dalhousie Univ, Halifax, NS, Canada.
    Batieha, Anwar M.
    Jordan Univ Sci & Technol, Irbid, Jordan.
    Batyrbek, Assembekov
    Kazakh Natl Med Univ, Alma Ata, Kazakhstan.
    Baur, Louise A.
    Univ Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Beaglehole, Robert
    Univ Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Ben Romdhane, Habiba
    Univ Tunis El Manar, Tunis, Tunisia.
    Benet, Mikhail
    CAFAM Univ Fdn, Bogota, Colombia.
    Benson, Lowell S.
    Univ Utah, Sch Med, Salt Lake City, UT USA.
    Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio
    Univ Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru.
    Bernotiene, Gailute
    Lithuanian Univ Hlth Sci, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Bettiol, Heloisa
    Univ Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Bhagyalaxmi, Aroor
    BJ Med Coll, Ahmadabad, Gujarat, India.
    Bharadwaj, Sumit
    Chirayu Med Coll, Bhopal, India.
    Bhargava, Santosh K.
    SL Jain Hosp, Delhi, India.
    Bi, Yufang
    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Sch Med, Shanghai, Peoples R China.
    Bikbov, Mukharram
    Ufa Eye Res Inst, Ufa, Russia.
    Bista, Bihungum
    Nepal Hlth Res Council, Kathmandu, Nepal.
    Bjerregaard, Peter
    Univ Greenland, Nuuk, Greenland;Univ Southern, Odense, Denmark.
    Bjertness, Espen
    Univ Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Bjertness, Marius B.
    Univ Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Bjorkelund, Cecilia
    Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Blokstra, Anneke
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth & Environm, Bilthoven, Netherlands.
    Bo, Simona
    Univ Turin, Turin, Italy.
    Bobak, Martin
    UCL, London, England.
    Boeing, Heiner
    German Inst Human Nutr, Berlin, Germany.
    Boggia, Jose G.
    Univ Republica, Montevideo, Uruguay.
    Boissonnet, Carlos P.
    CEMIC, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.
    Bongard, Vanina
    Toulouse Univ, Sch Med, Toulouse, France.
    Borchini, Rossana
    Univ Hosp Varese, Varese, Italy.
    Bovet, Pascal
    Minist Hlth, Victoria, Seychelles;Univ Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Braeckman, Lutgart
    Univ Ghent, Ghent, Belgium.
    Brajkovich, Imperia
    Univ Cent Venezuela, Caracas, Venezuela.
    Branca, Francesco
    World Hlth Org, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Breckenkamp, Juergen
    Bielefeld Univ, Bielefeld, Germany.
    Brenner, Hermann
    German Canc Res Ctr, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Brewster, Lizzy M.
    Univ Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Bruno, Graziella
    Univ Turin, Turin, Italy.
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B.
    National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, The Netherlands.
    Bugge, Anna
    Univ Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Burns, Con
    Cork Inst Technol, Cork, Ireland.
    Bursztyn, Michael
    Hadassah Hebrew Univ, Med Ctr, Jerusalem, Israel.
    Cabrera de Leon, Antonio
    Univ La Laguna, San Cristobal la Laguna, Spain.
    Cacciottolo, Joseph
    Univ Malta, Msida, Malta.
    Cai, Hui
    Vanderbilt Univ, 221 Kirkland Hall, Nashville, TN 37235 USA.
    Cameron, Christine
    Canadian Fitness & Lifestyle Res Inst, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
    Can, Gunay
    Istanbul Univ, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Candido, Ana Paula C.
    Univ Fed Juiz De Fora, Juiz De Fora, Brazil.
    Capuano, Vincenzo
    Cardiol Mercato S Severino, Mercato San Severino, Italy.
    Cardoso, Viviane C.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Carlsson, Axel C.
    Karolinska Inst, Solna, Sweden.
    Carvalho, Maria J.
    Univ Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Casanueva, Felipe F.
    Univ Santiago Compostela, Santiago, Spain.
    Casas, Juan-Pablo
    UCL, London, England.
    Caserta, Carmelo A.
    Chamukuttan, Snehalatha
    Chan, Angelique W.
    Duke NUS Med Sch, Singapore, Singapore.
    Chan, Queenie
    Imperial Coll London, London W2 1PG, England.
    Chaturvedi, Himanshu K.
    Natl Inst Med Stat, New Delhi, India.
    Chaturvedi, Nishi
    UCL, London, England.
    Chen, Chien-Jen
    Acad Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Chen, Fangfang
    Capital Inst Pediat, Beijing, Peoples R China. Duke Univ, Durham, NC USA.
    Chen, Huashuai
    Chen, Shuohua
    Kailuan Gen Hosp, Tangshan, Peoples R China.
    Cheng, Ching-Yu
    Duke NUS Med Sch, Singapore, Singapore.
    Cherkaoui Dekkaki, Imane
    Univ Mohammed V Rabat, Rabat, Morocco.
    Chetrit, Angela
    Gertner Inst Epidemiol & Hlth Policy Res, Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Chiolero, Arnaud
    Univ Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Chiou, Shu-Ti
    Minist Hlth & Welf, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Chirita-Emandi, Adela
    Victor Babes Univ Med & Pharm Timisoara, Timisoara, Romania.
    Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores
    Murcia Reg Hlth Council, Murcia, Spain.
    Cho, Belong
    Seoul Natl Univ, Coll Med, Seoul, South Korea.
    Cho, Yumi
    Korea Centers Dis Control & Prevent, Cheongju, South Korea.
    Christofaro, Diego G.
    Univ Estadual Paulista, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Chudek, Jerzy
    Med Univ Silesia, Katowice, Poland.
    Cifkova, Renata
    Charles Univ Prague, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Cinteza, Eliza
    Carol Davila Univ Med & Pharm, Bucharest, Romania.
    Claessens, Frank
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Clays, Els
    Univ Ghent, Ghent, Belgium.
    Concin, Hans
    Agcy Prevent & Social Med, Vienna, Austria.
    Cooper, Cyrus
    Univ Southampton, Southampton, Hants, England.
    Cooper, Rachel
    UCL, London, England.
    Coppinger, Tara C.
    Cork Inst Technol, Cork, Ireland.
    Costanzo, Simona
    IRCCS Ist Neurol Mediterraneo Neuromed, Pozzilli, Italy.
    Cottel, Dominique
    Inst Pasteur, Lille, France.
    Cowell, Chris
    Univ Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Craig, Cora L.
    Canadian Fitness & Lifestyle Res Inst, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
    Crujeiras, Ana B.
    CIBEROBN, Madrid, Spain.
    Cruz, Juan J.
    Univ Autonoma Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    D'Arrigo, Graziella
    Natl Council Res, Rome, Italy.
    d'Orsi, Eleonora
    Univ Fed Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC, Brazil.
    Dallongeville, Jean
    Inst Pasteur, Lille, France.
    Damasceno, Albertino
    Eduardo Mondlane Univ, Maputo, Mozambique.
    Dankner, Rachel
    Gertner Inst Epidemiol & Hlth Policy Res, Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Dantoft, Thomas M.
    Bispebjerg & Frederiksberg Hosp, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Dauchet, Luc
    Lille Univ & Hosp, Lille, France.
    Davletov, Kairat
    Kazakh Natl Med Univ, Alma Ata, Kazakhstan.
    De Backer, Guy
    Univ Ghent, Ghent, Belgium.
    De Bacquer, Dirk
    Univ Ghent, Ghent, Belgium.
    de Gaetano, Giovanni
    IRCCS Ist Neurol Mediterraneo Neuromed, Pozzilli, Italy.
    De Henauw, Stefaan
    Univ Ghent, Ghent, Belgium.
    de Oliveira, Paula Duarte
    Univ Fed Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil.
    De Smedt, Delphine
    Univ Ghent, Ghent, Belgium.
    Deepa, Mohan
    Madras Diabet Res Fdn, Madras, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Dehghan, Abbas
    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Delisle, Helene
    Univ Montreal, Montreal, PQ, Canada.
    Deschamps, Valerie
    French Publ Hlth Agcy, St Maurice, France.
    Dhana, Klodian
    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Di Castelnuovo, Augusto F.
    IRCCS Ist Neurol Mediterraneo Neuromed, Pozzilli, Italy.
    Dias-da-Costa, Juvenal Soares
    Univ Do Vale Do Rio Dos Sinos, Sao Leopoldo, Brazil.
    Diaz, Alejandro
    Natl Council Sci & Tech Res, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.
    Dickerson, Ty T.
    Univ Utah, Sch Med, Salt Lake City, UT USA.
    Do, Ha T. P.
    Natl Inst Nutr, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.
    Dobson, Annette J.
    Univ Queensland, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.
    Donfrancesco, Chiara
    Ist Super Sanita, Rome, Italy.
    Donoso, Silvana P.
    Univ Cuenca, Cuenca, Ecuador.
    Doering, Angela
    Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Oberschleissheim, Germany.
    Dorobantu, Maria
    Carol Davila Univ Med & Pharm, Bucharest, Romania.
    Doua, Kouamelan
    Minist Sante & Lutte Contre Sida, Abidjan, Cote Ivoire.
    Drygas, Wojciech
    Cardinal Wyszynski Inst Cardiol, Warsaw, Poland.
    Dulskiene, Virginija
    Dzakula, Aleksandar
    Lithuanian Univ Hlth Sci, Kaunas, Lithuania;Univ Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Dzerve, Vilnis
    Univ Latvia, Riga, Latvia.
    Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elzbieta
    Eggertsen, Robert
    Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ekelund, Ulf
    Norwegian Sch Sport Sci, Oslo, Norway.
    El Ati, Jalila
    Natl Inst Nutr & Food Technol, Tunis, Tunisia. Inst Hosp Del Mar dInvest Med, Barcelona, Spain.
    Elliott, Paul
    Imperial Coll London, London W2 1PG, England.
    Elosua, Roberto
    Erasmus, Rajiv T.
    Univ Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    Erem, Cihangir
    Karadeniz Tech Univ, Trabzon, Turkey.
    Eriksen, Louise
    Univ Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Johan G.
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Helsinki, Finland.
    Escobedo-de la Pena, Jorge
    Inst Mexicano Seguro Social, Mexico City, DF, Mexico.
    Evans, Alun
    Queens Univ Belfast, Belfast, Antrim, North Ireland.
    Faeh, David
    Univ Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Fall, Caroline H.
    Univ Southampton, Southampton, Hants, England.
    Farzadfar, Farshad
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Tehran, Iran. Minist Hlth & Med Educ, Qods, Iran.
    Felix-Redondo, Francisco J.
    Centro Salud Villanueva Norte, Villanueva de la Serena, Spain.
    Ferguson, Trevor S.
    Univ West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica.
    Fernandes, Romulo A.
    Univ Estadual Paulista, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Fernandez-Berges, Daniel
    Hosp Don Benito Villanueva Serena, Badajoz, Spain.
    Ferrante, Daniel
    Minist Hlth, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.
    Ferrari, Marika
    Council Agr Res & Econ, Arezzo, Italy.
    Ferreccio, Catterina
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Chile, Santiago, Chile.
    Ferrieres, Jean
    Toulouse Univ, Sch Med, Toulouse, France.
    Finn, Joseph D.
    Univ Manchester, Manchester, Lancs, England.
    Fischer, Krista
    Univ Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Foger, Bernhard
    Agcy Prevent & Social Med, Vienna, Austria.
    Foo, Leng Huat
    Univ Sains Malaysia, George Town, Malaysia.
    Forslund, Ann-Sofie
    Umea Univ, Umea, Sweden.
    Forsner, Maria
    Dalarna Univ, Falun, Sweden.
    Fouad, Heba M.
    World Hlth Org Reg Off Eastern Mediterranean, Nasr City, Egypt.
    Francis, Damian K.
    Univ West Indies, Kingston, Barbados.
    Franco, Maria do Carmo
    Univ Fed Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Franco, Oscar H.
    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Frontera, Guillermo
    Hosp Univ Son Espases, Palma de Mallorca, Spain.
    Fuchs, Flavio D.
    Hosp Clin Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.
    Fuchs, Sandra C.
    Univ Fed Rio Grande, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.
    Fujita, Yuki
    Kindai Univ, Higashiosaka, Osaka, Japan.
    Furusawa, Takuro
    Kyoto Univ, Kyoto, Japan.
    Gaciong, Zbigniew
    Med Univ Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.
    Galvano, Fabio
    Univ Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Garcia-de-la-Hera, Manoli
    CIBER Epidemiol & Salud Publ, Madrid, Spain.
    Gareta, Dickman
    Univ KwaZulu Natal, Durban, South Africa.
    Garnett, Sarah P.
    Univ Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Gaspoz, Jean-Michel
    Geneva Univ Hosp, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Gasull, Magda
    CIBER Epidemiol & Salud Publ, Madrid, Spain.
    Gates, Louise
    Australian Bur Stat, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
    Geleijnse, Johanna M.
    Wageningen Univ, Wageningen, Netherlands.
    Ghasemian, Anoosheh
    Non Communicable Dis Res Ctr, Shiraz, Iran.
    Ghimire, Anup
    B P Koirala Inst Hlth Sci, Dharan, Nepal.
    Giampaoli, Simona
    Ist Super Sanita, Rome, Italy.
    Gianfagna, Francesco
    IRCCS Ist Neurol Mediterraneo Neuromed, Pozzilli, Italy;Univ Insubria, Varese, Italy.
    Gill, Tiffany K.
    Univ Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia.
    Giovannelli, Jonathan
    Lille Univ & Hosp, Lille, France.
    Goldsmith, Rebecca A.
    Minist Hlth, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.
    Goncalves, Helen
    Univ Fed Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil.
    Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela
    Univ Politecn Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Gonzalez-Rivas, Juan P.
    Andes Clin Cardio Metab Studies, Merida, Venezuela.
    Bonet Gorbea, Mariano
    Natl Inst Hyg Epidemiol & Microbiol, Havana, Cuba.
    Gottrand, Frederic
    Univ Lille 2, Lille, France.
    Graff-Iversen, Sidsel
    Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Oslo, Norway.
    Grafnetter, Dusan
    Inst Clin & Expt Med, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Grajda, Aneta
    Childrens Mem Hlth Inst, Warsaw, Poland.
    Grammatikopoulou, Maria G.
    Alexander Technol Educ Inst, Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Gregor, Ronald D.
    Dalhousie Univ, Halifax, NS, Canada.
    Grodzicki, Tomasz
    Jagiellonian Univ, Med Coll, Krakow, Poland.
    Grontved, Anders
    Univ Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Grosso, Giuseppe
    Azienda Ospedaliera Univ Policlinico Vittorio Ema, Catania, Italy.
    Gruden, Gabriella
    Univ Turin, Turin, Italy.
    Grujic, Vera
    Univ Novi Sad, Novi Sad, Serbia.
    Gu, Dongfeng
    Natl Ctr Cardiovasc Dis, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Guan, Ong Peng
    Singapore Eye Res Inst, Singapore, Singapore.
    Gudmundsson, Elias F.
    Iceland Heart Assoc, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Gudnason, Vilmundur
    Univ Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Guerrero, Ramiro
    Univ Icesi, Cali, Colombia.
    Guessous, Idris
    Geneva Univ Hosp, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Guimaraes, Andre L.
