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  • 201.
    Svensson, Jakob
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Avdelningen för medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Larsson, Anders
    Universitetet i Oslo.
    Twitter and the public sphere: Political communication and methodological triangulations in the era of “Big Data”2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 202.
    Svensson, Jakob
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Media and Communication Studies.
    Larsson, Anders Olof
    Westerdals Oslo Sch Arts Commun & Technol, Fac Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Interacting With Whom?: Swedish Parliamentarians on Twitter during the 2014 Elections2016In: International Journal of E-Politics, ISSN 1947-9131, E-ISSN 1947-914X, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores Swedish Parliamentarians’ Twitter practices during the 2014 general elections. For individual candidates, the political party is important for positions within the party and on the ballot, especially in a party-centered democracy.  A previous qualitative (n)ethnographic research project during the previous elections in 2010, in which one campaigning politician was studied in-depth, found that her social media practices to a large extent were inward-facing, focusing on the own party network. But does this result resonate among all Swedish Parliamentarians? Specifically, we ask: is Twitter primarily used interactively, for intra-party communication, to interact with strategic voter groups or voters in general? By analyzing all Parliamentarians tweets two weeks up to the elections we conclude that retweeting was done within a party political network while @messaging was directed towards political opponents. Mass media journalists and editorial writers were important in Parliamentarians’ Twitter practices, while so-called ordinary voters were more absent.

     

  • 203.
    Svensson, Jakob
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Media and Communication Studies.
    Larsson, Caroline Wamala
    Karlstad Univ, Ctr Gender Res, HumanIT Res Ctr, Informat & Commun Technol Dev ICT4D, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Situated empowerment: Mobile phones practices among market women in Kampala2016In: Mobile Media & Communication, ISSN 2050-1579, E-ISSN 2050-1587, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 205-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we depart from studies on empowerment and its intersections with the informal economy and market women in the Global South and promises of the mobile phone in so-called developing regions. Conducting an explorative study among market women in Kampala, the aim is to examine what roles (if any) the mobile phone plays for them in terms of empowerment. Our findings resonate with studies from other parts of the world, suggesting that while pivotal for their business endeavors, mobile phone practices are also embedded in patriarchal structures. By discussing how these market women navigate the tensions between using the phone for their business and in relations to their partners, the article contributes a more nuanced and context-specific understanding of mobile phone practices and the empowerment of market women. We conclude the article by suggesting a situated approach to the study of empowerment.

  • 204.
    Svensson, Jakob
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Avdelningen för medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Neumayer, Christina
    IT University, Copnehagen.
    Banfield-Mumb, Alexander
    University of Salzburg.
    Shlossbäck, Judith
    Donau-universität, Krems.
    What kind of activist are you?: Positioning, power and identity in political online activism in Europe2012In: CeDem2012. Conference on E-Democracy and Open Government / [ed] Parycek, P & Edelmann, N, Krems: Danube-University Krems , 2012, p. 165-177Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we examine the different forms of activism using information and communication technologies for representation of different political positions. Within the framework of radical democracy (Laclau & Mouffe 1985) we develop a typology of contemporary activism. The results are based on three qualitative case studies of political activism where digital communication played an important role: [1] middle-class activists in Sweden fighting to save their bathhouse; [2] student protests in Austria; and [3] anti-fascist protests in East Germany. 

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  • 205.
    Svensson, Jakob
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Avdelningen för medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Poveda, Oriol
    Knowledge without borders.
    Mobile Communication for Development: Formulating Critical Research Questions2012In: Proceedings of M4D 2012 28-29 February 2012 New Delhi, India / [ed] Vikas Kumar & Jakob Svensson, Karlstad: Karlstad University Press , 2012, p. 383-387Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we take a look at the field of M4D from a Media, Communication/ Sociology perspective. While acknowledging the contribution of mobile communication in improving the lives of people in developing countries, we pose some critical questions for discussion. Following McLuhan, we ask ourselves in which ways mobile communication per se -regardless of its content- is dialectically influencing society and culture. This discussion will lead us to heightening importance of processes of identification through practices of connected- and responsiveness increasingly afforded by mobile communication in late modern societies. If we then take a step back from McLuhan and look at the content, we conclude that such processes of identification are fertile grounds for commercial companies to insert their messages and brands. Out of this discussion we end the paper by formulating some critical research questions.

