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  • 201.
    Jones, TM
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för evolutionsbiologi. Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi. Zooekologi.
    Elgar, M
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för evolutionsbiologi. Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi. Zooekologi.
    Insect behaviour: Reversal of sex roles in nuptial feeding2003Inngår i: Nature, Vol. 424, s. 387-387Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 202.
    Katvala, Mari
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi. Zooekologi.
    Kaitala, Arja
    The effect of conspecific density on female reproduction in an egg-carrying bug2005Inngår i: Animal Behaviour, Vol. 69, s. 269-273Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 203.
    Katvala, Mari
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Liljestrand Rönn, Johanna
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Correlated evolution between male ejacualte allocation and female remating behaviour in seed beetles (Bruchidae)2008Inngår i: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 21, nr 2, s. 471-479Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The pattern with which males allocate their ejaculate resources is at the heart of postmating sexual selection, and theory suggests that female remating rate is key in determining the selective regime under which male ejaculate traits evolve. Intraspecific studies have shown that males are able to adaptively allocate ejaculates according to the intensity of sperm competition, but observational data does not allow explicitly comparative tests of theory in this field. Using a group of seed beetles as a model system, we analyzed experimental quantifications of a suite of relevant male and female traits and behaviors in a phylogenetic comparative framework. We found a strongly and positively correlated evolution between the weight of males’ first ejaculate and the rate at which ejaculate weight decreases over successive matings. Sperm competition theory predicts that increased female remating should result in the evolution of larger male testes but smaller ejaculates, and both of these predictions were upheld in seed beetles. Theory also predicts that increased female remating should lead to the evolution of more prudent allocation of ejaculate resources over successive matings. In contrast to this prediction, we found that elevated female remating was associated with a less prudent ejaculate allocation. We suggest that this pattern of correlated evolution, apparently incongruent with classic sperm competition theory, is the result either of trade-offs between ejaculate expenditure and other competing demands or of evolution in total resource acquisition rather than in the evolution of resource allocation.

  • 204. Knopp, T.
    et al.
    Cano, José M.
    Crochet, Pierre-André
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Merilä, J.
    Contrasting levels of variation in neutral and quantitative genetic loci on island populations of moor frogs (Rana arvalis)2007Inngår i: Conservation Genetics, ISSN 1566-0621, E-ISSN 1572-9737, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 45-56Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Reduced levels of genetic variability and a prominent differentiation in both neutral marker genes and phenotypic traits are typical for many island populations as compared to their mainland conspecifics. However, whether genetic diversity in neutral marker genes reflects genetic variability in quantitative traits, and thus, their evolutionary potential, remains typically unclear. Moreover, the phenotypic differentiation on islands could be attributable to phenotypic plasticity, selection or drift; something which seldom has been tested. Using eight polymorphic microsatellite loci and quantitative genetic breeding experiments we conducted a detailed comparison on genetic variability and differentiation between Nordic islands (viz. Gotland, Öland and Læsø) and neighbouring mainland populations of moor frogs (Rana arvalis). As expected, the neutral variation was generally lower in island than in mainland populations. But as opposed to this, higher levels of additive genetic variation (V A) in body size and tibia length were found on the island of Gotland as compared to the mainland population. When comparing the differentiation seen in neutral marker genes (F ST) with the differentiation in genes coding quantitative traits (Q ST) two different evolutionary scenarios were found: while selection might explain a smaller size of moor frogs on Gotland, the differentiation seen in tibia length could be explained by genetic drift. These results highlight the limited utility of microsatellite loci alone in inferring the causes behind an observed phenotypic differentiation, or in predicting the amount of genetic variation in ecologically important quantitative traits.

