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  • 201.
    Chen, Donglei
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Ahlberg, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Blom, Henning
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Sanchez, Sophie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Dental Development of the Stem Osteichthyan Andreolepis hedei Revealed by Three-dimensional Synchrotron Virtual Paleohistology2013In: Program and Abstracts: Society of Vertebrate Paleontology 73rd Annual meeting, 2013, p. 103-103Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 202.
    Chen, Donglei
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Ahlberg, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Blom, Henning
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Sanchez, Sophie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Dental Development of the Stem Osteichthyan Andreolepis hedei Revealed by Three-dimensional Synchrotron Virtual Paleohistology2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 203. Chen, Donglei
    et al.
    Blom, Henning
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Scale morphology and squamation of Andreolepis from the Late Silurian of Gotland, Sweden.2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 204.
    Chen, Donglei
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Blom, Henning
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Scale morphology and squamation of Andreolepis from the Late Silurian of Gotland, Sweden2011In: GFF, ISSN 1103-5897, E-ISSN 2000-0863, Vol. 133, no 1-2, p. 60-61p. 60-61Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 205.
    Chen, Donglei
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Blom, Henning
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Ahlberg, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Three-dimensional histology of tooth cushions of Lophosteus from the Late Silurian of Estonia2011In: Program and Abstracts: 71st Annual Meeting, Society of Vertebrate Paleontolog, Philadelphia: Society of Vertebrate Paleontology , 2011, p. 87-87Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 206.
    Chen, Donglei
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Blom, Henning
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Ahlberg, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Sanchez, Sophie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Three-dimensional histology of tooth cushions of Lophosteus from the Upper Silurian of Estonia2011In: Abstracts: The 2nd Wiman meeting: Carl Wiman's Legacy: 100 years of Swedish Palaeontology: Uppsala 17–18 November 2011 / [ed] Benjamin P. Kear and Michael Streng, 2011, p. 5-6Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Lophosteus superbus from the Late Silurian of Estonia is one of the oldest and most plesiomorphic osteichthyans described to date. Unfortunately at present it is known only from fragmented dermal microremains. The affinities of Lophosteus are therefore controversial with the taxon placed as either basal to both actinopterygians and sarcopterygians, or ambiguously linked to either placoderms or acanthodians. To confound matters further, the character states diagnosing actinopterygians and sarcopterygians have recently been brought into question, and even monophyly of the traditional placoderm and acanthodian clades has been challenged. As a possible stem osteichthyan, Lophosteus could thus be central to our understanding of early gnathostome evolution and the origin of the osteichthyan body plan. Often the best-preserved, although incompletely documented, elements of Lophosteus are tooth cushions. These tooth-bearing arched ossicles could arguably be homologous with the parasymphysial tooth whorls in chondrichthyans, acanthodians, and sarcopterygians, or even the parasymphysial tooth plates in tetrapodomorphs. High-resolution synchrotron scans of 6 isolated tooth cushions from the Upper Silurian of Estonia has permitted a detailed reconstruction of their three-dimensional architecture. The absence of an enamel layer and the presence of large hollows (bigger than normal osteocytes) in the deepest lamellar layer confirmed assignment of the specimens to Lophosteus. The external surface displays irregularly distributed denticles and there are large parallel vessels running horizontally on the basal bone that feed the denticle rows internally. The odontodes have two distinct generations (with successive odontodes accreted between those of the preceding buried generation) and are organised in a similar manner to those found on Lophosteus scales. This new histological data on vascularization provides insight into early gnathostome tooth patterning and could contribute to future phylogenetic assessments.

  • 207.
    Chen, Donglei
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Blom, Henning
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Sanchez, Sophie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Tafforeau, Paul
    European Synchrotron Radiation Facility.
    Ahlberg, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Microstructures of the most primitive form of inner dental arcade and life history of the Silurian stem osteichthyan Andreolepis.Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 208.
    Chen, Donglei
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Blom, Henning
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Sanchez, Sophie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. European Synchrotron Radiat Facil, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, F-38043 Grenoble, France..
    Tafforeau, Paul
    European Synchrotron Radiat Facil, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, F-38043 Grenoble, France..
    Ahlberg, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    The stem osteichthyan Andreolepis and the origin of tooth replacement2016In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 539, no 7628, p. 237-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The teeth of gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates) show rigidly patterned, unidirectional replacement that may or may not be associated with a shedding mechanism. These mechanisms, which are critical for the maintenance of the dentition, are incongruently distributed among extant gnathostomes. Although a permanent tooth-generating dental lamina is present in all chondrichthyans, many tetrapods and some teleosts, it is absent in the non-teleost actinopterygians. Tooth-shedding by basal hard tissue resorption occurs in most osteichthyans (including tetrapods) but not in chondrichthyans. Here we report a three-dimensional virtual dissection of the dentition of a 424-million-year-old stem osteichthyan, Andreolepis hedei, using propagation phase-contrast synchrotron microtomography, with a reconstruction of its growth history. Andreolepis, close to the common ancestor of all extant osteichthyans, shed its teeth by basal resorption but probably lacked a permanent dental lamina. This is the earliest documented instance of resorptive tooth shedding and may represent the primitive osteichthyan mode of tooth replacement.

  • 209.
    Chen, Donglei
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Janvier, Philippe
    Département Histoire de la Terre, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle,.
    Ahlberg, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Blom, Henning
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Scale morphology and squamation of the Late Silurian osteichthyan Andreolepis from Gotland, Sweden2012In: Historical Biology, ISSN 0891-2963, E-ISSN 1029-2381, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 411-423Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The origin of osteichthyans (bony fishes and tetrapods) dates back to the Late Silurian, but the early evolution of the group is poorly understood. Andreolepis is one of the oldest known osteichthyans, but exclusively documented by detached and fragmentary dermal microremains. A large data-set of Andreolepis scales from the Silurian of Gotland has been used to explore the scale morphology on different parts of the body. Landmark-based geometric morphometrics together with comparative anatomy and functional morphology has allowed 10 morphotypes to be identified and incorporated into a squamation model, in which scales are allocated to anterior-mid lateral flank scales, posterior lateral flank scales, caudal peduncle scales, pectoral peduncle scales, dorsal flank scales, dorsal fulcral scales, caudal fulcral scales, ventral flank scales, medioventral scales and cranial scales. The scale morphology and squamation pattern ofAndreolepis may be primitive for the Osteichthyes and thus informative about the acquisition of the osteichthyan body plan.

  • 210.
    Cheng, Xinlai
    et al.
    Institut für Pharmazie und Molekulare Biotechnologie, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 364, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Peuckert, Christiane
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Wölfl, Stefan
    Institut für Pharmazie und Molekulare Biotechnologie, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 364, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Essential role of mitochondrial Stat3 in p38MAPK mediated apoptosis under oxidative stress2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, no 1, article id 15388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stat3 is an oncogene, frequently associated with malignant transformation. A body of evidence implicates that phospho-Stat3(Y705) contributes to its nucleic translocation, while phospho-Stat3(S727) leads to the accumulation in mitochondria. Both are of importance for tumor cell proliferation. In comparison to well-characterized signaling pathways interplaying with Stat3(Y705), little is known about Stat3(S727). In this work, we studied the influence of Stat3 deficiency on the viability of cells exposed to H2O2 or hypoxia using siRNA and CRISPR/Cas9 genome-editing. We found dysregulation of mitochondrial activity, which was associated with excessive ROS formation and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential, and observed a synergistic effect for oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis in Stat3-KD cells or cells carrying Stat3(Y705F), but not Stat3(S727D), suggesting the importance of functional mitochondrial Stat3 in this context. We also found that ROS-mediated activation of ASK1/p38(MAPK) was involved and adding antioxidants, p38(MAPK) inhibitor, or genetic repression of ASK1 could easily rescue the cellular damage. Our finding reveals a new role of mitochondrial Stat3 in preventing ASK1/p38(MAPK)-mediated apoptosis, wich further support the notion that selective inhibition mitochondrial Stat3 could provide a primsing target for chemotherapy.

