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  • 201.
    Nygren, Else
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science. Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction. Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Haya, Glenn
    Widmark, Wilhelm
    Studenters upplevelse av samsökningsverktyg: Metalib and Google Scholar2006In: INFOtrend: Nordisk tidskrift för informationsspecialister, ISSN 1653-0225, Vol. 61, no 3, p. 75-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tanken att använda en samlad sökingång för att nå den ökade mängden akademiska databaser är av stort intresse för biblioteksvärlden. Ett symptom på detta är att många stora akademiska bibliotek har köpt, eller är på väg att köpa in, en biblioteksportal. Portalen är en programvara som kan användas för att göra samsökningar i en mängd olika databaser. År 2005 erbjöd Libris de svenska akademiska biblioteken ett samarbetsprojekt kring portalvaran Metalib. Majoriteten av biblioteken gick med i projektet. Vid sidan av de olika portalprogrammen finns Google Scholar som också erbjuder en samlad ingång till den vetenskapliga forskningen. Syftet med Google Scholar och Metalib är således desamma trots att funktionaliteten och presentationerna skiljer sig åt. Att nå mer kunskap om hur väl dessa verktyg möter brukarnas förväntningar och hur de i praktiken används är mycket essentiellt för bibliotek som kämpar med att integrera dessa med andra biblioteksresurser.

    I det specifika sammanhanget som denna studie undersökt, det vill säga studenter som söker material till sina uppsatser, har Google Scholar haft en högre användbarhet än Metalib. Detta är baserat på det faktum att studenterna som använde Google Scholar var mer framgångsrika i att hitta relevanta artiklar. Detta gällde även efter undervisning då studenterna som använde Google Scholar fick en högre procent av dokument med hög kvalitet i jämförelse med dem som sökte med Metalib. Slutsatsen stöds även av resultaten från frågeformulären där studenterna skriver att de är mer nöjda med upplevelsen och resultaten från användande av Google Scholar. Detta gäller speciellt gränssnittets enkelhet och att man finner relevanta dokument. Detta sägs trots att Google Scholar hade några brister i funktionaliteten som problem med irrelevanta resulat och den dåliga precisionen i sökningarna.

  • 202.
    Nygren, Else
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science. Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction. Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Haya, Glenn
    Widmark, Wilhelm
    Students experience of Metalib and Google Scholar2006Report (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The report describes a study in which 32 C/D level students searched for material for their thesis using the search tools Google Scholar and Metalib. Half of the subjects had prior instruction in using the tools. Results consist of answers to a questionnaire, analysis of amount and type of documents found, and time spent on different search activities. The study concludes that overall, students were not very satisfied with either tool. However, Google Scholar performed relatively better in almost all measurements. Results for both tools were improved by instruction in terms of number of documents saved (Metalib, Google Scholar) and type of document saved (Google Scholar).

  • 203.
    Nygren, Else
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science. Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction. Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Henriksson, Peter
    Reading the Medical Record I. Analysis of physicians ways of reading the medical record1994In: Yearbook of Medical Informatics 94: Advanced communications in health care, Schattauer, Stuttgart, , 1994, p. 187-198Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 204.
    Nygren, Else
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science. Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction. Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Henriksson, Peter
    Reading the medical record.I. Analysis of physicians ways of reading the medical record1992In: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicin, Vol. 39, p. 1992-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Physicians were interviewed about their routines in everyday use of the medical record. From the interviews, we conclude that the medical record is a well functioning working instrument for the experienced physician. Using the medical record as a basis for decision making involves interpretation of format, layout and other textual features of the type-written data. Interpretation of these features provides effective guidance in the process of searching, reading and assessing the relevance of different items of information in the record. It seems that this is a skill which is an integrated part of diagnostic expertise. This skill plays an important role in decision making based on the large amount of information about a patient that can be found in the medical record. This finding has implications for the design of user interfaces for reading computerized medical records.

  • 205.
    Nygren, Else
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science. Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction. Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Johnson, Mats
    Henriksson, Peter
    Reading the medical record II. Design of a human-computer interface for basic reading of computerized medical records.1992In: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, Vol. 39, p. 13-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A user interface for reading the medical record was designed and implemented on a work-station with a 19 inch colour screen. The text is presented on imitations of paper-pages. The pages are organized in bundles which are dynamically connected to scrollable index-lists. The turning of pages on the screen is the fundamental concept of the interface. A page can be turned by a mouse-click or by a circular mouse-movement. Elaborated feedback is given to the user in order to provide effortless orientation and navigation. The interface supports the basic ways of use identified in our analyses of reading habits. It also enables human perceptual and cognitive skills to be used. It seems very easy to learn and efficient in use.

  • 206.
    Nygren, Else
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science. Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction. Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Lind, Mats
    Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Utformning av användargränssnitt. II.: Förslag till en uppsättning av byggbara dialogelement1993Report (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    En uppsättning av dialogelement för administrativa system presenteras och diskuteras. Idag finns avancerade programvaror för konstruktion av användargränssnitt (sk UIMS). Våra erfarenheter är att gränssnitt uppbyggda med dessa moderna verktyg ibland ger upphov till kognitiva problem för frekventa användare, den nya tekniken till trots. Dessa problem gäller orienteringen i en informationsmängd, dvs att snabbt och utan ansträngning veta var man är och vart man ska härnäst. Ett annat problem gäller sammanvägningen av information som inte kan betraktas samtidigt. Dagens system för uppbyggnad av grafiska användargränssnitt använder sig huvudsakligen av dialogelementen scrollbara fönster, ikoner, knappar, och rullgardinsmenyer. Som ett komplement till dessa föreslår vi några nya dialogelement. Ett sådant är det dynamiska dokumentet, som innebär stöd för att presentera information på fsta sidor, med sidbläddring som alternativ till scrollning. Andra element är avbildande ikoner som komplement till symboliska ikoner samt olika typer av index kopplade till grupper av sidor, buntar. Dessa nya dialogelement gör det möjligt att presentera information så att man behåller många av papperets fördelar men ändå utnyttjar datorns kapacitet. Möjligheter och problem med att implementera de nya dilogelementen diskuteras med utgångspunkt från de programvaror för konstruktion av användargränssnitt som finns på marknaden.

  • 207.
    Ojala, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Regulating worry, promoting hope: How children, adolescents, and young adults cope psychologically with climate change.2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 208.
    Olsson, Anna-Carin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Enqvist, Tommy
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Juslin, Peter
    Uppsala universitet.
    Non-linear Multiple Cue Judgment tasks2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 209.
    Olsson, August
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Collsiöö, Astrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ekonomisk rationalitet: en effekt av indoktrinering, matematiska färdigheter eller bara ett påhitt?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ekonomisk teori bygger på antagandet att människor är ekonomiskt rationella trots att modern psykologisk forskning visar på att detta inte är en deskriptiv bild av människors faktiska handlade. Denna studie jämförde ekonomer, matematiker och humanister i början samt i slutet på sin utbildning för att undersöka två hypoteser; Dels om ekonomisk rationalitet är något inlärt som påverkas av normativ ekonomisk utbildning, dels ifall ekonomisk rationalitet snarare beror på graden av matematiska färdigheter. Denna studie påvisade en signifikant interaktionseffekt mellan utbildning och studietid på ett sådant sätt att studenter inom ekonomi och matematik verkar öka sin grad av ekonomisk rationalitet på grund av sin utbildning samtidigt som studenter inom humaniora inte gör det. Detta tyder på att träning i matematiskt tänkande ökar graden av ekonomisk rationalitet.

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  • 210.
    Olsson, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Psychosocial oncology and supportive care.
    Kinsten, Anna
    Theorell, Töres
    Using breathing in psychophysiological stress profiling2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 211.
    Olsson, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Psychosocial oncology and supportive care.
    von Schéele, Bo
    Theorell, Töres
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Heart Rate Variability During Choral Singing2013In: Music and medicine, ISSN 1943-8621, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 52-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary research implies that choral singing is beneficial to health. Singing various kinds of songs with varied emphasis, emotion and tempo gives rise to diverse physiological responses. Breathing is assumed to be synchronized during choral singing and breathing has major influence on heart rate variability (HRV). In this study, we compare HRV responses during choral singing with slow breathing exercises. Thirteen amateur singers´ HRV were studied during a rehearsal of four songs framed by two slow breathing exercises without audience. The heart rate was generally higher and HRV generally lower during singing compared to the slow breathing conditions. During singing, but not during slow breathing, peak HRV-frequency showed considerable variation among participants. This could be due either to a low degree of synchronization of breathing during singing or other factors overruling the effects of breathing on HRV.