  • 206.
    Svensson, Jakob
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Media and Communication Studies.
    Russmann, Uta
    Interaction on Instagram? : Glimpses from the Swedish 2014 Elections 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper directs attention to the use of Instagram by political parties in the Swedish elections 2014. Instagram is a social media platform on the rise, centered on sharing pictures. Besides sharing pictures, Instagram also offers the opportunity for written communication. Users may tag the uploaded picture with a text (a caption), and followers may comment on the posting (the picture with or without the caption). The question we ask is whether and how political parties use Instagram when engaging in interaction with their followers on the platform. To study this we have collected all Instagram posts (postings with comments) during the “hot phase” of the campaign (four weeks prior to the elections) and one week after the elections

  • 207.
    Svensson, Jakob
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Media and Communication Studies.
    Russmann, Uta
    Applied Science University of Vienna.
    Kirill, Filimonov
    Uppsala universitet.
    Picturing the Party: : Instagram and Party Campaigning in the 2014 Swedish Elections2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores Swedish Parties activities on Instagram during the 2014 elections. Understanding party campaign communication as highly strategic, i.e. communication to persuade and mobilize voters in order to win the elections, we ask whether Instagram was used 1) to broadcast campaign messages, 2) to mobilize supporters, 3) to manage the party’s image, and 4) to amplify and complement other campaign material (i.e. hybrid campaign use). We conducted a quantitative content analysis of 220 party postings on Instagram, which were collected during the hot phase of the campaign. The result shows that the platform was mainly used for broadcasting rather than for mobilization. The image the parties were presenting leaned towards personalization with a strong presence of top candidates in their postings. Top candidates were primarily displayed in a political/professional context. Finally, half of the analyzed postings showed signs of hybridized campaign practices.

  • 208.
    Svensson, Jakob
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Media and Communication Studies.
    Russmann, Uta
    Applied Science University of Vienna.
    Kirill, Filimonov
    Uppsala universitet.
    Picturing the Party: : Instagram and Party Campaigning in the 2014 Swedish Elections2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores Swedish Parties activities on Instagram during the 2014 elections. Understanding party campaign communication as highly strategic, i.e. communication to persuade and mobilize voters in order to win the elections, we ask whether Instagram was used 1) to broadcast campaign messages, 2) to mobilize supporters, 3) to manage the party’s image, and 4) to amplify and complement other campaign material (i.e. hybrid campaign use). We conducted a quantitative content analysis of 220 party postings on Instagram, which were collected during the hot phase of the campaign. The result shows that the platform was mainly used for broadcasting rather than for mobilization. The image the parties were presenting leaned towards personalization with a strong presence of top candidates in their postings. Top candidates were primarily displayed in a political/professional context. Finally, half of the analyzed postings showed signs of hybridized campaign practices.

  • 209.
    Svensson, Jakob
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Media and Communication Studies.
    Strand, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Media and Communication Studies.
    ICT4D post-2015 MDGs2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development agenda created at the UN General Assembly year 2000 and the birth of the MDGs provided development partners a unique opportunity to focus efforts and pool resources. There mere fact that all goals came with clear sets of indicators also highlighted the renewed importance placed on evidence based monitoring and evaluation system. Although the post-2015 development agenda is still under formation, the establishment of a common robust monitoring and accountability framework is essential for future partnerships around the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), as well as long-term public support.

    The following paper is based on a literature review of the ten highest ranking ICT4D journals’ research on mobile phone supported monitoring and evaluation systems of development cooperation in Africa. The review concludes that while there exists an abundance of pilot studies showcasing ICTs’ and mobiles in particular, potential to contribute to timely and cost efficient data collection, data management and analysis, there are very few examples of comprehensive and large scale monitoring and evaluation systems. Especially mobile technology’s potential to provide continuous feedback on monitoring and evaluation indicators, and potential for agile operational learning processes, appears to be both under-utilized and underdeveloped in development cooperation. With no less than 17 Sustainable Development Goals being proposed  as the post-2015 MDG development framework, dynamic monitoring and accountability systems are more important than ever, and it is high time to explore how mobiles can support the post-2015 development agenda. 

  • 210.
    Svensson, Jakob
    et al.
    Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Strand, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Media and Communication Studies.
    ICTs and Opportunities of Empowerment in a Context of State-Sanctioned Homophobia: The case of the LGBTQI community in Kampala2018In: Proceedings of the International Conference EGOV-CeDEM-ePart 2018 / [ed] Shefali Virkar, Peter Parycek, Noella Edelmann, Olivier Glassey, Marijn Janssen, Hans Jochen Scholl, Efthimios Tambouris, 2018, p. 229-236Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    After decades of growing acceptance of LGBTQI human rights in the West, Uganda began an African backlash in 2009, when it introduced an Anti-Homosexuality Bill. Even if the Bill was eventually defeated, it signaled the beginning of a new era of state-sponsored homophobia and wide-spread societal discrimination. State-sponsored persecution has however not silenced the Ugandan LGBTQI community. In the following reflections we explore the Ugandan LGBTQI community’s remarkable resilience and quest for change and in particular their use of ICTs for empowerment. Based on a pilot study conducted in November 2016, and ongoing online observations, tentative results are that the community organizes their communication practices around a division between intra-group organization (so-called deep information), and broadcasting and human-rights advocacy (surface information), due to perceived risks as well as opportunities of different communication modes and platforms.