  • 211.
    Choo, Brian
    et al.
    Chinese Acad Sci, Key Lab Vertebrate Evolut & Human Origins, Inst Vertebrate Paleontol & Paleoanthropol, Beijing, Peoples R China.;Flinders Univ S Australia, Sch Biol Sci, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Zhu, Min
    Chinese Acad Sci, Key Lab Vertebrate Evolut & Human Origins, Inst Vertebrate Paleontol & Paleoanthropol, Beijing, Peoples R China.;Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Coll Earth Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Qu, Qinming
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology. Univ Ottawa, Ctr Adv Res Environm Genom, Ottawa, ON, Canada..
    Yu, Xiaobo
    Chinese Acad Sci, Key Lab Vertebrate Evolut & Human Origins, Inst Vertebrate Paleontol & Paleoanthropol, Beijing, Peoples R China.;Kean Univ, Dept Biol Sci, Union, NJ USA..
    Jia, Liantao
    Chinese Acad Sci, Key Lab Vertebrate Evolut & Human Origins, Inst Vertebrate Paleontol & Paleoanthropol, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Zhao, Wenjin
    Chinese Acad Sci, Key Lab Vertebrate Evolut & Human Origins, Inst Vertebrate Paleontol & Paleoanthropol, Beijing, Peoples R China.;Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Coll Earth Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    A new osteichthyan from the late Silurian of Yunnan, China2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 3, article id e0170929Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our understanding of early gnathostome evolution has been hampered by a generally scant fossil record beyond the Devonian. Recent discoveries from the late Silurian Xiaoxiang Fauna of Yunnan, China, have yielded significant new information, including the earliest articulated osteichthyan fossils from the Ludlow-aged Kuanti Formation. Here we describe the partial postcranium of a new primitive bony fish from the Kuanti Formation that represents the second known taxon of pre-Devonian osteichthyan revealing articulated remains. The new form, Sparalepis tingi gen. et sp. nov., displays similarities with Guiyu and Psarolepis, including a spine-bearing pectoral girdle and a placoderm-like dermal pelvic girdle, a structure only recently identified in early osteichthyans. The squamation with particularly thick rhombic scales shares an overall morphological similarity to that of Psarolepis. However, the anterior flank scales of Sparalepis possess an unusual interlocking system of ventral bulges embraced by dorsal concavities on the outer surfaces. A phylogenetic analysis resolves Sparalepis within a previously recovered cluster of stem-sarcopterygians including Guiyu, Psarolepis and Achoania. The high diversity of osteichthyans from the Ludlow of Yunnan strongly contrasts with other Silurian vertebrate assemblages, suggesting that the South China block may have been an early center of diversification for early gnathostomes, well before the advent of the Devonian "Age of Fishes".

  • 212.
    Christerson, Linus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Bacteriology.
    Blomqvist, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Bacteriology.
    Grannas, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Bacteriology.
    Thollesson, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Molecular Evolution.
    Laroucau, Karine
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Eliasson, Ingvar
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Herrmann, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Bacteriology.
    A novel Chlamydiaceae-like bacterium found in faecal specimens from sea birds from the Bering Sea2010In: Environmental Microbiology Reports, ISSN 1758-2229, E-ISSN 1758-2229, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 605-610Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The family Chlamydiaceae contains several bacterial pathogens of important human and veterinary medical concern, such as Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydophila psittaci. Within the order Chlamydiales there are also an increasing number of chlamydia-like bacteria whose biodiversity, host range and environmental spread seem to have been largely underestimated, and which are currently being investigated for their potential medical relevance. In this study we present 16S rRNA, rnpB and ompA gene sequence data congruently indicating a novel chlamydia-like bacterium found in faecal specimens from opportunistic fish-eating sea birds, belonging to the Laridae and Alcidae families, from the Bering Sea. This novel bacterium appears to be closer to the Chlamydiaceae than other chlamydia-like bacteria and is most likely a novel genus within the Chlamydiaceae family.

  • 213.
    Chylenski, Maciej
    et al.
    Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Fac Hist, Inst Archaeol, Umultowska 89D, PL-61614 Poznan, Poland..
    Juras, Anna
    Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Fac Biol, Inst Anthropol, Dept Human Evolutionary Biol, Umultowska 89, PL-61614 Poznan, Poland..
    Ehler, Edvard
    Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Fac Biol, Inst Anthropol, Dept Human Evolutionary Biol, Umultowska 89, PL-61614 Poznan, Poland.;Charles Univ Prague, Fac Educ, Dept Biol & Environm Studies, Magdaleny Rettigove 4, Prague 11639, Czech Republic..
    Malmström, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Piontek, Janusz
    Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Fac Biol, Inst Anthropol, Dept Human Evolutionary Biol, Umultowska 89, PL-61614 Poznan, Poland..
    Jakobsson, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Marciniak, Arkadiusz
    Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Fac Hist, Inst Archaeol, Umultowska 89D, PL-61614 Poznan, Poland..
    Dabert, Miroslawa
    Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Fac Biol, Mol Biol Techn Lab, Umultowska 89, PL-61614 Poznan, Poland..
    Late Danubian mitochondrial genomes shed light into the Neolithisation of Central Europe in the 5th millennium BC2017In: BMC Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1471-2148, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 17, article id 80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Recent aDNA studies are progressively focusing on various Neolithic and Hunter-Gatherer (HG) populations, providing arguments in favor of major migrations accompanying European Neolithisation. The major focus was so far on the Linear Pottery Culture (LBK), which introduced the Neolithic way of life in Central Europe in the second half of 6th millennium BC. It is widely agreed that people of this culture were genetically different from local HGs and no genetic exchange is seen between the two groups. From the other hand some degree of resurgence of HGs genetic component is seen in late Neolithic groups belonging to the complex of the Funnel Beaker Cultures (TRB). Less attention is brought to various middle Neolithic cultures belonging to Late Danubian sequence which chronologically fall in between those two abovementioned groups. We suspected that genetic influx from HG to farming communities might have happened in Late Danubian cultures since archaeologists see extensive contacts between those two communities. Results: Here we address this issue by presenting 5 complete mitochondrial genomes of various late Danubian individuals from modern-day Poland and combining it with available published data. Our data show that Late Danubian cultures are maternally closely related to Funnel Beaker groups instead of culturally similar LBK. Conclusions: We assume that it is an effect of the presence of individuals belonging to U5 haplogroup both in Late Danubians and the TRB. The U5 haplogroup is thought to be a typical for HGs of Europe and therefore we argue that it is an additional evidence of genetic exchange between farming and HG groups taking place at least as far back as in middle Neolithic, in the Late Danubian communities.

  • 214. Clack, Jennifer A.
    et al.
    Ahlberg, Per E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Blom, Henning
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Finney, Sarah M.
    A new genus of Devonian tetrapod from North-East Greenland, with new information on the lower jaw of Ichthyostega2012In: Palaeontology, ISSN 0031-0239, E-ISSN 1475-4983, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 73-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new genus and species of Devonian tetrapod has been identified from material collected in 1947 from the southern slope of Mt. Celsius, Ymer phi, North-East Greenland. The specimen preserves both lower jaws, partial palate, premaxillae and maxillae, with a natural mould of parts of the shoulder girdle. The new taxon, Ymeria denticulata, shows differences in dentition, skull ornament and lateral line expression from both Acanthostega and Ichthyostega, but it shows a closer resemblance to the latter. A cladistic analysis not only suggests that Ymeria lies adjacent to Ichthyostega on the tetrapod stem, but also reveals substantial topological instability. As the third genus and the fifth species of tetrapod identified from North-East Greenland, it demonstrates the high diversity of Devonian tetrapods in that region.

  • 215. Clack, Jennifer A.
    et al.
    Ahlberg, Per Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Sarcopterygians: From Lobe-Finned Fishes to the Tetrapod Stem Group2016In: Evolution of the Vertebrate Ear: Evidence from the Fossil Record / [ed] Jennifer A. Clack, Richard R. Fay, Arthur N. Popper, Springer Publishing Company, 2016, p. 51-70Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The sarcopterygians or lobe-finned fishes is the group that gave rise to tetrapods, and they were the dominant bony fishes of the Devonian period. Their otic regions were constructed similarly to those of both the actinopterygians and chondrichthyans, their structure being the common inheritance of all jawed vertebrates. One distinguishing feature of the primitive sarcopterygian braincase was that the division between the anterior ethmosphenoid and posterior otoccipital section sof the braincase was marked by a flexible hinge joint, which is seen today in the modern coelacanth, Latimeria. The hyomandibular was long and projected ventrally with an opercular process that contacted the opercular bone and with the distal end associated indirectly with the jaw joint. It was a key component of the buccal pumping mechanism for breathing and feeding. The braincases of dipnoans (lungfishes) were the most highly modified of sarcopterygian braincases with consolidated fore and aft portions and reduction or loss of the hyomandibula. The utricle was enlarged in several fossil dipnoans, although the reason for this is not clear. The braincases of tetrapodomorph sarcopterygians differed little from the primitive condition in the group. The main modifications were to the more crownward and tetrapod-like forms from the Late Devonian. In these fishes, the hyomandibula was reduced in length, its contact with the opercular bone lost and, ultimately, the opercular bone itself disappeared. The spiracular notch and associated cleft increased in width and volume respectively, possibly resulting in increased air-breathing capacity and reduced use of the gill system.

