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  • 201.
    Sundh, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. joakim.sundh@psyk.uu.se.
    Cognitive Strategies When Integrating Mutually Dependent Probabilities2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores human cognitive processes in conjunctive and disjunctive probability integration. It examines both independent probabilities and probabilities sharing a simple dependence structure created from interconnectivity, i.e. from mutual interaction in a shared environment. Participants deferred to a mean heuristic when the dependence structure was strong enough to make this a valid approximation and to exemplar memory in other cases. Qualitative insight in the underlying dependence structure was typically low, though there were a small number of participants who attempted use of truncated multiplicative strategies consistent with probability theory and who, consequently, reached a partial insight in the nature of the dependence structure. This implies that although people are in most cases either unable or disinclined to use probability theory when integrating probabilities they are still quite adept at finding adaptive strategies for the task at hand. The main drawback of these strategies is that they will lead to errors and bias if the context changes, however they are likely to outperform naïve application of probability theory in environments where interconnectivity and mutual dependence is the norm.

  • 202.
    Sundh, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Compound risk judgment in tasks with both idiosyncratic and systematic risk: The “robust beauty” of additive probability integration2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 203.
    Sundh, Joakim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Juslin, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Cognitive Strategies when Integrating Mutually Dependent Probabilities2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores human cognitive processes in conjunctive and disjunctive probability integration. It examines both independent probabilities and probabilities sharing a simple dependence structure created from interconnectivity, i.e. from mutual interaction in a shared environment. Participants deferred to a mean heuristic when the dependence structure was strong enough to make this a valid approximation and to exemplar memory in other cases. Qualitative insight in the underlying dependence structure was typically low, though there were a small number of participants who attempted use of truncated multiplicative strategies consistent with probability theory and who, consequently, reached a partial insight in the nature of the dependence structure. This implies that although people are in most cases either unable or disinclined to use probability theory when integrating probabilities they are still quite adept at finding adaptive strategies for the task at hand. The main drawback of these strategies is that they will lead to errors and bias if the context changes, however they are likely to outperform naïve application of probability theory in environments where interconnectivity and mutual dependence is the norm.

  • 204.
    Sundh, Joakim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Juslin, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Compound risk judgment in tasks with both idiosyncratic and systematic risk: The “Robust Beauty” of additive probability integration2018In: Cognition, ISSN 0010-0277, E-ISSN 1873-7838, Vol. 171, p. 25-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we explore how people integrate risks of assets in a simulated financial market into a judgment of the conjunctive risk that all assets decrease in value, both when assets are independent and when there is a systematic risk present affecting all assets. Simulations indicate that while mental calculation according to naïve application of probability theory is best when the assets are independent, additive or exemplar-based algorithms perform better when systematic risk is high. Considering that people tend to intuitively approach compound probability tasks using additive heuristics, we expected the participants to find it easiest to master tasks with high systematic risk – the most complex tasks from the standpoint of probability theory – while they should shift to probability theory or exemplar memory with independence between the assets. The results from 3 experiments confirm that participants shift between strategies depending on the task, starting off with the default of additive integration. In contrast to results in similar multiple cue judgment tasks, there is little evidence for use of exemplar memory. The additive heuristics also appear to be surprisingly context-sensitive, with limited generalization across formally very similar tasks.

  • 205.
    Thibault, Louis
    et al.
    Université Paris Descartes.
    Van den Berg, Ronald
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Cavanagh, Patrick
    Université Paris Descartes.
    Claire, Sergent
    Université Paris Descartes.
    Retrospective Attention Gates Discrete Conscious Access to Past Sensory Stimuli2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 2, article id e0148504Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cueing attention after the disappearance of visual stimuli biases which items will be remembered best. This observation has historically been attributed to the influence of attention on memory as opposed to subjective visual experience. We recently challenged this view by showing that cueing attention after the stimulus can improve the perception of a single Gabor patch at threshold levels of contrast. Here, we test whether this retro-perception actually increases one's chance of consciously perceiving the stimulus, or simply allows for a more precise recall of its features. We used retro-cues in an orientation-matching task and performed mixture-model analysis to independently estimate the proportion of guesses and the precision of non-guess responses. We find that the improvements in performance conferred by retrospective attention are overwhelmingly carried by a reduction in the proportion of guesses, providing strong evidence that attracting attention to the target’s location after its disappearance increases the likelihood of perceiving it consciously.

  • 206.
    Thibault, Louis
    et al.
    Université Paris Descartes.
    Van den Berg, Ronald
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Cavanagh, Patrick
    Université Paris Descartes.
    Sergent, Claire
    Université Paris Descartes.
    Retrospective Attention Gates Discrete Conscious Access to Past Sensory Stimuli2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 2, article id e0148504Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cueing attention after the disappearance of visual stimuli biases which items will be remembered best. This observation has historically been attributed to the influence of attention on memory as opposed to subjective visual experience. We recently challenged this view by showing that cueing attention after the stimulus can improve the perception of a single Gabor patch at threshold levels of contrast. Here, we test whether this retro-perception actually increases the frequency of consciously perceiving the stimulus, or simply allows for a more precise recall of its features. We used retro-cues in an orientation-matching task and performed mixture-model analysis to independently estimate the proportion of guesses and the precision of non-guess responses. We find that the improvements in performance conferred by retrospective attention are overwhelmingly determined by a reduction in the proportion of guesses, providing strong evidence that attracting attention to the target’s location after its disappearance increases the likelihood of perceiving it consciously.

  • 207.
    Thorgrimsson, Gudmundur
    et al.
    Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics.
    Fawcett, Christine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Liszkowski, Ulf
    Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics.
    Infants’ expectations about third-party verbal exchangesIn: Infancy, ISSN 1525-0008, E-ISSN 1532-7078Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 208.
    Thorsell Cederberg, Jenny
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Neuropediatrics/Paediatric oncology.
    Weineland, Sandra
    Primary Hlth Care, Res & Dev Ctr, Region Vastra Gotaland, Sweden;Univ Gothenburg, Dept Psychol, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Dahl, JoAnne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ljungman, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Neuropediatrics/Paediatric oncology.
    A preliminary validation of the Swedish short version of the Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth (AFQ-Y8) for children and adolescents with cancer2018In: Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, ISSN 2212-1447, Vol. 10, p. 103-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychological inflexibility constitutes a generalized vulnerability for psychopathology. Children and adolescents undergoing cancer treatment are faced with numerous physical and psychological stressors throughout their cancer trajectory. Most of the survivors show resilience but some groups report psychological ill-health and poor quality-of-life long-term. Psychological flexibility has been shown to mediate improvements in psychological health for cancer patients. The Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth (AFQ-Y) is the most frequently used measure of psychological inflexibility in children and adolescents. It correlates with a wide range of measures of mental health and long-term functional behavior. The aim of the study was to investigate norm values, psychometric properties and factor structure of the AFQ-Y8 for children and adolescents with cancer. All children and adolescents, aged 7-18 years of age, undergoing cancer treatment in Sweden at the time of the study were invited to participate. Norm values, internal consistency, test-retest reliability and convergent validity were calculated and an exploratory factor analysis was conducted. 62 children participated. The mean of the AFQ-Y8 in the sample was 10.30 (5.75). Internal consistency was acceptable (alpha = 0.76), test-retest reliability was good (ICC = 0.64) and convergent validity was demonstrated (r = 0.42). Norm values are now available, and the psychometric properties supported, for the AFQ-Y8 for children and adolescents with cancer. This provides implications for the prevention and treatment of psychopathology for this population. However, the one-factor structure of the AFQ-Y8 was not unequivocally supported. The results from the PCA rather suggested a two-factor structure. Due to the small sample of the study, the results should be seen as preliminary and further validation is warranted, specifically with regards to factorial validity and sensitivity to change.