  • 211.
    Svensson, Jakob
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Avdelningen för medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Wamala, Caroline
    Karlstads universitet, Centrum för genusforskning.
    Towards a Critical Study of Mobile Communication for Development.2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 212.
    Svensson, Jakob
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Media and Communication Studies.
    Wamala Larsson, Caroline
    Karlstads universitet.
    Approaches to Development in M4D Studies:: An overview of Major Approaches2015In: Promoting social change through Information Technology / [ed] Kumar, Vikas & Svensson, Jakob, IGI Global, 2015, p. 26-48Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is no doubt that the proliferation of mobile phones in developing regions has opened up a range of possibilities and new avenues for individuals, governments, development agencies and civil society organisations. But we also know that development is a disputed concept and conveys a range of different connotations. Therefore in this chapter we examine the areas, where   mobile phones are discussed as vehicles for development (i.e. M4D), and how mobile communication is related to the idea(s) of development today. To  examine this, we have reviewed M4D articles in three major conference series and in open source journals during  2008-2012. Three dominant areas of M4D emerge out of our sample: livelihood, health and civic participation. Largely being based on an economic understanding of development and biased towards techno-determinism we conclude this chapter by suggesting a future path for studying the  impact of mobile communication  in developing regions, something what we label as a dialectical approach.

  • 213.
    Svensson, Jakob
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Media and Communication Studies.
    Wamala-Larsson, Caroline
    Karlstads universitet.
    A Double-Edged Sword. : Mobile phones and empowerment among market women in Kampala2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we depart from studies on empowerment and its intersections with the informal economy and market women in the global south and promises of the mobile phone in so-called developing regions. Conducting an explorative study among market women in Kampala, the aim is to study what role (if any) the mobile phone plays for them in terms of empowerment. Our findings resonate with studies from other parts of the world, suggesting that while pivotal for their business endeavours, mobile phone practices are also embedded in patriarchal structures. The article ends by discussing how these market women navigate the tensions between using the phone for their business and in relations to their partner. In this way the article contributes with a more nuanced and context specific understanding of mobile phone practices and the empowerment of market women.

  • 214.
    Svensson, Jakob
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Media and Communication Studies.
    Wamala-Larsson, Caroline
    Situated empowerment: Mobile phones practices among market women in Kampala2016In: Mobile Media & Communication, ISSN 2050-1579, E-ISSN 2050-1587, Vol. 3, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we depart from studies on empowerment and its intersections with the informal economy and market women in the global south and promises of the mobile phone in so-called developing regions. Conducting an explorative study among market women in Kampala, the aim is to examine what roles (if any) the mobile phone plays for them in terms of empowerment. Our findings resonate with studies from other parts of the world, suggesting that while pivotal for their business endeavors, mobile phone practices are also embedded in patriarchal structures. By discussing how these market women navigate the tensions between using the phone for their business and in relations to their partners, the article contributes a more nuanced and context specific understanding of mobile phone practices and the empowerment of market women. We conclude the article by suggesting a situated approach to the study of empowerment. 

  • 215.
    Sävenryd, Moa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    How expert players choose and play strongly identifiable characters: A study of how players behave and strategize in character-based shooter games2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Heroes are a category of game characters that have a defined set of abilities and predefined roles. Depending on game, the heroes have different functionalities and roles, and are either created for the game and its lore, or are already known from other medias. Heroes occur in different types of games, including online multiplayer shooter games where players compete online in teams against other players. The following project has focused on exploring how different kinds of heroes, in different online multiplayer character-based shooter games, are played. The aim of the project was to investigate how expert players chose and played heroes in online multiplayer shooter games by looking at reasons behind hero choices, player behavior and used strategies when playing different heroes. Two playtest studies have been carried out on two different online multiplayer character-based shooter games, one study including interviews. 

    The result of the studies demonstrated that hero choice and strategy choice was affected by different aspects including internal factors such as player preferences and expectations, as well as external factors such as game design and other players. It was found knowledge of the game and its heroes to some extent were needed to make meaningful decisions in the game. Strategies used and behaviors with the heroes were dependent on the design of the heroes. Furthermore, it was found that participants took different decision paths, either first choosing hero and thereafter adjusting the strategy to the chosen hero, or choosing a hero with a strategy already in mind. Choosing hero first, participants were affected by internal and external factors. Choosing strategy first, the influencing aspect were only internal. These paths highlighted different player needs in game design. If choosing hero first the player needs concerned understanding the hero as a character, and if choosing strategy first the player needs concerned getting information about the functionality of the heroes. 