  • 216.
    Clarac, Francois
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology. Sorbonne Univ, CNRS, Inst Sci Terre Paris, UMR 7193, 4 Pl Jussieu,BC 19, F-75005 Paris, France;Sorbonne Univ, Dept Hist Terre, Museum Natl Hist Nat, Ctr Rech Paleontol Paris,CNRS,UMR 7207, Batiment Geol Paris, F-75231 Paris 05, France.
    Goussard, Florent
    Sorbonne Univ, Dept Hist Terre, Museum Natl Hist Nat, Ctr Rech Paleontol Paris,CNRS,UMR 7207, Batiment Geol Paris, F-75231 Paris 05, France.
    de Buffrenil, Vivian
    Sorbonne Univ, Dept Hist Terre, Museum Natl Hist Nat, Ctr Rech Paleontol Paris,CNRS,UMR 7207, Batiment Geol Paris, F-75231 Paris 05, France.
    Sansalone, Vittorio
    Univ Paris Est, Lab Modelisat & Simulat Multi Echelle, MSME LIMR 8208, CNRS, 61 Ave Gen Gaulle, F-94010 Creteil, France.
    The function(s) of bone ornamentation in the crocodylomorph osteoderms: a biomechanical model based on a finite element analysis2019In: Paleobiology, ISSN 0094-8373, E-ISSN 1938-5331, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 182-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims at assessing the influence of the bone ornamentation and, specifically, the associated loss of bone mass on the mechanical response of the crocodylomorph osteoderms. To this end, we have performed three-dimensional (3D) modeling and a finite element analysis on a sample that includes both extant dry bones and well-preserved fossils tracing back to the Late Triassic. We simulated an external attack under various angles on the apical surface of each osteoderm and further repeated the simulation on an equivalent set of smoothed 3D-modeled osteoderms. The comparative results indicated that the presence of an apical sculpture has no significant influence on the von Mises stress distribution in the osteoderm volume, although it produces a slight increase in its numerical score. Moreover, performing parametric analyses, we showed that the Young's modulus of the osteoderm, which may vary depending on the bone porosity, the collagen fiber orientation, or the calcification density, has no impact on the von Mises stress distribution inside the osteoderm volume. As the crocodylomorph bone ornamentation is continuously remodeled by pit resorption and secondary bone deposition, we assume that the apical sculpture may be the outcome of a trade-off between the bone mechanical resistance and the involvement in physiological functions. These physiological functions are indeed based on the setup of a bone superficial vessel network and/or the recurrent release of mineral elements into the plasma: heat transfers during basking and respiratory acidosis buffering during prolonged apnea in neosuchians and teleosaurids; compensatory homeostasis in response to general calcium deficiencies. On a general morphological basis, the osteoderm geometric variability within our sample leads us to assess that the global osteoderm geometry (whether square or rectangular) does not influence the von Mises stress, whereas the presence of a dorsal keel would somewhat reduce the stress along the vertical axis.

  • 217.
    Clarac, Francois
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology. Sorbonne Univ, CNRS, MNHN, CR2P,UMR 7207,Ctr Rech Paleobiodiversite & Paleoe, Paris, France.
    Quilhac, A.
    Sorbonne Univ, CNRS, MNHN, CR2P,UMR 7207,Ctr Rech Paleobiodiversite & Paleoe, Paris, France.
    The crocodylian skull and osteoderms: A functional exaptation to ectothermy?2019In: Zoology (Jena), ISSN 0944-2006, E-ISSN 1873-2720, Vol. 132, p. 31-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The crocodylians are ectothermic semi-aquatic vertebrates which are assessed to have evolved from endothermic terrestrial forms during the Mesozoic. Such a physiological transition should have involved modifications in their cardio-vascular system allowing to increase the heat transfers with the surrounding environment by growing a peripheral vascularization which would be mainly located in the dermal skeleton: the dermatocranium and the osteoderms. In order to assess the implication of these anatomical regions in thermal exchanges, we have recorded the temperature above a set of representative skin areas in order to draw comparisons between the skull, the osteoderms, and the rest of the body parts which present either none or residual dermal ossification. We computed the data after the specimens were successively laid in different stereotyped environmental conditions which involved significant variations in the environmental temperature. Our results show that the osteoderms collect the external heat during the basking periods as they become significantly warmer than the surrounding skin; they further release the heat into the core of the organism as they turn out to be colder than the surrounding skin after a significant cooling period. In disregard of the environmental temperature variations, the skull table (which encloses the braincase) remains warmer than the rest of the cranial regions and shows less temperature variations than the osteoderms; a result which has lead us to think that the braincase temperature is monitored and controlled by a thermoregulatory system. Therefore, as hypothesized by previous authors regarding the ectothermic diapsids, we assume that the crocodylian skull possesses shunting blood pathways which tend to maintain both the braincase and the main sensory organs at the nearest to the optimal physiological temperature depending on the external temperature variations. Concerning the skin vascularization, the study of an albino Alligator mississippiensis specimen permitted to observe the repartition of the superficial blood vessels by transparency through the skin. We thus testify that the skin which covers either the skull or the osteoderms is more vascularized than the skin which does not present any subjacent dermal ossification. We consequently deduce that the significant contrast in the thermal behavior between the dermal skeleton and the rest of the body is indeed correlated with a difference in the relative degree of skin vascularization. This last assessment confirms that the development of the dermal skeleton should have played a functional role in the crocodylian transition from endothermy to ectothermy through the set-up of a peripheral vessel network.

  • 218.
    Clement, Alice
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Ahlberg, Per Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    The First Virtual Cranial Endocast of a Lungfish (Sarcopterygii: Dipnoi)2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 11, article id 0113898Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lungfish, or dipnoans, have a history spanning over 400 million years and are the closest living sister taxon to the tetrapods. Most Devonian lungfish had heavily ossified endoskeletons, whereas most Mesozoic and Cenozoic lungfish had largely cartilaginous endoskeletons and are usually known only from isolated tooth plates or disarticulated bone fragments. There is thus a substantial temporal and evolutionary gap in our understanding of lungfish endoskeletal morphology, between the diverse and highly variable Devonian forms on the one hand and the three extant genera on the other. Here we present a virtual cranial endocast of Rhinodipterus kimberleyensis, from the Late Devonian Gogo Formation of Australia, one of the most derived fossil dipnoans with a well-ossified braincase. This endocast, generated from a Computed Microtomography (µCT) scan of the skull, is the first virtual endocast of any lungfish published, and only the third fossil dipnoan endocast to be illustrated in its entirety. Key features include long olfactory canals, a telencephalic cavity with a moderate degree of ventral expansion, large suparaotic cavities, and moderately enlarged utricular recesses. It has numerous similarities to the endocasts of Chirodipterus wildungensis and Griphognathus whitei, and to a lesser degree to 'Chirodipterus' australis and Dipnorhynchus sussmilchi. Among extant lungfish, it consistently resembles Neoceratodus more closely than Lepidosiren and Protopterus. Several trends in the evolution of the brains and labyrinth regions in dipnoans, such as the expansions of the utricular recess and telencephalic regions over time, are identified and discussed.

  • 219.
    Clement, Alice
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology. Flinders Univ S Australia, Coll Sci & Engn, Adelaide, SA, Australia;Museum Victoria, Dept Sci, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    King, Benedict
    Flinders Univ S Australia, Coll Sci & Engn, Adelaide, SA, Australia;Nat Biodivers Ctr, Leiden, Netherlands.
    Giles, Sam
    Univ Oxford, Dept Earth Sci, Oxford, England.
    Choo, Brian
    Flinders Univ S Australia, Coll Sci & Engn, Adelaide, SA, Australia.
    Ahlberg, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Young, Gavin C.
    Australian Natl Univ, Res Sch Phys & Engn, Dept Appl Math, Canberra, ACT, Australia;Australian Museum, Res Inst, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Long, John A.
    Flinders Univ S Australia, Coll Sci & Engn, Adelaide, SA, Australia;Museum Victoria, Dept Sci, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Neurocranial anatomy of an enigmatic Early Devonian fish sheds light on early osteichthyan evolution2018In: eLIFE, E-ISSN 2050-084X, Vol. 7, article id e34349Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The skull of 'Ligulalepis' from the Early Devonian of Australia (AM-F101607) has significantly expanded our knowledge of early osteichthyan anatomy, but its phylogenetic position has remained uncertain. We herein describe a second skull of 'Ligulalepis' and present micro-CT data on both specimens to reveal novel anatomical features, including cranial endocasts. Several features previously considered to link 'Ligulalepis' with actinopterygians are now considered generalized osteichthyan characters or of uncertain polarity. The presence of a lateral cranial canal is shown to be variable in its development between specimens. Other notable new features include the presence of a pineal foramen, the some detail of skull roof sutures, the shape of the nasal capsules, a placoderm-like hypophysial vein, and a chondrichthyan-like labyrinth system. New phylogenetic analyses place 'Ligulalepis' as a stem osteichthyan, specifically as the sister taxon to 'psarolepids' plus crown osteichthyans. The precise position of 'psarolepids' differs between parsimony and Bayesian analyses.

  • 220.
    Clement, Alice M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology. Flinders Univ S Australia, Sch Biol Sci, Adelaide, SA, Australia.;Museum Victoria, Dept Sci, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Challands, Tom J.
    Univ Edinburgh, Sch Geosci, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Long, John A.
    Flinders Univ S Australia, Sch Biol Sci, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Ahlberg, Per E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    The cranial endocast of Dipnorhynchus sussmilchi (Sarcopterygii: Dipnoi) and the interrelationships of stem-group lungfishes2016In: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 4, article id e2539Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first virtual cranial endocast of a lungfish from the Early Devonian, Dipnorhynchus sussmilchi, is described. Dipnorhynchus, only the fourth Devonian lungfish for which a near complete cranial endocast is known, is a key taxon for clarifying primitive character states within the group. A ventrally-expanded telencephalic cavity is present in the endocast of Dipnorhynchus demonstrating that this is the primitive state for "true" Dipnoi. Dipnorhynchus also possesses a utricular recess differentiated from the sacculolagenar pouch like that seen in stratigraphically younger lungfish (Dipterus, Chirodipterus, Rhinodipterus), but absent from the dipnomorph Youngolepis. We do not find separate pineal and para-pineal canals in contrast to a reconstruction from previous authors. We conduct the first phylogenetic analysis of Dipnoi based purely on endocast characters, which supports a basal placement of Dipnorhynchus within the dipnoan stem group, in agreement with recent analyses. Our analysis demonstrates the value of endocast characters for inferring phylogenetic relationships.