  • 209.
    Thorup, Emilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Uppsala Child & Babylab.
    Joint Attention in Development: Insights from Children with Autism and Infant Siblings2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Compared to other children, children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are known to engage less in joint attention - the sharing of attention between two individuals toward a common object or event. Joint attention behaviors - for example gaze following, alternating gaze, and pointing - play an important role in early development, as they provide a foundation for learning and social interaction. Study I and Study II focused on infant siblings of children with ASD. These infants, often termed high risk (HR) infants, have an increased probability of receiving a later ASD diagnosis. Studying them therefore allows for the detection of early signs of ASD. Live eye tracking was used to investigate different joint attention behaviors at 10 months of age. Study I showed that omitting the head movement that usually accompany experimenters’ eye gaze shifts in similar designs reduced gaze following performance in the HR group, but not in a group of infants at low risk (LR) for ASD. HR infants may thus be less sensitive to eye information, or may need more salient cues in order to follow gaze optimally. Study II focused on the infants’ tendency to initiate joint attention by alternating their gaze between a person and an event. LR infants engaged more in alternating gaze than HR infants, and less alternating gaze in infancy was associated with more ASD symptoms at 18 months. This relation remained when controlling for visual disengagement and general social interest in infancy. Study III explored the role of joint attention later in development, by investigating the microstructure of the looking behaviors of autistic and typically developing children (~6 years old). The results indicated that seeing somebody look at an object influenced the processing of that object less in autistic children than in the typically developing controls. Both groups followed gaze effectively, suggesting that differences in joint attention at this age may be subtle, but detectable with eye tracking technology. Together, the studies contribute to our understanding of the role that joint attention atypicalities play both in the early development of infants at risk for ASD, and later in the development of children with a confirmed diagnosis.

    List of papers
    1. Altered gaze following during live interaction in infants at risk for autism: An eye tracking study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Altered gaze following during live interaction in infants at risk for autism: An eye tracking study
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    2016 (English)In: Molecular Autism, ISSN 2040-2392, Vol. 7, article id 12Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The ability to follow gaze is an important prerequisite for joint attention, which is often compromised in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The direction of both the head and eyes provides cues to other people's attention direction, but previous studies have not separated these factors and their relation to ASD susceptibility. Development of gaze following typically occurs before ASD diagnosis is possible, and studies of high-risk populations are therefore important. Methods: Eye tracking was used to assess gaze following during interaction in a group of 10-month-old infants at high familial risk for ASD (high-risk group) as well as a group of infants with no family history of ASD (low-risk group). The infants watched an experimenter gaze at objects in the periphery. Performance was compared across two conditions: one in which the experimenter moved both the eyes and head toward the objects (Eyes and Head condition) and one that involved movement of the eyes only (Eyes Only condition). Results: A group by condition interaction effect was found. Specifically, whereas gaze following accuracy was comparable across the two conditions in the low-risk group, infants in the high-risk group were more likely to follow gaze in the Eyes and Head condition than in the Eyes Only condition. Conclusions: In an ecologically valid social situation, responses to basic non-verbal orienting cues were found to be altered in infants at risk for ASD. The results indicate that infants at risk for ASD may rely disproportionally on information from the head when following gaze and point to the importance of separating information from the eyes and the head when studying social perception in ASD.

    Keywords
    Autism; Gaze following; Joint attention; Early development; Neurodevelopmental disorders; Social cognition; Communication; Younger siblings
    National Category
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-275580 (URN)10.1186/s13229-016-0069-9 (DOI)000368885200001 ()26819699 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 259-2012-24Swedish Research Council, 2015-03670Swedish Research Council, 523-2009-7054Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P12-0270:1Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, NHS14-1802:1EU, European Research Council, 312292
    Available from: 2016-02-04 Created: 2016-02-04 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
    2. Reduced alternating gaze during social interaction in infancy is associated with elevated symptoms of autism in toddlerhood
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reduced alternating gaze during social interaction in infancy is associated with elevated symptoms of autism in toddlerhood
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    2018 (English)In: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, ISSN 0091-0627, E-ISSN 1573-2835, Vol. 46, no 7, p. 1547-1561Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In typical development, infants often alternate their gaze between their interaction partners and interesting stimuli, increasing the probability of joint attention toward surrounding objects and creating opportunities for communication and learning. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have been found to engage less in behaviors that can initiate joint attention compared to typically developing children, but the role of such atypicalities in the development of ASD during infancy is not fully understood. Here, using eye tracking technology in a live setting, we show that 10-month-olds at high familial risk for ASD engage less in alternating gaze during interaction with an adult compared to low risk infants. These differences could not be explained by low general social preference or slow visual disengagement, as the groups performed similarly in these respects. We also found that less alternating gaze at 10 months was associated with more ASD symptoms and less showing and pointing at 18 months. These relations were similar in both the high risk and the low risk groups, and remained when controlling for general social preference and disengagement latencies. This study shows that atypicalities in alternating gaze in infants at high risk for ASD emerge already during the first 10 months of life - a finding with theoretical as well as potential practical implications.

    National Category
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-327116 (URN)10.1007/s10802-017-0388-0 (DOI)000443697800014 ()29527625 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 2015-03670Swedish Research Council, 523-2009-7054Swedish Research Council FormasVINNOVA, 259-2012-24EU, European Research Council, StG: CACTUS 312292Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P12-0270:1Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, NHS14-1802:1
    Available from: 2017-08-03 Created: 2017-08-03 Last updated: 2018-10-29Bibliographically approved
    3. Gaze Following in Children with Autism: Do High Interest Objects Boost Performance?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gaze Following in Children with Autism: Do High Interest Objects Boost Performance?
    2017 (English)In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 626-635Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This study tested whether including objects perceived as highly interesting by children with autism during a gaze following task would result in increased first fixation durations on the target objects. It has previously been found that autistic children differentiate less between an object another person attends to and unattended objects in terms of this measure.  Less differentiation between attended and unattended objects in ASD as compared to control children was found in a baseline condition, but not in the high interest condition. However, typically developing children differentiated less between attended and unattended objects in the high interest condition than in the baseline condition, possibly reflecting reduced influence of gaze cues on object processing when objects themselves are highly interesting.