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  • 216.
    Tanevska, Ana
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division Vi3.
    Chandra, Shruti
    Univ Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada..
    Barbareschi, Giulia
    Keio Univ, Yokohama, Japan..
    Eguchi, Amy
    Univ Calif San Diego, La Jolla, CA USA..
    Han, Zhao
    Colorado Sch Mines, Golden, CO USA..
    Korpan, Raj
    Iona Coll, New Rochelle, NY USA..
    Ostrowski, Anastasia K.
    MIT, Cambridge, MA USA..
    Perugia, Giulia
    Eindhoven Univ Technol, Eindhoven, Netherlands..
    Ravindranath, Sindhu
    IFHE Univ, Hyderabad, India..
    Seaborn, Katie
    Tokyo Inst Technol, Tokyo, Japan..
    Winkle, Katie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division Vi3. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Inclusive HRI II: Equity and Diversity in Design, Application, Methods, and Community2023In: HRI '23: Companion of the 2023 ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction / [ed] Ginevra Castellano; Laurel Riek; Maya Cakmak; Iolanda Leite, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2023, p. 956-958Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diversity, equality, and inclusion (DEI) are critical factors that need to be considered when developing AI and robotic technologies for people. The lack of such considerations exacerbates and can also perpetuate existing forms of discrimination and biases in society for years to come. Although concerns have already been voiced around the globe, there is an urgent need to take action within the human-robot interaction (HRI) community. This workshop contributes to filling the gap by providing a platform in which to share experiences and research insights on identifying, addressing, and integrating DEI considerations in HRI. With respect to last year, this year the workshop will further engage participants on the problem of sampling biases through hands-on co-design activities for mitigating inequity and exclusion within the field of HRI.

  • 217.
    Tundrea, Darius
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Media and Communication Studies.
    Artificial Intelligence is Getting Personal: A study on the Usage Motivations and Privacy Concerns of Intelligent Personal Assistants’ Users2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present study is aiming to evaluate the Intelligent Personal Assistants usage motivations, addressing at the same time various privacy issues and concerns related to this emergent technology. To fulfil the purpose of the study I have applied two different research methods. Initially, a web survey conducted gathered 18 respondents answering 24 questions related to the presented topic. Subsequently, was organised a focus group by gathering seven respondents who shared their opinions on the subject of research. Two research questions were developed based on two hypotheses. First research question: “To what extent IPA users agree to personal data collection in order to gratify their sought needs?”; exploring the participants’ opinions when it comes to the degree of acceptance of personal information disclosure to gratify their needs. Moreover, second research question: “What are the motivating criteria that determine the usage of IPA?”. This question develops opinions and experiences on the usage of Intelligent Personal Assistants, as well as the way people perceive this new technology. The finding of this studies reveals that users of new media are concerned and aware of their personal data collection. However, as a result, they feel trapped in the network society by the peer pressure towards the usage of favourite mediums. Therefore, the denial of technology would bring unfavourable consequences from a social perspective. Further researches can be conducted on this topic, addressing in depth the Artificial Intelligence and its societal implications, possible utilities of the Intelligent Personal Assistants as a companion for children, elders and people with disabilities, Artificial Intelligence used in public administration. Consequently, many different aspects can be explored having the topic of this thesis as a starting point.

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    Artificial Intelligence is Getting Personal
  • 218.
    Turmo, Laia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Understanding the design space of an instructed physical activity in a co-located, social setting: Inspiring the digital by looking at the physical2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the past years, gaming and sports in HCI have experienced an increase in design that rely on movement-based interactions. Nonetheless, some of these designs constrain the users and disregard the richness of the social and physical context around them. When designing (took away something here) an activity, we believe that a good previous understanding of it can help designers to create richer and less limiting interventions. On our study, we turn to Pilates in order to study (took away something here) the elements involved in the accomplishment of a working, co-located, social and instructed physical activity, as well as which are their roles and their characteristics. In order to do so, we record a Pilates' class and gather information on the perceptions of the instructor and the practitioners, through questionnaires. An analysis of the video, inspired by the Grounded Theory methodology and Sequential analysis; and also an analysis of the questionnaires, through a simplified version of Content analysis, reveal which (took away something here) elements are involved in such an activity (instructor, practitioners and artifacts ) and the interaction that exists among them, as well as which are their roles (what do these elements perform) and the characteristics of those roles (in which way they are performed). Here we illustrate the different results with examples from the data and, in basis to this data, we review some relevant findings and provide some inspirations for future design interventions.

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  • 219.
    Turmo Vidal, Laia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Designing for Instructed Physical Training2018In: Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference on Tangible, Embedded, and Embodied Interaction, New York: ACM Digital Library, 2018, p. 706-708Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of technology to assist in instructed physical training in collocated, social settings remains underexplored. In this short paper, I present an overview of my PhD research, which focuses on designing for supporting these activities and opening up their design space by taking into consideration the spatial, physical and social contexts in which they unravel. Following a Research Through Design approach, I conduct a series of design explorations to investigate how to ecologically design technological support for in-the-moment instructed physical training.

  • 220.
    Turmo Vidal, Laia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Márquez Segura, Elena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Parrilla Bel, Luis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Waern, Annika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Exteriorizing Body Alignment in Collocated Physical Training2018In: Extended Abstracts of the 2018 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Móntreal, Canada: ACM Digital Library, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proprioceptive awareness is an essential but challenging skill to master. In HCI physical training research, the design space of how technology can help people to develop such awareness remains narrow. Here, we present a technological device that exteriorizes misalignments of different body parts by translating them to haptic feedback. We present preliminary insights gained during the design process and device testing, and trace the future steps of its technological development.