  • 212.
    Persson, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Making Head or Tail of the Hippocampus: A Long-Axis Account of Episodic and Spatial Memory2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    While episodic and spatial memory both depend on the hippocampus, opposite gender differences in these functions suggest they are partly separate, with different neural underpinnings. The anterior and posterior hippocampus differ  in structure and whole-brain connectivity, and studies point to the posterior hippocampus being more involved in spatial memory while the anterior hippocampus’ role in episodic memory is less clear. This thesis aims to explore the role of the anterior and posterior hippocampus, and associated brain regions, in episodic and spatial memory. Paper I studied gender differences in hippocampal activation underlying differences in spatial memory performance. Better performance in men was accompanied by greater right-lateralization of hippocampal activation compared to women. Paper II investigated regions of gray matter that covaried in volume with the anterior and posterior hippocampus, and whether these covariance patterns depended on gender and were related to behavior. The anterior and posterior hippocampus showed different patterns of covariance, with the anterior hippocampus covariance pattern observed in women and the posterior hippocampus covariance pattern primarily in men. Paper III considered whether the location of hippocampal recruitment in episodic memory depends on memory content. Verbal stimuli were associated with more anterior, and left-lateralized, encoding activations than pictorial stimuli, which in turn were associated with more posterior and bilateral encoding activations. This was not observed during retrieval. Paper IV investigated whether resting-state connectivity associated with the anterior and posterior hippocampus predicts episodic and spatial memory performance, respectively. Resting-state connectivity associated with the anterior, not posterior, hippocampus predicted episodic memory performance, while resting-state connectivity associated with the posterior, not anterior, hippocampus predicted spatial memory performance. This thesis lends further support to differences in function and structure between the anterior and posterior hippocampus suggesting that these two sub–segments play different roles in episodic and spatial memory. Further, it suggests that gender differences in anterior and posterior hippocampus function underlies gender differences in episodic and spatial memory, respectively. Considering the anterior and posterior hippocampus, as well as men and women, separately, is hence important when studying the effect of age and pathology on the hippocampus and associated memory functions.

    List of papers
    1. Remembering our origin: Gender differences in spatial memory are reflected in gender differences in hippocampal lateralization
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Remembering our origin: Gender differences in spatial memory are reflected in gender differences in hippocampal lateralization
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    2013 (English)In: Behavioural Brain Research, ISSN 0166-4328, E-ISSN 1872-7549, Vol. 256, p. 219-228Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Gender differences in spatial memory favoring men are frequently reported, and the involvement of the hippocampus in these functions is well-established. However, little is known of whether this behavioral gender difference is mirrored in a gender difference in hippocampal function. Here we assessed hippocampal activity, using functional MRI, while 24 men and women moved through three-dimensional virtual mazes (navigation phase) of varying length, and at the end-point estimated the direction of the starting-point (pointing phase). Men were indeed more accurate than women at estimating direction, and this was especially true in longer mazes. Both genders activated the posterior hippocampus throughout the whole task. During the navigation phase, men showed a larger activation in the right hippocampus than women, while in the pointing phase, women showed a larger activation in the left hippocampus than men. Right-lateralized activation during the navigation phase was associated with greater task performance, and may reflect a spatial strategy that is beneficial in this task. Left-sided activation during the pointing phase might reflect a less efficient post hoc verbal recapitulation of the route. This study is the first to identify neural correlates of the commonly observed male advantage in recalling one's original position, and points to hippocampal lateralization as a possible explanation for this behavioral gender difference.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-207612 (URN)10.1016/j.bbr.2013.07.050 (DOI)000328094100027 ()23938766 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2013-09-17 Created: 2013-09-17 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    2. Sex differences in volume and structural covariance of the anterior and posterior hippocampus
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sex differences in volume and structural covariance of the anterior and posterior hippocampus
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    2014 (English)In: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, no 99, p. 215-25Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Sex differences in episodic and spatial memory are frequently observed, suggesting that there may be sex-related structural differences in the hippocampus (HC). Earlier findings are inconsistent, possibly due to a known variability along the hippocampal longitudinal axis. Here, we assessed potential sex differences in hippocampal volume and structural covariance with the rest of the brain in young men and women (N=76), considering the anterior (aHC) and posterior (pHC) hippocampus separately. Women exhibited a larger pHC than men adjusted for brain size. Using partial least squares, we identified two significant patterns of structural covariance of the aHC and pHC. The first included brain areas that covaried positively and negatively in volume with both the aHC and pHC in men, but showed greater covariance with the aHC than pHC in women. The second pattern revealed distinct structural covariance of the aHC and pHC that showed a clear difference between men and women: in men the pHC showed reliable structural covariance with the medial and lateral parietal lobes and the prefrontal cortex, whereas in women the aHC showed reliable structural covariance with the anterior temporal lobe bilaterally. This pattern converges with resting state functional connectivity of the aHC and pHC and suggests that these hippocampal sections interact with different brain regions, consistent with a division of labor with regards to episodic and spatial memory. Our findings lend support to a division of the HC into an anterior and posterior part and identify sex as a potential moderating factor when investigating hippocampal structure and connectivity.

    National Category
    Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-225425 (URN)10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.05.038 (DOI)000339860000023 ()24857714 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2014-06-03 Created: 2014-06-03 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
    3. Hippocampal hemispheric and long-axis differentiation of stimulus content during episodic memory encoding and retrieval: An activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hippocampal hemispheric and long-axis differentiation of stimulus content during episodic memory encoding and retrieval: An activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis
    2015 (English)In: Hippocampus, ISSN 1050-9631, E-ISSN 1098-1063, Vol. 25, no 12, p. 1614-1631Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    While there is ample evidence that the hippocampus is functionally heterogeneous along its longitudinal axis, there is still no consensus regarding its exact organization. Whereas spatial memory tasks frequently engage the posterior hippocampus, the regions engaged during episodic memory are more varying and may depend on the specific nature of the stimuli. Here, we investigate the effect of stimulus content on the location of hippocampal recruitment during episodic memory encoding and retrieval of pictorial and verbal material with a meta-analysis approach, using activation likelihood estimation and restricting the analysis to the hippocampus. Verbal material was associated with left-lateralized anterior activation, compared to pictorial material that recruited a more posterior aspect of the hippocampus, primarily within the right hemisphere. This effect held for encoding of both single items and item-item associations but was less clear during retrieval. The findings lend further support to a functional subdivision of the hippocampus along its longitudinal axis and indicate that the content of episodic memories is one factor that determines the location of hippocampal recruitment.

    Keywords
    meta-analysis; hippocampus; episodic memory; spatial memory; activation likelihood estimation; encoding; retrieval
    National Category
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-259778 (URN)10.1002/hipo.22482 (DOI)000368281700012 ()26108671 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2015-08-11 Created: 2015-08-11 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
    4. Predicting episodic and spatial memory performance from hippocampal resting-state functional connectivity: evidence for an anterior-posterior division of function
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Predicting episodic and spatial memory performance from hippocampal resting-state functional connectivity: evidence for an anterior-posterior division of function
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-259780 (URN)
    Available from: 2015-08-11 Created: 2015-08-11 Last updated: 2015-09-29
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  • 213.
    Poom, Leo
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Olsson, Henrik
    Binding feature dimensions in visual short-term memory2009In: Acta Psychologica, ISSN 0001-6918, E-ISSN 1873-6297, Vol. 131, no 1, p. 85-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We explored several possible influences on binding in visual short-term memory (VSTM) performance. The task was to report whether a test object was the same (‘‘old” trials) or different (‘‘new” trials) from any of the sample objects seen a second ago. The objects were composed of two features that varied from continuous to discrete shapes and colors. In ‘‘old” trials the test object appeared either in the same or different position. In ‘‘new” trials the test object differed along both features, requiring storage of only one feature per object; along one feature, requiring no binding but storage of all features; or it was created by recombining features from the sample, which requires binding. Existing storage hypotheses are unable to explain the similar sensitivity (d0) obtained in the two last conditions when position remained the same and may suggest that links are created between positions and features. Highest sensitivity occurred when the test object remained at the same position, required no binding, and discrete features were used. Object-type x position, and feature combination x position interactions occurred, suggesting different storage modes depending on whether objects change position during retention.