    Keywords
    Gaze following, Joint attention, Circumscribed interests, Communication, Social cognition
    National Category
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-313736 (URN)10.1007/s10803-016-2955-6 (DOI)000396815400011 ()27987062 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 2015-03670Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, NHS14-1802:1The Karolinska Institutet's Research Foundation
    Available from: 2017-01-23 Created: 2017-01-23 Last updated: 2017-08-05Bibliographically approved
  • 210.
    Tillman, Carin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Brocki, Karin C
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sørensen, Lin
    Lundervold, Astri J
    A Longitudinal Examination of the Developmental Executive Function Hierarchy in Children With Externalizing Behavior Problems2015In: Journal of Attention Disorders, ISSN 1087-0547, E-ISSN 1557-1246, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 496-506Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Using a 4-year longitudinal design, we evaluated two hypotheses based on developmental executive function (EF) hierarchy accounts in a sample of children with externalizing problems. Method: The participants performed EF tasks when they were between 8 and 12 years (M = 9.93), and again approximately 4 years later when they were between 12 and 15 years (M = 13.36). Results: Inhibition in middle childhood predicted working memory (WM) 4 years later. Further, deficits in inhibition and sustained attention were more prominent in middle rather than late childhood, whereas poor WM was salient throughout these periods. Conclusions: These findings support the hypotheses that EFs develop hierarchically and that EF deficits in ADHD are more prominent in actively developing EFs. They also emphasize ADHD as a developmental disorder.

  • 211.
    Tillman, Carin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Granvald, Viktor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Role of Parental Education in the Relation Between ADHD Symptoms and Executive Functions in Children2015In: Journal of Attention Disorders, ISSN 1087-0547, E-ISSN 1557-1246, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 542-548Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Using a population-based sample of 9-year-old children, this study examined whether the relation between symptoms of ADHD and executive functions (EFs) depended on socioeconomic status (SES; indexed by parental education). Method: Parents and teachers rated the children's ADHD symptoms, and parents also indicated their educational level in a questionnaire. The children performed a comprehensive set of EF tasks. Results: Whereas working memory was similarly related to ADHD symptoms in the lower and higher parental education group, the relations of inhibition and mental set-shifting with ADHD symptoms were generally stronger in the higher educational group, a pattern that was supported by several significant group differences in correlations. Conclusion: This suggests that the EF pathway in contemporary multiple pathway models of ADHD etiology may be particularly relevant in higher SES parts of the population.

  • 212.
    Torbjörnsson, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Does ESD support or oppose change in the fundamental socioenvironmental values of pupils?2010In: / [ed] Leif Östman, Tungalag Baljir, Ulanbaatar: Mongolian State University of Education, Uppsala University , 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Educational policy documents from global to national and local levels give priority to learning how to achieve sustainable development. “Few issues are so important but so elusive as sustainable development, and there can be very few such issues indeed where the role of learning is so crucially important to our future.”(Scott & Gough, 2004, s. xi). A need of change in human values is often expressed as a prerequisite for sustainable development.  How ESD can support this change, without yielding to manipulation and indoctrination, is one of the current main issues.  How do you as a teacher balance on the edge between “knowing what is right and knowing that it´s wrong to tell others what is right” ?(Wals, 2010)           There are abundant suggestions about which values that have to be changed in order to achieve sustainable development.  I choose to presuppose the fundamental values underlying The Millennium Declaration of the UN. They are freedom, equality, solidarity, tolerance, respect for nature and shared responsibility (UN, 2000). Despite their importance not very much is known about how these values help or hinder sustainable development (Leiserowitz, Kates, & Paris, 2006). Studies from many different countries show that students´ primary concern is globally environmental problems. Less is  known about how this concern is related to other issues that the students find important (Rickinson, 2001) and how the values mentioned above are correlated to each other.

    An individual can express values through actions and attitudes. Focus in my research is on how the fundamental values, underlying sustainable development, are expressed in attitudes and how these are combined and distributed among Swedish pupils in upper secondary school. A questionnaire (n=917) with 27 statements, concerning attitudes towards nature and towards fellow human beings is so far the empirical body. I use five-grade Likert items[i] aggregated into four groups, each of them summing up to a Likert scale[ii] measuring different aspects of one value. The four values are; biocentrism, anthropocentrism (two different aspects of respect for nature) equality and solidarity and are consequently connected to the underlying values in The Millennium Declaration of the UN. I use Bogner and Wiseman´s (2003)Model of Ecological Values to measure  respect for nature and have constructed a new scale, Model of Social Values,  for the purpose of measuring solidarity and equality.

    Preliminary results show a significant correlation between a strong willingness to preserve nature and to show solidarity with a wide in-group of others. There is also a significant correlation between strong utilization attitudes towards nature and to show solidarity with a narrower in-group and also between strong utilization attitudes and to accept unequal distribution of resources.  These findings mainly confirm results from earlier research. People high in empathy tend to be low in materialistic values and high in intrinsic values and more negative environmental attitudes are often associated with less concern for social justice and equality(Crompton & Kasser, 2009).

    My all-embracing research question is to analyze how pupils today understand how learning processes in elementary school have supported or opposed their own socioenvironmental values. To do that I need to carry out qualitative interviews with individuals representing the main categories in my survey. In those interviews one aim is to catch the essence of how pupils interpret their teachers’ ability to balance on the edge between telling what is right and supporting diversity and pluralism. 

    [i] The respondent mark the level of agreement from 1= strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree

    [ii] A summated scale of several items which together measure one dimension

  • 213.
    Truedsson, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fawcett, Christine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wesevich, Victoria
    Yale Sch Med, Dept Obstet Gynecol & Reprod Sci, New Haven, CT USA.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wåhlstedt, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Role of Callous-Unemotional Traits on Adolescent Positive and Negative Emotional Reactivity: A Longitudinal Community-Based Study2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 573Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Callous-unemotional (CU) traits are associated with lower emotional reactivity in adolescents. However, since previous studies have focused mainly on reactivity to negative stimuli, it is unclear whether reactivity to positive stimuli is also affected. Further, few studies have addressed the link between CU traits and emotional reactivity in longitudinal community samples, which is important for determining its generalizability and developmental course. In the current study, pupil dilation and self-ratings of arousal and valence were assessed in 100 adolescents (15-17 years) from a community sample, while viewing images with negative and positive valence from the International Affective Pictures System (ZAPS). Behavioral traits (CU) were assessed concurrently, as well as at ages 12-15, and 8-9 (subsample, n = 68, low levels of prosocial behavior were used as a proxy for CU traits). The results demonstrate that CU traits assessed at ages 12-15 and 8-9 predicted less pupil dilation to both positive and negative images at ages 15-17. Further, CU traits at ages 12-15 and concurrently were associated with less negative valence ratings for negative images and concurrently to less positive valence ratings for positive images. The current findings demonstrate that CU traits are related to lower emotional reactivity to both negative and positive stimuli in adolescents from a community sample.