    Univ Estadual Montes Claros, Montes Claros, Brazil. Kings Coll London, London, England.
    Gulliford, Martin C.
    Gunnlaugsdottir, Johanna
    Iceland Heart Assoc, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Gunter, Marc
    Int Agcy Res Canc, Lyon, France.
    Gupta, Prakash C.
    Healis Sekhsaria Inst Publ Hlth, Navi Mumbai, India.
    Gupta, Rajeev
    Eternal Heart Care Ctr & Res Inst, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.
    Gureje, Oye
    Univ Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.
    Gurzkowska, Beata
    Inst Clin & Expt Med, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Gutierrez, Laura
    Inst Clin Effectiveness & Hlth Policy, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.
    Gutzwiller, Felix
    Univ Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Hadaegh, Farzad
    Shahid Beheshti Univ Med Sci, Tehran, Iran.
    Halkjaer, Jytte
    Danish Canc Soc Res Ctr, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Hardy, Rebecca
    UCL, London, England.
    Kumar, Rachakulla Hari
    Natl Inst Nutr, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.
    Hata, Jun
    Kyushu Univ, Fukuoka, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Hayes, Alison J.
    Univ Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    He, Jiang
    Tulane Univ, New Orleans, LA USA.
    He, Yuna
    Chinese Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Hendriks, Marleen Elisabeth
    Univ Amsterdam, Acad Med Ctr, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Henriques, Ana
    Univ Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Hernandez Cadena, Leticia
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico.
    Herrala, Sauli
    Oulu Univ Hosp, Oulu, Finland.
    Heshmat, Ramin
    Chron Dis Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.
    Hihtaniemi, Ilpo Tapani
    Imperial Coll London, London W2 1PG, England.
    Ho, Sai Yin
    Univ Hong Kong, Hong Hom, Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Ho, Suzanne C.
    Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Hong Hom, Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Hobbs, Michael
    Univ Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Hofman, Albert
    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Dinc, Gonul Horasan
    Celal Bayar Univ, Manisa, Turkey.
    Horimoto, Andrea R. V. R.
    Heart Inst, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Hormiga, Claudia M.
    Fdn Oftalmol Santander, Bucaramanga, Colombia.
    Horta, Bernardo L.
    Univ Fed Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil.
    Houti, Leila
    Howitt, Christina
    Univ West Indies, Kingston, Barbados.
    Htay, Thein Thein
    Independent Publ Hlth Specialist, Yangon, Myanmar.
    Htet, Aung Soe
    Minist Hlth, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.
    Htike, Maung Maung Than
    Minist Hlth, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.
    Hu, Yonghua
    Peking Univ, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Maria Huerta, Jose
    CIBER Epidemiol & Salud Publ, Madrid, Spain.
    Huisman, Martijn
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Med Ctr, Amsterdam, Netherlands;Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Husseini, Abdullatif S.
    Birzeit Univ, Birzeit, Palestine.
    Huybrechts, Inge
    Int Agcy Res Canc, Lyon, France.
    Hwalla, Nahla
    Amer Univ Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon.
    Iacoviello, Licia
    IRCCS Ist Neurol Mediterraneo Neuromed, Pozzilli, Italy;Univ Insubria, Varese, Italy.
    Iannone, Anna G.
    Cardiol Mercato S Severino, Mercato San Severino, Italy.
    Ibrahim, Mohsen M.
    Cairo Univ, Cairo, Egypt.
    Wong, Norazizah Ibrahim
    Minist Hlth Malaysia, Putrajaya, Malaysia.
    Ikeda, Nayu
    Ikram, M. Arfan
    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Irazola, Vilma E.
    Inst Clin Effectiveness & Hlth Policy, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.
    Islam, Muhammad
    Aga Khan Univ, Karachi, Pakistan.
    Ismail, Aziz al-Safi
    Univ Sains Malaysia, George Town, Malaysia.
    Ivkovic, Vanja
    UHC Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Iwasaki, Masanori
    Niigata Univ, Niigata, Japan.
    Jacobs, Jeremy M.
    Hadassah Univ Med Ctr, Jerusalem, Israel.
    Jaddou, Hashem
    Jordan Univ Sci & Technol, Irbid, Jordan.
    Jafar, Tazeen
    Duke NUS Med Sch, Singapore, Singapore.
    Jamrozik, Konrad
    Univ Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia.
    Janszky, Imre
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Trondheim, Norway.
    Jasienska, Grazyna
    Jagiellonian Univ, Med Coll, Krakow, Poland.
    Jelakovic, Ana
    UHC Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Jelakovic, Bojan
    Univ Zagreb, Coll Med, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Jennings, Garry
    Heart Fdn, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Jeong, Seung-lyeal
    Natl Hlth Insurance Serv, Jeonju, South Korea.
    Jiang, Chao Qiang
    Guangzhou 12th Hosp, Guangzhou, Peoples R China.
    Joffres, Michel
    Simon Fraser Univ, Burnaby, BC, Canada.
    Johansson, Mattias
    Int Agcy Res Canc, Lyon, France.
    Jokelainen, Jari J.
    Oulu Univ Hosp, Oulu, Finland.
    Jonas, Jost B.
    Heidelberg Univ, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Jorgensen, Torben
    Res Ctr Prevent & Hlth, Glostrup, Denmark.
    Joshi, Pradeep
    World Hlth Org Country Off, Delhi, India.
    Jozwiak, Jacek
    Czestochowa Tech Univ, Czestochowa, Poland.
    Juolevi, Anne
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Helsinki, Finland.
    Jurak, Gregor
    Univ Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Juresa, Vesna
    Univ Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    German Canc Res Ctr, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Kafatos, Anthony
    Univ Crete, Iraklion, Greece.
    Kajantie, Eero O.
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kalter-Leibovici, Ofra
    Gertner Inst Epidemiol & Hlth Policy Res, Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Kamaruddin, Nor Azmi
    Univ Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Malaysia.
    Karki, Khem B.
    Kasaeian, Amir
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Tehran, Iran. Minist Hlth & Med Educ, Qods, Iran.
    Katz, Joanne
    Johns Hopkins Bloomberg Sch Publ Hlth, Baltimore, MD USA.
    Kauhanen, Jussi
    Univ Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Kaur, Prabhdeep
    Natl Inst Epidemiol, Madras, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Kavousi, Maryam
    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Kazakbaeva, Gyulli
    Ufa Eye Res Inst, Ufa, Russia.
    Keil, Ulrich
    Univ Munster, Munster, Germany.
    Boker, Lital Keinan
    Israel Ctr Dis Control, Tel Hashomer, Israel.
    Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka
    Oulu Univ Hosp, Oulu, Finland.
    Kelishadi, Roya
    Res Inst Primordial Prevent Non communicable Dis, Esfahan, Iran.
    Kemper, Han C. G.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Med Ctr, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Kengne, Andre P.
    South African Med Res Council, Durban, South Africa.
    Kerimkulova, Alina
    Kyrgyz State Med Acad, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan.
    Kersting, Mathilde
    Res Inst Child Nutr, Bonn, Germany.
    Key, Timothy
    Univ Oxford, Oxford, England.
    Khader, Yousef Saleh
    Jordan Univ Sci & Technol, Irbid, Jordan.
    Khalili, Davood
    Shahid Beheshti Univ Med Sci, Tehran, Iran.
    Khateeb, Mohammad
    Natl Ctr Diabet & Endocrinol, Amman, Jordan.
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Univ Cambridge, Cambridge, England.
    Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, Ursula
    Med Univ Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Kiechl, Stefan
    Med Univ Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Killewo, Japhet
    Muhimbili Univ Hlth & Allied Sci, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Kim, Jeongseon
    Natl Canc Ctr, Goyang, South Korea.
    Kim, Yeon-Yong
    Natl Hlth Insurance Serv, Jeonju, South Korea.
    Klumbiene, Jurate
    Lithuanian Univ Hlth Sci, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Knoflach, Michael
    Med Univ Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Kolle, Elin
    Norwegian Sch Sport Sci, Oslo, Norway.
    Kolsteren, Patrick
    Inst Trop Med, Antwerp, Belgium.
    Korrovits, Paul
    Tartu Univ Clin, Tartu, Estonia.
    Koskinen, Seppo
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kouda, Katsuyasu
    Kindai Univ, Higashiosaka, Osaka, Japan.
    Kowlessur, Sudhir
    Minist Hlth & Qual Life, Port Louis, Mauritius.
    Koziel, Slawomir
    Polish Acad Sci, Anthropol Unit, Wroclaw, Poland.
    Kriemler, Susi
    Univ Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Kristensen, Peter Lund
    Univ Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Krokstad, Steinar
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Trondheim, Norway.
    Kromhout, Daan
    Univ Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Kruger, Herculina S.
    North West Univ, Potchefstroom, South Africa.
    Kubinova, Ruzena
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Kuciene, Renata
    Lithuanian Univ Hlth Sci, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Kuh, Diana
    UCL, London, England.
    Kujala, Urho M.
    Univ Jyvaskyla, Jyvaskyla, Finland.
    Kulaga, Zbigniew
    Childrens Mem Hlth Inst, Warsaw, Poland.
    Kumar, R. Krishna
    Amrita Inst Med Sci, Kochi, Kerala, India. Cardinal Wyszynski Inst Cardiol, Warsaw, Poland.
    Kurjata, Pawel
    Kusuma, Yadlapalli S.
    All India Inst Med Sci, New Delhi, India.
    Kuulasmaa, Kari
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kyobutungi, Catherine
    African Populat & Hlth Res Ctr, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Laatikainen, Tiina
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Helsinki, Finland.
    Lachat, Carl
    Univ Ghent, Ghent, Belgium.
    Lam, Tai Hing
    Univ Hong Kong, Hong Hom, Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Landrove, Orlando
    Minist Salud Publ, Havana, Cuba.
    Lanska, Vera
    Inst Clin & Expt Med, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Lappas, Georg
    Sahlgrens Acad, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Larijani, Bagher
    Endocrinol & Metab Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.
    Laugsand, Lars E.
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Trondheim, Norway.
    Bao, Khanh Le Nguyen
    Le, Tuyen D.
    Natl Inst Nutr, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.
    Leclercq, Catherine
    Food & Agr Org United Nat, Rome, Italy.
    Lee, Jeannette
    Natl Univ Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.
    Lee, Jeonghee
    Natl Canc Ctr, Goyang, South Korea.
    Lehtimaki, Terho
    Tampere Univ Hosp, Tampere, Finland.
    Leon-Munoz, Luz M.
    Univ Autonoma Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Levitt, Naomi S.
    Univ Cape Town, Rondebosch, South Africa.
    Li, Yanping
    Harvard TH Chan, Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA USA.
    Lilly, Christa L.
    West Virginia Univ, Morgantown, WV USA.
    Lim, Wei-Yen
    Natl Univ Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.
    Fernanda Lima-Costa, M.
    Oswaldo Cruz Fdn Rene Rachou Res Inst, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.
    Lin, Hsien-Ho
    Natl Taiwan Univ, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Lin, Xu
    Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Linneberg, Allan
    Bispebjerg & Frederiksberg Hosp, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Lissner, Lauren
    Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Litwin, Mieczyslaw
    Childrens Mem Hlth Inst, Warsaw, Poland.
    Lorbeer, Roberto
    Univ Med Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany.
    Lotufo, Paulo A.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Eugenio Lozano, Jose
    Consejeria Sanidad Junta de Castilla & Leon, Valladolid, Spain.
    Luksiene, Dalia
    Lithuanian Univ Hlth Sci, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Lundqvist, Annamari
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Helsinki, Finland.
    Lunet, Nuno
    Univ Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Lytsy, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Ma, Jun
    Peking Univ, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Machado-Coelho, George L. L.
    Univ Fed Ouro Preto, Ouro Preto, MG, Brazil.
    Machi, Suka
    Jikei Univ, Sch Med, Tokyo, Japan.
    Maggi, Stefania
    CNR, Rome, Italy.
    Magliano, Dianna J.
    Baker Heart & Diabet Inst, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Magriplis, Emmanuella
    Agr Univ Athens, Athens, Greece.
    Majer, Marjeta
    Univ Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Makdisse, Marcia
    Hosp Israelita Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Malhotra, Rahul
    Duke NUS Med Sch, Singapore, Singapore.
    Rao, Kodavanti Mallikharjuna
    Natl Inst Nutr, Hyderabad, India.
    Malyutina, Sofia
    Inst Internal & Prevent Med, Moscow, Russia.
    Manios, Yannis
    Harokopio Univ, Kallithea, Greece.
    Mann, Jim I.
    Univ Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Manzato, Enzo
    Univ Padua, I-35100 Padua, Italy.
    Margozzini, Paula
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Chile, Santiago, Chile.
    Marques-Vidal, Pedro
    Lausanne Univ Hosp, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Marques, Larissa Pruner
    Univ Fed Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC, Brazil.
    Marrugat, Jaume
    CIBERCV, Madrid, Spain.
    Martorell, Reynaldo
    Emory Univ, Atlanta, GA USA.
    Mathiesen, Ellisiv B.
    UiT Arctic Univ Norway, Tromso, Norway.
    Matijasevich, Alicia
    Univ Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Matsha, Tandi E.
    Cape Peninsula Univ Technol, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Mbanya, Jean Claude N.
    Univ Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon.
    Posso, Anselmo J. Mc Donald
    Gorgas Mem Inst Hlth Studies, Panama City, Panama.
    McFarlane, Shelly R.
    Univ West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica.
    McGarvey, Stephen T.
    Brown Univ, Providence, RI USA.
    McLachlan, Stela
    Univ Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    McLean, Rachael M.
    Univ Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    McLean, Scott B.
    Stat Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
    McNulty, Breige A.
    Univ Coll Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
    Mediene-Benchekor, Sounnia
    Univ Oran 1, Oran, Algeria.
    Medzioniene, Jurate
