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  • 201.
    van den Berg, Gerard J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    van Vuuren, Aico
    The effect of search frictions on wages2010In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 875-885Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We aim to test whether the degree of informational search frictions in the labor market has a negative effect on wages. In a range of equilibrium search models of the labor market, this effect is predicted to be negative. Nevertheless, this has never been tested. We perform tests with matched worker-firm data. The worker data are informative on individual wages and labor market transitions, and this allows for estimation of the degree of search frictions. The firm data are informative on labor productivity. This allows us to investigate how the mean difference between labor productivity and wages in a market depends on the degree of frictions and other determinants, and to assess the quantitative relevance of frictions for wages.

  • 202. van den Berg, Gerard J.
    et al.
    Vikström, Johan
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Monitoring Job Offer Decisions, Punishments, Exit to Work, and Job Quality2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 116, no 2, p. 284-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Unemployment insurance systems include the monitoring of unemployed workers and punitive sanctions if job search requirements are violated. We analyze the causal effect of sanctions on the ensuing job quality, notably on wages and occupational level. We use Swedish data and estimate duration models dealing with selection on unobservables. We also develop a theoretical job search model that monitors job offer rejection versus job search effort. The empirical results show that, after a sanction, the wage rate is lower and individuals move more often to a part-time job and a lower occupational level, incurring human capital losses.

  • 203.
    van den Berg, Gerard
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. IZA, Bonn, Germany.;Univ Bristol, Dept Econ, Bristol BS8 1TN, Avon, England..
    Pinger, Pia R.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. IZA, Bonn, Germany.;Univ Bonn, Dept Econ, Adenauerallee 24-42, D-53113 Bonn, Germany..
    Transgenerational effects of childhood conditions on third generation health and education outcomes2016In: Economics and Human Biology, ISSN 1570-677x, Vol. 23, p. 103-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the extent to which pre-puberty nutritional conditions in one generation affect productivity-related outcomes in later generations. Recent findings from the biological literature suggest that the so-called slow growth period around age 9 is a sensitive period for male germ cell development. We build on this evidence and investigate whether undernutrition at those ages transmits to children and grandchildren. Our findings indicate that third generation males (females) tend to have higher mental health scores if their paternal grandfather (maternal grandmother) was exposed to a famine during the slow growth period. These effects appear to reflect biological responses to adaptive expectations about scarcity in the environment, and as such they can be seen as an economic correctional mechanism in evolution, with marked socio-economic implications for the offspring.

  • 204.
    Vikström, Johan
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Dynamic treatment assignment and evaluation of active labor market policies2017In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 49, p. 42-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper considers treatment evaluation in a discrete time setting in which treatment can start at any point in time. We consider evaluation under unconfoundedness and propose a dynamic inverse probability weighting estimator. A typical application is an active labor market program that can start after any elapsed unemployment duration. The identification and estimation results concern both cases with one single treatment as well as sequences of programs. The new estimator is applied to Swedish data on participants in a training program and a work practice program. The work practice program increases re-employment rates. Most sequences of the two programs are inefficient when compared to one single program episode.

  • 205.
    Vikström, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Ridder, Geert
    Univ Southern Calif, Dept Econ, Kaprielian Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90089 USA.
    Weidner, Martin
    CeMMAP, London, England;UCL, Dept Econ, Gower St, London WC1E 6BT, England.
    Bounds on treatment effects on transitions2018In: Journal of Econometrics, ISSN 0304-4076, E-ISSN 1872-6895, Vol. 205, no 2, p. 448-469Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper considers the identification of treatment effects on conditional transition probabilities. We show that even under random assignment only the instantaneous average treatment effect is point identified. Since treated and control units drop out at different rates, randomization only ensures the comparability of treatment and controls at the time of randomization, so that long-run average treatment effects are not point identified. Instead, we derive bounds on these average effects. Our bounds do not impose (semi)parametric restrictions, for example, proportional hazards. We also explore assumptions such as monotone treatment response, common shocks and positively correlated outcomes that tighten the bounds.

  • 206.
    Vikström, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Rosholm, Michael
    Svarer, Michael
    The effectiveness of active labor market policies: Evidence from a social experiment using non-parametric bounds2013In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 24, p. 58-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We re-analyze the effects of a Danish active labor market programme social experiment, which included a range of sub-treatments, including meetings with caseworkers, job search assistance courses, and activation programmes. We use newly developed non-parametric methods to examine how the effects of the experimental treatment vary during the unemployment spell. Non-parametric techniques are important from a methodological point of view, since parametric/distributional assumptions are in conflict with the concept of experimental evidence. We find that the effects of the experiment vary substantially during the unemployment spell.