  • 214.
    Tuncgenc, Bahar
    et al.
    University of Oxford.
    Cohen, Emma
    University of Oxford.
    Fawcett, Christine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rock with me: The role of movement synchrony in infants’ social and non-social choices2015In: Child Development, ISSN 0009-3920, E-ISSN 1467-8624Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 215.
    Van den Berg, Ronald
    et al.
    Cambridge University.
    Anandalingam, Kavi
    Cambridge University.
    Zylberberg, Ariel
    Columbia University.
    Kiani, Roozbeh
    New York University.
    Shadlen, Michael
    Columbia University.
    Wolpert, Daniel
    Cambridge University.
    A common mechanism underlies changes of mind about decisions and confidence2016In: eLIFE, E-ISSN 2050-084XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decisions are accompanied by a degree of confidence that a selected option is correct. A sequential sampling framework explains the speed and accuracy of decisions and extends naturally to the confidence that the decision rendered is likely to be correct. However, discrepancies between confidence and accuracy suggest that confidence might be supported by mechanisms dissociated from the decision process. Here we show that this discrepancy can arise naturally because of simple processing delays. When participants were asked to report choice and confidence simultaneously, their confidence, reaction time and a perceptual decision about motion were explained by bounded evidence accumulation. However, we also observed revisions of the initial choice and/or confidence. These changes of mind were explained by a continuation of the mechanism that led to the initial choice. Our findings extend the sequential sampling framework to vacillation about confidence and invites caution in interpreting dissociations between confidence and accuracy.

  • 216.
    van den Berg, Ronald
    et al.
    University of Cambridge; Baylor College of Medicine.
    Awh, Edward
    Ma, Wei Ji
    Factorial comparison of working memory models2014In: Psychological review, ISSN 0033-295X, E-ISSN 1939-1471, Vol. 121, no 1, p. 124-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three questions have been prominent in the study of visual working memory limitations: (a) What is the nature of mnemonic precision (e.g., quantized or continuous)? (b) How many items are remembered? (c) To what extent do spatial binding errors account for working memory failures? Modeling studies have typically focused on comparing possible answers to a single one of these questions, even though the result of such a comparison might depend on the assumed answers to both others. Here, we consider every possible combination of previously proposed answers to the individual questions. Each model is then a point in a 3-factor model space containing a total of 32 models, of which only 6 have been tested previously. We compare all models on data from 10 delayed-estimation experiments from 6 laboratories (for a total of 164 subjects and 131,452 trials). Consistently across experiments, we find that (a) mnemonic precision is not quantized but continuous and not equal but variable across items and trials; (b) the number of remembered items is likely to be variable across trials, with a mean of 6.4 in the best model (median across subjects); (c) spatial binding errors occur but explain only a small fraction of responses (16.5% at set size 8 in the best model). We find strong evidence against all 6 documented models. Our results demonstrate the value of factorial model comparison in working memory.

  • 217.
    Van den Berg, Ronald
    et al.
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Lab Expt Ophthalmol, Inst Math & Comp Sci, NL-9713 AW Groningen, Netherlands.
    Cornelissen, Frans W.
    Laboratory for Experimental Ophthalmology, School of Behavioral and Cognitive Neurosciences, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Roerdink, Jos B. T. M.
    Institute of Mathematics and Computing Science and School of Behavioral and Cognitive Neurosciences, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.
    A crowding model of visual clutter2009In: Journal of Vision, ISSN 1534-7362, E-ISSN 1534-7362, Vol. 9, no 4, article id 24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Visual information is difficult to search and interpret when the density of the displayed information is high or the layout is chaotic. Visual information that exhibits such properties is generally referred to as being "cluttered." Clutter should be avoided in information visualizations and interface design in general because it can severely degrade task performance. Although previous studies have identified computable correlates of clutter (such as local feature variance and edge density), understanding of why humans perceive some scenes as being more cluttered than others remains limited. Here, we explore an account of clutter that is inspired by findings from visual perception studies. Specifically, we test the hypothesis that the so-called "crowding" phenomenon is an important constituent of clutter. We constructed an algorithm to predict visual clutter in arbitrary images by estimating the perceptual impairment due to crowding. After verifying that this model can reproduce crowding data we tested whether it can also predict clutter. We found that its predictions correlate well with both subjective clutter assessments and search performance in cluttered scenes. These results suggest that crowding and clutter may indeed be closely related concepts and suggest avenues for further research.

  • 218.
    Van den Berg, Ronald
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Cornelissen, FW
    Roerdink, JBTM
    Perceptual dependencies in information visualization assessed by complex visual search2008In: ACM Transactions on Applied Perception, ISSN 1544-3558, E-ISSN 1544-3965Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A common approach for visualizing data sets is to map them to images in which distinct data dimensions are mapped to distinct visual features, such as color, size and orientation. Here, we consider visualizations in which different data dimensions should receive equal weight and attention. Many of the end-user tasks performed on these images involve a form of visual search. Often, it is simply assumed that features can be judged independently of each other in such tasks. However, there is evidence for perceptual dependencies when simultaneously presenting multiple features. Such dependencies could potentially affect information visualizations that contain combinations of features for encoding information and, thereby, bias subjects into unequally weighting the relevance of different data dimensions. We experimentally assess (1) the presence of judgment dependencies in a visualization task (searching for a target node in a node-link diagram) and (2) how feature contrast relates to salience. From a visualization point of view, our most relevant findings are that (a) to equalize saliency (and thus bottom-up weighting) of size and color, color contrasts have to become very low. Moreover, orientation is less suitable for representing information that consists of a large range of data values, because it does not show a clear relationship between contrast and salience; (b) color and size are features that can be used independently to represent information, at least as far as the range of colors that were used in our study are concerned; (c) the concept of (static) feature salience hierarchies is wrong; how salient a feature is compared to another is not fixed, but a function of feature contrasts; (d) final decisions appear to be as good an indicator of perceptual performance as indicators based on measures obtained from individual fixations. Eye tracking, therefore, does not necessarily present a benefit for user studies that aim at evaluating performance in search tasks.

  • 219.
    Van den Berg, Ronald
    et al.
    Baylor Coll Med, Dept Neurosci, Houston, TX 77030 USA; Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Lab Expt Ophthalmol, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Johnson, Addie
    Univ Groningen, Dept Psychol, NL-9712 TS Groningen, Netherlands.
    Martinez Anton, Angela
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Lab Expt Ophthalmol, Groningen, Netherlands; Univ Groningen, Dept Psychol, NL-9712 TS Groningen, Netherlands.
    Schepers, Anne L.
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Lab Expt Ophthalmol, Groningen, Netherlands; Univ Groningen, Dept Psychol, NL-9712 TS Groningen, Netherlands.
    Cornelissen, Frans W.
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Lab Expt Ophthalmol, Groningen, Netherlands; Univ Groningen, Dept Psychol, NL-9712 TS Groningen, Netherlands.
    Comparing crowding in human and ideal observers2012In: Journal of Vision, ISSN 1534-7362, E-ISSN 1534-7362, Vol. 12, no 6, article id 13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A visual target is more difficult to recognize when it is surrounded by other, similar objects. This breakdown in object recognition is known as crowding. Despite a long history of experimental work, computational models of crowding are still sparse. Specifically, few studies have examined crowding using an ideal-observer approach. Here, we compare crowding in ideal observers with crowding in humans. We derived an ideal-observer model for target identification under conditions of position and identity uncertainty. Simulations showed that this model reproduces the hallmark of crowding, namely a critical spacing that scales with viewing eccentricity. To examine how well the model fits quantitatively to human data, we performed three experiments. In Experiments 1 and 2, we measured observers' perceptual uncertainty about stimulus positions and identities, respectively, for a target in isolation. In Experiment 3, observers identified a target that was flanked by two distractors. We found that about half of the errors in Experiment 3 could be accounted for by the perceptual uncertainty measured in Experiments 1 and 2. The remainder of the errors could be accounted for by assuming that uncertainty (i.e., the width of internal noise distribution) about stimulus positions and identities depends on flanker proximity. Our results provide a mathematical restatement of the crowding problem and support the hypothesis that crowding behavior is a sign of optimality rather than a perceptual defect.