    Lithuanian Univ Hlth Sci, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Meirhaeghe, Aline
    INSERM, Paris, France.
    Meisinger, Christa
    Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Munich, Germany.
    Menezes, Ana Maria B.
    Univ Fed Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil.
    Menon, Geetha R.
    Indian Council Med Res, New Delhi, India.
    Meshram, Indrapal I.
    Natl Inst Nutr, Hyderabad, India.
    Metspalu, Andres
    Univ Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Meyer, Haakon E.
    Univ Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Mi, Jie
    Capital Inst Pediat, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Mikkel, Kairit
    Univ Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Miller, Jody C.
    Univ Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Minderico, Claudia S.
    Lusofona Univ, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Francisco, Juan
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Chile, Santiago, Chile.
    Jaime Miranda, J.
    Univ Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru.
    Mirrakhimov, Erkin
    Kyrgyz State Med Acad, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan.
    Misigoj-Durakovic, Marjeta
    Univ Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Modesti, Pietro A.
    Univ Firenze, Florence, Italy.
    Mohamed, Mostafa K.
    Ain Shams Univ, Cairo, Egypt.
    Mohammad, Kazem
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Tehran, Iran.
    Mohammadifard, Noushin
    Hypertens Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.
    Mohan, Viswanathan
    Madras Diabet Res Fdn, Madras, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Mohanna, Salim
    Univ Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru.
    Yusoff, Muhammad Fadhli Mohd
    Minist Hlth Malaysia, Putrajaya, Malaysia.
    Mollehave, Line T.
    Bispebjerg & Frederiksberg Hosp, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Moller, Niels C.
    Univ Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Molnar, Denes
    Univ Pecs, Pecs, Hungary.
    Momenan, Amirabbas
    Shahid Beheshti Univ Med Sci, Tehran, Iran.
    Mondo, Charles K.
    Mulago Hosp, Kampala, Uganda.
    Monyeki, Kotsedi Daniel K.
    Univ Limpopo, Polokwane, South Africa.
    Moon, Jin Soo
    Seoul Natl Univ, Childrens Hosp, Seoul, South Korea.
    Moreira, Leila B.
    Univ Oran 1, Oran, Algeria;Univ Fed Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.
    Morejon, Alain
    Univ Med Sci, Havana, Cuba.
    Moreno, Luis A.
    Univ Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain.
    Morgan, Karen
    RCSI Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
    Moschonis, George
    La Trobe Univ, Bundoora, Vic, Australia.
    Mossakowska, Malgorzata
    Int Inst Mol & Cell Biol, Warsaw, Poland.
    Mostafa, Aya
    Ain Shams Univ, Cairo, Egypt.
    Mota, Jorge
    Univ Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeel
    Ahvaz Jundishapur Univ Med Sci, Ahwaz, Khuzestan, Iran.
    Motta, Jorge
    Gorgas Mem Inst Publ Hlth, Panama City, Panama.
    Msyamboza, Kelias P.
    WHO, Country Off, Lilongwe, Malawi.
    Mu, Thet Thet
    Dept Publ Hlth, Pyinmana, Myanmar.
    Muiesan, Maria L.
    Univ Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Mueller-Nurasyid, Martina
    Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Munich, Germany.
    Murphy, Neil
    Int Agcy Res Canc, Lyon, France.
    Mursu, Jaakko
    Univ Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Musil, Vera
    Univ Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Nabipour, Iraj
    Bushehr Univ Med Sci, Bushehr, Iran.
    Nagel, Gabriele
    Ulm Univ, Ulm, Germany.
    Naidu, Balkish M.
    Minist Hlth Malaysia, Putrajaya, Malaysia.
    Nakamura, Harunobu
    Kobe Univ, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan.
    Namesna, Jana
    Reg Author Publ Hlth, Banska Bystrica, Slovakia.
    Nang, Ei Ei K.
    Natl Univ Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.
    Nangia, Vinay B.
    Suraj Eye Inst, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India.
    Narake, Sameer
    Healis Sekhsaria Inst Publ Hlth, Navi Mumbai, India.
    Nauck, Matthias
    Univ Med Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany.
    Maria Navarrete-Munoz, Eva
    CIBER Epidemiol & Salud Publ, Madrid, Spain.
    Ndiaye, Ndeye Coumba
    INSERM, Paris, France.
    Neal, William A.
    West Virginia Univ, Morgantown, WV USA.
    Nenko, Ilona
    Jagiellonian Univ, Med Coll, Krakow, Poland.
    Neovius, Martin
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nervi, Flavio
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Chile, Santiago, Chile.
    Nguyen, Chung T.
    Natl Inst Hyg & Epidemiol, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Nguyen, D. Nguyen
    Univ Pharm & Med Ho Chi Minh City, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Nguyen, Quang Ngoc
    Nguyen, Quang V.
    Natl Hosp Endocrinol, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Nieto-Martinez, Ramfis E.
    Miami Vet Affairs Healthcare Syst, Miami, FL USA.
    Niiranen, Teemu J.
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Helsinki, Finland;Univ Turku Tyks, Turku, Finland.
    Ning, Guang
    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Sch Med, Shanghai, Peoples R China.
    Ninomiya, Toshiharu
    Kyushu Univ, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Nishtar, Sania
    Heartfile, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Noale, Marianna
    CNR, Rome, Italy.
    Noboa, Oscar A.
    Univ Republica, Montevideo, Uruguay.
    Noorbala, Ahmad Ali
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Tehran, Iran.
    Norat, Teresa
    Imperial Coll London, London, England.
    Noto, Davide
    Univ Palermo, Palermo, Italy.
    Al Nsour, Mohannad
    Eastern Mediterranean Publ Hlth Network, Amman, Jordan.
    O'Reilly, Dermot
    Queens Univ Belfast, Belfast, Antrim, North Ireland.
    Oda, Eiji
    Tachikawa Gen Hosp, Tachikawa, Tokyo, Japan.
    Oehlers, Glenn
    Acad Hosp Paramaribo, Paramaribo, Surinam.
    Oh, Kyungwon
    Korea Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Cheongju, South Korea.
    Ohara, Kumiko
    Kobe Univ, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan.
    Olinto, Maria Teresa A.
    Univ Vale Rio dos Sinos, Sao Leopoldo, RS, Brazil.
    Oliveira, Isabel O.
    Univ Fed Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil.
    Azahadi, Mohd
    Minist Hlth Malaysia, Putrajaya, Malaysia.
    Onat, Altan
    Istanbul Univ, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Ong, Sok King
    Minist Hlth, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei.
    Ono, Lariane M.
    Univ Fed Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC, Brazil.
    Ordunez, Pedro
    Pan Amer Hlth Org, Washington, DC USA.
    Ornelas, Rui
    Univ Madeira, Funchal,, Portugal.
    Osmond, Clive
    MRC Lifecourse Epidemiol Unit, Southampton, Hants, England.
    Ostojic, Sergej M.
    Univ Novi Sad, Novi Sad, Serbia.
    Ostovar, Afshin
    Bushehr Univ Med Sci, Bushehr, Iran.
    Otero, Johanna A.
    Fdn Oftalmol Santander, Bucaramanga, Colombia.
    Overvad, Kim
    Aarhus Univ, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Owusu-Dabo, Ellis
    Kwame Nkrumah Univ Sci & Technol, Kumasi, Ghana.
    Paccaud, Fred Michel
    Nstitute Social & Prevent Med, Bern, Switzerland.
    Padez, Cristina
    Univ Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.
    Pahomova, Elena
    Univ Latvia, Riga, Latvia.
    Pajak, Andrzej
    Jagiellonian Univ, Med Coll, Krakow, Poland.
    Palli, Domenico
    Canc Prevent & Res Inst, Naples, Italy.
    Palmieri, Luigi
    Ist Super Sanita, Rome, Italy.
    Pan, Wen-Harn
    Acad Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra
    Heidelberg Univ, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Panza, Francesco
    IRCCS Casa Sollievo Sofferenza, San Giovanni Rotondo, Italy.
    Papandreou, Dimitrios
    Zayed Univ, Abu Dhabi, U Arab Emirates.
    Park, Soon-Woo
    Catholic Univ Daegu, Daegu, South Korea.
    Parnell, Winsome R.
    Univ Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Parsaeian, Mahboubeh
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Tehran, Iran.
    Patel, Nikhil D.
    Jivandeep Hosp, Ahmadabad, Gujarat, India.
    Pecin, Ivan
    Univ Zagreb, Sch Med, Zagreb, Croatia;Univ Hosp Ctr Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Pednekar, Mangesh S.
    Healis Sekhsaria Inst Publ Hlth, Navi Mumbai, India.
    Peer, Nasheeta
    South African Med Res Council, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Peeters, Petra H.
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Peixoto, Sergio Viana
    Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz, Rene Rachou Res Inst, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.
    Peltonen, Markku
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Helsinki, Finland.
    Pereira, Alexandre C.
    Heart Inst, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Peters, Annette
    Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Munich, Germany.
    Petersmann, Astrid
    Univ Med Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany.
    Petkeviciene, Janina
    Lithuanian Univ Hlth Sci, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Pham, Son Thai
    Pigeot, Iris
    Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol BIPS, Bremen, Germany.
    Pikhart, Hynek
    UCL, London, England.
    Pilav, Aida
    Univ Sarajevo, Sarajevo, Bosnia & Herceg.
    Pilotto, Lorenza
    Cardiovasc Prevent Ctr, Udine, Italy.
    Pitakaka, Freda
    Minist Hlth & Med Serv, Honiara, Solomon Islands.
    Piwonska, Aleksandra
    Cardinal Wyszynski Inst Cardiol, Warsaw, Poland.
    Plans-Rubio, Pedro
    Publ Hlth Agcy Catalonia, Catalonia, Spain.
    Polasek, Ozren
    Univ Split, Split, Croatia.
    Porta, Miquel
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Chile, Santiago, Chile;Inst Hosp Mar Invest Med, Barcelona, Spain.
    Portegies, Marileen L. P.
    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Pourshams, Akram
    Digest Oncol Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.
    Poustchi, Hossein
    Digest Dis Res Inst, Tehran, Iran.
    Pradeepa, Rajendra
    Madras Diabet Res Fdn, Madras, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Prashant, Mathur
    Indian Council Med Res, New Delhi, India.
    Price, Jacqueline F.
    Univ Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Puder, Jardena J.
    Lausanne Univ Hosp, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Puiu, Maria
    Victor Babes Univ Med & Pharm Timisoara, Timisoara, Romania.
    Punab, Margus
    Tartu Univ Clin, Tartu, Estonia.
    Qasrawi, Radwan F.
    Al Quds Univ, Jerusalem, Palestine.
    Qorbani, Mostafa
    Alborz Univ Med Sci, Alborz, Iran.
    Bao, Tran Quoc
    Radic, Ivana
    Univ Novi Sad, Novi Sad, Serbia.
    Radisauskas, Ricardas
    Lithuanian Univ Hlth Sci, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Rahman, Mahfuzar
    BRAC, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Raitakari, Olli
    Univ Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Raj, Manu
    Amrita Inst Med Sci, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Rao, Sudha Ramachandra
    Natl Inst Epidemiol, Madras, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Ramachandran, Ambady
    India Diabet Res Fdn, New Delhi, India.
    Ramos, Elisabete
    Univ Porto, Med Sch, Porto, Portugal.
    Rampal, Lekhraj
    Univ Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia.
    Rampal, Sanjay
    Univ Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Reina, Daniel A. Rangel
    Gorgas Mem Inst Hlth Studies, Panama City, Panama.
    Redon, Josep
    Univ Valencia, Valencia, Spain.
    Reganit, Paul Ferdinand M.
    Univ Philippines, Quezon City, Philippines.
    Ribeiro, Robespierre
    Minas Gerais State Secretariat Hlth, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.
    Riboli, Elio
    Imperial Coll London, London, England.
    Rigo, Fernando
    Hlth Ctr San Agustin, San Agustin, Spain.
    de Wit, Tobias F. Rinke
    PharmAccess Fdn, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Ritti-Dias, Raphael M.
    Univ Nove de Julho, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Robinson, Sian M.
    Univ Southampton, Southampton SO9 5NH, Hants, England.
    Robitaille, Cynthia
    Publ Hlth Agcy Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
    Rodriguez-Artalejo, Fernando
    Univ Autonoma Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    del Cristo Rodriguez-Perez, Maria
    Canarian Hlth Serv, Tenerife, Spain.
    Rodriguez-Villamizar, Laura A.
    Univ Ind Santander, Bucaramanga, Colombia.
    Rojas-Martinez, Rosalba
    Inst Nacl Salud Publ, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico.
    Romaguera, Dora
    CIBEROBN, Madrid, Spain.
    Ronkainen, Kimmo
    Univ Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Rosengren, Annika
    Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Roy, Joel G. R.
    Stat Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
    Rubinstein, Adolfo
    Inst Clin Effectiveness & Hlth Policy, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.
    Sandra Ruiz-Betancourt, Blanca
    Inst Mexicano Seguro Social, Mexico City, DF, Mexico.
    Rutkowski, Marcin
    Med Univ Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland.
    Sabanayagam, Charumathi
    Singapore Eye Res Inst, Singapore, Singapore.
    Sachdev, Harshpal S.
    Sitaram Bhartia Inst Sci & Res, New Delhi, India.
    Saidi, Olfa
    Univ Tunis El Manar, Tunis, Tunisia.
    Sakarya, Sibel
    Marmara Univ, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Salanave, Benoit
    French Publ Hlth Agcy, St Maurice, France.
    Salazar Martinez, Eduardo
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico.
    Salmeron, Diego
    CIBER Epidemiol & Salud Publ, Barcelona, Spain.
    Salomaa, Veikko
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Helsinki, Finland.
    Salonen, Jukka T.
    Univ Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Salvetti, Massimo
    Univ Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Sanchez-Abanto, Jose
    Natl Inst Hlth, Lima, Peru.
    Sans, Susana
    Catalan Dept Hlth, Catalonia, Spain.
    Santos, Diana A.
    Univ Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Santos, Ina S.
    Univ Fed Pelotas, Pelotas, RS, Brazil.
    dos Santos, Renata Nunes
    Univ Sao Paulo, Clin Hosp, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Santos, Rute
    Univ Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Saramies, Jouko L.
    South Karelia Social & Hlth Care Dist, Lappeenranta, Finland.
    Sardinha, Luis B.
    Univ Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Sarganas, Giselle