  • 207. von Below, David
    et al.
    Skogman Thoursie, Peter
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Last in, first out?: Estimating the effect of seniority rules in Sweden2010In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 987-997Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we investigate whether a relaxation in seniority rules (the "last-in-first-out" principle) had any effect on firms' employment behaviour. Seniority rules exist in several countries, but consequences of seniority rules on firms' employment behaviour have not been examined previously. The "last-in-first-out" principle in Sweden was reformed in January 2001 such that employers with ten or fewer employees were allowed to exempt two workers from the seniority rule. Using an employer-employee unbalanced panel data for the period 1996-2005, we find that both hires and separations increased in small firms relative to large firms by 5%. This also implies that there were no effects on firms' net employment. Our results show that firms reacted to changes in the seniority rules, but we argue that the effects are not overwhelmingly large.

  • 208.
    Vredin Johansson, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Forslund, Johanna
    Johansson, Per
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Samakovlis, Eva
    Can we buy time? Evaluation of the Swedish government's grant to remediation of contaminated sites.2011In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 1303-1313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The major aim of this paper is to analyze how government funding affects the pace of progress in four states of the remediation process of contaminated sites, from basic risk classification to cleanup. We introduce a methodological framework that takes into account the unobserved site-heterogeneity and simultaneously models duration in the different states. The results show that although site-heterogeneity contributes to make remediation a slow process, the third state, from the elaborate risk classification to the cleanup start, is a particular bottleneck. Even if government funding can speed up the process at this state, the effect is minuscule compared to the amounts of funding required. Thus, there is a need for policy to also focus on other barriers to remediation.

  • 209. Yeung, Gary Y. C.
    et al.
    van den Berg, Gerard J.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Lindeboom, Maarten
    Portrait, France R. M.
    The impact of early-life economic conditionson cause-specific mortality during adulthood2014In: Journal of Population Economics, ISSN 0933-1433, E-ISSN 1432-1475, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 895-919Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to assess the effects of economic conditions in early life on cause-specific mortality during adulthood. The analyses are performed on a unique historical sample of 14,520 Dutch individuals born in 1880-1918, who are followed throughout life. The economic conditions in early life are characterized using cyclical variations in annual real per capital gross domestic product during pregnancy and the first year of life. Exposure to recessions in early life appears to significantly increase cancer mortality risks of older males and females. It also significantly increases other mortality risks especially for older females. The residual life expectancies are up to about 8 and 6 % lower for male and female cancer mortality, respectively, and up to about 5 % lower for female cardiovascular mortality. Our analyses show that cardiovascular and cancer mortality risks are related and that not taking this association into account leads to biased inference.

  • 210.
    Åslund, Olof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Blind, Ina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    All Aboard? Commuter train access and labor market outcome2015Report (Other academic)
  • 211.
    Åslund, Olof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Blind, Ina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    All aboard?: Commuter train access and labor market outcomes2017In: Regional Science and Urban Economics, ISSN 0166-0462, E-ISSN 1879-2308, Vol. 67, p. 90-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the impact of commuter train access on individual labor market outcomes. Our study considers the introduction of a commuter train on a pre-existing railroad in Sweden, considerably decreasing commuting times by public transit and hence increasing access to the regional employment center. Using difference-in-differences matching techniques on comprehensive individual panel data spanning over a decade, our intention-to-treat estimates show that the reform essentially had no impact on the earnings and employment development among the affected individuals.

  • 212.
    Åslund, Olof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Edin, Per-Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Fredriksson, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Grönqvist, Hans
    Peers, Neighborhoods, and Immigrant Student Achievement: Evidence from a Placement Policy2011In: American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, ISSN 1945-7782, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 67-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine to what extent immigrant school performance is affected by the characteristics of the neighborhoods that they grow up in. We address this issue using a refugee placement policy that provides exogenous variation in the initial place of residence in Sweden. The main result is that school performance is increasing in the number of highly educated adults sharing the subject's ethnicity. A standard deviation increase in the fraction of high-educated in the assigned neighborhood raises compulsory school GPA by 0.8 percentile ranks. Particularly for disadvantaged groups, there are also long-run effects on educational attainment. (JEL I21, J15, R23)

  • 213.
    Åslund, Olof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Engdahl, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Open borders, transport links and local labor markets2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the labor market impact of opening borders to low-wage countries. The analysis exploits time and regional variation provided by the 2004 EU enlargement in combination with transport links to Sweden from the new member states. The results suggest an adverse impact on earnings of present workers in the order of 1 percent in areas close to pre-existing ferry lines. The effects are present in most segments of the labor market but tend to be greater in groups with weaker positions. The impact is also clearer in industries which have received more workers from the new member states, and for which across-the-border work is likely to be more common. There is no robust evidence on an impact on employment or wages. At least part of the effects is likely due to channels other than the ones typically considered in the literature.