  • 220. van den Berg, Ronald
    et al.
    Ma, Wei Ji
    "Plateau"-related summary statistics are uninformative for comparing working memory models.2014In: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, ISSN 1943-3921, E-ISSN 1943-393X, Vol. 76, no 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Performance on visual working memory tasks decreases as more items need to be remembered. Over the past decade, a debate has unfolded between proponents of slot models and slotless models of this phenomenon (Ma, Husain, Bays (Nature Neuroscience 17, 347-356, 2014). Zhang and Luck (Nature 453, (7192), 233-235, 2008) and Anderson, Vogel, and Awh (Attention, Perception, Psychophys 74, (5), 891-910, 2011) noticed that as more items need to be remembered, "memory noise" seems to first increase and then reach a "stable plateau." They argued that three summary statistics characterizing this plateau are consistent with slot models, but not with slotless models. Here, we assess the validity of their methods. We generated synthetic data both from a leading slot model and from a recent slotless model and quantified model evidence using log Bayes factors. We found that the summary statistics provided at most 0.15 % of the expected model evidence in the raw data. In a model recovery analysis, a total of more than a million trials were required to achieve 99 % correct recovery when models were compared on the basis of summary statistics, whereas fewer than 1,000 trials were sufficient when raw data were used. Therefore, at realistic numbers of trials, plateau-related summary statistics are highly unreliable for model comparison. Applying the same analyses to subject data from Anderson et al. (Attention, Perception, Psychophys 74, (5), 891-910, 2011), we found that the evidence in the summary statistics was at most 0.12 % of the evidence in the raw data and far too weak to warrant any conclusions. The evidence in the raw data, in fact, strongly favored the slotless model. These findings call into question claims about working memory that are based on summary statistics.

  • 221.
    Van den Berg, Ronald
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ma, Wei Ji
    Robust averaging during perceptual judgment is not optimal.2012In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 109, no 13Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 222.
    Van den Berg, Ronald
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ma, WJ
    "Plateau"-related summary statistics are uninformative for comparing working memory models.2014In: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, ISSN 1943-3921, E-ISSN 1943-393XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Performance on visual working memory tasks decreases as more items need to be remembered. Over the past decade, a debate has unfolded between proponents of slot models and slotless models of this phenomenon (Ma, Husain, Bays (Nature Neuroscience 17, 347-356, 2014). Zhang and Luck (Nature 453, (7192), 233-235, 2008) and Anderson, Vogel, and Awh (Attention, Perception, Psychophys 74, (5), 891-910, 2011) noticed that as more items need to be remembered, "memory noise" seems to first increase and then reach a "stable plateau." They argued that three summary statistics characterizing this plateau are consistent with slot models, but not with slotless models. Here, we assess the validity of their methods. We generated synthetic data both from a leading slot model and from a recent slotless model and quantified model evidence using log Bayes factors. We found that the summary statistics provided at most 0.15 % of the expected model evidence in the raw data. In a model recovery analysis, a total of more than a million trials were required to achieve 99 % correct recovery when models were compared on the basis of summary statistics, whereas fewer than 1,000 trials were sufficient when raw data were used. Therefore, at realistic numbers of trials, plateau-related summary statistics are highly unreliable for model comparison. Applying the same analyses to subject data from Anderson et al. (Attention, Perception, Psychophys 74, (5), 891-910, 2011), we found that the evidence in the summary statistics was at most 0.12 % of the evidence in the raw data and far too weak to warrant any conclusions. The evidence in the raw data, in fact, strongly favored the slotless model. These findings call into question claims about working memory that are based on summary statistics.

  • 223.
    Van den Berg, Ronald
    et al.
    Univ Groningen, Inst Math & Comp Sci, Groningen, Netherlands; Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Lab Expt Ophthalmol, Groningen, Netherlands; Univ Groningen, Sch Behav & Cognit Neurosci, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Roerdink, Jos B. T. M.
    Univ Groningen, Inst Math & Comp Sci, Groningen, Netherlands; .
    Cornelissen, Frans W.
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Lab Expt Ophthalmol, Groningen, Netherlands; Univ Groningen, Sch Behav & Cognit Neurosci, Groningen, Netherlands.
    A neurophysiologically plausible population code model for feature integration explains visual crowding2010In: PloS Computational Biology, ISSN 1553-734X, E-ISSN 1553-7358, Vol. 6, no 1, article id e1000646Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An object in the peripheral visual field is more difficult to recognize when surrounded by other objects. This phenomenon is called "crowding". Crowding places a fundamental constraint on human vision that limits performance on numerous tasks. It has been suggested that crowding results from spatial feature integration necessary for object recognition. However, in the absence of convincing models, this theory has remained controversial. Here, we present a quantitative and physiologically plausible model for spatial integration of orientation signals, based on the principles of population coding. Using simulations, we demonstrate that this model coherently accounts for fundamental properties of crowding, including critical spacing, "compulsory averaging", and a foveal-peripheral anisotropy. Moreover, we show that the model predicts increased responses to correlated visual stimuli. Altogether, these results suggest that crowding has little immediate bearing on object recognition but is a by-product of a general, elementary integration mechanism in early vision aimed at improving signal quality.

  • 224.
    Van den Berg, Ronald
    et al.
    Department of Mathematics and Computing Science and School of Behavioral and Cognitive Neurosciences, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands..
    Roerdink, Jos B. T. M.
    Department of Mathematics and Computing Science and School of Behavioral and Cognitive Neurosciences, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands..
    Cornelissen, Frans W.
    Department of Mathematics and Computing Science and School of Behavioral and Cognitive Neurosciences, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands..
    On the generality of crowding: visual crowding in size, saturation, and hue compared to orientation2007In: Journal of Vision, ISSN 1534-7362, E-ISSN 1534-7362, Vol. 7, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perception of peripherally viewed shapes is impaired when surrounded by similar shapes. This phenomenon is commonly referred to as "crowding". Although studied extensively for perception of characters (mainly letters) and, to a lesser extent, for orientation, little is known about whether and how crowding affects perception of other features. Nevertheless, current crowding models suggest that the effect should be rather general and thus not restricted to letters and orientation. Here, we report on a series of experiments investigating crowding in the following elementary feature dimensions: size, hue, and saturation. Crowding effects in these dimensions were benchmarked against those in the orientation domain. Our primary finding is that all features studied show clear signs of crowding. First, identification thresholds increase with decreasing mask spacing. Second, for all tested features, critical spacing appears to be roughly half the viewing eccentricity and independent of stimulus size, a property previously proposed as the hallmark of crowding. Interestingly, although critical spacings are highly comparable, crowding magnitude differs across features: Size crowding is almost as strong as orientation crowding, whereas the effect is much weaker for saturation and hue. We suggest that future theories and models of crowding should be able to accommodate these differences in crowding effects.