  • 205.
    Kolm, N
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi. Zooekologi.
    Goodwin, NB
    Balshine, S
    Reynolds, JD
    Life history evolution in cichlids 1: Revisiting the evolution of life histories in relation to parental care2006Inngår i: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, Vol. 19, s. 66-75Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 206.
    Kolm, N
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi. Zooekologi.
    Goodwin, NB
    Balshine, S
    Reynolds, JD
    Life history evolution in cichlids 2: directional evolution of the trade-off between egg number and egg size2006Inngår i: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, Vol. 19, s. 76-84Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 207.
    Kolm, Niclas
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Female courtship in the Banggai cardinalfish: honest signals of egg maturity and reproductive output?2004Inngår i: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, ISSN 0340-5443, E-ISSN 1432-0762, Vol. 56, nr 1, s. 59-64Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the vast literature on male courtship behaviour, little is known about the function and information content of female courtship behaviour. Female courtship behaviour may be important in many species, particularly where both sexes invest heavily in the offspring, and if such behaviours contain honest information regarding a female’s potential reproductive investment, they may be particularly important in male mate choice. Using observations of two female courtship behaviours (the “rush” and the “twitch”) from experimental pairings in the Banggai cardinalfish (Pterapogon kauderni), I addressed the question of whether these courtship behaviours contained information on female reproductive output (clutch weight) and egg maturity (proximity to spawning), traits commonly associated with male mate choice. I especially focused on the importance of these courtship behaviours in relation to other female characters, such as size and condition, using multiple regression. I found that one of these behaviours, the rush, was strongly associated with fecundity, whereas size, condition and the twitch were not. Further, I found that the “twitch” behaviour was associated with how close to actual spawning a female was. The results suggest that female courtship behaviour may convey highly important information in a mate choice context. I discuss the adaptive value of honest information in female courtship behaviour in light of these results.

  • 208.
    Kolm, Niclas
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Ahnesjö, Ingrid
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Do egg size and parental care coevolve in fish?2005Inngår i: Journal of Fish Biology, ISSN 0022-1112, E-ISSN 1095-8649, Vol. 66, nr 6, s. 1499-1515Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A phenomenon that has attracted a substantial theoretical and empirical interest is the positive relationship between egg size and the extent of parental care in fishes. Interestingly, despite the effort put into solving the causality behind this relationship over the past two decades it remains largely unsolved. Moreover, how general the positive relationship between egg size and parental care is among fishes is also poorly understood. In order to stimulate research exploring egg size and parental care variation in fishes, the potential selective forces from both natural and sexual selection on egg size and parental care are discussed. Recent empirical findings on how oxygen requirements and developmental times may differ between differently sized eggs are incorporated into a critical view of the current theory of this field. Furthermore, it is suggested that the up to now neglected effects of sexual selection, through both mate choice and sexual conflict, can have strong effects on the relationship between egg size and parental care in fishes. In light of the recent developments of comparative and experimental methods, future approaches that may improve the understanding of the relationship between egg size and care in fishes are suggested.

  • 209.
    Kolm, Niclas
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för evolutionsbiologi, Zooekologi.
    Berglund, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Sex-specific territorial behaviour in the Banggai cardinalfish, Pterapogon kauderni2004Inngår i: Environmental Biology of Fishes, ISSN 0378-1909, E-ISSN 1573-5133, Vol. 70, nr 4, s. 375-379Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In a field experiment, we studied how levels of aggression in males and females in established pairs of the Banggai cardinalfish were influenced by the sex of an experimentally introduced individual larger and more attractive than its resident counterpart. Contrary to previous studies on other cardinalfish species, and contrary to expectations in a sex role reversed species, the male was the main aggressor towards an intruder. Moreover, residents were more aggressive towards an intruder of the same sex as themselves. Furthermore, even though females often courted introduced, larger males, no intruder managed to take over the partnership of any resident. We suggest that our findings imply relatively equal sex roles in the Banggai cardinalfish and we discuss the evolution of sex specific territory defence and its significance in the Banggai cardinalfish as well as the implications of such behaviour in the interpretations of sex roles in general.