    Robert Koch Inst, Berlin, Germany.
    Sarrafzadegan, Nizal
    Isfahan Cardiovasc Res Ctr, Esfahan, Iran.
    Saum, Kai-Uwe
    German Canc Res Ctr, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Savva, Savvas
    Res & Educ Inst Child Hlth, Nicosia, Cyprus.
    Scazufca, Marcia
    Univ Sao Paulo, Clin Hosp, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Schargrodsky, Herman
    Hosp Italiano Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.
    Schipf, Sabine
    Univ Med Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany.
    Schmidt, Carsten O.
    Univ Med Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany.
    Schoettker, Ben
    German Canc Res Ctr, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Schultsz, Constance
    Univ Amsterdam, Acad Med Ctr, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Schutte, Aletta E.
    North West Univ, South African Med Res Council, Potchefstroom, South Africa.
    Sein, Aye Aye
    Minist Hlth, Naypyidaw, Myanmar.
    Sen, Abhijit
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Trondheim, Norway.
    Senbanjo, Idowu O.
    Lagos State Univ, Coll Med, Lagos, Nigeria.
    Sepanlou, Sadaf G.
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Tehran, Iran.
    Sharma, Sanjib K.
    BP Koirala Inst Hlth Sci, Dharan, Nepal.
    Shaw, Jonathan E.
    Baker Heart & Diabet Inst, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Shibuya, Kenji
    Univ Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Shin, Dong Wook
    Samsung Med Ctr, Seoul, South Korea.
    Shin, Youchan
    Singapore Eye Res Inst, Singapore, Singapore.
    Si-Ramlee, Khairil
    Minist Hlth, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei.
    Siantar, Rosalynn
    Singapore Eye Res Inst, Singapore, Singapore.
    Sibai, Abla M.
    Amer Univ Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon.
    Santos Silva, Diego Augusto
    Univ Fed Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC, Brazil.
    Simon, Mary
    India Diabet Res Fdn, Madras, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Simons, Judith
    St Vincents Hosp, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Simons, Leon A.
    Univ New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Sjostrom, Michael
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Skovbjerg, Sine
    Bispebjerg & Frederiksberg Hosp, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Slowikowska-Hilczer, Jolanta
    Med Univ Lodz, Lodz, Poland.
    Slusarczyk, Przemyslaw
    Int Inst Mol & Cell Biol, Warsaw, Poland.
    Smeeth, Liam
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, London, England.
    Smith, Margaret C.
    Univ Oxford, Oxford, England.
    Snijder, Marieke B.
    Acad Med Ctr, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    So, Hung-Kwan
    Univ Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Sobngwi, Eugene
    Univ Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon.
    Soderberg, Stefan
    Umea Univ, Umea, Sweden.
    Solfrizzi, Vincenzo
    Univ Bari, Bari, Italy.
    Sonestedt, Emily
    Lund Univ, Lund, Sweden.
    Song, Yi
    Peking Univ, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.
    Univ Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Jerome, Charles Sossa
    Inst Reg Sante Publ, Ouidah, Benin.
    Soumare, Aicha
    Univ Bordeaux, Talence, France.
    Staessen, Jan A.
    Univ Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Stathopoulou, Maria G.
    INSERM, Paris, France.
    Stavreski, Bill
    Heart Fdn, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Steene-Johannessen, Jostein
    Norwegian Sch Sport Sci, Oslo, Norway.
    Stehle, Peter
    Univ Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
    Stein, Aryeh D.
    Emory Univ, Atlanta, GA USA.
    Stergiou, George S.
    Sotiria Hosp, Athens, Greece.
    Stessman, Jochanan
    Hadassah Univ, Med Ctr, Jerusalem, Israel.
    Stieber, Jutta
    Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Munich, Germany.
    Stoeckl, Doris
    Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Munich, Germany.
    Stocks, Tanja
    Lund Univ, Lund, Sweden.
    Stokwiszewski, Jakub
    Natl Inst Hyg, Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Warsaw, Poland.
    Stronks, Karien
    Univ Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Strufaldi, Maria Wany
    Univ Fed Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Sun, Chien-An
    Fu Jen Catholic Univ, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Sung, Yn-Tz
    Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Suriyawongpaisal, Paibul
    Mahidol Univ, Bangkok, Thailand.
    Sy, Rody G.
    Univ Philippines, Quezon City, Philippines.
    Tai, E. Shyong
    Natl Univ Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.
    Tammesoo, Mari-Liis
    Univ Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Tamosiunas, Abdonas
    Lithuanian Univ Hlth Sci, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Tan, Eng Joo
    Univ Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Tang, Xun
    Peking Univ, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Tanser, Frank
    Univ KwaZulu Natal, Durban, South Africa.
    Tao, Yong
    Peking Univ, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Tarawneh, Mohammed Rasoul
    Minist Hlth, Amman, Jordan.
    Tarqui-Mamani, Carolina B.
    Natl Inst Hlth, Lima, Peru.
    Tautu, Oana-Florentina
    Carol Davila Univ Med & Pharm, Bucharest, Romania.
    Taylor, Anne
    Univ Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia.
    Theobald, Holger
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Theodoridis, Xenophon
    Alexander Technol Educ Inst, Sindos, Greece.
    Thijs, Lutgarde
    Univ Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Thuesen, Betina H.
    Bispebjerg & Frederiksberg Hosp, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Danish Canc Soc Res Ctr, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Tolonen, Hanna K.
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Kuopio, Finland.
    Tolstrup, Janne S.
    Univ Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Topbas, Murat
    Karadeniz Tech Univ, Trabzon, Turkey.
    Topor-Madry, Roman
    Jagiellonian Univ, Coll Med, Warsaw, Poland.
    Jose Tormo, Maria
    Hlth Serv Murcia, Murcia, Spain.
    Torrent, Maties
    IB SALUT Area Salut Menorca, Ciutadella De Menorca, Spain.
    Traissac, Pierre
    Inst Rech Dev, Marseille, France.
    Trichopoulos, Dimitrios
    Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA USA.
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Hellen Hlth Fdn, Athens, Greece.
    Trinh, Oanh T. H.
    Univ Pharm & Med Ho Chi Minh City, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Trivedi, Atul
    Govt Med Coll, New Delhi, India.
    Tshepo, Lechaba
    Sefako Makgatho Hlth Sci Univ, Tshwane, South Africa.
    Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K.
    Univ West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica.
    Tullu, Fikru
    Addis Ababa Univ, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka
    Univ Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Tuomilehto, Jaakko
    Dasman Diabet Inst, Kuwait, Kuwait.
    Turley, Maria L.
    Minist Hlth, Thorndon, New Zealand.
    Tynelius, Per
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tzourio, Christophe
    Univ Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France.
    Ueda, Peter
    Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA USA.
    Ugel, Eunice E.
    Univ Centrooccidental Lisandro Alvarado, Barquisimeto, Venezuela.
    Ulmer, Hanno
    Med Univ Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Uusitalo, Hannu M. T.
    Univ Tampere, Tays Eye Ctr, Tampere, Finland.
    Valdivia, Gonzalo
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Chile, Santiago, Chile.
    Valvi, Damaskini
    Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA USA.
    van der Schouw, Yvonne T.
    Univ Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Van Herck, Koen
    Univ Ghent, Ghent, Belgium.
    Minh, Hoang Van
    van Rossem, Lenie
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Van Schoor, Natasja M.
    Amsterdam Publ Hlth Res Inst, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.
    Acad Med Ctr, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Vanderschueren, Dirk
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Vanuzzo, Diego
    Cardiovasc Prevent Ctr, Udine, Italy.
    Vatten, Lars
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Oslo, Norway.
    Vega, Tomas
    Consejeria Sanidad Junta Castilla & Leon, Madrid, Spain.
    Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo
    Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.
    Veronesi, Giovanni
    Univ Insubria, Varese, VA, Italy.
    Verschuren, W. M. Monique
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth & Environm, Bilthoven, Netherlands.
    Verstraeten, Roosmarijn
    Inst Trop Med, Antwerp, Belgium.
    Victora, Cesar G.
    Univ Fed Pelotas, Pelotas, RS, Brazil.
    Viet, Lucie
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth & Environm, Bilthoven, Netherlands.
    Viikari-Juntura, Eira
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.
    Vineis, Paolo
    Imperial Coll London, London, England.
    Vioque, Jesus
    Univ Miguel Hernandez, Elche, Spain.
    Virtanen, Jyrki K.
    Univ Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Visvikis-Siest, Sophie
    INSERM, Paris, France.
    Viswanathan, Bharathi
    Minist Hlth, Victoria, Seychelles.
    Vlasoff, Tiina
    North Karelian Ctr Publ Hlth, Joensuu, Finland.
    Vollenweider, Peter
    Lausanne Univ Hosp, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Voutilainen, Sari
    Univ Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Wade, Alisha N.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Wagner, Aline
    Univ Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.
    Walton, Janette
    Cork Inst Technol, Cork, Ireland.
    Bebakar, Wan Mohamad Wan
    Univ Sains Malaysia, George Town, Malaysia.
    Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon Wan
    Inst Med Res, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Wanderley, Rildo S., Jr.
    Univ Pernambuco, Recife, PE, Brazil.
    Wang, Ming-Dong
    Publ Hlth Agcy Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
    Wang, Qian
    Xinjiang Med Univ, Urumqi, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Ya Xing
    Capital Med Univ, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Ying-Wei
    Minist Hlth & Welf, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Wannamethee, S. Goya
    UCL, London, England.
    Wareham, Nicholas
    Univ Cambridge, Cambridge, England.
    Wedderkopp, Niels
    Univ Southern Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Weerasekera, Deepa
    Minist Hlth, Thorndon, New Zealand.
    Whincup, Peter H.
    St Georges Univ London, London, England.
    Widhalm, Kurt
    Med Univ Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Widyahening, Indah S.
    Univ Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia.
    Wiecek, Andrzej
    Med Univ Silesia, Katowice, Poland.
    Wijga, Alet H.
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth & Environm, Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Wilks, Rainford J.
    Univ West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica.
    Willeit, Johann
    Med Univ Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Willeit, Peter
    Med Univ Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria;Univ Cambridge, Cambridge, England.
    Williams, Emmanuel A.
    Komfo Anokye Teaching Hosp, Kumasi, Ghana.
    Wilsgaard, Tom
    UiT Arctic Univ Norway, Tromso, Norway.
    Wojtyniak, Bogdan
    Natl Inst Hyg, Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Warsaw, Poland.
    Wong-McClure, Roy A.
    Caja Costarricense Seguro Social, San Jose, Costa Rica.
    Wong, Justin Y. Y.
    Minist Hlth, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei.
    Wong, Tien Yin
    Duke NUS Med Sch, Singapore, Singapore.
    Woo, Jean
    Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Wu, Aleksander Giwercman
    Lund Univ, Lund, Sweden.
    Wu, Frederick C.
    Univ Manchester, Manchester, Lancs, England.
    Wu, Shouling
    Kailuan Gen Hosp, Tangshan, Peoples R China.
    Xu, Haiquan
    Minist Agr, Inst Food & Nutr Dev, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Yan, Weili
    Fudan Univ, Childrens Hosp, Shanghai, Peoples R China.
    Yang, Xiaoguang
    Chinese Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Ye, Xingwang
    Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Yiallouros, Panayiotis K.
    Univ Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus.
    Yoshihara, Akihiro
    Niigata Univ, Niigata, Japan.
    Younger-Coleman, Novie O.
    Univ West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica.
    Yusoff, Ahmad Faudzi
    Minist Hlth Malaysia, Putra Jaya, Malaysia.
    Zainuddin, Ahmad Ali
    Univ Teknol MARA, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Zambon, Sabina
    Univ Padua, Padua, Italy.
    Zampelas, Antonis
    Agr Univ Athens, Athens, Greece.
    Zdrojewski, Tomasz
    Med Univ Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland.
    Zeng, Yi
    Peking Univ, Beijing, Peoples R China;Duke Univ, Durham, NC USA.
    Zhao, Dong
    Capital Med Univ, Beijing An Zhen Hosp, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Zhao, Wenhua
    Chinese Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Zheng, Wei
    Vanderbilt Univ, Nashville, TN USA.
    Zheng, Yingfeng
    Singapore Eye Res Inst, Singapore, Singapore.
    Zhu, Dan
    Inner Mongolia Med Univ, Hohhot, Peoples R China.
    Zhussupov, Baurzhan
    Kazakh Natl Med Univ, Alma Ata, Kazakhstan.
    Zimmermann, Esther
    Bispebjerg & Frederiksberg Hosp, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Cisneros, Julio Zuniga
    Gorgas Mem Inst Publ Hlth, Panama City, Panama.
    Contributions of mean and shape of blood pressure distribution to worldwide trends and variations in raised blood pressure: a pooled analysis of 1018 population-based measurement studies with 88.6 million participants2018In: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 872-883iArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Change in the prevalence of raised blood pressure could be due to both shifts in the entire distribution of blood pressure (representing the combined effects of public health interventions and secular trends) and changes in its high-blood-pressure tail (representing successful clinical interventions to control blood pressure in the hypertensive population). Our aim was to quantify the contributions of these two phenomena to the worldwide trends in the prevalence of raised blood pressure.