  • 221.
    Turmo Vidal, Laia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Márquez Segura, Elena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Waern, Annika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Movement Correction in Instructed Fitness Training: Design Recommendations and Opportunities2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of technology to assist in instructed fitness training in collocated social settings is underexplored. Here we focus on how technology can be designed to fit within, leverage, and be part of the strategies and tools that fitness trainees and instructors use to detect and correct performance errors. Drawing on ethnomethodological approaches and using the concept of correction to focus our analysis, we scrutinize the interaction between instructor and trainees in two fitness activities, AntiGravity Fitness and Pilates. We identify social configurations and resources employed in instances of correction. We also present an analytical tool useful for deconstructing such correction processes, highlighting the strategies and resources used by the social actors, and their impact on performance. Based on insights gained from our analyses, we propose design recommendations and identify design opportunities that capitalize on existing tools and collaborative correction strategies, such as scaffolding the correction process.

  • 222. Valtakari, Niilo V.
    et al.
    Hooge, Ignace T. C.
    Viktorsson, Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyström, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Uppsala University, Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study (SCAS). Karolinska institutet.
    Hessels, Roy S.
    Eye tracking in human interaction: Possibilities and limitations2021In: Behavior Research Methods, ISSN 1554-351X, E-ISSN 1554-3528, Vol. 53, no 4, p. 1592-1608Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a long history of interest in looking behavior during human interaction. With the advance of (wearable) video-based eye trackers, it has become possible to measure gaze during many different interactions. We outline the different types of eye-tracking setups that currently exist to investigate gaze during interaction. The setups differ mainly with regard to the nature of the eye-tracking signal (head- or world-centered) and the freedom of movement allowed for the participants. These features place constraints on the research questions that can be answered about human interaction. We end with a decision tree to help researchers judge the appropriateness of specific setups.

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  • 223.
    Vega-Cebrián, José Manuel
    et al.
    Universidad Carlos III de Madrid .
    Márquez Segura, Elena
    Universidad Carlos III de Madrid .
    Turmo Vidal, Laia
    Universidad Carlos III de Madrid .
    Waern, Annika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Human-Computer Interaction.
    van Delden, Robby
    University of Twente.
    Weijdom, Joris
    University of Twente.
    Elbæk, Lars
    University of Southern Denmark .
    Vestergaard Andersen, Rasmus
    University of Southern Denmark .
    Lekbo, Søren
    University of Southern Denmark .
    Tajadura-Jiménez, Ana
    Universidad Carlos III de Madrid .
    Design Resources in Movement-based Design Methods: A Practice-based Characterization2023In: Proceedings of the 2023 ACM Designing Interactive Systems Conference, ACM Press, 2023, p. 871-888Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Movement-based design methods are increasingly adopted to help design rich embodied experiences. While there are well-known methods in the feld, there is no systematic overview to help designers choose among them, adapt them, or create their own. We collected 41 methods used by movement design researchers and employed a practice-based, bottom-up approach to analyze and characterize their properties. We found 17 categories and arranged them into five main groups: Design Resources, Activities, Delivery, Framing, and Context. In this paper, we describe these groups in general and then focus on Design Resources containing the categories of Movement, Space, and Objects. We ground the characterization with examples from empirical material provided by the design researchers and references to previous work. Additionally, we share recommendations and action points to bring these into practice. This work can help novice and seasoned design researchers who want to employ movement-based design methods in their practice. 

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  • 224.
    Vestergren, Malin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Tradition or Technology? An Ethnographic Study of Whiteboard Usage and Digitalization at Swedish Equestrian Centers2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Digitalization has spread to affect many aspects of our lives but it has yet to fully engage equestrians. Many stables still extensively use the traditional whiteboard in combination with digital technologies. Is it because digital technologies are not designed with the unique needs of an equestrian? Since research in this area is lacking, this study describes the daily conventions around the traditional whiteboard and the complementary use of digital technology, while exploring equestrians’ attitudes toward digitalization. Ethnographic methods of participant observation and group interviews were conducted at two large equestrian centers in Sweden, and the informants were a mix of horse owners, stable owners, stable staff, and riding school students. The results show that whiteboards are used to communicate and collaborative planning, but there is a problem of not noticing new handwritten information. Informants are hesitant toward incorporating new digital technologies because they worry about limitations, and some are content with the current traditional conventions - even if they employ many workarounds to issues related to the traditional way. The study also contributes toward a broader understanding of how future digital technologies can be designed in the unique setting of a stable, and the importance of a thorough understanding of users.