  • 210.
    Kolm, Niclas
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Brelin, Daniel
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Fysiologi.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Fysiologi.
    Evidence for small scale variation in the vertebrate brain: mating strategy and sex affect brain size and structure in wild brown trout (Salmo trutta)2009Inngår i: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 22, nr 12, s. 2524-2531Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The basis for our knowledge of brain evolution in vertebrates rests heavily on empirical evidence from comparative studies at the species level. However, little is still known about the natural levels of variation and the evolutionary causes of differences in brain size and brain structure within-species, even though selection at this level is an important initial generator of macroevolutionary patterns across species. Here, we examine how early life-history decisions and sex are related to brain size and brain structure in wild populations using the existing natural variation in mating strategies among wild brown trout (Salmo trutta). By comparing the brains of precocious fish that remain in the river and sexually mature at a small size with those of migratory fish that migrate to the sea and sexually mature at a much larger size, we show, for the first time in any vertebrate, strong differences in relative brain size and brain structure across mating strategies. Precocious fish have larger brain size (when controlling for body size) but migratory fish have a larger cerebellum, the structure in charge of motor coordination. Moreover, we demonstrate sex-specific differences in brain structure as female precocious fish have a larger brain than male precocious fish while males of both strategies have a larger telencephalon, the cognitive control centre, than females. The differences in brain size and structure across mating strategies and sexes thus suggest the possibility for fine scale adaptive evolution of the vertebrate brain in relation to different life histories.

  • 211.
    Kolm, Niclas
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Hoffman, Eric A.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Limnologi.
    Olsson, Jens
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Limnologi.
    Berglund, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Limnologi.
    Group stability and homing behavior but no kin group sturcture in a coral reef fish2005Inngår i: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 16, nr 3, s. 521-527Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the reasons behind stable group formations has received considerable theoretical and empirical attention. Stable groups displaying homing behavior have been suggested to form as a result of, for instance, benefits from knowledge of the social or physical environment or through kin selection and the forming of kin groups. However, no one has disentangled preference for grouping in a familiar location from preference for grouping with familiar or related individuals. To investigate this, we conducted a series of field experiments and a group genetic analysis on the group-living Banggai cardinalfish (Pterapogon kauderni). We found homing behavior but no evidence for recognition of familiar group members. Instead, homing was based on the original location of their group rather than the individuals in that group. Moreover, we found no evidence for kin structures within these groups. We suggest that benefits from living in a known social environment drive homing behavior in this species and that homing behavior is not enough for the formation of kin group structures. Instead, our results suggest that kin recognition may be a prerequisite for the forming of kin groups.

  • 212.
    Kolm, Niclas
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Stein, R.W
    Mooers, A.
    Verspoor, J.J.
    Cunningham, J.A.
    Can sexual selection drive female life histories?: A comparative study on Galliform birds2007Inngår i: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 20, nr 2, s. 627-638Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sexual selection has been identified as a major evolutionary force shaping male life history traits but its impact on female life history evolution is less clear. Here we examine the impact of sexual selection on three key female traits (body size, egg size and clutch size) in Galliform birds. Using comparative independent contrast analyses and directionaldiscreteanalyses, based on published data and a new genera-level supertree phylogeny of Galliform birds, we investigated how sexual selection [quantified as sexual size dimorphism (SSD) and social mating system (MS)] affects these three important female traits. We found that female body mass was strongly and positively correlated with egg size but not with clutch size, and that clutch size decreased as egg size increased. We established that SSD was related to MS, and then used SSD as a proxy of the strength of sexual selection. We found both a positive relationship between SSD and female body mass and egg size and that increases in female body mass and egg size tend to occur following increases in SSD in this bird order. This pattern of female body mass increases lagging behind changes in SSD, established using our directionaldiscreteanalysis, suggests that female body mass increases as a response to increases in the level of sexual selection and not simply through a strong genetic relationship with male body mass. This suggests that sexual selection is linked to changes in female life history traits in Galliformes and we discuss how this link may shape patterns of life history variation among species.