  • 214.
    Åslund, Olof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Engdahl, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    The value of earning for learning: Performance bonuses in immigrant language training2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the effects of performance bonuses in immigrant language training for adults. A Swedish policy pilot conducted in 2009–2010 gave a randomly assigned group of municipalities the right to grant substantial cash bonuses to recently arrived migrants. The results suggest substantial effects on average student achievement. But these were fully driven by metropolitan areas; in other parts of Sweden performance was unaffected. The relative effects were larger for younger students but similar for men and women, and present for migrants from different parts of the world. The bonus had a less clear impact on enrollment, but there are indications that it may have increased the probability of progressing to bonus-awarding courses in metropolitan areas.

  • 215.
    Åslund, Olof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Engdahl, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    The value of earning for learning: Performance bonuses in immigrant language training2018In: Economics of Education Review, ISSN 0272-7757, E-ISSN 1873-7382, Vol. 62, p. 192-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the effects of performance bonuses in immigrant language training for adults. A Swedish policy pilot conducted in 2009-2010 gave a small randomly assigned group of municipalities the right to grant substantial cash bonuses to recently arrived migrants. A conservative interpretation of our results, building on a difference in-differences approach, suggests that the bonus did not improve student achievement on average. However, we find substantial positive effects where institutional features and participant characteristics made it ex ante more likely for the bonus to have an impact.

  • 216.
    Åslund, Olof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Grönqvist, Hans
    Family size and child outcomes: Is there really no trade-off?2010In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 130-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the impact of family size on intermediate and long-term outcomes using twin births as an exogenous source of variation in family size in an unusually rich dataset. Similar to recent studies, we find no evidence of a causal effect on long-term outcomes and show that not taking selection effects into account will likely overstate the effects. We do, however, find a small but significant negative impact of family size on grades in compulsory and secondary school among children who are likely to be vulnerable to further restrictions on parental investments.

  • 217.
    Åslund, Olof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Grönqvist, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Hall, Caroline
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Vlachos, Jonas
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Econ, Stockholm, Sweden;Res Inst Ind Econ IFN, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Education and criminal behavior: Insights from an expansion of upper secondary school2018In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 52, p. 178-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the impact on long and short run criminal behavior from a large scale Swedish reform of vocational upper secondary education, extending programs and adding more general theoretical content. The reform directly concerns age groups where criminal activity is high and individuals who are overrepresented among criminal offenders. Using detailed administrative data we show that the reform led to a reduction in property crime, but no significant decrease in violent crime. The effect is mainly concentrated to the third year after enrollment, which suggests that being in school reduces the opportunities and/or inclinations to commit crime.

  • 218.
    Åslund, Olof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Hensvik, Lena
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Nordström Skans, Oskar
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Seeking Similarity: How Immigrants and Natives Manage in the Labor Market2014In: Journal Labor Economics, ISSN 0734-306X, E-ISSN 1537-5307, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 405-441Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate how the interplay between manager and worker origin affects hiring patterns, job separations, and wages. Numerous specifications utilizing a longitudinal matched employer-employee database including 70,000 establishments consistently show that managers are substantially more likely to hire workers of their own origin. Workers who share an origin with their managers earn higher wages and have lower separation rates than dissimilar workers, but this pattern is driven by differences in unobserved worker characteristics. Our findings indicate that the sorting patterns are more likely to be explained by profit-maximizing concerns than by preference-based discrimination.

  • 219.
    Åslund, Olof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Johansson, Per
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Virtues of SIN: Can Intensified Public Efforts Help Disadvantaged Immigrants?2011In: Evaluation review, ISSN 0193-841X, E-ISSN 1552-3926, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 399-427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The labor market integration of immigrants is a top political priority throughout the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. Social and fiscal gains, as well as sustained future labor supply make governments search for effective policies to increase employment among the mostly disadvantaged. The author studies SIN, a Swedish pilot workplace introduction program targeting these groups, using very detailed individual data and allowing for effects through several channels. The results show increased transitions from unemployment to work experience schemes and improved future employment probabilities for those who entered these schemes. A rough calculation suggests that each job year created cost about Euro 30,000.

  • 220.
    Åslund, Olof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Nordström Skans, Oskar
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Do anonymous job application procedures level the playing field?2012In: Industrial & labor relations review, ISSN 0019-7939, E-ISSN 2162-271X, Vol. 65, no 1, p. 82-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite anti-discrimination legislation and the potential for hefty fines, labor market discrimination remains an issue for ethnic minorities and women, particularly in the recruitment and screening process. The apparent failure of legal and voluntary interventions has created a call for anonymous application procedures (AAP), in which key identifying data is hidden from recruiters in the initial recruiting process. Using unusually rich Swedish data on actual applications and recruitments, the authors show that AAP increased the chances of both women and individuals of non-Western origin of advancing to the interview stage. In addition, results show that women experienced an increased probability of being offered a job under AAP. However, applicants belonging to ethnic minorities were equally disadvantaged in terms of job offers under conventional and anonymous hiring procedures, suggesting that racial and ethnic discrimination may be harder to circumvent than gender discrimination.