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    Tradition or Technology at Swedish Equestrian Centers
  • 225.
    Waern, Annika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Human-Computer Interaction.
    I’m in love with someone who doesn’t exist!: Bleed in the context of a computer game.2015In: Game Love: Essays on play and affection / [ed] Jessica Enevold and Esther MacCallum-Stewart, McFarland, 2015, p. 25-45Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 226.
    Waern, Annika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Vår teknikrelation med AI2022In: De Lege 2021: Law, AI and Digitalization / [ed] Katja de Vries & Mattias Dahlberg, Iustus förlag, 2022, 1, p. 37-50Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 227.
    Waern, Annika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Back, Jon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Activity as the Ultimate Particular of Interaction Design2017In: Proceedings of the 2017 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2017, p. 3390-3402Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the turn towards practice-oriented research in interaction design, one of the most important proposals has been the emphasis on the 'ultimate particulars' produced by design, as embodiments of design knowledge. In current HCI research, those particulars are almost always taken to be ‘things’ – artefacts or singular systems. We argue that this emphasis may have come at a cost that can be described as a loss of identity; interaction design research was never primarily concerned with the design of artefacts, but with how humans act and interact with each other with and through artefacts. We propose a complementary perspective by looking at design projects and traditions where the ‘ultimate particulars’ can be considered to be activities rather than things. The article is concerned with how knowledge needs to be articulated in the scholarly engagement with such design practices. We argue that engagement with activitycentric design gets design research one step closer towards understanding salient contemporary design practices and what Buchanan calls ‘environmental design’.

  • 228.
    Waern, Annika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Back, Jon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Experimental game design2017In: Game design research: an introduction to theory and practice / [ed] Petri Lankoski and Jussi Holopainen, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA: ETC Press, 2017, p. 157-170Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One way to understand games better is to experiment with their design. While experimental game design is part of most game design, this chapter focuses on ways in which it can become a method to perform academic enquiry, eliciting deeper principles for game design.

  • 229.
    Waern, Annika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Bohné, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Affective and bodily involvement in children’s tablet play2015In: Diversity of play: DiGRA 2015 / [ed] Mathias Fuchs, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid development of tablet applications targeting pre-school children presents us with challenging questions concerning how this age group engages with the applications. We performed a study with a tablet game designed to teach pre-school children about emotions, studying their mode of engagement and their understanding of the game. The purpose of the study was to provide insights into what play activities are encouraged by tablet play. The study showed clearly that even though the interactivity of the game was very limited, the children understood the social and emotional aspects of the game content very well. We also found that the children would sometimes engage affectively and dramatically with the game content; we highlight in particular instances of bodily involvement with the game. We argue that tablet games offer design opportunities for children in this age range that may be less relevant for older children, by taking corporeal play around the tablet into account.

    While none of the models for computer game-based learning and persuasion that have been proposed in literature constitutes a perfect fit to the behavior observed in our study, we find some resonance in the concept of procedural rhetorics in the way the players' interaction with the game serves to complete a rhetorical argument; in this case the storyline of the game. The children's dramatic involvement may potentially serve to strengthen such arguments.

  • 230.
    Waern, Annika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Deterding, Sebastian
    Lucero, Andrés
    Holopainen, Jussi
    Min, Chulhong
    Cheok, Adrian
    Walz, Steffen
    Embarrassing Interactions2015In: CHI extended abstracts, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2015, p. 2365-2368Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 231.
    Waern, Annika
    et al.
    DiGRA (Digital Games Research Association); HEVGA (Higher Education Video Game Alliance).
    Rajkowska, Paulina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Sensitizing Design Teams to Theory2022In: Hybrid Museum Experiences: Theory and Design / [ed] Annika Waern and Anders Sundnes Løvlie, Amsterdam University Press, 2022Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 232.
    Waern, Annika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Sundnes Løvlie, AndersIT University of Copenhagen.
    Hybrid Museum Experiences: Theory and Design2022Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    "So you’re the one getting this gift? Lucky you! Someone who knows you has visited the museum. They searched out things they thought you would care about, and they took photos and left messages for you.” This is the welcoming message for the Gift app, designed to create a very personal museum visit. Hybrid Museum Experiences use new technologies to augment, expand or alter the physical experience of visiting the museum. They are designed to be experienced in close relation to the physical space and exhibit. In this book we discuss three forms of hybridity in museum experiences: incorporating the digital and the physical, creating social, yet personal and intimate experiences, and exploring ways to balance visitor participation and museum curation. The book reports on a three-year cross-disciplinary research project in which artists, design researchers and museum professionals have collaborated to create technology-mediated experiences that merge with the museum environment.

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  • 233.
    Waern, Annika
    et al.
    DiGRA (Digital Games Research Association); HEVGA (Higher Education Video Game Alliance).
    Sundnes Løvlie, Anders
    IT University Copenhagen.
    Remediating, Reframing and Restaging the Museum2022In: Hybrid Museum Experiences: Theory and Design / [ed] Annika Waern and Anders Sundnes Løvlie, Amsterdam University Press, 2022Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Throughout this book, we have argued that hybrid museum experiences carry great potential for engaging audiences in new ways that are deeply meaningful – especially interpersonally. But hybrid museum experiences may also challenge museums in unforeseen ways. For instance, when the location-based game Pokémon GO was launched in 2016, the massive numbers of players created new ways to move and interact in public space that also affected museums. Virtual features that were important in the game had been attached to real-world locations using a database of locations of public interest, meaning that many of them were museums – and as a result,...