  • 214.
    Pyykkö, Juha
    et al.
    Univ Tampere, Fac Med & Life Sci, Tampere Ctr Child Hlth Res, Tampere, Finland.
    Forssman, Linda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Maleta, Kenneth
    Univ Malawi, Coll Med, Sch Publ Hlth & Family Med, Dept Publ Hlth, Blantyre, Malawi.
    Ashorn, Per
    Univ Tampere, Fac Med & Life Sci, Tampere Ctr Child Hlth Res, Tampere, Finland;Tampere Univ Hosp, Dept Paediat, Tampere, Finland.
    Ashorn, Ulla
    Univ Tampere, Fac Med & Life Sci, Tampere Ctr Child Hlth Res, Tampere, Finland.
    Leppänen, Jukka M.
    Univ Tampere, Fac Med & Life Sci, Tampere Ctr Child Hlth Res, Tampere, Finland.
    Early development of visual attention in infants in rural Malawi2019In: Developmental Science, ISSN 1363-755X, E-ISSN 1467-7687, Vol. 22, no 5, article id e12761Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eye tracking research has shown that infants develop a repertoire of attentional capacities during the first year. The majority of studies examining the early development of attention comes from Western, high-resource countries. We examined visual attention in a heterogeneous sample of infants in rural Malawi (N = 312-376, depending on analysis). Infants were assessed with eye-tracking-based tests that targeted visual orienting, anticipatory looking, and attention to faces at 7 and 9 months. Consistent with prior research, infants exhibited active visual search for salient visual targets, anticipatory saccades to predictable events, and a robust attentional bias for happy and fearful faces. Individual variations in these processes had low to moderate odd-even split-half and test-retest reliability. There were no consistent associations between attention measures and gestational age, nutritional status, or characteristics of the rearing environment (i.e., maternal cognition, psychosocial well-being, socioeconomic status, and care practices). The results replicate infants' early attentional biases in a large, unique sample, and suggest that some of these biases (e.g., bias for faces) are pronounced in low-resource settings. The results provided no evidence that the initial manifestation of infants' attentional capacities is associated with risk factors that are common in low-resource environments.

  • 215.
    Rathbone, Clare J.
    et al.
    Oxford Brookes Univ, Dept Psychol Social Work & Publ Hlth, Oxford OX3 0BP, England.
    Holmes, Emily A.
    MRC Cognit & Brain Sci Unit, Cambridge, England.
    Murphy, Susannah E.
    Univ Oxford, Warneford Hosp, Dept Psychiat, Oxford, England.
    Ellis, Judi A.
    Univ Reading, Sch Psychol & Clin Language Sci, Reading, Berks, England.
    Autobiographical memory and well-being in aging: The central role of semantic self-images2015In: Consciousness and Cognition, ISSN 1053-8100, E-ISSN 1090-2376, Vol. 33, p. 422-431Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Higher levels of well-being are associated with longer life expectancies and better physical health. Previous studies suggest that processes involving the self and autobiographical memory are related to well-being, yet these relationships are poorly understood. The present study tested 32 older and 32 younger adults using scales measuring well-being and the affective valence of two types of autobiographical memory: episodic autobiographical memories and semantic self-images. Results showed that valence of semantic self-images, but not episodic autobiographical memories, was highly correlated with well-being, particularly in older adults. In contrast, well-being in older adults was unrelated to performance across a range of standardised memory tasks. These results highlight the role of semantic self-images in well-being, and have implications for the development of therapeutic interventions for well-being in aging. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY license

  • 216.
    Reiser, Eva M.
    et al.
    Graz Univ, Dept Psychol, Biol Psychol Unit, A-8010 Graz, Austria.
    Weiss, Elisabeth M.
    Graz Univ, Dept Psychol, Biol Psychol Unit, A-8010 Graz, Austria.
    Schulter, Guenter
    Graz Univ, Dept Psychol, Biol Psychol Unit, A-8010 Graz, Austria.
    Holmes, Emily A.
    MRC Cognit & Brain Sci Unit, Cambridge, England.
    Fink, Andreas
    Graz Univ, Dept Psychol, Biol Psychol Unit, A-8010 Graz, Austria.
    Papousek, Ilona
    Graz Univ, Dept Psychol, Biol Psychol Unit, A-8010 Graz, Austria.
    Prefrontal-posterior coupling while observing the suffering of other people, and the development of intrusive memories2014In: Psychophysiology, ISSN 0048-5772, E-ISSN 1469-8986, Vol. 51, no 6, p. 546-555Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Witnessing the suffering of others, for instance, in hospital emergency rooms but also through televised images in news or reality programs, may be associated with the occurrence of later intrusive memories. The factors contributing to why some people develop intrusive memories and others do not are still poorly understood. N = 121 healthy women were exposed to film scenes showing the suffering of dying, severely injured, and mourning people while their EEG was recorded. Individuals showing greater decreases of functional coupling between prefrontal and posterior cortices (greater decreases of EEG beta coherences) reported more intrusive memories of the witnessed events. This was shown for intrusions in the short term (immediately after viewing the film) as well as in the medium term (intrusive memories over 1 week). The findings illuminate brain mechanisms involved in the encoding of information in ways that make intrusive memories more likely.

  • 217.
    Runeson, Sverker
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Direkt perception - perceptuell kompetens2005In: Vår tids psykologi, 2005Chapter in book (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 218.
    Runeson, Sverker
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Andersson, Isabell E. K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Achievement of Specificational Information Usage with True and False Feedback in Learning a Visual Relative-Mass Discrimination Task2007In: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, ISSN 0096-1523, E-ISSN 1939-1277, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 163-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Participants' usage of informational variables in learning visual relative-mass discrimination in collisions was tracked by means of PROBIT correlations. Four groups received feedback that was true or accorded with either of three non-specificational cue variables. A majority in each group adopted the feedback but several participants defied the false feedback. Unlike in previous research, the fit to data of the relative-mass invariant could not be bettered by post hoc linear combinations of the cues. Discriminability was lower in the use of the invariant. Analytic complexity was rejected as an explanation for discriminability differences. A "smart mechanism" for pickup of the relative-mass invariant was developed as an extension of G. Johansson's (1950/1994) vector model.

  • 219.
    Rydell, Ann-Margret
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Brocki, Karin C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Cognitive and Emotional Profiles of CU Traits and Disruptive Behavior in Adolescence: a Prospective Study2019In: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, ISSN 0091-0627, E-ISSN 1573-2835, Vol. 47, no 6, p. 1039-1051Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we followed 82–90 adolescents, 50% boys, from 15 to 16 years, investigating CU traits and disruptive behaviors as predictors of cognitive skills and arousal to emotional pictures. At age 15, CU traits were rated by adolescents and disruptive (aggregated ADHD-ODD-delinquent) behaviors were rated by parents and adolescents. At age 16, executive function, reaction time variability (RTV), IQ and arousal to negative pictures were assessed. The results showed that, with control for disruptive behaviors, CU traits predicted lower RTV, higher IQ and lower arousal to negative pictures. With control for CU traits, disruptive behaviors predicted lower spatial working memory, lower interference control and higher RTV. Our findings are of theoretical and clinical relevance as they point to highly diverging cognitive and emotional profiles of CU traits and disruptive behaviors.

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  • 220.
    Rydén, Lars
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala Centre for Sustainable Development, CSD Uppsala, The Baltic University Programme.
    Leal Filho, Walter
    Technical University of Hamburg Harburg.
    Skubala, Piotr
    University of Silesia, Katowice.
    Kronlid, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    21. Behaviour and the Environment: Ethics, Education, and Lifestyle2003In: Environmental Science: Understanding, protecting and managing the environment in the Baltic Sea Region / [ed] Lars Rydén, Pawel Migula and Magnus Andersson, Uppsala: Baltic University Press , 2003, 1, p. 630-661Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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    ES 21
  • 221. Räterlinck, Lennart Eric Henry
    Genom den dunkla natten: Karin Boyes Kris och längtan efter pånyttfödelsen2018In: Divan. Tidskrift för psykoanalys och kultur, ISSN 1101-1408, no 3-4, p. 120-126Article, book review (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ibland kan en roman tolkas som en avspegling av en enskild människas liv och lidande – och vid läsningen av Janssons bok (Själens krypta. En essä om Karin Boyes roman Kris) förstår vi att Kris ses som just en spegling av Boyes existentiella kamp med kärleken och begäret samt olika moraliska, religiösa och estetiska föreställningar. Den allmänmänskliga förbindelsen mellan Malin Forst, huvudpersonen i Kris, och vi som läser skildringen av hennes existentiella kamp med begärets makt, den personliga tron och samhällsordningens krav, är av stor betydelse för Janssons analys. Hos Malin möter vi ett lidande och ett raseri, en vilja till uppror och förnyelse, företeelser som givetvis inte är helt identiska med kännetecknen för vår egen kamp, men som ändå resonerar i djupet av våra erfarenheter av samhällets normer och villkor samt begärets och skönhetens kraft. Lidandet förenar oss i ett gemensamt öde, inte nödvändigtvis i bemärkelse av förutbestämmelse och slutlig undergång, men som en grunderfarenhet i all mänsklig tillvaro och medvaro. På detta vis blir Malins röst till precis det som poeten och författaren Ingeborg Bachmann har beskrivit som "jagets mirakel": det jag vars röst "frigör sig från den uniforma kören, från den tigande församlingen" och lidandet till trots triumferar som en "platshållare för den mänskliga rösten".