  • 213. Kruuk, LEB
    et al.
    Merilä, J
    Sheldon, BC
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för evolutionsbiologi. Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi. Zooekologi.
    When environmental variation short-circuits natural selection2003Inngår i: Trends in ecology and evolution, Vol. 18, s. 207-209Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 214.
    Langhamer, Olivia
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Elektricitetslära.
    Effects of wave energy converters on the surrounding soft-bottom macrofauna (west coast of Sweden)2010Inngår i: Marine Environmental Research, ISSN 0141-1136, E-ISSN 1879-0291, Vol. 69, nr 5, s. 374-381Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Offshore wave energy conversion is expected to develop, thus contributing to an increase in submerged constructions on the seabed An essential concern related to the deployment of wave energy converters (WECs) is their possible impact on the surrounding soft-bottom habitats In this study, the macrofaunal assemblages in the seabed around the wave energy converters in the Lysekil research site on the Swedish west coast and a neighbouring reference site were examined yearly during a period of 5 years (20042008). Macrobenthic communities living in the WECs' surrounding seabed were mainly composed by organisms typical for the area and depth off the Swedish west coast At both sites the number of individuals, number of species and biodiversity were low, and were mostly small, juvenile organisms The species assemblages during the first years of sampling were significantly different between the Lysekil research site and the nearby reference site with higher species abundance in the research site. The high contribution to dissimilarities was mostly due to polychaetes Sparse macrofaunal densities can be explained by strong hydrodynamic forces and/or earlier trawling. WECs may alter the surrounding seabed with an accumulation of organic matter inside the research area This indicates that the deployment of WECs in the Lysekil research site tends to have rather minor direct ecological impacts on the surrounding benthic community relative to the natural high variances.

  • 215.
    Langhamer, Olivia
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi. Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Elektricitetslära. Avdelningen för elektricitetslära och åskforskning.
    Man-made offshore installations: Are marine colonisers a problem or an advantage?2005Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 216.
    Langhamer, Olivia
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Elektricitetslära. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Wave energy conversion and the marine environment: Colonization patterns and habitat dynamics2009Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A wave energy park has been established on the Swedish west coast outside Lysekil and pioneer work about its interactions with the marine environment has been conducted. So far, little is known about the effects of offshore energy installations on the marine environment, and this thesis assists in minimizing environmental risks as well as in enhancing potential positive effects on the marine environment. The Lysekil research site is situated about two kilometres offshore and has been under development since 2005. During this time 26 “environmental devices”, without generators, consisting of a steel buoy attached via a wire to a foundation on 25 m depth have been placed out for ecological studies on macrofauna in surrounding sediments and on colonization of the foundations and the buoys. Sediment samples to examine macrofauna in the seabed have been taken during five seasons. Biomass, abundance and diversity of infauna in the test site were generally low, but higher than in a nearby control site. The species composition was typical for the area and depth.

    In addition to sediment analysis, the effect of wave power concrete foundations on the marine environment has been investigated by scuba diving. The surface orientation and its effect on colonization by sessile organisms was examined on the first five foundations, placed out in 2005, and observations of habitat use by fish and crustaceans were made. The results show a succession of colonization over time (three years of investigation) with a higher cover by sessile organisms on vertical surfaces. Mobile fauna abundance on and around the foundations was generally low.

    Three months after the deployment of the 21 new foundations in 2007, assemblages of mobile organisms were examined visually. Also here, mobile species exhibit a low density, but still higher than on surrounding soft bottoms. The edible crab used artificial holes in the foundations frequently. The foundations were placed in two different clusters, north and south, and the degree to which early recruits covered the foundations and the succession of epibenthic communities were documented during two years. Sessile organisms colonized the northern foundations more rapidly, producing a higher diversity which suggests that the placement of wave energy devices affects colonization patterns.

    Biofouling on buoys was examined and blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, dominated with a cover about 90%. Wave exposed buoys were particularly favoured by M. edulis which there had a higher biomass and larger shells compared to those on sheltered buoys. Biofouling on wave power buoys, independent whether these had a cylindrical or toroidal shape, was insufficient to markedly affect their energy production.