  • 234. Wamala-Larsson, Caroline
    et al.
    Svensson, Jakob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Media and Communication Studies.
    Participatory approaches to Development through Mobile Technologies:: A review of the M4D biennial conference proceedings2015In: Mobile Participation. : Access, Interaction and Practices. / [ed] J. Hellström, C. Scharff & C. Wamala Larsson,, Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2015, p. 17-54Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 235.
    Warpefelt, Henrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Game Design.
    Björn, Strååt
    Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Towards a Narrative Driven Understanding of Games User Experience2019In: HCI International 2019: Posters Part 2 / [ed] Constantine Stephanidis, Springer, 2019, p. 85-89Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last two decades, there has been an expansion of the field of human-computer interaction to move from a functionalist viewpoint to a viewpoint more focused on the user’s experience of an artifact. At the same time, the field of game studies has emerged as a way of understanding the user experience of games. Over the years, researchers have studied games as user experience artifacts, but as of yet there seems to be a dearth of frameworks that can be used to analyze the user experience of games from the perspective if game studies. In this paper, we take initial steps to provide such a framework by describing how the game narrative can be used to understand how users interpret games.

  • 236.
    Warpefelt, Henrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Game Design.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Game Design.
    Understanding the user experience of AI through the lens of game studies2019In: Eludamos: Journal for Computer Game Culture, E-ISSN 1866-6124, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 183-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, video games have arisen as a frontier for Artificial Intelligence (AI), with game developers making extensive use of AI technologies in their games. However, scholars have called for a more user-focused understanding of how AI affects the gaming experience. In this paper, we present a theoretical framework for how the user experience of AI can be understood and analyzed in terms of the affordances that are provided to players. We also present a typology of affordances relevant to AI in games.

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  • 237.
    Warpefelt, Henrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Game Design.
    Verhagen, Harko
    Stockholm University.
    A model of non-player character believability2017In: Journal of Gaming & Virtual Worlds, ISSN 1757-191X, E-ISSN 1757-1928, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 39-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we aim to describe in what ways the behavior of non-player characters (NPCs) affects to what extent the player finds the game experience to be believable. To this end, we have conducted an online survey, where respondents were asked to classify and describe NPCs. Furthermore, we also examined recordings of NPCs in games. These data sources were analyzed using a model for NPC social believability in order to describe the effects of NPC behavior in relation to how different types of NPCs are perceived as being believable. Based on this we were able to construct a model of NPC believability, which describes the NPC’s level of complexity and ability to handle a mutable social context. As described by the model, NPCs are currently less capable of handling changing social contexts. They do, however, show promise, and given current emerging technologies it is feasible that new types of more socially capable NPCs will arise within the near future. 

  • 238.
    Wecksell, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Are you making an impression?: The visual aesthetics of career websites2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The field of HCI has begun to realize the importance of visual aesthetics. Recent studies have investigated visual aesthetics related to first impressions and found that judgments can be made almost instantaneously. This thesis builds upon previous research related to visual aesthetics and first impressions. Two different approaches were used to investigate university student’s subjective impressions of career websites of organizations. The first approach investigated first impressions, were users rated the websites on their visual appeal, after viewing a screenshot of the website for only 500 milliseconds. In the second approach, the viewing time was not restricted, and the users rated the screenshots on four statements of the VisAWI-S questionnaire. The subjective ratings collected in the two studies were compared objective characteristics such as number of images, number of visual objects and the average RGB-value of the screenshots. Strong correlations was found between the subjective ratings given in the two studies. Both methods was found useful for evaluating the visual aesthetics of websites, and the context of the study should also guide the choice of method. No correlations were found between the objective characteristics and the subjective ratings, with the exception to the average RGB-values. There was an indication that the students preferred websites with darker colors.

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  • 239.
    Weilenmann, Alexandra
    et al.
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Lymer, Gustav
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Incidental and essential objects in interaction: Paper documents in journalistic work2014In: Interacting with objects: Language, materiality, and social activity / [ed] Maurice Nevile, Pentti Haddington,Trine Heinemann, Mirka Rauniomaa, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2014, p. 319-338Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large body of work points to the special status of paper documents in the ecology of objects in the workplace. In this chapter, we revisit this work, focusing on the role of paper in the everyday work of journalists. We examine three quite different empirical examples where paper documents feature in interaction, supporting, in turn, the structuring of conversation, collaboration and inter-organisational interaction. Based on these examples we argue for a distinction between object-focused interactions and object-implicating interactions. In addition, and related to the dual nature of documents being both material objects and carriers of information, we identify an analytic dimension along which interactions with objects can be placed, that from incidental to essential.