  • 225.
    Van den Berg, Ronald
    et al.
    Baylor Coll Med, Dept Neurosci, Houston, TX 77030 USA.
    Shin, Hongsup
    Baylor Coll Med, Dept Neurosci, Houston, TX 77030 USA.
    Chou, Wen-Chuang
    Baylor Coll Med, Dept Neurosci, Houston, TX 77030 USA.
    George, Ryan
    Baylor Coll Med, Dept Neurosci, Houston, TX 77030 USA; Rice Univ, Dept Computat & Appl Math, Houston, TX 77005 USA.
    Ma, Wei Ji
    Baylor Coll Med, Dept Neurosci, Houston, TX 77030 USA.
    Variability in encoding precision accounts for visual short-term memory limitations2012In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 109, no 22, p. 8780-8785Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is commonly believed that visual short-term memory (VSTM) consists of a fixed number of "slots" in which items can be stored. An alternative theory in which memory resource is a continuous quantity distributed over all items seems to be refuted by the appearance of guessing in human responses. Here, we introduce a model in which resource is not only continuous but also variable across items and trials, causing random fluctuations in encoding precision. We tested this model against previous models using two VSTM paradigms and two feature dimensions. Our model accurately accounts for all aspects of the data, including apparent guessing, and outperforms slot models in formal model comparison. At the neural level, variability in precision might correspond to variability in neural population gain and doubly stochastic stimulus representation. Our results suggest that VSTM resource is continuous and variable rather than discrete and fixed and might explain why subjective experience of VSTM is not all or none.

  • 226.
    Van den Berg, Ronald
    et al.
    Baylor Coll Med, Dept Neurosci, Houston, TX 77030 USA.
    Vogel, Michael
    Univ Houston, Dept Math, Houston, TX 77204 USA.
    Josic, Kresimir
    Univ Houston, Dept Math, Houston, TX 77204 USA; Univ Houston, Dept Biol & Biochem, Houston, TX 77204 USA.
    Ma, Wei Ji
    Baylor Coll Med, Dept Neurosci, Houston, TX 77030 USA.
    Optimal inference of sameness2012In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 109, no 8, p. 3178-3183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deciding whether a set of objects are the same or different is a cornerstone of perception and cognition. Surprisingly, no principled quantitative model of sameness judgment exists. We tested whether human sameness judgment under sensory noise can be modeled as a form of probabilistically optimal inference. An optimal observer would compare the reliability-weighted variance of the sensory measurements with a set size-dependent criterion. We conducted two experiments, in which we varied set size and individual stimulus reliabilities. We found that the optimal-observer model accurately describes human behavior, outperforms plausible alternatives in a rigorous model comparison, and accounts for three key findings in the animal cognition literature. Our results provide a normative footing for the study of sameness judgment and indicate that the notion of perception as near-optimal inference extends to abstract relations.

  • 227.
    Van den Berg, Ronald
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Zylberberg, Ariel
    Department of Neuroscience, Zuckerman Mind Brain Behavior Institute, Kavli Institute of Brain Science, and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA.
    Kiani, Roozbeh
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA.
    Shadlen, Michael N.
    Department of Neuroscience, Zuckerman Mind Brain Behavior Institute, Kavli Institute of Brain Science, and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA.
    Wolpert, Daniel M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Confidence Is the Bridge between Multi-stage Decisions2016In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Demanding tasks often require a series of decisions to reach a goal. Recent progress in perceptual decision-making has served to unite decision accuracy, speed, and confidence in a common framework of bounded evidence accumulation, furnishing a platform for the study of such multi-stage decisions. In many instances, the strategy applied to each decision, such as the speed-accuracy trade-off, ought to depend on the accuracy of the previous decisions. However, as the accuracy of each decision is often unknown to the decision maker, we hypothesized that subjects may carry forward a level of confidence in previous decisions to affect subsequent decisions. Subjects made two perceptual decisions sequentially and were rewarded only if they made both correctly. The speed and accuracy of individual decisions were explained by noisy evidence accumulation to a terminating bound. We found that subjects adjusted their speed-accuracy setting by elevating the termination bound on the second decision in proportion to their confidence in the first. The findings reveal a novel role for confidence and a degree of flexibility, hitherto unknown, in the brain’s ability to rapidly and precisely modify the mechanisms that control the termination of a decision.

  • 228.
    Volgsten, Helena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Obstetrics and Reproductive Health Research. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Jansson, Caroline
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Reproductive biology.
    Skoog Svanberg, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Reproductive Health.
    Darj, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Maternal and Reproductive Health and Migration. Department of Public Health and Nursing, NTNU, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, St Olav’s Hospital, Trondheim, Norway.
    Stavreus-Evers, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Reproductive biology.
    Longitudinal study of emotional experiences, grief and depressive symptoms in women and men after miscarriage2018In: Midwifery, ISSN 0266-6138, E-ISSN 1532-3099, Vol. 64, p. 23-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Although miscarriage is common and affects up to 20 % of pregnant women, little is known about these couples’ short term and long term experiences after miscarriage.The aim of the present study was to study emotional experience, grief and depressive symptoms in women and men,one week and four months after miscarriage. Research design /setting:Women, (n=103), and their male partner (n=78), were recruited at the gynecological clinic after miscarriage. Control women were recruitedfrom the general population.Three validated questionnaires concerning psychological wellbeing and mental health, RIMS, PGS and MADRS-S were answered by the participants one week and four months after the miscarriage. Findings: It was shown that for women, the emotional experiences of miscarriage, grief and depressive symptoms were more pronounced than for their male partners. Grief and depressive symptoms were reduced with time, which was not the case for the emotional experiences of miscarriage. Previous children was favorable for emotional experience while previous miscarriage or infertility treatment made the emotional experience worse. Conclusion: Grief and depressive symptoms is reducedover time while emotional experiences such as isolation, loss of baby and a devastating event persist for longer time than four months. Lack of previous children, previous miscarriageand infertility diagnosis could increase negative emotional experiencesafter miscarriage, this was especially pronounced for grief reaction.The questionnaires could be used both clinically and in research to understand the emotional experiences after miscarriage.