    Methods

    We pooled 1018 population-based studies with blood pressure measurements on 88.6 million participants from 1985 to 2016. We first calculated mean systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and prevalence of raised blood pressure by sex and 10-year age group from 20–29 years to 70–79 years in each study, taking into account complex survey design and survey sample weights, where relevant. We used a linear mixed effect model to quantify the association between (probit-transformed) prevalence of raised blood pressure and age-group- and sex-specific mean blood pressure. We calculated the contributions of change in mean SBP and DBP, and of change in the prevalence-mean association, to the change in prevalence of raised blood pressure.

    Results

    In 2005–16, at the same level of population mean SBP and DBP, men and women in South Asia and in Central Asia, the Middle East and North Africa would have the highest prevalence of raised blood pressure, and men and women in the high-income Asia Pacific and high-income Western regions would have the lowest. In most region-sex-age groups where the prevalence of raised blood pressure declined, one half or more of the decline was due to the decline in mean blood pressure. Where prevalence of raised blood pressure has increased, the change was entirely driven by increasing mean blood pressure, offset partly by the change in the prevalence-mean association.

    Conclusions

    Change in mean blood pressure is the main driver of the worldwide change in the prevalence of raised blood pressure, but change in the high-blood-pressure tail of the distribution has also contributed to the change in prevalence, especially in older age groups.

  • 1775.
    Ziaei, Shirin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Women’s status and child nutrition: Findings from community studies in Bangladesh and Nicaragua2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of women’s status for child nutrition has recently been recognized. However, pathways through which women’s status can affect their caretaking practices and child nutrition have not been fully determined. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate associations between aspects of women’s status – including exposure to domestic violence and level of autonomy and social support – with their level of stress, feeding practices and child nutritional status in two different cultural settings: Bangladesh and Nicaragua.

    Data were acquired from population-based studies. For Study I we used data from the Bangladesh 2007 Demographic and Health Survey, and Study II was embedded in the 2009 Health and Demographic Surveillance System conducted in Los Cuatro Santos, rural Nicaragua. Studies III and IV were part of the MINIMat study, conducted in rural Bangladesh. In-person interviews were conducted and validated questionnaires were used in each of the studies. Anthropometric characteristics of the children were recorded based on standardized World Health Organization techniques.

    In Bangladesh, we found women with lifetime experience of domestic violence to be more likely to report emotional distress during pregnancy, cease exclusive breastfeeding before 6 months and have a stunted child. Further, we found a negative association between experience of domestic violence and duration of excusive breastfeeding to be mitigated with breastfeeding counseling. In Nicaragua, a lower level of maternal autonomy was associated with more appropriate breastfeeding practices such as higher odds of exclusive breastfeeding and longer continuation of breastfeeding. Further, a maternal lower level of social support was associated with better child nutritional status.

    In conclusion, this investigation showed that different dimensions of women’s status were associated with their feeding practices and child nutritional status and also revealed that the strength and direction of these associations may vary by the child’s age, setting and other contextual factors. These findings suggest that women’s status might have an important public health impact on child health and its role should be considered in programs and policies aiming to improve child health and nutrition.

    List of papers
    1. Women's exposure to intimate partner violence and child malnutrition: findings from demographic and health surveys in Bangladesh
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Women's exposure to intimate partner violence and child malnutrition: findings from demographic and health surveys in Bangladesh
    2014 (English)In: Maternal and Child Nutrition, ISSN 1740-8695, E-ISSN 1740-8709, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 347-359Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Domestic violence, in particular intimate partner violence (IPV), has been recognized as a leading cause of mortality and morbidity among women of reproductive age. The effects of IPV against women on their children's health, especially their nutritional status has received less attention but needs to be evaluated to understand the comprehensive public health implications of IPV. The aim of current study was to investigate the association between women's exposure to IPV and their children's nutritional status, using data from the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS). Logistic regression models were used to estimate association between ever-married women's lifetime exposure to physical and sexual violence by their spouses and nutritional status of their children under 5 years. Of 2042 women in the BDHS survey with at least one child under 5 years of age, 49.4% reported lifetime experience of physical partner violence while 18.4% reported experience of sexual partner violence. The prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight in their children under 5 years was 44.3%, 18.4% and 42.0%, respectively. Women were more likely to have a stunted child if they had lifetime experience of physical IPV [odds ratio n = 2027 (OR)adj, 1.48; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.23–1.79] or had been exposed to sexual IPV (n = 2027 ORadj, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.02–1.61). The present findings contribute to growing body of evidence showing that IPV can also compromise children's growth, supporting the need to incorporate efforts to address IPV in child health and nutrition programmes and policies.

    National Category
    Nutrition and Dietetics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-198258 (URN)10.1111/j.1740-8709.2012.00432.x (DOI)000337613300004 ()22906219 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2013-04-11 Created: 2013-04-11 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    2. Women´s autonomy and social support and their associations with infant and young child feeding and nutritional status: community-based survey in rural Nicaragua
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Women´s autonomy and social support and their associations with infant and young child feeding and nutritional status: community-based survey in rural Nicaragua
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 18, no 11, p. 1979-1990Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    To evaluate the associations of women’s autonomy and social support with infant and young child feeding practices (including consumption of highly processed snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages) and nutritional status in rural Nicaragua.

    Design

    Cross-sectional study. Feeding practices and children’s nutritional status were evaluated according to the WHO guidelines complemented with information on highly processed snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages. Women’s autonomy was assessed by a seventeen-item questionnaire covering dimensions of financial independence, household-, child-, reproductive and health-related decision making and freedom of movement. Women’s social support was determined using the Duke-UNC Functional Social Support Questionnaire. The scores attained were categorized into tertiles.

    Setting

    Los Cuatro Santos area, rural Nicaragua.

    Subjects

    A total of 1371 children 0–35 months of age.

    Results

    Children of women with the lowest autonomy were more likely to be exclusively breast-fed and continue to be breast-fed, while children of women with middle level of autonomy had better complementary feeding practices. Children of women with the lowest social support were more likely to consume highly processed snacks and/or sugar-sweetened beverages but also be taller.

    Conclusions

    While lower levels of autonomy and social support were independently associated with some favourable feeding and nutrition outcomes, this may not indicate a causal relationship but rather that these factors reflect other matters of importance for child care.

    Keywords
    social support, decision making, children, nutrition, Nicaragua
    National Category
    Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-248695 (URN)10.1017/S1368980014002468 (DOI)000357673600009 ()25409706 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2015-04-07 Created: 2015-04-07 Last updated: 2018-11-28Bibliographically approved
    3. Experiencing lifetime domestic violence: associations with mental health and stress among pregnant women in rural Bangladesh: The MINIMat randomized trial
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experiencing lifetime domestic violence: associations with mental health and stress among pregnant women in rural Bangladesh: The MINIMat randomized trial
    (English)Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    uppsala:
    National Category
    Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-302006 (URN)
    External cooperation:
    Available from: 2016-08-27 Created: 2016-08-27 Last updated: 2016-08-28
    4. Breastfeeding counseling mitigates the negative association of domestic violence on exclusive breastfeeding duration in rural Bangladesh: The MINIMat randomized trial
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Breastfeeding counseling mitigates the negative association of domestic violence on exclusive breastfeeding duration in rural Bangladesh: The MINIMat randomized trial
    Show others...
    (English)Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
    National Category
    Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-302003 (URN)
    External cooperation:
    Available from: 2016-08-27 Created: 2016-08-27 Last updated: 2016-08-28
  • 1776.
    Ziaei, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Contreras, Mariela
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Zelaya Blandón, Elmer
    Asociación para el Desarrollo Económico y Social de El Espino (APRODESE).
    Persson, Lars-Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Hjern, Anders
    Centre for Health Equity Studies, Karolinska Institutet/Stockholm University.
    Ekström, Eva-Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Women´s autonomy and social support and their associations with infant and young child feeding and nutritional status: community-based survey in rural Nicaragua2015In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 18, no 11, p. 1979-1990Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    To evaluate the associations of women’s autonomy and social support with infant and young child feeding practices (including consumption of highly processed snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages) and nutritional status in rural Nicaragua.

    Design

    Cross-sectional study. Feeding practices and children’s nutritional status were evaluated according to the WHO guidelines complemented with information on highly processed snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages. Women’s autonomy was assessed by a seventeen-item questionnaire covering dimensions of financial independence, household-, child-, reproductive and health-related decision making and freedom of movement. Women’s social support was determined using the Duke-UNC Functional Social Support Questionnaire. The scores attained were categorized into tertiles.

    Setting

    Los Cuatro Santos area, rural Nicaragua.

    Subjects

    A total of 1371 children 0–35 months of age.

    Results

    Children of women with the lowest autonomy were more likely to be exclusively breast-fed and continue to be breast-fed, while children of women with middle level of autonomy had better complementary feeding practices. Children of women with the lowest social support were more likely to consume highly processed snacks and/or sugar-sweetened beverages but also be taller.

    Conclusions

    While lower levels of autonomy and social support were independently associated with some favourable feeding and nutrition outcomes, this may not indicate a causal relationship but rather that these factors reflect other matters of importance for child care.

  • 1777. ziaei, shirin
    et al.
    Frith, Amy Lynn
    Ekström, Eva-Charlotte
    Naved, Ruchira Tabassum
    Experiencing lifetime domestic violence: associations with mental health and stress among pregnant women in rural Bangladesh: The MINIMat randomized trialArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 1778. ziaei, shirin
    et al.
    Frith, Amy Lynn
    Ekström, Eva-Charlotte
    Naved, Ruchira Tabassum
    Experiencing lifetime domestic violence: associations with mental health and stress among pregnant women in rural Bangladesh.: The MINIMat randomized trialArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 1779.
    Ziaei, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Frith, Amy Lynn
    thaca Coll, Sch Hlth Sci & Human Performance, Ithaca, NY 14850 USA.
    Ekström, Eva-Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Naved, Ruchira Tabassum
    Int Ctr Diarrhoeal Dis Res ICDDR B, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Experiencing Lifetime Domestic Violence: Associations with Mental Health and Stress among Pregnant Women in Rural Bangladesh: The MINIMat Randomized Trial2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 12, article id e0168103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Experience of domestic violence has negative mental health consequences for women. The association of cumulative and specific forms of domestic violence, particularly emotional violence and controlling behavior, with common mental disorders and stress has rarely been studied in pregnant women. The aim of this study is to evaluate associations of specific and multiple forms of lifetime domestic violence and controlling behavior with distress and cortisol level during pregnancy in rural Bangladeshi women.

    METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this observational sub-study of larger MINIMat trial, 3504 pregnant women were interviewed using a shortened Conflict Tactic Scale about their lifetime experience of domestic violence including physical, sexual, emotional domestic violence and controlling behavior. Women's levels of emotional distress were assessed using the self-reported questionnaire (SRQ-20) developed by WHO, and levels of morning salivary cortisol were measured in a subsample (n = 1300) of women during week 28-32 of pregnancy. Regression analyses were used to estimate the associations of lifetime physical, sexual, emotional domestic violence and controlling behavior with levels of distress and cortisol during pregnancy. The prevalence of lifetime domestic violence was 57% and emotional distress was 35% in these pregnant women. All forms of domestic violence were associated with higher levels of emotional distress. Women who experienced either emotional violence or controlling behavior had the highest levels of emotional distress. There was a dose-response relationship between cumulative number of the different forms of domestic violence and women's levels of emotional distress. There was no association between women's experience of domestic violence and level of morning salivary cortisol.

    CONCLUSION: Including emotional violence and controlling behavior as major types of violence in future research and health interventions is warranted. Furthermore, the extent of the negative impacts of domestic violence on pregnant women, multiple forms of violence and their cumulative effects need to be investigated.