  • 221.
    Clement, Alice M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology. Flinders Univ S Australia, Sch Biol Sci, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia..
    Long, J. A.
    Flinders Univ S Australia, Sch Biol Sci, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia..
    Tafforeau, P.
    Flinders Univ S Australia, Sch Biol Sci, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia.;European Synchrotron Radiat Facil, 71 Ave Martyrs, F-38043 Grenoble, France..
    Ahlberg, Per E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology. Flinders Univ S Australia, Sch Biol Sci, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia..
    The dipnoan buccal pump reconstructed in 3D and implications for air breathing in Devonian lungfishes2016In: Paleobiology, ISSN 0094-8373, E-ISSN 1938-5331, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 289-304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lungfishes are known for, and indeed take their name from, their bimodal respiratory abilities. All three extant genera can use their lungs to extract oxygen from the atmosphere, although their reliance upon this capability differs among taxa. Lungs are considered primitive for the Osteichthyes, however the distinctive buccal pump mode of air gulping exhibited by extant lungfishes appears to be a specialization. It is associated with a number of derived skeletal characters (cranial ribs, long parasphenoid stalk, midline gap between palatal tooth plates) that first appeared during the Devonian. These have been described individually, but in no Devonian lungfish has their three-dimensional (3D) spatial relationship been reconstructed and analyzed. Here we present the 3D morphology of Rhinodipterus, a Mid-Late Devonian lungfish from Australia and Europe, based on synchrotron tomography and conventional microtomography scans. Unlike less crownward contemporaneous lungfishes such as Griphognathus and Chirodipterus, Rhinodipterus has a full set of skeletal buccal pump components that can be directly compared to those of extant lungfishes, suggesting that it made more extensive use of air breathing than other Gogo or Bergisch Gladbach genera. This is interesting in relation to the environmental context as Gogo and Bergisch Gladbach are both marine, contrasting with the frequently hypoxic tropical to subtropical fresh water environments inhabited by modern lungfishes. The evolution of buccal pump-supported lung ventilation was evidently not necessarily associated with a transition to non-marine habitats.

  • 222.
    Clement, Alice M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Nysjö, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Strand, Robin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Ahlberg, Per E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Brain – Endocast relationship in the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, elucidated from tomographic data (Sarcopterygii: Dipnoi)2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 10, article id e0141277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the brains of the three extant lungfish genera have been previously described, the spatial relationship between the brain and the neurocranium has never before been fully described nor quantified. Through the application of virtual microtomography (mu CT) and 3D rendering software, we describe aspects of the gross anatomy of the brain and labyrinth region in the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri and compare this to previous accounts. Unexpected characters in this specimen include short olfactory peduncles connecting the olfactory bulbs to the telencephalon, and an oblong telencephalon. Furthermore, we illustrate the endocast (the mould of the internal space of the neurocranial cavity) of Neoceratodus, also describing and quantifying the brain-endocast relationship in a lungfish for the first time. Overall, the brain of the Australian lungfish closely matches the size and shape of the endocast cavity housing it, filling more than four fifths of the total volume. The forebrain and labyrinth regions of the brain correspond very well to the endocast morphology, while the midbrain and hindbrain do not fit so closely. Our results cast light on the gross neural and endocast anatomy in lungfishes, and are likely to have particular significance for palaeoneurologists studying fossil taxa.

  • 223.
    Clement, Alice M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Strand, Robin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Nysjö, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Long, John A.
    Ahlberg, Per E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    A new method for reconstructing brain morphology: Applying the brain-neurocranial spatial relationship in an extant lungfish to a fossil endocast2016In: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 3, no 7, article id 160307Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 224. Clemente, Florian J
    et al.
    Cardona, Alexia
    Inchley, Charlotte E
    Peter, Benjamin M
    Jacobs, Guy
    Pagani, Luca
    Lawson, Daniel J
    Antão, Tiago
    Vicente, Mário
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Mitt, Mario
    DeGiorgio, Michael
    Faltyskova, Zuzana
    Xue, Yali
    Ayub, Qasim
    Szpak, Michal
    Mägi, Reedik
    Eriksson, Anders
    Manica, Andrea
    Raghavan, Maanasa
    Rasmussen, Morten
    Rasmussen, Simon
    Willerslev, Eske
    Vidal-Puig, Antonio
    Tyler-Smith, Chris
    Villems, Richard
    Nielsen, Rasmus
    Metspalu, Mait
    Malyarchuk, Boris
    Derenko, Miroslava
    Kivisild, Toomas
    A Selective Sweep on a Deleterious Mutation in CPT1A in Arctic Populations.2014In: American Journal of Human Genetics, ISSN 0002-9297, E-ISSN 1537-6605, Vol. 95, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Arctic populations live in an environment characterized by extreme cold and the absence of plant foods for much of the year and are likely to have undergone genetic adaptations to these environmental conditions in the time they have been living there. Genome-wide selection scans based on genotype data from native Siberians have previously highlighted a 3 Mb chromosome 11 region containing 79 protein-coding genes as the strongest candidates for positive selection in Northeast Siberians. However, it was not possible to determine which of the genes might be driving the selection signal. Here, using whole-genome high-coverage sequence data, we identified the most likely causative variant as a nonsynonymous G>A transition (rs80356779; c.1436C>T [p.Pro479Leu] on the reverse strand) in CPT1A, a key regulator of mitochondrial long-chain fatty-acid oxidation. Remarkably, the derived allele is associated with hypoketotic hypoglycemia and high infant mortality yet occurs at high frequency in Canadian and Greenland Inuits and was also found at 68% frequency in our Northeast Siberian sample. We provide evidence of one of the strongest selective sweeps reported in humans; this sweep has driven this variant to high frequency in circum-Arctic populations within the last 6-23 ka despite associated deleterious consequences, possibly as a result of the selective advantage it originally provided to either a high-fat diet or a cold environment.

  • 225.
    Clément, Gaël
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Evolutionary Organism Biology.
    Ahlberg, Per E
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    The endocranial anatomy of the early sarcopterygian Powichthys from Spitsbergen, based on CT scanning2010In: Morphology, Phylogeny and Paleobiogeography of Fossil Fishes: honoring Meemann Chang / [ed] David K. Elliott, John G. Maisey, Xiaobo Yu, Desui Miao, München: Dr. Friedrich Pfeil , 2010, p. 363-377Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 226.
    Conte, Gabriele Larocca
    et al.
    Univ Bologna, Dipartimento Sci Biol Geol & Ambientali, Alma Mater Studiorum, Via Zamboni 67, I-40126 Bologna, Italy.
    Fanti, Federico
    Univ Bologna, Dipartimento Sci Biol Geol & Ambientali, Alma Mater Studiorum, Via Zamboni 67, I-40126 Bologna, Italy;Univ Bologna, Museo Geol Giovanni Capellini, Alma Mater Studiorum, Via Zamboni 63, I-40126 Bologna, Italy.
    Trevisani, Enrico
    Museo Civ Storia Nat Ferrara, Via De Pisis 24, I-44121 Ferrara, Italy.
    Guaschi, Paolo
    Univ Pavia, Museo Storia Nat, Piazza Botta 9-10, I-27100 Pavia, Italy.
    Barbieri, Roberto
    Univ Bologna, Dipartimento Sci Biol Geol & Ambientali, Alma Mater Studiorum, Via Zamboni 67, I-40126 Bologna, Italy;Univ Bologna, Museo Geol Giovanni Capellini, Alma Mater Studiorum, Via Zamboni 63, I-40126 Bologna, Italy.
    Bazzi, Mohamad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Reassessment of a large lamniform shark from the Upper Cretaceous (Santonian) of Italy2019In: Cretaceous research (Print), ISSN 0195-6671, E-ISSN 1095-998X, Vol. 99, p. 156-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To date, only a few partially articulated chondrichthyan specimens are known from the Upper Cretaceous marine fossil record of northern Italy. Here, we re-evaluate the taxonomic status and geological age of selachian remains originally discovered during the 19th century from the Castellavazzo locality. The described specimen is largely embedded in matrix with minute exposure of joined and moderately deformed sequentially stacked vertebral centra. Computed tomography (CT) image-data obtained of the specimen enabled the identification of potential cranial-cartilage elements located in close proximity to teeth and are here interpreted as remnants of the jaws. Based on tooth and vertebral morphology the specimen is in all likelihood an adult lamniform shark with a measured 3.5 m length. Using ordinary least-squares regression analysis (OLS) and proportion-based calculations, we estimated a total-length (TL) of 596.27 and 632.5-672.64 cm respectively. We prefer the size estimation derived through OLS bivariate regression; however, in the present analysis, reliance on a small sample size (n = 11) and evidence for differential scaling between taxa impose limitations on the precision of our size prediction. Planktonic foraminifera examined from the surrounding matrix of the slab preserving shark vertebral centra and teeth indicate a Santonian age (Dicarinella asymetrica zone). Although, the specimen could not confidently be assigned beyond the ordinal-level, the sheer centrum size, gross dental morphology, and depositional environment, are indicative of a pelagic apex-predator comparable to coeval lamniforms, with a specific resemblance towards cretoxyrhinids, reported from elsewhere along the peri-Tethyan shelf of Europe and Western Interior Seaway of North America. Finally, the re-emergence of this historical specimen, here re-described using cutting-edge techniques, is of great importance as it contributes to the otherwise poor record of extinct lamniform shark skeletons.