    Finally, the thesis incorporates a review describing wave power projects in general pointing out the need of future research on for instance no-take zones, marine bioacoustics and electromagnetic fields. The main conclusions are that large-scale renewable wave energy conversion will cause ecological impact primarily by adding new hard substrate to an area but not by harming organisms or decreasing biodiversity within wave power parks.

    Delarbeid
    1. Wave Energy from the North Sea: Experiences from the Lysekil Research Site
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Wave Energy from the North Sea: Experiences from the Lysekil Research Site
    Vise andre…
    2008 (engelsk)Inngår i: Surveys in geophysics, ISSN 0169-3298, E-ISSN 1573-0956, Vol. 29, nr 3, s. 221-240Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides a status update on the development of the Swedish wave energy research area located close to Lysekil on the Swedish West coast. The Lysekil project is run by the Centre for Renewable Electric Energy Conversion at Uppsala University. The project was started in 2004 and currently has permission to run until the end of 2013. During this time period 10 grid-connected wave energy converters, 30 buoys for studies on environmental impact, and a surveillance tower for monitoring the interaction between waves and converters will be installed and studied. To date the research area holds one complete wave energy converter connected to a measuring station on shore via a sea cable, a Wave Rider™ buoy for wave measurements, 25 buoys for studies on environmental impact, and a surveillance tower. The wave energy converter is based on a linear synchronous generator which is placed on the sea bed and driven by a heaving point absorber at the ocean surface. The converter is directly driven, i.e. it has no gearbox or other mechanical or hydraulic conversion system. This results in a simple and robust mechanical system, but also in a somewhat more complicated electrical system.

    Emneord
    Wave power, Renewable energy, Sea trial, Linear generator, Point absorber, Environmental impact
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-107215 (URN)10.1007/s10712-008-9047-x (DOI)000260967900002 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2009-07-29 Laget: 2009-07-29 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-13bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Effects of wave energy converters on the surrounding soft-bottom macrofauna (west coast of Sweden)
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Effects of wave energy converters on the surrounding soft-bottom macrofauna (west coast of Sweden)
    2010 (engelsk)Inngår i: Marine Environmental Research, ISSN 0141-1136, E-ISSN 1879-0291, Vol. 69, nr 5, s. 374-381Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Offshore wave energy conversion is expected to develop, thus contributing to an increase in submerged constructions on the seabed An essential concern related to the deployment of wave energy converters (WECs) is their possible impact on the surrounding soft-bottom habitats In this study, the macrofaunal assemblages in the seabed around the wave energy converters in the Lysekil research site on the Swedish west coast and a neighbouring reference site were examined yearly during a period of 5 years (20042008). Macrobenthic communities living in the WECs' surrounding seabed were mainly composed by organisms typical for the area and depth off the Swedish west coast At both sites the number of individuals, number of species and biodiversity were low, and were mostly small, juvenile organisms The species assemblages during the first years of sampling were significantly different between the Lysekil research site and the nearby reference site with higher species abundance in the research site. The high contribution to dissimilarities was mostly due to polychaetes Sparse macrofaunal densities can be explained by strong hydrodynamic forces and/or earlier trawling. WECs may alter the surrounding seabed with an accumulation of organic matter inside the research area This indicates that the deployment of WECs in the Lysekil research site tends to have rather minor direct ecological impacts on the surrounding benthic community relative to the natural high variances.