  • 1780.
    Ziaei, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Child Health and Nutrition.
    Naved, Ruchira Tabassum
    ICDDR B, Dhaka 1212, Bangladesh.
    Rahman, Anisur
    ICDDR B, Dhaka 1212, Bangladesh.
    Raqib, Rubhana
    ICDDR B, Dhaka 1212, Bangladesh.
    Ekström, Eva-Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Child Health and Nutrition.
    Maternal Experience of Domestic Violence, Associations with Children's Lipid Biomarkers at 10 Years: Findings from MINIMat Study in Rural Bangladesh2019In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 11, no 4, article id 910Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The consequences of maternal experience of Domestic Violence (DV) on their children's cardio-metabolic risk factors are unclear. We aimed to assess if maternal exposure to any or a specific form of DV (i.e., physical, sexual, emotional and controlling behaviors) before and after childbirth was associated with their children's lipid biomarkers at the age of 10 years. A current observational sub-study of a larger MINIMat trial included a cohort of 1167 mothers and their children. The conflict tactic scale was used to record women's experience of lifetime DV before and after childbirth at week 30 of pregnancy and at a 10-year follow up, respectively. Five ml of fasting blood sample was collected from the children to evaluate their lipid profile. Children of women who experienced any DV before childbirth had lower Apo A ((adj) -0.04; 95% CI: -0.08, -0.01). Women who experienced physical DV both before and after childbirth had children with higher triglycerides ((adj) 0.07; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.14). Children whose mother experienced sexual DV before birth had lower Apo A ((adj) -0.05; 95% CI: -0.08, -0.01) and High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) ((adj) -0.05; 95% CI: -0.10, -0.01) as well as higher Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) ((adj) 0.17; 95% CI: 0.05, 0.29) and LDL/HDL ( 0.24; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.38). However, levels of LDL ((adj) -0.17; 95% CI: -0.28, -0.06), LDL/HDL ((adj) -0.12; 95% CI: -0.25, -0.00) and cholesterol ((adj) -0.13; 95% CI: -0.25, -0.02) were lower among the children of mothers who experienced controlling behavior after childbirth. Results from the current study suggest that maternal experience of physical or sexual DV might negatively affect their children's lipid profile at the age of 10 years.

  • 1781.
    Ziaei, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Rahman, Anisur
    ICDDR B, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Raqib, Rubhana
    ICDDR B, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Lönnerdal, Bo
    Univ Calif Davis, Dept Nutr, Davis, CA 95616 USA.
    Ekström, Eva-Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    A Prenatal Multiple Micronutrient Supplement Produces Higher Maternal Vitamin B-12 Concentrations and Similar Folate, Ferritin, and Zinc Concentrations as the Standard 60-mg Iron Plus 400-μg Folic Acid Supplement in Rural Bangladeshi Women.2016In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 146, no 12, p. 2520-2529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The effects of prenatal food and micronutrient supplementation on maternal micronutrient status are not well known.

    OBJECTIVE: We compared the efficacy and effectiveness of 3 different micronutrient supplements on maternal micronutrient status when combined with food supplementation.

    METHODS: In the MINIMat (Maternal and Infant Nutrition Intervention, Matlab) trial in Bangladesh, 4436 pregnant women were randomly assigned to daily intake of 3 types of micronutrient capsules: 30 mg Fe and 400 μg folic acid (Fe30F), 60 mg Fe and 400 μg folic acid (Fe60F), or multiple micronutrient supplements (MMNs) combined with early (week 9 of pregnancy) or usual (week 20 of pregnancy) food supplementation in a 2 by 3 factorial design. Plasma concentrations of vitamin B-12, folate, ferritin, and zinc were analyzed before the start of micronutrient supplementation (week 14) and at week 30 of pregnancy in 641 randomly selected women. An electronic monitoring device was used to measure the number of capsules taken. The effectiveness of food and micronutrient regimens as well as efficacy per capsule in maternal micronutrient status were analyzed by ANOVA and general linear models.

    RESULTS: At week 30 of pregnancy, women in the MMN group had higher geometric mean concentrations of vitamin B-12 than women in the Fe60F group (119 compared with 101 pmol/L, respectively); no other differences in effectiveness of micronutrient and food regimens were observed. A dose-response relation between the number of capsules taken and concentrations of folate and ferritin was observed for all micronutrient supplements. Fe30F had lower efficacy per capsule in increasing ferritin concentrations within the first tertile of capsule intake than did Fe60F and MMNs. Because ferritin reached a plateau for all types of micronutrient supplements, there was no difference between the regimens in their effectiveness.

    CONCLUSION: Compared with Fe60F, MMNs produced higher maternal vitamin B-12 and similar ferritin and folate concentrations in Bangladeshi women. The MINIMat trial was registered at isrctn.org as ISRCTN16581394.

  • 1782.
    Zidar, Maria Norfjord
    et al.
    Malardalen Univ, Sch Hlth Care & Social Welf, Div Publ Hlth Sci, SE-72123 Vasteras, Sweden..
    Larm, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Malardalen Univ, Sch Hlth Care & Social Welf, Div Publ Hlth Sci, SE-72123 Vasteras, Sweden..
    Tillgren, Per
    Malardalen Univ, Sch Hlth Care & Social Welf, Div Publ Hlth Sci, SE-72123 Vasteras, Sweden..
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    Malardalen Univ, Sch Hlth Care & Social Welf, Div Publ Hlth Sci, SE-72123 Vasteras, Sweden..
    Non-attendance of mammographic screening: the roles of age and municipality in a population-based Swedish sample2015In: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 14, article id 157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Inequality in health and health care is increasing in Sweden. Contributing to widening gaps are various factors that can be assessed by determinants, such as age, educational level, occupation, living area and country of birth. A health care service that can be used as an indicator of health inequality in Sweden is mammographic screening. The non-attendance rate is between 13 and 31 %, while the average is about 20 %. This study aims to shed light on three associations: between municipality and non-attendance, between age and non-attendance, and the interaction of municipality of residence and age in relation to non-attendance. Methods: The study is based on data from the register that identifies attenders and non-attenders of mammographic screening in a Swedish county, namely the Radiological Information System (RIS). Further, in order to provide a socio-demographic profile of the county's municipalities, aggregated data for women in the age range 40-74 in 2012 were retrieved from Statistics Sweden (SCB), the Public Health Agency of Sweden, the National Board of Health and Welfare, and the Swedish Social Insurance Agency. The sample consisted of 52,541 women. Analysis conducted of the individual data were multivariate logistic regressions, and pairwise chi-square tests. Results: The results show that age and municipality of residence associated with non-attendance of mammographic screening. Municipality of residence has a greater impact on non-attendance among women in the age group 70 to 74. For most of the age categories there were differences between the municipalities in regard to non-attendance to mammographic screening. Conclusions: Age and municipality of residence affect attendance of mammographic screening. Since there is one sole and pre-selected mammographic screening facility in the county, distance to the screening facility may serve as one explanation to non-attendance which is a determinant of inequity. From an equity perspective, lack of equal access to health and health care influences facility utilization.

  • 1783. Zoeller, R. Thomas
    et al.
    Bergman, Ake
    Becher, Georg
    Bjerregaard, Poul
    Bornman, Riana
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Iguchi, Taisen
    Jobling, Susan
    Kidd, Karen A.
    Kortenkamp, Andreas
    Skakkebaek, Niels E.
    Toppari, Jorma
    Vandenberg, Laura N.
    A path forward in the debate over health impacts of endocrine disrupting chemicals2014In: Environmental health, ISSN 1476-069X, E-ISSN 1476-069X, Vol. 13, p. 118-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several recent publications reflect debate on the issue of "endocrine disrupting chemicals" (EDCs), indicating that two seemingly mutually exclusive perspectives are being articulated separately and independently. Considering this, a group of scientists with expertise in basic science, medicine and risk assessment reviewed the various aspects of the debate to identify the most significant areas of dispute and to propose a path forward. We identified four areas of debate. The first is about the definitions for terms such as "endocrine disrupting chemical", "adverse effects", and "endocrine system". The second is focused on elements of hormone action including "potency", "endpoints", "timing", "dose" and "thresholds". The third addresses the information needed to establish sufficient evidence of harm. Finally, the fourth focuses on the need to develop and the characteristics of transparent, systematic methods to review the EDC literature. Herein we identify areas of general consensus and propose resolutions for these four areas that would allow the field to move beyond the current and, in our opinion, ineffective debate.

  • 1784.
    Zyczynski, T.
    et al.
    Bristol Myers Squibb Co, Princeton, NJ USA..
    Khoury, J.
    Emory Univ, Winship Canc Inst, Atlanta, GA 30322 USA..
    Goldberg, S.
    John Theurer Canc Ctr, Hackensack, NJ USA..
    Mauro, M.
    Mem Sloan Kettering Canc Ctr, 1275 York Ave, New York, NY 10021 USA..
    Michallet, M.
    Ctr Hosp Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite, France..
    Paquette, R.
    UCLA Med Ctr, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Foreman, A.
    ICON Clin Res, San Francisco, CA USA..
    Subar, M.
    Bristol Myers Squibb Co, Princeton, NJ USA..
    Turner, M.
    ICON Clin Res, San Francisco, CA USA..
    Daumont, Manley M.
    Bristol Myers Squibb Co, Paris, France..
    Hehlmann, R.
    Heidelberg Univ, Mannheim, Germany..
    Simonsson, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Haematology.
    Imatinib Discontinuation And Tki Switching Patterns In The Retrospective And Prospective Cohorts In Simplicity, A Study Of Chronic-Phase Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (Cp-Cml) Patients (Pts) In Routine Clinical Practice2016In: Value in Health, ISSN 1098-3015, E-ISSN 1524-4733, Vol. 19, no 7, p. A894-A895Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1785.
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Biochemial structure and function.
    Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 301 acute and chronic diseases and injuries in 188 countries, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 20132015In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 386, no 9995, p. 743-800Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Up-to-date evidence about levels and trends in disease and injury incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) is an essential input into global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013), we estimated these quantities for acute and chronic diseases and injuries for 188 countries between 1990 and 2013.

    METHODS: Estimates were calculated for disease and injury incidence, prevalence, and YLDs using GBD 2010 methods with some important refinements. Results for incidence of acute disorders and prevalence of chronic disorders are new additions to the analysis. Key improvements include expansion to the cause and sequelae list, updated systematic reviews, use of detailed injury codes, improvements to the Bayesian meta-regression method (DisMod-MR), and use of severity splits for various causes. An index of data representativeness, showing data availability, was calculated for each cause and impairment during three periods globally and at the country level for 2013. In total, 35 620 distinct sources of data were used and documented to calculated estimates for 301 diseases and injuries and 2337 sequelae. The comorbidity simulation provides estimates for the number of sequelae, concurrently, by individuals by country, year, age, and sex. Disability weights were updated with the addition of new population-based survey data from four countries.

    FINDINGS: Disease and injury were highly prevalent; only a small fraction of individuals had no sequelae. Comorbidity rose substantially with age and in absolute terms from 1990 to 2013. Incidence of acute sequelae were predominantly infectious diseases and short-term injuries, with over 2 billion cases of upper respiratory infections and diarrhoeal disease episodes in 2013, with the notable exception of tooth pain due to permanent caries with more than 200 million incident cases in 2013. Conversely, leading chronic sequelae were largely attributable to non-communicable diseases, with prevalence estimates for asymptomatic permanent caries and tension-type headache of 2·4 billion and 1·6 billion, respectively. The distribution of the number of sequelae in populations varied widely across regions, with an expected relation between age and disease prevalence. YLDs for both sexes increased from 537·6 million in 1990 to 764·8 million in 2013 due to population growth and ageing, whereas the age-standardised rate decreased little from 114·87 per 1000 people to 110·31 per 1000 people between 1990 and 2013. Leading causes of YLDs included low back pain and major depressive disorder among the top ten causes of YLDs in every country. YLD rates per person, by major cause groups, indicated the main drivers of increases were due to musculoskeletal, mental, and substance use disorders, neurological disorders, and chronic respiratory diseases; however HIV/AIDS was a notable driver of increasing YLDs in sub-Saharan Africa. Also, the proportion of disability-adjusted life years due to YLDs increased globally from 21·1% in 1990 to 31·2% in 2013.

    INTERPRETATION: Ageing of the world's population is leading to a substantial increase in the numbers of individuals with sequelae of diseases and injuries. Rates of YLDs are declining much more slowly than mortality rates. The non-fatal dimensions of disease and injury will require more and more attention from health systems. The transition to non-fatal outcomes as the dominant source of burden of disease is occurring rapidly outside of sub-Saharan Africa. Our results can guide future health initiatives through examination of epidemiological trends and a better understanding of variation across countries.

    FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

  • 1786.
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular epidemiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Ruge, Toralph
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular epidemiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Biochemial structure and function.
    Sundström, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Serum endostatin and risk of mortality in the elderly: findings from 2 community-based cohorts2013In: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology, ISSN 1079-5642, E-ISSN 1524-4636, Vol. 33, no 11, p. 2689-2695Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE:

    Experimental data imply that endostatin, a proteolytically cleaved fragment of collagen XVIII, could be involved in the development of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Prospective data concerning the relation between circulating endostatin and mortality are lacking. Accordingly, we aimed to study associations between circulating endostatin and mortality risk.

    APPROACH AND RESULTS:

    Serum endostatin was analyzed in 2 community-based cohorts: the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS; women 50%, n=931; mean age, 70 years; median follow-up, 7.9 years) and the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM; n=748; mean age, 77 years; median follow-up, 9.7 years). During follow-up, 90 participants died in PIVUS (1.28/100 person-years at risk), and 417 participants died in ULSAM (6.7/100 person-years at risk). In multivariable Cox regression models adjusted for age and established cardiovascular risk factors, 1 SD higher ln(serum endostatin level) was associated with a hazard ratio of mortality of 1.39 and 95% confidence interval, 1.26 to 1.53, on average in both cohorts. In the ULSAM cohort, serum endostatin was also associated with cardiovascular mortality (177 deaths; hazard ratio per SD of ln[endostatin] 1.45, 95% confidence interval [1.25-1.71]) and cancer mortality (115 deaths; hazard ratio per SD of ln[endostatin] 1.35, 95% confidence interval [1.10-1.66]).

    CONCLUSIONS:

    High serum endostatin was associated with increased mortality risk in 2 independent community-based cohorts of the elderly. Our observational data support the importance of extracellular matrix remodeling in the underlying pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease and cancer.