  • 227. Cooper, Wendy, E.
    et al.
    de Boer, Hugo J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    A taxonomic revision of Trichosanthes L. (Cucurbitaceae) in Australia, including one new species from the Northern Territory2011In: Austrobaileya : a journal of plant systematics, ISSN 0155-4131, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 364-386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trichosanthes is represented by six species in Australia: T cucumerina L. var. cucumerina,T morrisii W.E.Cooper sp. nov., T odontosperma W.E.Cooper & A.J.Ford, T pentaphylla F.Muell. ex Benth., T pilosa Lour. and T subvelutina F.Muell. ex Cogn. Trichosanthes ovigera Blume has recently been synonymised with T pilosa and we now include T holtzei F.Muell. within this synonymy. All taxa are illustrated (with the exception of T odontosperma previously illustrated in 2010), and distinguished from other Australian species. Notes on habitat and distribution are included together with distribution maps. Three identification keys are presented, two to the sections of Trichosanthes and one to the species of Trichosanthes in Australia.

  • 228.
    Corcoran, Padraic
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology. Univ Sheffield, Dept Anim & Plant Sci, Sheffield S10 2TN, S Yorkshire, England.
    Anderson, Jennifer L
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Jacobson, David J
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology.
    Sun, Yu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular Evolution.
    Ni, Peixiang
    BGI HongKong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Lascoux, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Johannesson, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Introgression maintains the genetic integrity of the mating-type determining chromosome of the fungus Neurospora tetrasperma.2016In: Genome Research, ISSN 1088-9051, E-ISSN 1549-5469, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 486-498Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Genome evolution is driven by a complex interplay of factors, including selection, recombination, and introgression. The regions determining sexual identity are particularly dynamic parts of eukaryotic genomes that are prone to molecular degeneration associated with suppressed recombination. In the fungus Neurospora tetrasperma, it has been proposed that this molecular degeneration is counteracted by the introgression of nondegenerated DNA from closely related species. In this study, we used comparative and population genomic analyses of 92 genomes from eight phylogenetically and reproductively isolated lineages of N. tetrasperma, and its three closest relatives, to investigate the factors shaping the evolutionary history of the genomes. We found that suppressed recombination extends across at least 6 Mbp (similar to 63%) of the mating-type (mat) chromosome in N. tetrasperma and is associated with decreased genetic diversity, which is likely the result primarily of selection at linked sites. Furthermore, analyses of molecular evolution revealed an increased mutational load in this region, relative to recombining regions. However, comparative genomic and phylogenetic analyses indicate that the mat chromosomes are temporarily regenerated via introgression from sister species; six of eight lineages show introgression into one of their mat chromosomes, with multiple Neurospora species acting as donors. The introgressed tracts have been fixed within lineages, suggesting that they confer an adaptive advantage in natural populations, and our analyses support the presence of selective sweeps in at least one lineage. Thus, these data strongly support the previously hypothesized role of introgression as a mechanism for the maintenance of mating-type determining chromosomal regions.

  • 229.
    Corell, Mikael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Developmental Genetics.
    Wicher, Grzegorz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Cancer and Vascular Biology.
    Katarzyna J., Radomska
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Trier Kjær, Marcel
    Syddansk Universitet, IMM-Neurobiology Reseach, Denmark .
    Dağlıkoca, E. Duygu
    Bogazici University, Deptartment of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Turkey .
    Fredriksson, Robert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Fex Svenningsen, Åsa
    Syddansk Universitet, IMM-Neurobiology Reseach, Denmark .
    The function of GABA and its B-receptor in Schwann cell developmentManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 230.
    Corell, Mikael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Wicher, Grzegorz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Radomska, Katarzyna J
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology.
    Dağlıkoca, E Duygu
    Godskesen, Randi Elberg
    Fredriksson, Robert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Benedikz, Eirikur
    Magnaghi, Valerio
    Fex Svenningsen, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    GABA and its B-receptor are present at the node of Ranvier in a small population of sensory fibers, implicating a role in myelination2015In: Journal of Neuroscience Research, ISSN 0360-4012, E-ISSN 1097-4547, Vol. 93, no 2, p. 285-295Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type B receptor has been implicated in glial cell development in the peripheral nervous system (PNS), although the exact function of GABA signaling is not known. To investigate GABA and its B receptor in PNS development and degeneration, we studied the expression of the GABAB receptor, GABA, and glutamic acid decarboxylase GAD65/67 in both development and injury in fetal dissociated dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cell cultures and in the rat sciatic nerve. We found that GABA, GAD65/67, and the GABAB receptor were expressed in premyelinating and nonmyelinating Schwann cells throughout development and after injury. A small population of myelinated sensory fibers displayed all of these molecules at the node of Ranvier, indicating a role in axon-glia communication. Functional studies using GABAB receptor agonists and antagonists were performed in fetal DRG primary cultures to study the function of this receptor during development. The results show that GABA, via its B receptor, is involved in the myelination process but not in Schwann cell proliferation. The data from adult nerves suggest additional roles in axon-glia communication after injury.

  • 231.
    Coutinho, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Human Evolution.
    Where our feet have taken us: Examples of human contact, migration, and adaptation as revealed by ancient DNA2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In spite of our extensive knowledge of the human past, certain key questions remain to be answered about human prehistory. One involves the nature of cultural change in material culture through time from the perspective of how different ancient human groups interacted with one another. The other is how humans have adapted to the different environments as they migrated and populated the rest of the world from their origin in Africa. For my thesis I have investigated examples of human evolutionary history using genetic information from ancient human remains. Chapter 1 focused on the nature of possible interaction between the Pitted Ware Culture (PWC) and Battle Axe Culture (BAC) on the island of Gotland, in the Baltic Sea. Through the analysis of 4500 year old human remains from three PWC burial sites, I found that the existence of BAC influences in these burial sites was the result of cultural and not demic influence from the BAC. In chapter 2, I investigated the ancestry of a Late Stone Age individual from the southwestern Cape of South Africa. Population genetic analyses revealed that this individual was genetically affiliated with Khoe groups in southern Africa, a genetic make-up that is today absent from the Cape. Chapter 3 investigated the genetic landscape of prehistoric individuals from southern Africa. Specifically, I explored frequencies of adaptive variants between Late Stone Age and Iron Age individuals. I found an increase in disease resistance alleles in Iron Age individuals and attributed this to the effects of the Bantu expansion. Chapter 4 incorporated a wider range of trait-associated variants among a greater number of modern-day populations and ancient individuals in Africa. I found that many allele frequency patterns found in modern populations follow the routes of major migrations which took place in the African Holocene. The thesis attests to the complexity of human demographic history in general, and how migration contributes to adaptation by dispersing novel adaptive variants to populations.

    List of papers
    1. The Neolithic Pitted Ware culture foragers were culturally but not genetically influenced by the Battle Axe culture herders
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Neolithic Pitted Ware culture foragers were culturally but not genetically influenced by the Battle Axe culture herders
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    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The 3rd millennium BCE was a period of marked cultural and demographic developments in Europe. Here we sequence genome data from human skeletal remains to study the interaction between two Scandinavian cultures; the hunter-gatherer Pitted Ware culture (PWC, 3400-2400 BCE) and the farmer/herder Battle Axe culture (BAC, 2800-2300 BCE), two cultures who have been found to be represented by distinct gene-pools in northern Europe. We focus on the Baltic island of Gotland that presents Scandinavia’s richest record of PWC gravesites where the majority of individuals are buried in typical PWC manner (supine position), but with some burials indicating BAC influences (either hocker position burial or burials with BAC associated artifacts). We sequenced and analyzed the genomes of 25 individuals of both types of burials excavated in three gravesites in order to determine if the different burial styles were associated with the different gene-pools (PWC or BAC) at the time. The genomic data show that all individuals belonged to one genetic population – that of the PWC – irrespective of the burial style. We conclude that the PWC communities on the island of Gotland were culturally influenced by the BAC society, without any signs of gene-flow.