    Boyes självmord, oavsett om vi ser det som avsiktligt eller inte, blir till en bokstavlig och slutgiltig version av det som Lacan kallade för passage à l'acte: en handling utan addressat som innebär ett fullständigt kapande av alla sociala band, det individuella subjektets yttersta upplösande och absoluta utträde ur den symboliska ordningen. Tragiken i denna handling blir desto större eftersom Boye, med författaren och litteraturvetaren Johan Svedjedals ord, var en människa som "trodde på den nya dagens gryning, på färdens tjusning, livets kraft. Varför skulle annars så många av hennes verk sluta med en scen av pånyttfödelse?" (cit. i Jansson, s. 205). Till detta kan vi tillägga några ord ur det poetiska avsnittet i slutet av Janssons bok: "I döden återvände hon till skapelsens ögonblick. Befriad från all ångest fann hon frid och ett nytt oändligt liv" (s. 211). Kanske kan vi avslutningsvis säga att det är ett liv vars oändlighet och storslagna mångfald ständigt lever vidare och föds på nytt varje gång vi tar del av Karin Boyes författarskap, inte minst när vi läser Kris och i romanen ser ett uttryck för "ett patos för den utsatta och plågade människan: genom att slå upp grindarna till det andligas realitet har huvudpersonen tagit på sig varje människas öde, din och min lycka och olycka. I hennes tragiska andetag kan var och en av oss återupptäcka sig själv" (s. 12).

  • 222.
    Sandblad, Bengt
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Lind, Mats
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Nygren, Else
    Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction. Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Design of human-computer interfaces in health care, based on task analysis and theories of human cognition1992In: Proceedings of MEDINFO 92, 1992Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computer supported work activities in health care are very sensitive to disturbances caused by badly designed user interfaces. A methodology for experimental design of systems and interfaces is described, based on task and expectation analysis. Knowledge from perceptual and cognitive psychology let us understand more about human information handling and about requirements for design of efficient user interfaces. An example of how the methods and design principles can be used in practise is given.

  • 223.
    Sandblad, Bengt
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Lind, Mats
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Nygren, Else
    Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction. Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Kognitiva arbetsmiljöproblem och gränssnittsdesign.1992Report (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Begreppet arbetsmiljö är komplext. Olika problem i arbetslivet, t ex fysiska, psykosociala, innehållsmässiga, organisatoriska mm samverkar. Ska vi kunna nå fram till "det goda arbetet" fordras att vi får större förståelse för hur dessa faktorer samverkar, samt att vi utvecklar metoder för förbättringar som bygger på ett sådant helhetsperspektiv på arbetssituationen. I en arbetssituation är det viktigt att de som utför arbetet förstår skeendet samt att de kan påverka och styra de ingående arbetsprocesserna så att man kna uppfylla målen för verksamheten. det finns ofta olika slags hinder för att man ska kunna klara av detta. En viktig klass av problem är de som vi kallar kognitiva arbetsmiljöproblem. med kognitiva arbetsmiljöproblem menar vi alla sådana hinder av olika ursprung som försvårar och förhindrar förståelse, möjligheter till överblick, påverkan samt kontroll och styrning av arbetsprocesserna. Det kan anses vara välbelagt att sådana arbetsmiljöproblem ofta är mycket påtagliga i arbetslivet, speciellt då ny och avancerad teknik och datoriserade informationssystem införs. Problemen leder bl a till olika slags stressreaktioner och på sikt dåliga arbetsprestationer, ineffektivitet, belastningsbesvär och annan ohälsa. En viktig del av de kognitiva arbetsmiljöproblemen som uppstår vid användning av datoriserade informationssystem är relaterade till gränssnittet, den "yta" emot datorsystemet som användaren interagerar med. Vi har formulerat en konceptuell modell för mänsklig informationhantering i en datoriserad arbetsmiljö, användbar för att studera kognitiva problem relaterade till interaktionen mellan ett datorsystem och en användare. Baserat på denna modell har vi utvecklat preliminära metoder för beskrivning och analys av informationsanvändning i en arbetssituation samt för design av gränssnitt vilket kan understödja denna. Metoderna, vilka beskrivs utförligare i andra CMD-rapporter, refereras kortfattat. Det är viktigt att vi ytterligare utvecklar vår förståelse för detta problemområde, samt att vi tar fram sådanan metoder och tekniker för design och konstruktion av gränssnitt som kan bidraga till att minska de kognitiva arbetsmiljöproblemen.

  • 224.
    Schaefer, Johanna Ozlem
    et al.
    Univ Freiburg, Dept Clin Psychol & Psychotherapy, Engelbergerstr 41, D-79106 Freiburg, Germany.
    Naumann, Eva
    Univ Tubingen, Dept Clin Psychol & Psychotherapy, Schleichstr 4,Room 4231, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany.
    Holmes, Emily A.
    Med Res Council Cognit & Brain Sci Unit, 15 Chaucer Rd, Cambridge CB2 7EF, England;Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna
    Univ Freiburg, Dept Clin Psychol & Psychotherapy, Engelbergerstr 41, D-79106 Freiburg, Germany.
    Samson, Andrea Christiane
    Univ Geneva, Swiss Ctr Affect Sci, Campus Biotech,Chemin Mines 9, CH-1202 Geneva, Switzerland;Stanford Univ, Sch Med, Dept Psychiat & Behav Sci, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.
    Emotion Regulation Strategies in Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms in Youth: A Meta-Analytic Review2017In: Journal of Youth and Adolescence, ISSN 0047-2891, E-ISSN 1573-6601, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 261-276Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of emotion regulation in subclinical symptoms of mental disorders in adolescence is not yet well understood. This meta-analytic review examines the relationship between the habitual use of prominent adaptive emotion regulation strategies (cognitive reappraisal, problem solving, and acceptance) and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies (avoidance, suppression, and rumination) with depressive and anxiety symptoms in adolescence. Analyzing 68 effect sizes from 35 studies, we calculated overall outcomes across depressive and anxiety symptoms as well as psychopathology-specific outcomes. Age was examined as a continuous moderator via meta-regression models. The results from random effects analyses revealed that the habitual use of all emotion regulation strategies was significantly related to depressive and anxiety symptoms overall, with the adaptive emotion regulation strategies showing negative associations (i.e., less symptoms) with depressive and anxiety symptoms whereas the maladaptive emotion regulation strategies showed positive associations (i.e., more symptoms). A less frequent use of adaptive and a more frequent use of maladaptive emotion regulation strategies were associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms comparably in the respective directions. Regarding the psychopathology-specific outcomes, depressive and anxiety symptoms displayed similar patterns across emotion regulation strategies showing the strongest negative associations with acceptance, and strongest positive associations with avoidance and rumination. The findings underscore the relevance of adaptive and also maladaptive emotion regulation strategies in depressive and anxiety symptoms in youth, and highlight the need to further investigate the patterns of emotion regulation as a potential transdiagnostic factor.

  • 225.
    Shareef, Zeinab
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Logopedi.
    Ordflöde och läsförmåga hos studenter med och utan dyslexi: En undersökning av FAS, djurflöde och verbflöde2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Verbal fluency is commonly measured in cognitive assessments and has been shown to measure aspects of verbal ability and executive function, as well as to involve specific cortical areas during performance. Verbal fluency tasks, in which participants generate words during a given time limit, have been used in research and assessments of neurobiological disorders and impairments. Dyslexia is a neurobiologically based reading disorder that is characterized by difficulties in word decoding and spelling. Research on verbal fluency in individuals with dyslexia shows that semantic and letter fluency is impaired. However, studies show inconsistent results. This study examines performance on semantic fluency (animals), action fluency (verbs), and letter fluency (FAS) in 42 students with developmental dyslexia (DD, n = 16) and a control group with typical reading development (TD, n = 26). Participants also perform a test battery that measures reading and phonological abilities, amongst others. Additionally, it is examined if verbal fluency performance can contribute to predicting reading ability, when phonological awareness and rapid automatized naming (RAN) are taken into account. Results show that verbal fluency performance was impaired in the DD group, and that action and letter fluency were relatively more impaired than semantic fluency. A backward elimination regression showed that action fluency and phonological awareness were significant predictors of reading ability, together explaining 48 % of the variance. The impaired verbal fluency ability is discussed in relation to factors such as education and cognitive abilities. Further, the findings point to a possible unique connection between action fluency and reading ability in students, in addition to phonological awareness. The possibility that the relationship between action fluency and reading may be partly explained by common neurocognitive underpinnings is discussed. These novel findings indicate that action fluency has a pertinent role in reading ability and dyslexia, which should be further examined.