  • 1787.
    Åhlin, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    The perception of TrT among its implementers: Evaluating the implementation process of Teaching Recovery Techniques among implementers in an intervention targeting unaccompanied refugee minors in Uppsala, Sweden. 2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis looks at how involved implementers of the Teaching Recovery Techniques-project in Uppsala, Sweden have experienced the project. Teaching Recovery Techniques is originally a group-based intervention created for use in disaster areas. This intervention has the aim to give self-help to unaccompanied refugee minors with post-traumatic stress symptoms in Uppsala and two neighbouring municipalities, by using non-psychiatric personnel to teach stress-mitigation. This is a pilot project as Teaching Recovery techniques have never been used in this type of setting before. To investigate the opinions of the involved personnel, qualitative interviews with roughly half of the group leader have been made. These have been analysed using manifest content analysis.

        The thesis found that while many are happy with the project, it has required unexpectedly high workload as well as suffered from unclear responsibility delegations and lacking communication, primarily in the start of the project. However, due to strong motivation from involved implementers and adaptability from employers, these issues have been overcome to a great degree. Lesson for further TrT-projects targeting unaccompanied minors should put extra effort in planning and defining the roles of involved actors as well as include arenas for horizontal communication between group leaders.

  • 1788.
    Åhs, Annika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Health and Health Care Utilization among the Unemployed2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of persons who are not employed has increased in Sweden since the early 1990s. Unemployment has been found to influence health, especially when unemployment rates are low. The extent to which unemployment affects health when unemployment is high is less clear, and this needs to be further studied. To improve health in the population, the health care system should offer equal access to health care according to need. It is important to study whether the employment status hinders the fulfilment of this goal.

    This thesis is based on four papers: Paper I and II aimed at analysing self-rated health versus mortality risk in relation to employment status, during one period of low unemployment and one period of high unemployment. Paper III and IV assessed the use of medical health care services and unmet care needs among persons who were unemployed or otherwise not employed. The goal was to analyse what health problems lead people to either seek or abstain from seeking care, and what factors encumber or facilitate this process.

    The overall results indicate that being unemployed or outside the labour force was associated with an excess risk of poor self-rated health, symptoms of depression, mental and physical exhaustion and mortality. The differences in self-rated health between the unemployed and employed were larger when unemployment levels were high, than when they were low. More groups of the unemployed were also afflicted with poor health when unemployment was high. Thus, poor health among the unemployed seems to be a public health problem during high levels of unemployment. Lack of employment was related to abstaining from seeking care, despite perceiving a need for care, and this was related to psychological symptoms. To deal with the needs of the unemployed and others who are outside the labour force it would be useful to develop and implement interventions within the health care system. These should focus on psychological and psychosocial problems. Future research should analyse how to facilitate health-promoting interventions among persons who are not anchored in the labour market.

    List of papers
    1. Self-rated health in relation to employment status during periods of high and low levels of unemployment
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Self-rated health in relation to employment status during periods of high and low levels of unemployment
    2006 (English)In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 294-304Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: There is a need for more research on the health impact of changes in the national unemployment rate. Therefore, the present study was carried out to compare levels of self-rated health during periods of high and low levels of unemployment.

    METHODS: Data included cross-sectional interviews from the Swedish Survey of Living Conditions, which were based on random samples of inhabitants between 16 and 64 years of age living in Sweden. Data were collected for the period 1983-89, when unemployment levels were low (n = 35 562; 2.5%) and for the period 1992-97 when unemployment was high (n = 24 019; 7.1%).

    RESULTS: After adjusting for sociodemographic variables as well as long-term disease or handicap, the differences in self-rated health between the unemployed and employed were larger when unemployment levels were high in the 1990s, than when they were low in the 1980s. More groups of the unemployed were afflicted with poor health when unemployment was high, compared with when it was low. In 1992-97, being married, living in larger cities, or not having a long-term disease or handicap no longer buffered the negative effects on health among the unemployed.

    CONCLUSIONS: Poorer self-rated health among the unemployed seems to be an increasing public health problem during high levels of unemployment.

    Keywords
    level of unemployment, self-rated health, unemployment
    National Category
    Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-94980 (URN)10.1093/eurpub/cki165 (DOI)000238762100017 ()16260444 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2006-10-13 Created: 2006-10-13 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    2.
    The record could not be found. The reason may be that the record is no longer available or you may have typed in a wrong id in the address field.
    3. Health care utilization among persons who are unemployed or outside the labour force
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Health care utilization among persons who are unemployed or outside the labour force
    2006 (English)In: Health Policy, ISSN 0168-8510, E-ISSN 1872-6054, Vol. 78, no 2-3, p. 178-193Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Sweden, equity in health is a central aim of public health policy. To this end, the health care system is obligated to offer equal access to health care according to need. However, unemployment may hinder the fulfillment of this goal. The aim of the present study was to assess self-reported health care needs and service utilization with respect to employment status.

    Methods: A questionnaire was sent to 4000 randomly chosen individuals 20-64 years of age living in different counties in Sweden (response rate 66.2%). Logistic regression analyses were carried out to estimate the influence of employment status, socio-demographic variables and health indicators on the need for and use of health care services.

    Results: In total, 42.2% (n=35) among the unemployed, 37.4% (n=55) among persons who were on long-term sick leave (LTSD), and 22.3% (n=467) of the employed persons, abstained from consulting a physician despite reporting a perceived need to do so. The results persisted after adjusting for socio-demographic variables, social support and personal finances (unemployed: OR= 1.91; LTSD: OR= 1.62). The risk of foregoing care remained higher among the unemployed, but not the LTSD-group, after adjusting for long-standing illness (OR= 1.94). The unemployed were more likely than the employed to perceive a need to seek care for psychological problems. The risk of abstaining from consulting a physician was related to symptoms of depression.

    Conclusions: Lack of employment may be related to unmet care needs, especially among unemployed who are experiencing psychological symptoms. To deal with the needs of the unemployed it may be useful to develop interventions within the health care system that focus more on psychological problems.

    Keywords
    Unemployment, Health care utilization, Perceived unmet care needs
    National Category
    Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-94982 (URN)10.1016/j.healthpol.2005.10.010 (DOI)000240837500007 ()16343685 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2006-10-13 Created: 2006-10-13 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    4. Predictors of health and health care utilization in relation to employment status.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Predictors of health and health care utilization in relation to employment status.
    2006 (English)In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 16, no Suppl. 1, p. 180-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-104969 (URN)
    Available from: 2009-05-31 Created: 2009-05-31 Last updated: 2017-12-13
  • 1789.
    Åhs, Annika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nummi, T.
    Univ Tampere, Fac Nat Sci, Tampere, Finland..
    Hammarström, Anne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Public Health.
    Gender inequalities in common mental disorders over the life course2017In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 27Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 1790.
    Åhs, Annika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Health care utilization among persons who are unemployed or outside the labour force2006In: Health Policy, ISSN 0168-8510, E-ISSN 1872-6054, Vol. 78, no 2-3, p. 178-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Sweden, equity in health is a central aim of public health policy. To this end, the health care system is obligated to offer equal access to health care according to need. However, unemployment may hinder the fulfillment of this goal. The aim of the present study was to assess self-reported health care needs and service utilization with respect to employment status.

    Methods: A questionnaire was sent to 4000 randomly chosen individuals 20-64 years of age living in different counties in Sweden (response rate 66.2%). Logistic regression analyses were carried out to estimate the influence of employment status, socio-demographic variables and health indicators on the need for and use of health care services.

    Results: In total, 42.2% (n=35) among the unemployed, 37.4% (n=55) among persons who were on long-term sick leave (LTSD), and 22.3% (n=467) of the employed persons, abstained from consulting a physician despite reporting a perceived need to do so. The results persisted after adjusting for socio-demographic variables, social support and personal finances (unemployed: OR= 1.91; LTSD: OR= 1.62). The risk of foregoing care remained higher among the unemployed, but not the LTSD-group, after adjusting for long-standing illness (OR= 1.94). The unemployed were more likely than the employed to perceive a need to seek care for psychological problems. The risk of abstaining from consulting a physician was related to symptoms of depression.

    Conclusions: Lack of employment may be related to unmet care needs, especially among unemployed who are experiencing psychological symptoms. To deal with the needs of the unemployed it may be useful to develop interventions within the health care system that focus more on psychological problems.

  • 1791.
    Åhs, Annika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Self-rated health in relation to employment status during periods of high and low levels of unemployment2006In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 294-304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: There is a need for more research on the health impact of changes in the national unemployment rate. Therefore, the present study was carried out to compare levels of self-rated health during periods of high and low levels of unemployment.

    METHODS: Data included cross-sectional interviews from the Swedish Survey of Living Conditions, which were based on random samples of inhabitants between 16 and 64 years of age living in Sweden. Data were collected for the period 1983-89, when unemployment levels were low (n = 35 562; 2.5%) and for the period 1992-97 when unemployment was high (n = 24 019; 7.1%).

    RESULTS: After adjusting for sociodemographic variables as well as long-term disease or handicap, the differences in self-rated health between the unemployed and employed were larger when unemployment levels were high in the 1990s, than when they were low in the 1980s. More groups of the unemployed were afflicted with poor health when unemployment was high, compared with when it was low. In 1992-97, being married, living in larger cities, or not having a long-term disease or handicap no longer buffered the negative effects on health among the unemployed.

    CONCLUSIONS: Poorer self-rated health among the unemployed seems to be an increasing public health problem during high levels of unemployment.

  • 1792.
    Åhsberg, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences. Natl Board Hlth & Welf, S-10630 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Fahlstrom, Gunilla
    Natl Board Hlth & Welf, S-10630 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ronnback, Eva
    Granberg, Ann-Kristin
    Natl Board Hlth & Welf, S-10630 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Almborg, Ann-Helene
    Natl Board Hlth & Welf, S-10630 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Development of an Instrument for Assessing Elder Care Needs2017In: Research on social work practice, ISSN 1049-7315, E-ISSN 1552-7581, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 291-306Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To construct a needs assessment instrument for older people using a standardized terminology (International classification of functioning, disability, and health [ICF]) and assess its psychometrical properties. Method: An instrument was developed comprising questions to older people regarding their perceived care needs. The instrument's reliability, validity, and utility were tested. Forty-one social workers and 251 older people participated. Results: The questions were sufficiently unambiguous (inter-rater reliability, intraclass correlation = .60-.80); measured a person's care and service needs to a satisfactory extent (criteria validity, agreement between social workers' and older people's assessments = 72-94%); both social workers and older people considered the questions useful; and the needs of older people were documented in social records to a greater extent when the instrument was used. Conclusion: The psychometric properties of the instrument support its use by social workers to gain relevant information on elder care needs.

  • 1793.
    Åkerblom, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Ghossn, Fahime
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Motiverande samtals inverkan på diabetespatienter2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The number of people with diabetes in the world is constantly increasing. Bad food habits increase the risk of diabetes complications. Healthcare has a responsibility to enhance the patient's motivation and ability for self-care.

    Objective: Investigate the impact of MI as a treatment to help patients with diabetes to better self-care.

    Method: Literature review. The search for articles were made in the medical databases Pubmed , Cinahl and Scopus. The study included 10 original articles of which five were medium and five high quality. These were divided into two groups, effect on HbA1c and blood lipids and effect on self-care.

    Results: Based on the included studies, no significant effect is demonstrated in HbA1c and blood lipids or current diet, physical activity or medical adherence. There was however a positive effect in measurements of perceived competence, knowledge and self-control. One study demonstrates a positive effect on HbA1c of MI in combination with CBT. The effects found subsided shortly after the treatment sessions ended. Study design and measurement methods were questioned.

    Conclusion: Few studies exist in the field, therefore, it is too early to yet recommend the MI-method in diabetes care. More research is needed on MI with a clearer focus on the interviewers relationship with the patient and the MI skills of the interviewers if one aims to measure the effect of the MI-sessions.

  • 1794.
    Åkerlind, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nattfotboll i socialt utsatta områden: Beskrivning av verksamheten utifrån programteori och förutsättningar för uppskalning2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A great number of children and adolescents who are in a social exclusion is lagging behind in society. A social exclusion can lead to a number of negative consequences for both the individual and the community. There is a great need to highlight successful examples of social innovations aimed at young people in socially vulnerable areas that can improve their well-being and prospects.

    The aim of the thesis was to describe the innovation Night Football on the basis of program theory and also examine its conditions for scaling up on the basis of diffusion theory and a framework for spread.

    The study was conducted with a qualitative study design consisting of a focus group interview with initiators and project managers, semi-structured interviews with 10 leaders and 21 young participants, as well as three structured observations in connection with sports activities in Sandviken and Örebro.

    The result showed that the Night Football concept was characterized by several key core components and key ideas. The components attributed to the outcome were the young, chosen leaders who run the sport activities, but also the local project manager. The innovation turned out to promote important relationships between the young people and the leaders: young people gained access to young role models, while young leaders could grow as individuals. The innovation offers a meeting point that helps young people broaden their network of contacts, becomes more physically active and they are also offered a way into sports associations, as many of the leaders themselves are connected to sport clubs. The study shows that the Night Football concept contains the five categories necessary for a successful upscale; Core components & Key ideas, Structure, Communication, Performance Measurement & Feedback, and Leadership. Further research could help to deepen the understanding of the innovations impact on the leaders as individuals.