    National Category
    Evolutionary Biology
    Research subject
    Biology with Specialisation in Human Evolution and Genetics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-397180 (URN)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 2017-02503
    Available from: 2019-11-17 Created: 2019-11-17 Last updated: 2019-11-18
    2. Later Stone Age human hair from Vaalkrans Shelter, Cape Floristic Region of South Africa, reveals genetic affinity to Khoe groups
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Later Stone Age human hair from Vaalkrans Shelter, Cape Floristic Region of South Africa, reveals genetic affinity to Khoe groups
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The indigenous people of the southern Cape of South Africa were dramatically impacted by the arrival of European colonists starting to arrive some 400 years ago and their descendants are today mixed with Europeans and Asians. Here we sequence and analyze the genome (1.01 times coverage) of a Later Stone Age individual, who lived about 200 years ago, obtained from a hair sample excavated at Vaalkrans Shelter southern Cape, South Africa. We analyzed this genome, along with genetic data from 10 prehistoric individuals from southern Africa spanning the last 2000 years. Our results show that the individual from Vaalkrans was a man who traced ~80% of his ancestry to local southern San hunter-gatherer populations, and ~20% to a mixed East African-Eurasian source. This genetic make-up is very similar to modern-day Khoekhoe individuals from South Africa and Namibia. The Vaalkrans man’s genome reveals how the Holocene pastoralist migration event shaped the genomic landscape of historic and current southern African populations and shows that Khoekhoe groups lived in the southern Cape as late as 200 years ago.

    National Category
    Evolutionary Biology
    Research subject
    Biology with Specialisation in Human Evolution and Genetics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-397032 (URN)
    Available from: 2019-11-18 Created: 2019-11-18 Last updated: 2019-11-18
    3. Southern African ancient genomes estimate modern human divergence to 350,000 to 260,000 years ago
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Southern African ancient genomes estimate modern human divergence to 350,000 to 260,000 years ago
    Show others...
    2017 (English)In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 358, no 6363, p. 652-655Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Southern Africa is consistently placed as a potential region for the evolution of Homo sapiens We present genome sequences, up to 13x coverage, from seven ancient individuals from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The remains of three Stone Age hunter-gatherers (about 2000 years old) were genetically similar to current-day southern San groups, and those of four Iron Age farmers (300 to 500 years old) were genetically similar to present-day Bantu-language speakers. We estimate that all modern-day Khoe-San groups have been influenced by 9 to 30% genetic admixture from East Africans/Eurasians. Using traditional and new approaches, we estimate the first modern human population divergence time to between 350,000 and 260,000 years ago. This estimate increases the deepest divergence among modern humans, coinciding with anatomical developments of archaic humans into modern humans, as represented in the local fossil record.

    National Category
    Archaeology Evolutionary Biology Genetics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-334636 (URN)10.1126/science.aao6266 (DOI)000414240500038 ()28971970 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 642-2013-8019; 621-2014-5211Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationGöran Gustafsson Foundation for promotion of scientific research at Uppala University and Royal Institute of TechnologyThe Wenner-Gren Foundation
    Note

    Carina M. Schlebusch and Helena Malmström contributed equally to this work

    Available from: 2017-11-24 Created: 2017-11-24 Last updated: 2019-11-18Bibliographically approved
    4. The Evolution of Adaptive traits in Indigenous human populations in Sub-Saharan Africa
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Evolution of Adaptive traits in Indigenous human populations in Sub-Saharan Africa
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Several well-known genetic variants that confer disease resistance or other adaptive advantages have been investigated in modern-day populations across the globe. In particular, sub-Saharan African populations display variation for many of these loci. In this study, we investigate allele frequencies underlying functional variants of interest in sub-Saharan African populations. By also investigating sequence data from ancient human remains from excavated sites in sub-Saharan Africa, we can start to get an indication of the allele frequency trajectories of adaptive variants, how they have diffused through the African genetic landscape, and how much migration and admixture played a role in the distribution of these variants in modern-day African populations. Our results show that as well as selection, migration has had a large influence on changing allele frequency through time in variants associated with disease resistance, salt sensitivity and metabolism. Yet in other variants, such as some associated with skin pigmentation, allele frequencies have changed little over time. Lastly, this study emphasizes the need for continued study of African populations, as due to the sheer genetic diversity present in Africa, different functional variants may confer similar means of adaptation than those we know for out-of-Africa populations. This study is the first to comprehensively investigate adaptive variants in both ancient and modern Africans, and further research will continue to reveal how the genetic landscape of modern humans has changed, and continues to change through time.

    National Category
    Evolutionary Biology
    Research subject
    Biology with Specialisation in Human Evolution and Genetics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-397169 (URN)
    Available from: 2019-11-16 Created: 2019-11-16 Last updated: 2019-11-18
  • 232.
    Coutinho, Alexandra
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Human Evolution.
    Edlund, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Human Evolution.
    Malmström, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Human Evolution.
    Henshilwood, Christopher
    Institutt for arkeologi, historie, kultur- og religionsvitenskap, Universitetet i Bergen.
    van Niekerk, Karen
    Department of Archaeology, History, Cultural Studies and Religion, Universitetet i Bergen.
    Lombard, Marlize
    Department of Anthropology and Development Studies, University of Johannesburg.
    Schlebusch, Carina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Human Evolution.
    Jakobsson, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Human Evolution.
    Later Stone Age human hair from Vaalkrans Shelter, Cape Floristic Region of South Africa, reveals genetic affinity to Khoe groupsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The indigenous people of the southern Cape of South Africa were dramatically impacted by the arrival of European colonists starting to arrive some 400 years ago and their descendants are today mixed with Europeans and Asians. Here we sequence and analyze the genome (1.01 times coverage) of a Later Stone Age individual, who lived about 200 years ago, obtained from a hair sample excavated at Vaalkrans Shelter southern Cape, South Africa. We analyzed this genome, along with genetic data from 10 prehistoric individuals from southern Africa spanning the last 2000 years. Our results show that the individual from Vaalkrans was a man who traced ~80% of his ancestry to local southern San hunter-gatherer populations, and ~20% to a mixed East African-Eurasian source. This genetic make-up is very similar to modern-day Khoekhoe individuals from South Africa and Namibia. The Vaalkrans man’s genome reveals how the Holocene pastoralist migration event shaped the genomic landscape of historic and current southern African populations and shows that Khoekhoe groups lived in the southern Cape as late as 200 years ago.

  • 233.
    Coutinho, Alexandra
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Human Evolution.
    Günther, Torsten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Human Evolution.
    Munters, Arielle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Svensson, Emma
    Area Offices, Office of Technology and Science; The Student Service Unit.
    Götherström, Anders
    Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Stockholm University.
    Storå, Jan
    Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Stockholm University.
    Malmström, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Human Evolution.
    Jakobsson, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Human Evolution.
    The Neolithic Pitted Ware culture foragers were culturally but not genetically influenced by the Battle Axe culture herdersManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The 3rd millennium BCE was a period of marked cultural and demographic developments in Europe. Here we sequence genome data from human skeletal remains to study the interaction between two Scandinavian cultures; the hunter-gatherer Pitted Ware culture (PWC, 3400-2400 BCE) and the farmer/herder Battle Axe culture (BAC, 2800-2300 BCE), two cultures who have been found to be represented by distinct gene-pools in northern Europe. We focus on the Baltic island of Gotland that presents Scandinavia’s richest record of PWC gravesites where the majority of individuals are buried in typical PWC manner (supine position), but with some burials indicating BAC influences (either hocker position burial or burials with BAC associated artifacts). We sequenced and analyzed the genomes of 25 individuals of both types of burials excavated in three gravesites in order to determine if the different burial styles were associated with the different gene-pools (PWC or BAC) at the time. The genomic data show that all individuals belonged to one genetic population – that of the PWC – irrespective of the burial style. We conclude that the PWC communities on the island of Gotland were culturally influenced by the BAC society, without any signs of gene-flow.

  • 234.
    Coutinho, Alexandra
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Human Evolution.
    Schlebusch, Carina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Human Evolution.
    Jakobsson, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Human Evolution.
    The Evolution of Adaptive traits in Indigenous human populations in Sub-Saharan AfricaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Several well-known genetic variants that confer disease resistance or other adaptive advantages have been investigated in modern-day populations across the globe. In particular, sub-Saharan African populations display variation for many of these loci. In this study, we investigate allele frequencies underlying functional variants of interest in sub-Saharan African populations. By also investigating sequence data from ancient human remains from excavated sites in sub-Saharan Africa, we can start to get an indication of the allele frequency trajectories of adaptive variants, how they have diffused through the African genetic landscape, and how much migration and admixture played a role in the distribution of these variants in modern-day African populations. Our results show that as well as selection, migration has had a large influence on changing allele frequency through time in variants associated with disease resistance, salt sensitivity and metabolism. Yet in other variants, such as some associated with skin pigmentation, allele frequencies have changed little over time. Lastly, this study emphasizes the need for continued study of African populations, as due to the sheer genetic diversity present in Africa, different functional variants may confer similar means of adaptation than those we know for out-of-Africa populations. This study is the first to comprehensively investigate adaptive variants in both ancient and modern Africans, and further research will continue to reveal how the genetic landscape of modern humans has changed, and continues to change through time.