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  • 226.
    Sibley, Chris G.
    et al.
    Univ Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Bergh, Robin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Satherley, Nicole
    Univ Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Osborne, Danny
    Univ Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Milojev, Petar
    Univ Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Greaves, Lara M.
    Univ Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Huang, Yanshu
    Univ Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Townrow, Carly S.
    Univ Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Faapoi, Amy
    Univ Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Yogeeswaran, Kumar
    Univ Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.
    Hawi, Diala
    Doha Inst Grad Studies, Doha, Qatar.
    Duckitt, John
    Univ Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Profiling authoritarian leaders and followers2019In: TPM - Testing, Psychometrics, Methodology in Applied Psychology, ISSN 1972-6325, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 401-417Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has long suggested that there may be distinct subpopulations of authoritarian leaders and followers within the broader population. We describe a latent profile analysis of right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) and social dominance orientation (SDO) in a New Zealand national probability sample (N = 18,248) that - for the first time - reliably identifies these two types. Consistent with the positive correlation between SDO and RWA, most people in New Zealand (about 91.2%) expressed comparable levels of RWA and SDO (i.e., moderate-moderate or low-low, but no high-high profile). Two small and distinct subpopulations diverted from this pattern, instead fitting a high-SDO/low-RWA authoritarian leader (1.2%) or low-SDO/high-RWA authoritarian follower (7.6%) profile. Authoritarian leaders tended to show the least concern for human rights, and were least willing to make personal sacrifices for the environment, but tended to support same-sex marriage, while authoritarian followers were particularly opposed to same-sex marriage, and yet highly supportive of human rights. These two profiles represent distinct subpopulations of people within society who are predisposed to seek dominance over others and those predisposed to unquestioningly follow them.

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  • 227. Siqueiros Sanchez, Monica
    et al.
    Pettersson, Erik
    Kennedy, Daniel P.
    Bölte, Sven
    Lichtenstein, Paul
    D’Onofrio, Brian M.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Visual Disengagement: Genetic Architecture and Relation to Autistic Traits in the General Population2019In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Visual disengagement has been hypothesized as an endophenotype for autism. In this study we used twin modelling to assess the role of genetics in basic measures of visual disengagement, and tested their putative association to autistic traits in the general population. We used the Gap Overlap task in a sample of 492 twins. Results showed that most of the covariance among eye movement latencies across conditions was shared and primarily genetic. Further, there were unique genetic contributions to the Gap condition, but not to the Overlap condition—i.e. the one theorized to capture visual disengagement. We found no phenotypic association between autistic traits and disengagement, thus not supporting the hypothesis of visual disengagement as an endophenotype for autistic traits.

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  • 228.
    Slofstra, Christien
    et al.
    Univ Groningen, Dept Clin Psychol & Expt Psychopathol, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Eisma, Maarten C.
    Univ Groningen, Dept Clin Psychol & Expt Psychopathol, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Holmes, Emily A.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bockting, Claudi L. H.
    Univ Groningen, Dept Clin Psychol & Expt Psychopathol, Groningen, Netherlands;Univ Utrecht, Dept Clin Psychol, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Nauta, Maaike H.
    Univ Groningen, Dept Clin Psychol & Expt Psychopathol, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Rethinking a Negative Event: The Affective Impact Of Ruminative versus Imagery-Based Processing Of Aversive Autobiographical Memories2017In: Frontiers in Psychiatry, ISSN 1664-0640, E-ISSN 1664-0640, Vol. 8, article id 82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Ruminative (abstract verbal) processing during recall of aversive autobiographical memories may serve to dampen their short-term affective impact. Experimental studies indeed demonstrate that verbal processing of non-autobiographical material and positive autobiographical memories evokes weaker affective responses than imagery-based processing. In the current study, we hypothesized that abstract verbal or concrete verbal processing of an aversive autobiographical memory would result in weaker affective responses than imagery based processing. Methods: The affective impact of abstract verbal versus concrete verbal versus imagery-based processing during recall of an aversive autobiographical memory was investigated in a non-clinical sample (n = 99) using both an observational and an experimental design. Observationally, it was examined whether spontaneous use of processing modes (both state and trait measures) was associated with impact of aversive autobiographical memory recall on negative and positive affect. Experimentally, the causal relation between processing modes and affective impact was investigated by manipulating the processing mode during retrieval of the same aversive autobiographical memory. Results: Main findings were that higher levels of trait (but not state) measures of both ruminative and imagery-based processing and depressive symptomatology were positively correlated with higher levels of negative affective impact in the observational part of the study. In the experimental part, no main effect of processing modes on affective impact of autobiographical memories was found. However, a significant moderating effect of depressive symptomatology was found. Only for individuals with low levels of depressive symptomatology, concrete verbal (but not abstract verbal) processing of the aversive autobiographical memory did result in weaker affective responses, compared to imagery-based processing. Discussion: These results cast doubt on the hypothesis that ruminative processing of aversive autobiographical memories serves to avoid the negative emotions evoked by such memories. Furthermore, findings suggest that depressive symptomatology is associated with the spontaneous use and the affective impact of processing modes during recall of aversive autobiographical memories. Clinical studies are needed that examine the role of processing modes during aversive autobiographical memory recall in depression, including the potential effectiveness of targeting processing modes in therapy.

  • 229. Staats, Henk
    et al.
    Hartig, Terry
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Alone or with a friend: A social context for psychological restoration and environmental preferences2004In: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 199-211Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 230.
    Stattin, Håkan
    et al.
    Univ Orebro, Sch Law Psychol & Social Work, Youth & Soc, SE-70182 Orebro, Sweden..
    Enebrink, Pia
    Karolinska Inst, Div Psychol, Dept Clin Neurosci, S-10401 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ozdemir, Metin
    Univ Orebro, Sch Law Psychol & Social Work, Youth & Soc, SE-70182 Orebro, Sweden..
    Giannotta, Fabrizia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A National Evaluation of Parenting Programs in Sweden: The Short-Term Effects Using an RCT Effectiveness Design2015In: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, ISSN 0022-006X, E-ISSN 1939-2117, Vol. 83, no 6, p. 1069-1084Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: We evaluated the effectiveness of 4 parent-training programs for children with externalizing problems. We tested the effectiveness of 3 behavioral programs (Comet, Cope, and Incredible Years) and 1 nonbehavioral program (Connect) in reducing child behavior problems and attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, in improving positive parenting and parenting competence, and in decreasing negative parenting and parents' stress and depressive symptoms. Method: This national study was designed as a randomized-controlled effectiveness trial (RCT). The treatments were carried out in 30 clinical and community-based practices. Parents of 908 children (ages 3-12 years) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 parent training programs available at each practice, or to a wait-list condition, where parents had sought help from regular services. Before and after treatment, parents rated child behavior problems and parenting strategies. Results: At posttreatment, children whose parents had received interventions showed a strong decrease in child conduct problems and a moderate to strong decrease in ADHD symptoms. About half of parents whose children scored over the 95th percentile on the behavior measures (Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory, Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham Rating Scale), a clinically meaningful cutoff, reported that their children were no longer above the cutoff after the intervention. Parents showed considerably less negative behaviors toward their children at posttest compared with pretest; they increased in parental competence, and decreased in both stress and depressive symptoms. Overall, the behavioral programs were more effective than the nonbehavioral program. Conclusions: The results support the general efficacy of parent training in a short-term perspective.

  • 231.
    Steel, Craig
    et al.
    Univ Reading, Sch Psychol & Clin Language Sci, Dept Psychol, Reading RG6 6AL, Berks, England.
    Mahmood, Misbah
    Kings Coll London, Dept Psychol, Inst Psychiat, London WC2R 2LS, England.
    Holmes, Emily A.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Psychiat, Oxford, England.
    Positive schizotypy and trait dissociation as vulnerability factors for post-traumatic distress2008In: British Journal of Clinical Psychology, ISSN 0144-6657, E-ISSN 2044-8260, Vol. 47, p. 245-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. This study investigated whether trait positive schizotypy or trait dissociation was associated with increased levels of data-driven processing and symptoms of post-traumatic distress following a road traffic accident. Methods. Forty-five survivors of road traffic accidents were recruited from a London Accident and Emergency service. Each completed measures of trait positive schizotypy, trait dissociation, data-driven processing, and post-traumatic stress. Results. Trait positive schizotypy was associated with increased levels of data-driven processing and post-traumatic symptoms during a road traffic accident, whereas trait dissociation was not. Conclusions. Previous results which report a significant relationship between trait dissociation and post-traumatic symptoms may be an artefact of the relationship between trait positive schizotypy and trait dissociation.