  • 240. Whitehouse, Diane
    et al.
    Patrignani, Norberto
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Computers, time and speed: Five slow tech case studies2014In: ICT and society / [ed] K. Kimppa, D. Whitehouse, T. Kuusela and J. Phahlamohlaka, Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2014, p. 122-135Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter examines briefly the notions of time and speed. It introduces the notion of Slow Tech:information technology that is good, clean and fair, and places an especial emphasis on technologythat is clean. This chapter does not delve deep into the Slow Tech concept. Rather, it highlights a setof arguments about why speed is not always important or necessary. People are now increasinglybeginning to think about much longer periods and phases that may extend at least as long as theexistence of human beings on the globe. As illustrations, the chapter explores five specific casestudies. Each comes from a different location, yet all describe global implications and challenges.One example is in fact a mathematical model. Two sites, in sympathy with the location of theHuman Choice and Computing 11 (HCC11) conference, are from Scandinavia – one from Onkalo,Finland, and a second from Svalbard, a northern Norwegian island. A further two cases are from theUnited States of America. The logic behind these five case studies strengthens the arguments aboutwhy − with the support of the Slow Tech concept − it is increasingly important for society and itsmany stakeholders to question the current information and communication technology (ICT)obsession with speed and rethink the relationships between society and technology.

  • 241. Whitehouse, Diane
    et al.
    Patrignani, Norberto
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    From slow food to slow tech: A reflection paper2013In: ICT, society and human beings / [ed] P. Kommers and C. Gauzente, Prague: IADIS Press, 2013, p. 141-145Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing challenges are facing the information society, particularly in terms of its sustainability and continuity. Humanbeings are finding it more and more difficult to cope with the accelerating speed of information and communicationtechnologies (ICT). Society has been seduced by a rapid pace of development of ICT, progressively celebrated year onyear for its growing speed and power. This reflection paper proposes a new way of thinking about ICT in the future: aslower, more careful, more considered, and more ethical manner (a slow tech approach). It concentrates on the need forslow tech: ICT that is good, clean, and fair. It then provides some additional reflections on how such an approach couldbe developed further.

  • 242.
    Wiberg, Ninna
    et al.
    Uppsala universitetsbibliotek.
    Myrberg, Caroline
    Karolinska Institutets Universitetsbibliotek.
    Screen vs. paper: what is the difference for reading and learning?2015In: Insights, ISSN 2048-7754, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 49-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have all seen the newspaper headlines: screens make us read slower, learn less deeply, remember less and sleep worse. Is this why students prefer to print out their electronic textbooks? We suspected it was habit and attitude rather than measurable cognitive effort during reading that made people prefer print texts, but we needed evidence. We decided to find out what recent research had to say on the subject and read scholarly articles addressing the issues of the actual reading and/or learning processes involved in reading on screen compared to on paper. We then considered these results in relation to our own experience of using tablets and teaching scholars and students how to use their tablets/smartphones in their work.

    Habit and attitude appeared to be important, and a digitally born textbook is by far the best alternative to a print textbook when it comes to studying. But even those who prefer to read on screens are originally native paper readers, and as long as the existing application interfaces cannot address the shortcomings of screens regarding spatial landmarks, we will keep returning to paper under certain circumstances.

    We would like to see developers make more user-friendly e-readers, and authors and publishers learn to fully utilize of the potential of the e-book.

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  • 243.
    Wollmen, Veronica
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Mäkelä Olofsson, Matilda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    E-ledarskap på kunskapsintensiva arbetsplatser: En studie om användning av digitala verktyg vid koordination och kommunikation2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    På grund av digitaliseringen är kunskapsarbetare inte längre bundna till sina arbetsplatser för att utföra sitt arbete. Tillgången till informations- och kommunikationsverktyg innebär att allt fler arbetslag har medarbetare som arbetar på distans, vilket innebär nya utmaningar och möjligheter för chefer sett både till kommunikation och koordination. Coronapandemin med dess restriktioner har inneburit en större andel distansarbetare och flexibla team, vilket skapar ett ökat behov av kunskap inom området. Krav på ledarskap förändrades i och med ICT verktygens växande roll på arbetsplatser, vilket är bakgrunden till denna studie. Därför ämnar denna uppsats skapa en fördjupad förståelse för hur chefer leder och koordinerar sina anställda med hjälp av ICT verktyg på den flexibla arbetsplatsen. Utifrån ett tvärvetenskapligt angreppssätt där Företagsekonomi och Människa-dator interaktion förenas, har chefer intervjuats på två fallorganisationer som har liknande systemstruktur för internkommunikation. Med en dualistisk syn på tekniska och sociala aspekter, kan uppsatsen bidra till en ökad förståelse för e-ledarens roll ur både ett tekniskt och ett socialt perspektiv. Våra resultat i kombination med tidigare studier, antyder att chefer inom kunskapsintensiva arbetsplatser möter vissa utmaningar med koordination och kommunikation med hjälp av ICT verktyg, både när det kommer till tekniska och sociala aspekter. Den uppgiftsorienterade kommunikationen och koordinationen främjas av ICT verktyg i större utsträckning, än vad gäller den sociala interaktionen och kommunikationen. 

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