  • 235.
    Crous, P. W.
    et al.
    Westerdijk Fungal Biodivers Inst, POB 85167, NL-3508 AD Utrecht, Netherlands;Univ Pretoria, FABI, Dept Genet Biochem & Microbiol, P Bag X20, ZA-0028 Pretoria, South Africa.
    Luangsa-ard, J. J.
    Natl Ctr Genet Engn & Biotechnol BIOTEC, Microbe Interact & Ecol Lab, 113 Thailand Sci Pk,Phahonyothin Rd, Khlong Luang 12120, Pathum Thani, Thailand.
    Wingfield, M. J.
    Univ Pretoria, FABI, ZA-0002 Pretoria, South Africa.
    Carnegie, A. J.
    NSW Dept Primary Ind Forestry, Forest Hlth & Biosecur, Level 12,10 Valentine Ave, Parramatta, NSW 2124, Australia.
    Hernandez-Restrepo, M.
    Westerdijk Fungal Biodivers Inst, POB 85167, NL-3508 AD Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Lombard, L.
    Westerdijk Fungal Biodivers Inst, POB 85167, NL-3508 AD Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Roux, J.
    Univ Pretoria, FABI, ZA-0002 Pretoria, South Africa.
    Barreto, R. W.
    Univ Fed Vicosa, Dept Fitopatol, BR-36570900 Vicosa, MG, Brazil.
    Baseia, I. G.
    Univ Fed Rio Grande do Norte, Ctr Biociencias, Dept Botan & Zool, Campus Univ, BR-59072970 Natal, RN, Brazil.
    Cano-Lira, J. F.
    URV, Med Sch, Mycol Unit, St Llorenc 21, Tarragona, Spain;URV, IISPV, St Llorenc 21, Tarragona, Spain.
    Martin, M. P.
    CSIC, RJB, Dept Mycol, Plaza Murillo 2, E-28014 Madrid, Spain.
    Morozova, O. V.
    Russian Acad Sci, Komarov Bot Inst, 2 Prof Popov Str, St Petersburg 197376, Russia.
    Stchigel, A. M.
    URV, Med Sch, Mycol Unit, St Llorenc 21, Tarragona, Spain;URV, IISPV, St Llorenc 21, Tarragona, Spain.
    Summerell, B. A.
    Royal Bot Gardens & Domain Trust, Mrs Macquaries Rd, Sydney, NSW 2000, Australia.
    Brandrud, T. E.
    Norwegian Inst Nat Res, Gaustadalleen 21, NO-0349 Oslo, Norway.
    Dima, B.
    Eotvos Lorand Univ, Inst Biol, Dept Plant Anat, Pazmany Peter Setany 1-C, H-1117 Budapest, Hungary.
    Garcia, D.
    URV, Med Sch, Mycol Unit, St Llorenc 21, Tarragona, Spain;URV, IISPV, St Llorenc 21, Tarragona, Spain.
    Giraldo, A.
    Westerdijk Fungal Biodivers Inst, POB 85167, NL-3508 AD Utrecht, Netherlands;Univ Free State, Dept Plant Sci, Fac Nat & Agr Sci, POB 339, ZA-9300 Bloemfontein, South Africa.
    Guarro, J.
    URV, Med Sch, Mycol Unit, St Llorenc 21, Tarragona, Spain;URV, IISPV, St Llorenc 21, Tarragona, Spain.
    Gusmao, L. F. P.
    Univ Estadual Feira de Santana, Av Transnordestina S-N Novo Horizonte, BR-44036900 Feira De Santana, BA, Brazil.
    Khamsuntorn, P.
    Natl Ctr Genet Engn & Biotechnol BIOTEC, Microbe Interact & Ecol Lab, 113 Thailand Sci Pk,Phahonyothin Rd, Khlong Luang 12120, Pathum Thani, Thailand.
    Noordeloos, M. E.
    Naturalis Biodivers Ctr, Sect Bot, POB 9517, NL-2300 RA Leiden, Netherlands.
    Nuankaew, S.
    Natl Ctr Genet Engn & Biotechnol BIOTEC, Fungal Biodivers Lab, 113 Thailand Sci Pk,Phahonyothin Rd, Khlong Luang 12120, Pathum Thani, Thailand.
    Pinruan, U.
    Natl Ctr Genet Engn & Biotechnol BIOTEC, Microbe Interact & Ecol Lab, 113 Thailand Sci Pk,Phahonyothin Rd, Khlong Luang 12120, Pathum Thani, Thailand.
    Rodriguez-Andrade, E.
    URV, Med Sch, Mycol Unit, St Llorenc 21, Tarragona, Spain;URV, IISPV, St Llorenc 21, Tarragona, Spain.
    Souza-Motta, C. M.
    Univ Fed Pernambuco, Dept Micol Prof Chaves Batista, Recife, PE, Brazil.
    Thangavel, R.
    Minist Primary Ind, Plant Hlth & Environm Lab, POB 2095, Auckland 1140, New Zealand.
    van Iperen, A. L.
    Westerdijk Fungal Biodivers Inst, POB 85167, NL-3508 AD Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Abreu, V. P.
    Univ Fed Vicosa, Dept Microbiol, BR-36570000 Vicosa, MG, Brazil.
    Accioly, T.
    Univ Fed Rio Grande do Norte, Programa Posgrad Sistemat & Evolucao, Natal, RN, Brazil.
    Alves, J. L.
    Univ Fed Vicosa, Dept Fitopatol, BR-36570900 Vicosa, MG, Brazil.
    Andrade, J. P.
    Univ Estadual Feira de Santana, Av Transnordestina S-N Novo Horizonte, BR-44036900 Feira De Santana, BA, Brazil.
    Bahram, Mohammad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology. Univ Tartu, Inst Ecol & Earth Sci, Dept Bot, 40 Lai St, EE-51005 Tartu, Estonia.
    Baral, H. -O
    Barbier, E.
    Univ Fed Pernambuco, Dept Zool, Recife, PE, Brazil.
    Barnes, C. W.
    Inst Nacl Invest Agr, Estac Expt Santa Catalina, Panamer Km 1,Sect Cutuglahua, Pichincha, Ecuador.
    Bendiksen, E.
    Norwegian Inst Nat Res, Gaustadalleen 21, NO-0349 Oslo, Norway.
    Bernard, E.
    Univ Fed Pernambuco, Dept Zool, Recife, PE, Brazil.
    Bezerra, J. D. P.
    Univ Fed Pernambuco, Dept Micol Prof Chaves Batista, Recife, PE, Brazil.
    Bezerra, J. L.
    Univ Fed Pernambuco, Dept Micol Prof Chaves Batista, Recife, PE, Brazil.
    Bizio, Enrico
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology. Soc Veneziana Micol, S Croce 1730, I-30135 Venice, Italy.
    Blair, J. E.
    Franklin & Marshall Coll, Dept Biol, 415 Harrisburg Ave, Lancaster, PA 17603 USA.
    Bulyonkova, T. M.
    Russian Acad Sci, Siberian Branch, AP Ershov Inst Informat Syst, 6 Acad Lavrentieva Pr, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia.
    Cabral, T. S.
    Univ Fed Rio Grande do Norte, Dept Biol Celular & Genet, Natal, RN, Brazil.
    Caiafa, M. V.
    Dept Plant Pathol, 2527 Fifield Hall, Gainesville, FL 32611 USA;Florida Museum Nat Hist, 2527 Fifield Hall, Gainesville, FL 32611 USA.
    Cantillo, T.
    Univ Estadual Feira de Santana, Av Transnordestina S-N Novo Horizonte, BR-44036900 Feira De Santana, BA, Brazil.
    Colman, A. A.
    Univ Fed Vicosa, Dept Fitopatol, BR-36570900 Vicosa, MG, Brazil.
    Conceicao, L. B.
    Univ Estadual Feira de Santana, Av Transnordestina S-N Novo Horizonte, BR-44036900 Feira De Santana, BA, Brazil.
    Cruz, S.
    Dept Plant Pathol, 2527 Fifield Hall, Gainesville, FL 32611 USA;Florida Museum Nat Hist, 2527 Fifield Hall, Gainesville, FL 32611 USA.
    Cunha, A. O. B.
    Univ Fed Pernambuco, Dept Micol Prof Chaves Batista, Recife, PE, Brazil.
    Darveaux, B. A.
    Mycosynthetix Inc, 505 Meadowlands Dr,Suite 103, Hillsborough, NC 27278 USA.
    da Silva, A. L.
    Univ Fed Vicosa, Dept Fitopatol, BR-36570900 Vicosa, MG, Brazil.
    da Silva, G. A.
    Univ Fed Pernambuco, Dept Micol Prof Chaves Batista, Recife, PE, Brazil.
    da Silva, G. M.
    Univ Fed Rio Grande do Norte, Ctr Biociencias, Dept Botan & Zool, Campus Univ, BR-59072970 Natal, RN, Brazil.
    da Silva, R. M. F.
    Univ Fed Pernambuco, Dept Micol Prof Chaves Batista, Recife, PE, Brazil.
    de Oliveira, R. J. V.
    Univ Fed Pernambuco, Dept Micol Prof Chaves Batista, Recife, PE, Brazil.
    Oliveira, R. L.
    Univ Fed Rio Grande do Norte, Programa Posgrad Sistemat & Evolucao, Natal, RN, Brazil.