  • 1795.
    Åkerman, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine. Uppsala University.
    Challenges and opportunities for sexual and reproductive healthcare services for immigrant women in Sweden2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to obtain an understanding of immigrant women’s access to healthcare services in Sweden in relation to sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR). Data were obtained from three different quantitative cross-sectional studies using self-administrated questionnaires and one qualitative study based on in-depth interviews. The sample consists of immigrant women, predominantly refugees from Afghanistan, Iraq, Syria, and Somalia in Study I (n=288) and Thai immigrant women in Studies II–IV: Study II (n=804), Study III (n=19) and Study IV (n=266). The results indicate that social capital factors seem to play an important role in knowledge about sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services. About one-third of immigrant women reported lack of knowledge of where to go for contraceptive counselling. Lack of knowledge was associated with experiencing lack of emotional social support and not having children. An even higher proportion lacked knowledge of where to go for HIV testing, which was associated with not having participated in a health examination. In a sample of Thai immigrant women, lack of knowledge about SRH services was associated with living without a partner, having low trust in others, having predominantly bonding social relationships and belonging to the oldest age groups. In all studies, the majority had not been tested for HIV or participated in contraceptive counselling. Among the Thai women, despite expressing a need for SRH care, most participants had not sought this type of care. Women found it challenging to seek care in Sweden due to lack of knowledge about the healthcare system and language difficulties. The majority of Thai women reported a significant need for information related to SRH services. Women who had never been HIV tested in Thailand had increased odds of not being tested in Sweden.

    Lack of knowledge of where to turn for contraceptive counselling and HIV testing among immigrant women is a missed opportunity, as all citizens in Sweden have free access to these services. Providing information on SRH services to all immigrants in their native language, regardless of immigration status, is an important step in achieving equal access to SRH care.

    List of papers
    1. A missed opportunity? Lack of knowledge about sexual and reproductive health services among immigrant women in Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A missed opportunity? Lack of knowledge about sexual and reproductive health services among immigrant women in Sweden
    2019 (English)In: Sexual & Reproductive HealthCare, ISSN 1877-5756, E-ISSN 1877-5764, Vol. 19, p. 64-70Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Poor sexual and reproductive health (SRH) among immigrant women is often related to limited access,or suboptimal use of healthcare services. This study investigates the knowledge about and use of sexual andreproductive healthcare services among immigrant women in Sweden

    Method: A cross-sectional study of 288 immigrant women. A structured questionnaire was distributed amongimmigrants speaking Arabic, Dari, Somali or English registered at Swedish language schools for immigrants.Data collection took place in 19 strategically selected schools in Sweden. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests,and logistic regressions were used for the analysis.

    Results: About one-third of the immigrant women reported lack of knowledge of where to go for contraceptivecounselling. Experiencing lack of emotional social support and not having had children was associated with thislack of knowledge. An even higher proportion (56%) lacked knowledge of where to go to be HIV tested, and thiswas associated with not having participated in a health examination. Almost 25% stated that their culture keptthem back from using contraception.

    Conclusion: Lack of knowledge of where to turn for contraceptive counselling and HIV testing among immigrantwomen participating in Swedish language schools for immigrants could be considered as a missed opportunity,as all citizens in Sweden have free access to these services. New health policies and strategies should aim toincrease knowledge of SRH services among immigrants. Swedish language schools could play an important rolein increasing knowledge of SRH-related information as many new immigrants become students during their firstyears in Sweden.

    Keywords
    Health services accessibility, Sexual and reproductive health, Contraceptive counselling, Immigrant, Social capital, Sweden
    National Category
    Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
    Research subject
    Social Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-376260 (URN)10.1016/j.srhc.2018.12.005 (DOI)000465365500011 ()30928137 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Public Health Agency of Sweden
    Available from: 2019-02-03 Created: 2019-02-03 Last updated: 2019-05-29Bibliographically approved
    2. Knowledge and utilization of sexual and reproductive healthcare services among Thai immigrant women in Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Knowledge and utilization of sexual and reproductive healthcare services among Thai immigrant women in Sweden
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: BMC International Health and Human Rights, ISSN 1472-698X, E-ISSN 1472-698X, Vol. 16, article id 25Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Migration from Thailand to Sweden has increased threefold over the last 10 years. Today Thailand is one of the most common countries of origin among immigrants in Sweden. Since the year 2000, new HIV cases are also more prevalent among Thai immigrants compared to other immigrant nationalities in Sweden. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between knowledge and utilization of sexual and reproductive healthcare services, contraceptive knowledge and socio-demographic characteristics and social capital among Thai immigrant women in Sweden.

    METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study using a postal questionnaire to all Thai women (18-64) in two Swedish regions, who immigrated to the country between 2006 and 2011. The questionnaire was answered by 804 women (response rate 62.3 %). Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used.

    RESULTS: The majority (52.1 %) of Thai women had poor knowledge of where they should turn when they need sexual and reproductive healthcare services. After controlling for potential confounders, living without a partner (OR = 2.02, CI: 1.16-3.54), having low trust in others (OR = 1.61, CI: 1.10-2.35), having predominantly bonding social capital (OR = 1.50, CI: 1.02-2.23) and belonging to the oldest age group (OR = 2.65, CI: 1.32-5.29) were identified as risk factors for having poor knowledge. The majority (56.7 %) had never been in contact with healthcare services to get advice on contraception, and about 75 % had never been HIV/STI tested in Sweden. Low utilization of healthcare was associated with poor knowledge about healthcare services (OR = 6.07, CI: 3.94-9.34) and living without a partner (OR = 2.53, CI: 1.30-4.90). Most Thai women had knowledge of how to prevent an unwanted pregnancy (91.6 %) and infection with HIV/STI (91.1 %).

    CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that social capital factors such as high trust in others and predominantly bridging social capital promote access to knowledge about healthcare services. However, only one-fourth of the women had been HIV/STI tested, and due to the HIV prevalence among Thai immigrants in Sweden, policy makers and health professionals need to include Thai immigrants in planning health promotion efforts and healthcare interventions.

    National Category
    Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-305856 (URN)10.1186/s12914-016-0100-4 (DOI)000384947700001 ()27724904 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Public Health Agency of Sweden
    Available from: 2016-10-23 Created: 2016-10-23 Last updated: 2019-02-05Bibliographically approved
    3. Healthcare-seeking behaviour in relation to sexual and reproductive health among Thai-born women in Sweden: a qualitative study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Healthcare-seeking behaviour in relation to sexual and reproductive health among Thai-born women in Sweden: a qualitative study
    2017 (English)In: Culture, Health and Sexuality, ISSN 1369-1058, E-ISSN 1464-5351, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 194-207Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Thailand is one of the most common countries of origin among immigrants in Sweden and Thai immigrants comprise the immigrant group most frequently diagnosed with HIV. Little is known about their healthcare-seeking behaviour and views on HIV prevention. This study explored Thai women's healthcare-seeking behaviour in relation to sexual and reproductive health and their views on HIV prevention. Nineteen in-depth interviews were conducted with Thai-born women in the Stockholm area. Three themes were identified: (1) poor access to healthcare in Sweden, preferring to seek care in Thailand; (2) partners playing a key role in women's access to healthcare; (3) no perceived risk of HIV, but a positive attitude towards prevention. Despite expressing sexual and reproductive healthcare needs, most women had not sought this type of care, except for the cervical cancer screening programme to which they had been invited. Identified barriers for poor access to healthcare were lack of knowledge about the healthcare system and language difficulties. To achieve 'healthcare on equal terms', programmes and interventions must meet Thai women's healthcare needs and consider what factors influence their care-seeking behaviour. Integrating HIV prevention and contraceptive counselling into the cervical screening programme might be one way to improve access.

    National Category
    Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-312021 (URN)10.1080/13691058.2016.1214746 (DOI)000393781500004 ()27684388 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2017-01-04 Created: 2017-01-04 Last updated: 2019-02-05Bibliographically approved
    4. Utilisation of two health systems: A cross-sectional study on Swedish-Thai women’s choice of contraceptive counselling and HIV testing
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Utilisation of two health systems: A cross-sectional study on Swedish-Thai women’s choice of contraceptive counselling and HIV testing
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To investigate the need and use of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services andanalyses to what extent the use of SRH services in Sweden is associated with healthcarecontact in the country of origin or knowledge of the health system in the new country. Methods: A cross-sectional study using postal questionnaire to all Thai-born women (age 23-60) in Stockholm, residing in Sweden since 2014. Chi-squared and logistic regression wasused for analysis. Results: The response rate was 52.3% (n=266). The majority reported a significant need for information related to SRH-services. Most contraceptive using women (70%) bought theircontraceptives in Thailand. Older women and women who lacked knowledge of where to go for contraceptive counselling were more likely to have bought contraceptives in Thailand.However, use and need of contraceptive counselling in Sweden was higher among younger women. Nevertheless, women who had never been HIV tested in Thailand (40%) continued not to be tested in Sweden. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that the Swedish health system does not correspond to Thai women’s needs for SRH services and information, since the majority bought their contraceptives in Thailand, and those who were never HIV tested continued not to be in Sweden. From a public health perspective and to achieve the goal of “healthcare on equal terms”, future interventions must focus on making health services and information moreaccessible for Thai immigrants.

    Keywords
    Sweden, migration, Thai women, health services accessibility, sexual and reproductive health, contraceptives, HIV testing
    National Category
    Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
    Research subject
    Social Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-376261 (URN)
    Available from: 2019-02-04 Created: 2019-02-04 Last updated: 2019-02-12
  • 1796.
    Åkerman, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Essén, Birgitta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Larsson, Elin
    Karolinska Institute.
    Healthcare-seeking behaviour among Thai-born women in Sweden: a qualitative study2018In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 28, p. 159-160Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 1797.
    Åkerman, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Essén, Birgitta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Larsson, Elin
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Healthcare-seeking behaviour in relation to sexual and reproductive health among Thai-born women in Sweden: a qualitative study2017In: Culture, Health and Sexuality, ISSN 1369-1058, E-ISSN 1464-5351, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 194-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thailand is one of the most common countries of origin among immigrants in Sweden and Thai immigrants comprise the immigrant group most frequently diagnosed with HIV. Little is known about their healthcare-seeking behaviour and views on HIV prevention. This study explored Thai women's healthcare-seeking behaviour in relation to sexual and reproductive health and their views on HIV prevention. Nineteen in-depth interviews were conducted with Thai-born women in the Stockholm area. Three themes were identified: (1) poor access to healthcare in Sweden, preferring to seek care in Thailand; (2) partners playing a key role in women's access to healthcare; (3) no perceived risk of HIV, but a positive attitude towards prevention. Despite expressing sexual and reproductive healthcare needs, most women had not sought this type of care, except for the cervical cancer screening programme to which they had been invited. Identified barriers for poor access to healthcare were lack of knowledge about the healthcare system and language difficulties. To achieve 'healthcare on equal terms', programmes and interventions must meet Thai women's healthcare needs and consider what factors influence their care-seeking behaviour. Integrating HIV prevention and contraceptive counselling into the cervical screening programme might be one way to improve access.

  • 1798.
    Åkerman, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences. Uppsala University.
    Larsson, C. Elin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Essèn, Birgitta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Utilisation of two health systems: A cross-sectional study on Swedish-Thai women’s choice of contraceptive counselling and HIV testingManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To investigate the need and use of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services andanalyses to what extent the use of SRH services in Sweden is associated with healthcarecontact in the country of origin or knowledge of the health system in the new country. Methods: A cross-sectional study using postal questionnaire to all Thai-born women (age 23-60) in Stockholm, residing in Sweden since 2014. Chi-squared and logistic regression wasused for analysis. Results: The response rate was 52.3% (n=266). The majority reported a significant need for information related to SRH-services. Most contraceptive using women (70%) bought theircontraceptives in Thailand. Older women and women who lacked knowledge of where to go for contraceptive counselling were more likely to have bought contraceptives in Thailand.However, use and need of contraceptive counselling in Sweden was higher among younger women. Nevertheless, women who had never been HIV tested in Thailand (40%) continued not to be tested in Sweden. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that the Swedish health system does not correspond to Thai women’s needs for SRH services and information, since the majority bought their contraceptives in Thailand, and those who were never HIV tested continued not to be in Sweden. From a public health perspective and to achieve the goal of “healthcare on equal terms”, future interventions must focus on making health services and information moreaccessible for Thai immigrants.

  • 1799.
    Åkerman, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Larsson, Elin C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). Karolinska Inst, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Essén, Birgitta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    A missed opportunity? Lack of knowledge about sexual and reproductive health services among immigrant women in Sweden2019In: Sexual & Reproductive HealthCare, ISSN 1877-5756, E-ISSN 1877-5764, Vol. 19, p. 64-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Poor sexual and reproductive health (SRH) among immigrant women is often related to limited access,or suboptimal use of healthcare services. This study investigates the knowledge about and use of sexual andreproductive healthcare services among immigrant women in Sweden

    Method: A cross-sectional study of 288 immigrant women. A structured questionnaire was distributed amongimmigrants speaking Arabic, Dari, Somali or English registered at Swedish language schools for immigrants.Data collection took place in 19 strategically selected schools in Sweden. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests,and logistic regressions were used for the analysis.

    Results: About one-third of the immigrant women reported lack of knowledge of where to go for contraceptivecounselling. Experiencing lack of emotional social support and not having had children was associated with thislack of knowledge. An even higher proportion (56%) lacked knowledge of where to go to be HIV tested, and thiswas associated with not having participated in a health examination. Almost 25% stated that their culture keptthem back from using contraception.

    Conclusion: Lack of knowledge of where to turn for contraceptive counselling and HIV testing among immigrantwomen participating in Swedish language schools for immigrants could be considered as a missed opportunity,as all citizens in Sweden have free access to these services. New health policies and strategies should aim toincrease knowledge of SRH services among immigrants. Swedish language schools could play an important rolein increasing knowledge of SRH-related information as many new immigrants become students during their firstyears in Sweden.

  • 1800.
    Åkerman, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Larsson, Elin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Maternal and Reproductive Health and Migration.
    Essén, Birgitta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Maternal and Reproductive Health and Migration.
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Thai immigrant women's healthcare use and needs in relation to sexual and reproductive health: a cross-sectional study in Sweden2018In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 28, no Supplement: 1, p. 121-121Article in journal (Other academic)
3334353637 1751 - 1800 of 1813
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