  • 229.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rosander, Kerstin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Development of Sensorimotor Intelligence in Infants2018In: Studying The Perception-Action System As A Model System For Understanding Development / [ed] Plumert, J M, Elsevier, 2018, p. 73-106Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Infancy is the most dynamic part of human development. During this period, all basic sensorimotor and cognitive abilities are established. In this chapter, we will trace some of the important achievements of this development with a focus on how infants achieve predictive control of actions, i.e., how they come to coordinate their behavior with the ongoing events in the world without lagging behind. With the maturation of the brain, new possibilities that have profound effects on cognition open up. Some of them are core abilities, i.e., they function at birth or very early in development. Important examples are the structured perception of objects and surfaces and the control of arm movements. Closely after birth, infants move their arms to the vicinity of objects in front of them demonstrating that they have some control of their arms and indicating that they perceive objects as such. Another example is the rapid onset of smooth-pursuit eye movements during the second month of life and the emerging ability to predict when and where an occluded moving object will reappear. At 4 months of age, out of sight is no longer of mind. The child's sensorimotor system is especially designed to facilitate the extraction of knowledge about the world including other people. In addition, the infant is endowed with motives that ensure that the innate predispositions are transformed into a system of knowledge for guiding actions predictively. By perceiving and acting on the world, infants develop their cognition and through developmental studies; we can learn more about these processes.

  • 230.
    Wallin, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Parling, Thomas
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Cty Council, Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Stockholm, Sweden; Ctr Psychotherapy Educ & Res, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Weineland, Sandra
    Res & Dev Ctr, Primary Hlth Care, Region Vastra Gotaland, Sweden; Univ Gothenburg, Dept Psychol, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Dahl, JoAnne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Acceptance and Commitment Therapy to Promote Value Attainment Among Individuals with Overweight: a Multiple Baseline Evaluation2018In: Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, ISSN 2212-1447, Vol. 10, p. 41-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although overweight is typically associated with lower quality of life, weight loss in itself does not necessarily improve quality of life. Therefore, there is an increase of studies investigating the effect of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) to promote values-based behavior among people with overweight. However, few have evaluated the use of brief self-help interventions with minimal therapist support. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact with regard to value attainment related to health and weight related experiential avoidance as well as the acceptability of a self-help intervention based on ACT with therapist support via telephone. A single subject multiple baseline design with temporal staggering and randomization of treatment onset was used. Participants with overweight or obesity (n = 13, 100% women) with a mean age of 42 (SD = 13.79) were recruited through social media. The intervention consisted of a workbook and weekly telephone support during a 3-week treatment period. Primary and secondary outcome measures were collected daily and before, after and at 3-months follow up. Results indicate that the intervention improved daily ratings of value attainment related to health among seven participants and reduced experiential avoidance among five of the participants. Effect sizes for those who improved were medium to large. Remaining participants did not improve with regard to the primary outcomes. Moreover, results indicate that the intervention was associated with acceptable adherence and treatment satisfaction. Future studies are needed in order to understand more about for what types of clients a brief self-help ACT intervention may be helpful to improve values based behavior.

  • 231.
    Wheeler, Amanda
    et al.
    Griffith Univ, Griffith Hlth Inst, Brisbane, Qld 4111, Australia.;Univ Auckland, Fac Med Hlth Sci, Auckland 1, New Zealand..
    McKenna, Brian
    Australian Catholic Univ, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;North Western Mental Hlth, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Madell, Dominic
    Univ Auckland, Sch Nursing, Mental Hlth Res Ctr, Auckland 1, New Zealand..
    Harrison, Jeff
    Univ Auckland, Sch Pharm, Auckland 1, New Zealand..
    Prebble, Kate
    Univ Auckland, Sch Nursing, Mental Hlth Res Ctr, Auckland 1, New Zealand..
    Larsson, Elin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Dunbar, Lucy
    Waitemata Dist Hlth Board, Clin Res & Resource Ctr, Auckland, New Zealand..
    Nakarada-Kordic, Ivana
    Univ Auckland, Sch Nursing, Mental Hlth Res Ctr, Auckland 1, New Zealand..
    Self-reported health-related quality of life of mental health service users with serious mental illness in New Zealand2015In: JOURNAL OF PRIMARY HEALTH CARE, ISSN 1172-6164, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 117-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Although people with serious mental illness (SMI) have a high prevalence of physical illness, health-related quality of life (HQoL) has not been sufficiently explored. AIM: To explore the self-reported HQoL of mental health service users in New Zealand. METHODS: Responses on the Medical Outcomes Study 36 Item Short Form (SF-36) measure of HQoL from 404 adult mental health service users in a metropolitan district health board area in New Zealand were analysed and compared to a representative sample of the general population. RESULTS: Mental health service users scored significantly lower on all eight domains of the SF-36 than the general population, the largest difference being in the role limitation-emotional domain. DISCUSSION: Being female, younger than 25, obese or overweight, or of New Zealand European/Other ethnicity were associated with poorer functioning on multiple HQoL domains. Future studies should seek to understand the factors contributing to perceptions of HQoL of mental health service users in New Zealand.

  • 232.
    Williams, Carolyn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    “What did you expect?” Refugee Definitions of Integration: Perceptions Shaping Satisfaction2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to examine the relationship between perceptions, expectations and satisfaction among a refugee population and to redefine integration from the refugee perspective. Specifically, with a peace & conflict lens, how refugees view integration and how perceptions of its meaning impact their satisfaction in life will be assessed. The thesis theorizes that, while integration does not determine satisfaction in life, distance between perceptions of integration can lead to expectation dissonance which negatively impacts general life satisfaction. The hypothesis of this study is that, the greater the distance in perceptions, the lower satisfaction in life will be. To test this claim, interviews and surveys are conducted via a qualitative case study approach. Individual refugees report how they define and understand integration, what their expectations are in the country of asylum and how satisfied they are with life in general. With statistical support between the 90%-99% confidence level, findings indicate that a distance in perceptions of integration leads to expectation dissonance which results in low life satisfaction. Results further suggest that refugees believe social aspects of integration are equally or more important than economic aspects, which is contrary to many country of asylum government policies and programming. 

  • 233.
    Williams, Kathryn J. H.
    et al.
    Univ Melbourne, Sch Ecosyst & Forest Sci, Baldwin Spencer Bldg, Parkville, Vic 3010, Australia.
    Lee, Kate E.
    Univ Melbourne, Sch Ecosyst & Forest Sci, Baldwin Spencer Bldg, Parkville, Vic 3010, Australia.
    Hartig, Terry
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Sargent, Leisa D.
    UNSW, UNSW Business Sch, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Williams, Nicholas S. G.
    Univ Melbourne, Sch Ecosyst & Forest Sci, Baldwin Spencer Bldg, Parkville, Vic 3010, Australia.
    Johnson, Katherine A.
    Univ Melbourne, Melbourne Sch Psychol Sci, Parkville, Vic, Australia.
    Conceptualising creativity benefits of nature experience: Attention restoration and mind wandering as complementary processes2018In: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 59, p. 36-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accumulating evidence indicates that time spent in natural environments promotes creativity, but few researchers have considered how this occurs. We evaluate two candidate mechanisms, attention restoration and mind wandering. We compare the accounts in terms of attentional focus, brain network activation, cognitive effects, and the temporal progression of these processes across the stages of creativity. Based on this analysis, we propose that (1) gentle shifts between externally oriented soft fascination and internally oriented mind wandering can occur during nature experience; (2) this provides the basis for mutually reinforcing pathways that enhance attention control following nature experience; and (3) mind wandering might support additional benefits for creativity, including flexibility and new associations of ideas. We propose research to test the proposed pathways, including the conditions under which environments influence creativity, the ebb and flow of attention orientation during environmental experience, and the links between attentional focus, brain network activation and creativity.