    De Souza, J. T.
    Univ Fed Lavras, Lavras, MG, Brazil.
    Duenas, M.
    CSIC, RJB, Dept Mycol, Plaza Murillo 2, E-28014 Madrid, Spain.
    Evans, H. C.
    CAB Int, Bakeham Lane, Egham TW20 9TY, Surrey, England.
    Epifani, F.
    CNR, Inst Sci Food Prod, Via Amendola 122-O, I-70126 Bari, Italy.
    Felipe, M. T. C.
    Univ Fed Pernambuco, Dept Micol Prof Chaves Batista, Recife, PE, Brazil.
    Fernandez-Lopez, J.
    CSIC, RJB, Dept Mycol, Plaza Murillo 2, E-28014 Madrid, Spain.
    Ferreira, B. W.
    Univ Fed Vicosa, Dept Fitopatol, BR-36570900 Vicosa, MG, Brazil.
    Figueiredo, C. N.
    Reconcavo Bahia Fed Univ, Itabuna, BA, Brazil.
    Filippova, N. V.
    Yugra State Univ, 16 Chekhova Str, Khanty Mansiysk 628012, Russia.
    Flores, J. A.
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Ecuador, Escuela Ciencias Biol, Av 12 Octubre 1076 & Roca, Quito, Ecuador.
    Gene, J.
    URV, Med Sch, Mycol Unit, St Llorenc 21, Tarragona, Spain;URV, IISPV, St Llorenc 21, Tarragona, Spain.
    Ghorbani, G.
    Univ Tehran, Coll Agr & Nat Resources, Dept Plant Protect, Karaj 3158777871, Iran.
    Gibertoni, T. B.
    Univ Fed Pernambuco, Dept Micol, Ave Engn S-N Cidade Univ, Recife, PE, Brazil.
    Glushakova, A. M.
    Lomonosov Moscow State Univ, RAS, Moscow All Russian Collect Microorganisms, GK Skryabin Inst Biochem & Physiol Microorganisms, Pushchino, Russia.
    Healy, R.
    Dept Plant Pathol, 2527 Fifield Hall, Gainesville, FL 32611 USA;Florida Museum Nat Hist, 2527 Fifield Hall, Gainesville, FL 32611 USA.
    Huhndorf, S. M.
    Field Museum, Dept Bot, 1400 South Lake Shore Dr, Chicago, IL 60605 USA.
    Iturrieta-Gonzalez, I.
    URV, Med Sch, Mycol Unit, St Llorenc 21, Tarragona, Spain;URV, IISPV, St Llorenc 21, Tarragona, Spain.
    Javan-Nikkhah, M.
    Univ Tehran, Coll Agr & Nat Resources, Dept Plant Protect, Karaj 3158777871, Iran.
    Juciano, R. F.
    Univ Fed Pernambuco, Dept Micol, Programa Posgrad Biol Fungos, BR-50670420 Recife, PE, Brazil.
    Jurjevic, Z.
    EMSL Analyt Inc, 200 Route 130 North, Cinnaminson, NJ 08077 USA.
    Kachalkin, A. V.
    Lomonosov Moscow State Univ, RAS, Moscow All Russian Collect Microorganisms, GK Skryabin Inst Biochem & Physiol Microorganisms, Pushchino, Russia.
    Keochanpheng, K.
    Biotechnol & Ecol Inst, Viangchan, Laos.
    Krisai-Greilhuber, I.
    Univ Vienna, Dept Bot & Biodivers Res, Rennweg 14, A-1030 Vienna, Austria.
    Li, Y. -C
    Lima, A. A.
    Univ Fed Rio Grande do Norte, Programa Posgrad Sistemat & Evolucao, Natal, RN, Brazil.
    Machado, A. R.
    Univ Fed Pernambuco, Dept Micol Prof Chaves Batista, Recife, PE, Brazil.
    Madrid, H.
    Univ Mayor, Fac Ciencias, Ctr Genom & Bioinformat, Camino Piramide 5750, Santiago, Chile.
    Magalhaes, O. M. C.
    Univ Fed Pernambuco, Dept Micol Prof Chaves Batista, Recife, PE, Brazil.
    Marbach, P. A. S.
    Reconcavo Bahia Fed Univ, Itabuna, BA, Brazil.
    Melanda, G. C. S.
    Field Museum, Dept Bot, 1400 South Lake Shore Dr, Chicago, IL 60605 USA.
    Miller, A. N.
    Univ Illinois, Illinois Nat Hist Survey, 1816 South Oak St, Champaign, IL 61820 USA.
    Mongkolsamrit, S.
    Natl Ctr Genet Engn & Biotechnol BIOTEC, Microbe Interact & Ecol Lab, 113 Thailand Sci Pk,Phahonyothin Rd, Khlong Luang 12120, Pathum Thani, Thailand.
    Nascimento, R. P.
    Rio De Janeiro Fed Univ, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.
    Oliveira, T. G. L.
    Univ Fed Pernambuco, Dept Micol Prof Chaves Batista, Recife, PE, Brazil.
    Ordonez, M. E.
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Ecuador, Escuela Ciencias Biol, Av 12 Octubre 1076 & Roca, Quito, Ecuador.
    Orzes, R.
    Grp Micol Bresadola Belluno, Via Bries 25, I-32021 Agordo, Italy.
    Palma, M. A.
    Serv Agr & Ganadero, Lab Reg Valparaiso, Unidad Fitopatol, Valparaiso 2360451, Chile.
    Pearce, C. J.
    Mycosynthetix Inc, 505 Meadowlands Dr,Suite 103, Hillsborough, NC 27278 USA.
    Pereira, O. L.
    Natl Ctr Genet Engn & Biotechnol BIOTEC, Microbe Interact & Ecol Lab, 113 Thailand Sci Pk,Phahonyothin Rd, Khlong Luang 12120, Pathum Thani, Thailand.
    Perrone, G.
    CNR, Inst Sci Food Prod, Via Amendola 122-O, I-70126 Bari, Italy.
    Peterson, S. W.
    ARS, Mycotoxin Prevent & Appl Microbiol Res Unit, USDA, 1815 North Univ St, Peoria, IL 61604 USA.
    Pham, T. H. G.
    St Petersburg State Forestry Univ, 194021,5U Inst Str, St Petersburg, Russia;Joint Russian Vietnamese Trop Res & Technol Ctr, 194021,5U Inst Str, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Piontelli, E.
    Univ Valparaiso, Facultad Medicina, Prof Emerito Catedra Micol, Hontaneda 2653, Valparaiso 2341369, Chile.
    Pordel, A.
    Univ Tehran, Coll Agr & Nat Resources, Dept Plant Protect, Karaj 3158777871, Iran.
    Quijada, L.
    Harvard Univ, Dept Organism & Evolutionary Biol, Farlow Reference Lib, 22 Divin Ave, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA;Harvard Univ, Herbarium Cryptogam Bot, 22 Divin Ave, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA.
    Raja, H. A.
    Univ N Carolina, Dept Chem & Biochem, 435 Sullivan Sci Bldg,POB 26170, Greensboro, NC 27402 USA.
    de Paz, E. Rosas
    URV, Med Sch, Mycol Unit, St Llorenc 21, Tarragona, Spain;URV, IISPV, St Llorenc 21, Tarragona, Spain;IPN, ENCB, Microbiol Dept, Lab Med Bacteriol, Prolongac Manuel Carpio & Plan Ayala S-N, Ciudad De Mexico 11350, DF, Mexico.
    Ryvarden, L.
    Univ Oslo, Dept Bot, POB 1045, N-0316 Oslo, Norway.
    Saitta, A.
    Univ Palermo, Dept Agr Food & Forest Sci, Viale Sci, I-90128 Palermo, Italy.
    Salcedo, S. S.
    Univ Fed Vicosa, Dept Fitopatol, BR-36570900 Vicosa, MG, Brazil.
    Sandoval-Denis, M.
    Westerdijk Fungal Biodivers Inst, POB 85167, NL-3508 AD Utrecht, Netherlands;Univ Free State, Dept Plant Sci, Fac Nat & Agr Sci, POB 339, ZA-9300 Bloemfontein, South Africa.
    Santos, T. A. B.
    Univ Estadual Feira de Santana, Av Transnordestina S-N Novo Horizonte, BR-44036900 Feira De Santana, BA, Brazil.
    Seifert, K. A.
    Agr & Agri Food Canada, Biodivers Mycol, Ottawa, ON K1A 0C6, Canada;Univ Ottawa, Dept Biol, 30 Marie Curie, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5, Canada.
    Silva, B. D. B.
    Univ Fed Bahia Salvador, Inst Biol, Salvador, BA, Brazil.
    Smith, M. E.
    Dept Plant Pathol, 2527 Fifield Hall, Gainesville, FL 32611 USA;Florida Museum Nat Hist, 2527 Fifield Hall, Gainesville, FL 32611 USA.
    Soares, A. M.
    Univ Fed Pernambuco, Dept Micol, Ave Engn S-N Cidade Univ, Recife, PE, Brazil.
    Sommai, S.
    Natl Ctr Genet Engn & Biotechnol BIOTEC, Microbe Interact & Ecol Lab, 113 Thailand Sci Pk,Phahonyothin Rd, Khlong Luang 12120, Pathum Thani, Thailand.</