  • 232.
    Stenberg, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Does contingency in adults' responding influence 12-month-old infants' social referencing?2017In: Infant Behavior and Development, ISSN 0163-6383, E-ISSN 1879-0453, Vol. 49, p. 9-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In two experiments we examined the influence of contingent versus non-contingent responding on infant social referencing behavior. EXPERIMENT 1: Forty 12-month-old infants were exposed to an ambiguous toy in a social referencing situation. In one condition an unfamiliar adult who in a previous play situation had responded contingently to the infant's looks gave the infant positive information about the toy. In the other condition an unfamiliar adult who previously had not responded contingently delivered the positive information. EXPERIMENT 2: Forty-eight 12 month-old infants participated in Experiment 2. In this experiment it was examined whether the familiarity of the adult influences infants' reactions to contingency in responding. In one condition a parent who previously had responded contingently to the infant's looks provided positive information about the ambiguous toy, and in the other condition a parent who previously had not responded contingently provided the positive information. The infants looked more at the contingent experimenter in Experimenter 1, and also played more with the toy after receiving positive information from the contingent experimenter. No differences in looking at the parent and in playing with the toy were found in Experiment 2. The results indicate that contingency in responding, as well as the familiarity of the adult, influence infants' social referencing behavior.

  • 233.
    Stening, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordin, Kristin
    Persson, Jonas
    Kalpouzos, Grégoria
    Larsson, Elna-Marie
    Eriksson, Elias
    Zetterberg, Henrik
    Söderlund, Hedvig
    Age effects on hippocampal volume and episodic and spatial memory vary as a function of APOE status and sexManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 234.
    Stening, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Persson, Jonas
    Eriksson, Elias
    Wahlund, Lars-Olof
    Zetterberg, Henrik
    Söderlund, Hedvig
    Specific patterns of whole-brain structural covariance of the anterior and posterior hippocampus in young APOE ε4 carriersManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 235.
    Strandell, Jacob
    University of Copenhagen.
    Self-esteem in action: From direct causality to motive and mediator of self-performative action2017In: Culture & Psychology, ISSN 1354-067X, E-ISSN 1461-7056, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 74-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-esteem research has been in “crisis” during the last decade, due to the lack of strong, consistent correlations between self-esteem and behavioral outcomes. Some researchers have interpreted this as indicating that self-esteem is inconsequential in many important areas of life. However, the model of direct causality used in correlational research, between a general self-esteem trait and specific behaviors, may be unrealistic. In contrast, this paper develops a model of self-esteem-motivated behaviour as originating from past, current or future (desired) self-concepts. This model shows how an interaction of catalytic factors determines how self-esteem influences behaviour. That is, what “self-esteem” actually “does.” By clarifying the different ways in which self-esteem affects behavior, the model shows that construing self-esteem as a passive variable with direct causal influence on behavior is inadequate and misleading and that previous contradictory results are a consequence of this misconceptualization and subsequent reification of self-esteem. Because self-esteem and the self-concept are inseparable (one is an attitude towards the other) self-esteem-motivated behavior is always about self-construction, and thus performative. Future self-esteem research and theory should therefore focus on how people seek to enact, maintain, or defend a desired identity through performative actions.

  • 236.
    Sundh, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. joakim.sundh@psyk.uu.se.
    Cognitive Strategies When Integrating Mutually Dependent Probabilities2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores human cognitive processes in conjunctive and disjunctive probability integration. It examines both independent probabilities and probabilities sharing a simple dependence structure created from interconnectivity, i.e. from mutual interaction in a shared environment. Participants deferred to a mean heuristic when the dependence structure was strong enough to make this a valid approximation and to exemplar memory in other cases. Qualitative insight in the underlying dependence structure was typically low, though there were a small number of participants who attempted use of truncated multiplicative strategies consistent with probability theory and who, consequently, reached a partial insight in the nature of the dependence structure. This implies that although people are in most cases either unable or disinclined to use probability theory when integrating probabilities they are still quite adept at finding adaptive strategies for the task at hand. The main drawback of these strategies is that they will lead to errors and bias if the context changes, however they are likely to outperform naïve application of probability theory in environments where interconnectivity and mutual dependence is the norm.

  • 237.
    Sundh, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Compound risk judgment in tasks with both idiosyncratic and systematic risk: The “robust beauty” of additive probability integration2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 238.
    Sundh, Joakim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Juslin, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Cognitive Strategies when Integrating Mutually Dependent Probabilities2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores human cognitive processes in conjunctive and disjunctive probability integration. It examines both independent probabilities and probabilities sharing a simple dependence structure created from interconnectivity, i.e. from mutual interaction in a shared environment. Participants deferred to a mean heuristic when the dependence structure was strong enough to make this a valid approximation and to exemplar memory in other cases. Qualitative insight in the underlying dependence structure was typically low, though there were a small number of participants who attempted use of truncated multiplicative strategies consistent with probability theory and who, consequently, reached a partial insight in the nature of the dependence structure. This implies that although people are in most cases either unable or disinclined to use probability theory when integrating probabilities they are still quite adept at finding adaptive strategies for the task at hand. The main drawback of these strategies is that they will lead to errors and bias if the context changes, however they are likely to outperform naïve application of probability theory in environments where interconnectivity and mutual dependence is the norm.

  • 239.
    Sundh, Joakim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Juslin, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Compound risk judgment in tasks with both idiosyncratic and systematic risk: The “Robust Beauty” of additive probability integration2018In: Cognition, ISSN 0010-0277, E-ISSN 1873-7838, Vol. 171, p. 25-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we explore how people integrate risks of assets in a simulated financial market into a judgment of the conjunctive risk that all assets decrease in value, both when assets are independent and when there is a systematic risk present affecting all assets. Simulations indicate that while mental calculation according to naïve application of probability theory is best when the assets are independent, additive or exemplar-based algorithms perform better when systematic risk is high. Considering that people tend to intuitively approach compound probability tasks using additive heuristics, we expected the participants to find it easiest to master tasks with high systematic risk – the most complex tasks from the standpoint of probability theory – while they should shift to probability theory or exemplar memory with independence between the assets. The results from 3 experiments confirm that participants shift between strategies depending on the task, starting off with the default of additive integration. In contrast to results in similar multiple cue judgment tasks, there is little evidence for use of exemplar memory. The additive heuristics also appear to be surprisingly context-sensitive, with limited generalization across formally very similar tasks.

  • 240.
    Thibault, Louis
    et al.
    Université Paris Descartes.
    Van den Berg, Ronald
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Cavanagh, Patrick
    Université Paris Descartes.
    Claire, Sergent
    Université Paris Descartes.
    Retrospective Attention Gates Discrete Conscious Access to Past Sensory Stimuli2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 2, article id e0148504Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cueing attention after the disappearance of visual stimuli biases which items will be remembered best. This observation has historically been attributed to the influence of attention on memory as opposed to subjective visual experience. We recently challenged this view by showing that cueing attention after the stimulus can improve the perception of a single Gabor patch at threshold levels of contrast. Here, we test whether this retro-perception actually increases one's chance of consciously perceiving the stimulus, or simply allows for a more precise recall of its features. We used retro-cues in an orientation-matching task and performed mixture-model analysis to independently estimate the proportion of guesses and the precision of non-guess responses. We find that the improvements in performance conferred by retrospective attention are overwhelmingly carried by a reduction in the proportion of guesses, providing strong evidence that attracting attention to the target’s location after its disappearance increases the likelihood of perceiving it consciously.

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  • 241.
    Thibault, Louis
    et al.
    Université Paris Descartes.
    Van den Berg, Ronald
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Cavanagh, Patrick
    Université Paris Descartes.
    Sergent, Claire
    Université Paris Descartes.
    Retrospective Attention Gates Discrete Conscious Access to Past Sensory Stimuli2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 2, article id e0148504Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cueing attention after the disappearance of visual stimuli biases which items will be remembered best. This observation has historically been attributed to the influence of attention on memory as opposed to subjective visual experience. We recently challenged this view by showing that cueing attention after the stimulus can improve the perception of a single Gabor patch at threshold levels of contrast. Here, we test whether this retro-perception actually increases the frequency of consciously perceiving the stimulus, or simply allows for a more precise recall of its features. We used retro-cues in an orientation-matching task and performed mixture-model analysis to independently estimate the proportion of guesses and the precision of non-guess responses. We find that the improvements in performance conferred by retrospective attention are overwhelmingly determined by a reduction in the proportion of guesses, providing strong evidence that attracting attention to the target’s location after its disappearance increases the likelihood of perceiving it consciously.