  • 221.
    Åslund, Olof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Nordström Skans, Oskar
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    How to measure segregation conditional on the distribution of covariates2009In: Journal of Population Economics, ISSN 0933-1433, E-ISSN 1432-1475, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 971-981Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This short paper proposes a nonparametric method for accounting for the distribution of background characteristics when testing for segregation in empirical studies. It is shown and exemplified - using data on workplace segregation between immigrants and natives in Sweden - how the method can be applied to correct any measure of segregation for differences between groups in the distribution of covariates by means of simulation and how analytical results can be used when studying segregation by means of peer group exposure.

  • 222.
    Åslund, Olof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Kalmar University.
    Do when and where matter?: Initial labor market conditions and immigrant earnings2007In: Economic Journal, ISSN 0013-0133, E-ISSN 1468-0297, Vol. 117, no 518, p. 422-448Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 223.
    Åslund, Olof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Skans, Oskar Nordström
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Will I See You at Work?: Ethnic Workplace Segregation in Sweden, 1985-20022010In: Industrial & labor relations review, ISSN 0019-7939, E-ISSN 2162-271X, Vol. 63, no 3, p. 471-493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using linked employer-employee data covering the entire working-age Swedish population between 1985 and 2002, the authors present evidence of substantial and increasing ethnic workplace segregation. Moreover, when human capital, geography and industrial affiliation tire taken into account, immigrants are overexposed both to workers front their own birth region and to immigrants from other regions. Segregation is generally negatively correlated with economic: status: groups with low employment rates are more segregated from natives: groups with many immigrant colleagues earn less than those with more native colleagues: and the higher the number of immigrants to which individuals ire exposed, the lower their wages. When local labor market conditions improve, however. segregation decreases. Though the degree and nature of segregation varies substantially across ethnic groups, the patterns are quite persistent over time.

  • 224.
    Åslund, Olof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Östh, John
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Zenou, Yves
    Department of Economics, Stockholm University.
    How important is access to jobs?: Old question—improved answer2010In: Journal of Economic Geography, ISSN 1468-2702, E-ISSN 1468-2710, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 389-422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the impact of job proximity on individual employment and earnings. The analysis exploits a Swedish refugee dispersal policy to obtain exogenous variation in individual locations. Using very detailed data on the exact location of all residences and workplaces in Sweden, we find that having been placed in a location with poor job access in 1990–1991 adversely affected employment in 1999. Doubling the number of jobs in the initial location in 1990–1991 is associated with 2.9 percentage points higher employment probability in 1999. Considering that the 1999 employment rate was 43% among the refugees, this is a considerable effect. The analysis suggests that residential sorting leads to underestimation of the impact of job access.

  • 225.
    Öberg, PerOla
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Lundin, Martin
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Thelander, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government. The Swedish Social Insurance Inspectorate .
    Political Power and Policy Design: Why Are Policy Alternatives Constrained?2015In: Policy Studies Journal, ISSN 0190-292X, E-ISSN 1541-0072, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 93-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Little research examines the stage of the policy process during which policy alternatives are formulated. Using quantitative and qualitative data from Swedish local politics, we address this deficiency by analyzing the process by which the number of specific policy alternatives is reduced. The findings suggest that, in approximately 20 percent of issues, more than one alternative will reach all politicians making the binding decisions. Most local politicians, in both the majority and opposition factions, think that they lack sufficient information on alternative policy designs. We also find a “political bias,” that is, alternatives are discarded at an early stage because they are deemed not politically feasible. Politicians outside the inner circles, especially those with higher education, would like to see more policy alternatives to discuss and from which they can make choices.

  • 226.
    Öckert, Björn
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    What's the value of an acceptance letter?: Using admissions data to estimate the return to college2010In: Economics of Education Review, ISSN 0272-7757, E-ISSN 1873-7382, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 504-516Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper exploits discontinuities and randomness in the college admissions in Sweden in 1982, to estimate the economic return to college in the 1990s. At the time, college admissions were highly selective and applicants were ranked with respect to their formal merits. Admissions were given to those ranked higher than some threshold value. At the margin, applicants were sometimes randomly assigned to college. Exploiting this Regression-Discontinuity design, individuals who were admitted in 1982 are estimated to have about 0.20 years longer college education in 1996. However, the earnings effects for applicants at the margin of admission are insignificant. Controlling for the college admission determinants, the OLS-estimates of the return to college is 1.4 percent in 1991-96. The IV-estimates are not significantly different from the OLS counterparts.

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