  • 234. Woolfenden, Susan
    et al.
    Eapen, Valsamma
    Jalaludin, Bin
    Hayen, Andrew
    Kemp, Lynn
    Dissanyake, Cheryl
    Hendry, Alexandra
    Axelsson, Emma
    Overs, Bronwyn
    Eastwood, John
    \vCrnčec, Rudi
    McKenzie, Anne
    Beasley, Deborah
    Murphy, Elisabeth
    Williams, Katrina
    Prevalence and factors associated with parental concerns about development detected by the Parents’ Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS) at 6-month, 12-month and 18-month well-child checks in a birth cohort2016In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Early identification of developmental vulnerability is vital. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of moderate or high developmental risk on the Parents’ Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS) at 6-month, 12-month and 18-month well-child checks; identify associated risk factors; and examine documentation of the PEDS at well-child checks. Design, participants: A prospective birth cohort of 2025 children with 50% of those approached agreeing to participate. Demographic data were obtained via questionnaires and linked electronic medical records. Telephone interviews were conducted with parents to collect PEDS data. Primary and secondary outcomes: Multiple logistic regression analyses identified risk factors for moderate or high developmental risk on the PEDS. A Cumulative Risk Index examined the impact of multiple risk factors on developmental risk and documentation of the PEDS at the well-child checks. Results: Of the original cohort, 792 (39%) had 6-month, 649 (32%) had 12-month and 565 (28%) had 18-month PEDS data. Parental concerns indicating moderate or high developmental risk on the PEDS were 27% (95% CI 24 to 30) at 6 months, 27% (95% CI 24 to 30) at 12 months and 33% (95% CI 29 to 37) at 18 months. Factors associated with moderate or high developmental risk were perinatal risk (OR 12 months: 1.7 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.7)); maternal Middle Eastern or Asian nationality (OR 6 months: 1.6 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.4)), (OR 12 months: 1.7 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.7)); and household disadvantage (OR 6 months: 1.5 (95% CI 1.0 to 2.2). As the number of risk factors increased the odds increased for high or moderate developmental risk and no documentation of the PEDS at well-child checks. Conclusions: Children with multiple risk factors are more likely to have parental concerns indicating developmental vulnerability using the PEDS and for these concerns to not be documented.

  • 235.
    Ågren, Thomas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Millroth, Philip
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Andersson, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ridzén, Måns
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Björkstrand, Johannes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Rigshosp, Neurobiol Res Unit, Copenhagen, Denmark; Lund Univ, Dept Psychol, Lund, Sweden.
    Detailed analysis of skin conductance responses during a gambling task: Decision, anticipation, and outcomes2019In: Psychophysiology, ISSN 0048-5772, E-ISSN 1469-8986, Vol. 56, no 6, article id e13338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Physiological arousal is considered a key factor of gambling behavior. Hence, to understand gambling behavior it is important to study the arousal responses during gambling. Moreover, crucial mechanisms of action could be uncovered by detailing the situations that produce an arousal response. A gamble, or bet, can be partitioned into three distinct phases: (a) decision phase, during which the information concerning the gamble is presented, outcomes are appraised, and a decision is made on how to gamble; (b) anticipation phase, during which the result of the gamble is awaited; (c) outcome phase, during which the outcome of the gamble is presented. Previous research on arousal responses to gambling have mostly measured tonic changes in arousal, and when phasic responses have been measured, analyses have generally concentrated on one of the gamble phases. The aim of the present study was to map the arousal responses during gambling in more detail by measuring skin conductance responses (SCRs) during all three gamble phases of a simple card game. The anticipation phase was found to produce the largest arousal response, suggesting anticipation to be a major contributor to arousal during gambling behavior. Risk behavior during the gambling task was mirrored in self-reported risk taking in everyday life, and risk-takers displayed smaller SCRs compared to nonrisk-takers during decision making, suggesting this as a possible biomarker for risk-taking individuals.

  • 236.
    Åhlén, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Uppsala Univ, Dept Psychol, POB 1225, SE-75142 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Ghaderi, Ata
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Evaluation of the Children's Depression Inventory-Short Version (CDI-S)2017In: Psychological Assessment, ISSN 1040-3590, E-ISSN 1939-134X, Vol. 29, no 9, p. 1157-1166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Children's Depression Inventory-Short Version (CDI-S), an abbreviated version of the widely used Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), has been regularly used in recent research. In comparison to the original CDI, the CDI-S has not been rigorously evaluated for its psychometrics. The present study examined the dimensionality, convergent and discriminant validity, and gender differences of the CDI-S in a school-based sample of 809 children 8-12 years of age. All children completed the CDI-S. One subsample additionally completed another measure of depression, 1 subsample completed a measure of anxiety, and 1 subsample completed the CDI-S at a second occasion, after 2 weeks. Information regarding parents' education and household income were available for 476 children. We evaluated the dimensionality of the CDI-S in a series of exploratory factor analyses. Despite some evidence of multidimensionality, a bifactor model revealed that the variation of scores was primarily explained by variations of the general factor. Consequently, the CDI-S is most adequately interpreted as a univocal measure. The CDI-S showed high correlation to another measure of depression and a moderately high correlation to a measure of anxiety, with nonoverlapping confidence intervals. We also found that girls reported higher levels of depressive symptoms than did boys, and we found a negative correlation between depressive symptoms and socioeconomic factors for boys only. Future studies should preferably include a broader age range, to acquire a more comprehensive understanding of the validity of the CDI-S.

  • 237.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Larsson, Maria
    Bäckman, Lars
    Differential sex effects in olfactory functioning: The role of verbal processing2002In: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, ISSN 1355-6177, E-ISSN 1469-7661, Vol. 8, p. 691-698Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 238.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Larsson, Maria
    Bäckman, Lars
    Odor Identification in Old Age: Demographic, Sensory, and Cognitive Correlates2005In: Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition, ISSN 1382-5585, E-ISSN 1744-4128, Vol. 12, p. 231-244Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 239.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Larsson, Maria
    Bäckman, Lars
    Recollective experience in odor recognition: influences of adult age and familiarity2006In: Psychological Research, ISSN 0340-0727, E-ISSN 1430-2772, Vol. 70, p. 68-75Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 240.
    Öberg-Blåvarg, Christina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bad Odors Stick Better Than Good Ones: Olfactory Qualities and Odor Recognition2009In: Experimental Psychology, ISSN ISSN-L 1618-3169, ISSN-Print 1618-3169, ISSN-Online 2190-5142, Vol. 56, no 6, p. 375-380Article in journal (Refereed)
2345 201 - 240 of 240
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