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  • 242.
    Thorgrimsson, Gudmundur
    et al.
    Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics.
    Fawcett, Christine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Liszkowski, Ulf
    Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics.
    Infants’ expectations about third-party verbal exchangesIn: Infancy, ISSN 1525-0008, E-ISSN 1532-7078Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 243.
    Thorsell Cederberg, Jenny
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Neuropediatrics/Paediatric oncology.
    Weineland, Sandra
    Primary Hlth Care, Res & Dev Ctr, Region Vastra Gotaland, Sweden;Univ Gothenburg, Dept Psychol, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Dahl, JoAnne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ljungman, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Neuropediatrics/Paediatric oncology.
    A preliminary validation of the Swedish short version of the Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth (AFQ-Y8) for children and adolescents with cancer2018In: Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, ISSN 2212-1447, Vol. 10, p. 103-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychological inflexibility constitutes a generalized vulnerability for psychopathology. Children and adolescents undergoing cancer treatment are faced with numerous physical and psychological stressors throughout their cancer trajectory. Most of the survivors show resilience but some groups report psychological ill-health and poor quality-of-life long-term. Psychological flexibility has been shown to mediate improvements in psychological health for cancer patients. The Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth (AFQ-Y) is the most frequently used measure of psychological inflexibility in children and adolescents. It correlates with a wide range of measures of mental health and long-term functional behavior. The aim of the study was to investigate norm values, psychometric properties and factor structure of the AFQ-Y8 for children and adolescents with cancer. All children and adolescents, aged 7-18 years of age, undergoing cancer treatment in Sweden at the time of the study were invited to participate. Norm values, internal consistency, test-retest reliability and convergent validity were calculated and an exploratory factor analysis was conducted. 62 children participated. The mean of the AFQ-Y8 in the sample was 10.30 (5.75). Internal consistency was acceptable (alpha = 0.76), test-retest reliability was good (ICC = 0.64) and convergent validity was demonstrated (r = 0.42). Norm values are now available, and the psychometric properties supported, for the AFQ-Y8 for children and adolescents with cancer. This provides implications for the prevention and treatment of psychopathology for this population. However, the one-factor structure of the AFQ-Y8 was not unequivocally supported. The results from the PCA rather suggested a two-factor structure. Due to the small sample of the study, the results should be seen as preliminary and further validation is warranted, specifically with regards to factorial validity and sensitivity to change.

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  • 244.
    Thorup, Emilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Uppsala Child & Babylab.
    Joint Attention in Development: Insights from Children with Autism and Infant Siblings2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Compared to other children, children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are known to engage less in joint attention - the sharing of attention between two individuals toward a common object or event. Joint attention behaviors - for example gaze following, alternating gaze, and pointing - play an important role in early development, as they provide a foundation for learning and social interaction. Study I and Study II focused on infant siblings of children with ASD. These infants, often termed high risk (HR) infants, have an increased probability of receiving a later ASD diagnosis. Studying them therefore allows for the detection of early signs of ASD. Live eye tracking was used to investigate different joint attention behaviors at 10 months of age. Study I showed that omitting the head movement that usually accompany experimenters’ eye gaze shifts in similar designs reduced gaze following performance in the HR group, but not in a group of infants at low risk (LR) for ASD. HR infants may thus be less sensitive to eye information, or may need more salient cues in order to follow gaze optimally. Study II focused on the infants’ tendency to initiate joint attention by alternating their gaze between a person and an event. LR infants engaged more in alternating gaze than HR infants, and less alternating gaze in infancy was associated with more ASD symptoms at 18 months. This relation remained when controlling for visual disengagement and general social interest in infancy. Study III explored the role of joint attention later in development, by investigating the microstructure of the looking behaviors of autistic and typically developing children (~6 years old). The results indicated that seeing somebody look at an object influenced the processing of that object less in autistic children than in the typically developing controls. Both groups followed gaze effectively, suggesting that differences in joint attention at this age may be subtle, but detectable with eye tracking technology. Together, the studies contribute to our understanding of the role that joint attention atypicalities play both in the early development of infants at risk for ASD, and later in the development of children with a confirmed diagnosis.

    List of papers
    1. Altered gaze following during live interaction in infants at risk for autism: An eye tracking study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Altered gaze following during live interaction in infants at risk for autism: An eye tracking study
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    2016 (English)In: Molecular Autism, ISSN 2040-2392, Vol. 7, article id 12Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The ability to follow gaze is an important prerequisite for joint attention, which is often compromised in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The direction of both the head and eyes provides cues to other people's attention direction, but previous studies have not separated these factors and their relation to ASD susceptibility. Development of gaze following typically occurs before ASD diagnosis is possible, and studies of high-risk populations are therefore important. Methods: Eye tracking was used to assess gaze following during interaction in a group of 10-month-old infants at high familial risk for ASD (high-risk group) as well as a group of infants with no family history of ASD (low-risk group). The infants watched an experimenter gaze at objects in the periphery. Performance was compared across two conditions: one in which the experimenter moved both the eyes and head toward the objects (Eyes and Head condition) and one that involved movement of the eyes only (Eyes Only condition). Results: A group by condition interaction effect was found. Specifically, whereas gaze following accuracy was comparable across the two conditions in the low-risk group, infants in the high-risk group were more likely to follow gaze in the Eyes and Head condition than in the Eyes Only condition. Conclusions: In an ecologically valid social situation, responses to basic non-verbal orienting cues were found to be altered in infants at risk for ASD. The results indicate that infants at risk for ASD may rely disproportionally on information from the head when following gaze and point to the importance of separating information from the eyes and the head when studying social perception in ASD.

    Keywords
    Autism; Gaze following; Joint attention; Early development; Neurodevelopmental disorders; Social cognition; Communication; Younger siblings
    National Category
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-275580 (URN)10.1186/s13229-016-0069-9 (DOI)000368885200001 ()26819699 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 259-2012-24Swedish Research Council, 2015-03670Swedish Research Council, 523-2009-7054Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P12-0270:1Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, NHS14-1802:1EU, European Research Council, 312292
    Available from: 2016-02-04 Created: 2016-02-04 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
    2. Reduced alternating gaze during social interaction in infancy is associated with elevated symptoms of autism in toddlerhood
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reduced alternating gaze during social interaction in infancy is associated with elevated symptoms of autism in toddlerhood
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    2018 (English)In: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, ISSN 0091-0627, E-ISSN 1573-2835, Vol. 46, no 7, p. 1547-1561Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In typical development, infants often alternate their gaze between their interaction partners and interesting stimuli, increasing the probability of joint attention toward surrounding objects and creating opportunities for communication and learning. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have been found to engage less in behaviors that can initiate joint attention compared to typically developing children, but the role of such atypicalities in the development of ASD during infancy is not fully understood. Here, using eye tracking technology in a live setting, we show that 10-month-olds at high familial risk for ASD engage less in alternating gaze during interaction with an adult compared to low risk infants. These differences could not be explained by low general social preference or slow visual disengagement, as the groups performed similarly in these respects. We also found that less alternating gaze at 10 months was associated with more ASD symptoms and less showing and pointing at 18 months. These relations were similar in both the high risk and the low risk groups, and remained when controlling for general social preference and disengagement latencies. This study shows that atypicalities in alternating gaze in infants at high risk for ASD emerge already during the first 10 months of life - a finding with theoretical as well as potential practical implications.

    National Category
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-327116 (URN)10.1007/s10802-017-0388-0 (DOI)000443697800014 ()29527625 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 2015-03670Swedish Research Council, 523-2009-7054Swedish Research Council FormasVINNOVA, 259-2012-24EU, European Research Council, StG: CACTUS 312292Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P12-0270:1Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, NHS14-1802:1
    Available from: 2017-08-03 Created: 2017-08-03 Last updated: 2018-10-29Bibliographically approved
    3. Gaze Following in Children with Autism: Do High Interest Objects Boost Performance?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gaze Following in Children with Autism: Do High Interest Objects Boost Performance?
    2017 (English)In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 626-635Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This study tested whether including objects perceived as highly interesting by children with autism during a gaze following task would result in increased first fixation durations on the target objects. It has previously been found that autistic children differentiate less between an object another person attends to and unattended objects in terms of this measure.  Less differentiation between attended and unattended objects in ASD as compared to control children was found in a baseline condition, but not in the high interest condition. However, typically developing children differentiated less between attended and unattended objects in the high interest condition than in the baseline condition, possibly reflecting reduced influence of gaze cues on object processing when objects themselves are highly interesting.

    Keywords
    Gaze following, Joint attention, Circumscribed interests, Communication, Social cognition
    National Category
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-313736 (URN)10.1007/s10803-016-2955-6 (DOI)000396815400011 ()27987062 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 2015-03670Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, NHS14-1802:1The Karolinska Institutet's Research Foundation
    Available from: 2017-01-23 Created: 2017-01-23 Last updated: 2017-08-05Bibliographically approved
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  • 245.
    Tillman, Carin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Brocki, Karin C
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sørensen, Lin
    Lundervold, Astri J
    A Longitudinal Examination of the Developmental Executive Function Hierarchy in Children With Externalizing Behavior Problems2015In: Journal of Attention Disorders, ISSN 1087-0547, E-ISSN 1557-1246, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 496-506Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Using a 4-year longitudinal design, we evaluated two hypotheses based on developmental executive function (EF) hierarchy accounts in a sample of children with externalizing problems. Method: The participants performed EF tasks when they were between 8 and 12 years (M = 9.93), and again approximately 4 years later when they were between 12 and 15 years (M = 13.36). Results: Inhibition in middle childhood predicted working memory (WM) 4 years later. Further, deficits in inhibition and sustained attention were more prominent in middle rather than late childhood, whereas poor WM was salient throughout these periods. Conclusions: These findings support the hypotheses that EFs develop hierarchically and that EF deficits in ADHD are more prominent in actively developing EFs. They also emphasize ADHD as a developmental disorder.

  • 246.
    Tillman, Carin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Granvald, Viktor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Role of Parental Education in the Relation Between ADHD Symptoms and Executive Functions in Children2015In: Journal of Attention Disorders, ISSN 1087-0547, E-ISSN 1557-1246, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 542-548Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Using a population-based sample of 9-year-old children, this study examined whether the relation between symptoms of ADHD and executive functions (EFs) depended on socioeconomic status (SES; indexed by parental education). Method: Parents and teachers rated the children's ADHD symptoms, and parents also indicated their educational level in a questionnaire. The children performed a comprehensive set of EF tasks. Results: Whereas working memory was similarly related to ADHD symptoms in the lower and higher parental education group, the relations of inhibition and mental set-shifting with ADHD symptoms were generally stronger in the higher educational group, a pattern that was supported by several significant group differences in correlations. Conclusion: This suggests that the EF pathway in contemporary multiple pathway models of ADHD etiology may be particularly relevant in higher SES parts of the population.

  • 247.
    Torbjörnsson, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Does ESD support or oppose change in the fundamental socioenvironmental values of pupils?2010In: / [ed] Leif Östman, Tungalag Baljir, Ulanbaatar: Mongolian State University of Education, Uppsala University , 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Educational policy documents from global to national and local levels give priority to learning how to achieve sustainable development. “Few issues are so important but so elusive as sustainable development, and there can be very few such issues indeed where the role of learning is so crucially important to our future.”(Scott & Gough, 2004, s. xi). A need of change in human values is often expressed as a prerequisite for sustainable development.  How ESD can support this change, without yielding to manipulation and indoctrination, is one of the current main issues.  How do you as a teacher balance on the edge between “knowing what is right and knowing that it´s wrong to tell others what is right” ?(Wals, 2010)           There are abundant suggestions about which values that have to be changed in order to achieve sustainable development.  I choose to presuppose the fundamental values underlying The Millennium Declaration of the UN. They are freedom, equality, solidarity, tolerance, respect for nature and shared responsibility (UN, 2000). Despite their importance not very much is known about how these values help or hinder sustainable development (Leiserowitz, Kates, & Paris, 2006). Studies from many different countries show that students´ primary concern is globally environmental problems. Less is  known about how this concern is related to other issues that the students find important (Rickinson, 2001) and how the values mentioned above are correlated to each other.

    An individual can express values through actions and attitudes. Focus in my research is on how the fundamental values, underlying sustainable development, are expressed in attitudes and how these are combined and distributed among Swedish pupils in upper secondary school. A questionnaire (n=917) with 27 statements, concerning attitudes towards nature and towards fellow human beings is so far the empirical body. I use five-grade Likert items[i] aggregated into four groups, each of them summing up to a Likert scale[ii] measuring different aspects of one value. The four values are; biocentrism, anthropocentrism (two different aspects of respect for nature) equality and solidarity and are consequently connected to the underlying values in The Millennium Declaration of the UN. I use Bogner and Wiseman´s (2003)Model of Ecological Values to measure  respect for nature and have constructed a new scale, Model of Social Values,  for the purpose of measuring solidarity and equality.

    Preliminary results show a significant correlation between a strong willingness to preserve nature and to show solidarity with a wide in-group of others. There is also a significant correlation between strong utilization attitudes towards nature and to show solidarity with a narrower in-group and also between strong utilization attitudes and to accept unequal distribution of resources.  These findings mainly confirm results from earlier research. People high in empathy tend to be low in materialistic values and high in intrinsic values and more negative environmental attitudes are often associated with less concern for social justice and equality(Crompton & Kasser, 2009).

    My all-embracing research question is to analyze how pupils today understand how learning processes in elementary school have supported or opposed their own socioenvironmental values. To do that I need to carry out qualitative interviews with individuals representing the main categories in my survey. In those interviews one aim is to catch the essence of how pupils interpret their teachers’ ability to balance on the edge between telling what is right and supporting diversity and pluralism. 

    [i] The respondent mark the level of agreement from 1= strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree

    [ii] A summated scale of several items which together measure one dimension

  • 248.
    Truedsson, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fawcett, Christine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wesevich, Victoria
    Yale Sch Med, Dept Obstet Gynecol & Reprod Sci, New Haven, CT USA.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wåhlstedt, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Role of Callous-Unemotional Traits on Adolescent Positive and Negative Emotional Reactivity: A Longitudinal Community-Based Study2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 573Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Callous-unemotional (CU) traits are associated with lower emotional reactivity in adolescents. However, since previous studies have focused mainly on reactivity to negative stimuli, it is unclear whether reactivity to positive stimuli is also affected. Further, few studies have addressed the link between CU traits and emotional reactivity in longitudinal community samples, which is important for determining its generalizability and developmental course. In the current study, pupil dilation and self-ratings of arousal and valence were assessed in 100 adolescents (15-17 years) from a community sample, while viewing images with negative and positive valence from the International Affective Pictures System (ZAPS). Behavioral traits (CU) were assessed concurrently, as well as at ages 12-15, and 8-9 (subsample, n = 68, low levels of prosocial behavior were used as a proxy for CU traits). The results demonstrate that CU traits assessed at ages 12-15 and 8-9 predicted less pupil dilation to both positive and negative images at ages 15-17. Further, CU traits at ages 12-15 and concurrently were associated with less negative valence ratings for negative images and concurrently to less positive valence ratings for positive images. The current findings demonstrate that CU traits are related to lower emotional reactivity to both negative and positive stimuli in adolescents from a community sample.

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  • 249.
    Tuncgenc, Bahar
    et al.
    University of Oxford.
    Cohen, Emma
    University of Oxford.
    Fawcett, Christine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rock with me: The role of movement synchrony in infants’ social and non-social choices2015In: Child Development, ISSN 0009-3920, E-ISSN 1467-8624Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 250.
    Van den Berg, Ronald
    et al.
    Cambridge University.
    Anandalingam, Kavi
    Cambridge University.
    Zylberberg, Ariel
    Columbia University.
    Kiani, Roozbeh
    New York University.
    Shadlen, Michael
    Columbia University.
    Wolpert, Daniel
    Cambridge University.
    A common mechanism underlies changes of mind about decisions and confidence2016In: eLIFE, E-ISSN 2050-084XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decisions are accompanied by a degree of confidence that a selected option is correct. A sequential sampling framework explains the speed and accuracy of decisions and extends naturally to the confidence that the decision rendered is likely to be correct. However, discrepancies between confidence and accuracy suggest that confidence might be supported by mechanisms dissociated from the decision process. Here we show that this discrepancy can arise naturally because of simple processing delays. When participants were asked to report choice and confidence simultaneously, their confidence, reaction time and a perceptual decision about motion were explained by bounded evidence accumulation. However, we also observed revisions of the initial choice and/or confidence. These changes of mind were explained by a continuation of the mechanism that led to the initial choice. Our findings extend the sequential sampling framework to vacillation about confidence and invites caution in interpreting dissociations between confidence and accuracy.

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