    Emneord
    Disturbance, Diversity, Environmental impact, Macrobenthos, Renewable energy, Soft-sediment, Sweden, Wave power
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-107220 (URN)10.1016/j.marenvres.2010.01.002 (DOI)000278641600011 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2009-07-29 Laget: 2009-07-29 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-13bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Artificial reef effect and fouling impacts on offshore wave power foundations and buoys: a pilot study
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Artificial reef effect and fouling impacts on offshore wave power foundations and buoys: a pilot study
    2009 (engelsk)Inngår i: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, Vol. 82, nr 3, s. 426-432Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about the effects of offshore energy installations on the marine environment, and further research could assist in minimizing environmental risks as well as in enhancing potential positive effects on the marine environment. While biofouling on marine energy conversion devices on one hand has the potential to be an engineering concern, these structures can also affect biodiversity by functioning as artificial reefs. The Lysekil Project is a test park for wave power located at the Swedish west coast. Here, buoys acting as point absorbers on the surface are connected to generators anchored on concrete foundations on the seabed. In this study we investigated the colonisation of foundations by invertebrates and fish, as well as fouling assemblages on buoys. We examined the influence of surface orientation of the wave power foundations on epibenthic colonisation, and made observations of habitat use by fish and crustaceans during three years of submergence. We also examined fouling assemblages on buoys and calculated the effects of biofouling on the energy absorption of the wave power buoys. On foundations we demonstrated a succession in colonisation over time with a higher degree of coverage on vertical surfaces. Buoys were dominated by the blue mussel Mytilus edulis. Calculations indicated that biofouling have no significant effect in the energy absorption on a buoy working as a point absorber. This study is the first structured investigation on marine organisms associated with wave power devices

    Emneord
    biodiversity, benthos, fish, shellfish, renewable energy, wave power, Sweden
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-107217 (URN)10.1016/j.ecss.2009.02.009 (DOI)000265573400007 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2009-07-29 Laget: 2009-07-29 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-13bibliografisk kontrollert
    4. Colonisation of fish and crabs of wave energy foundations and the effectsof manufactured holes – A field experiment
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Colonisation of fish and crabs of wave energy foundations and the effectsof manufactured holes – A field experiment
    2009 (engelsk)Inngår i: Marine Environmental Research, ISSN 0141-1136, E-ISSN 1879-0291, Vol. 68, nr 4, s. 151-157Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Several Western European countries are planning for a significant development of offshore renewable energy along the European Atlantic Ocean coast, including many thousands of wave energy devices and wind turbines. There is an increasing interest in articulating the added values of the creation of artificial hard bottom habitats through the construction of offshore renewable energy devices, for the benefit of fisheries management and conservation. The Lysekil Project is a test park for wave power located about 100 km north of Gothenburg at the Swedish west coast. A wave energy device consists of a linear wave power generator attached to a foundation on the seabed, and connected by a wire to a buoy at the surface. Our field experiment examined the function of wave energy foundations as artificial reefs. In addition, potentials for enhancing the abundance of associated fish and crustaceans through manufactured holes of the foundations were also investigated. Assemblages of mobile organisms were examined by visual censuses in July and August 2007, 3 months after deployment of the foundations. Results generally show low densities of mobile organisms, but a significantly higher abundance of fish and crabs on the foundations compared to surrounding soft bottoms. Further, while fish numbers were not influenced by increased habitat complexity (holes), it had a significantly positive effect on quantities of edible crab (Cancer pagurus), on average leading to an almost five-fold increase in densities of this species. Densities of spiny starfish (Marthasterias glacialis) were negatively affected by the presence of holes, potentially due to increased predator abundance (e.g. C. pagurus). These results suggest a species-specific response to enhanced habitat complexity.

    Emneord
    Artificial reefs, Coastal zone management, Disturbance, Fisheries, Habitat complexity, Habitat enhancement, Wave power
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-107218 (URN)10.1016/j.marenvres.2009.06.003 (DOI)000269242100001 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2009-07-29 Laget: 2009-07-29 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-13bibliografisk kontrollert
    5. The location of offshore wave power devices structures epifaunal assemblages
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>The location of offshore wave power devices structures epifaunal assemblages
    2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: International Journal of Marine Energy, ISSN 2214-1669, Vol. 16, s. 174-180Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    With large-scale development of offshore wave power conversion, artificial structures become more common in the open sea. To examine how wave power devices may be colonized by epifaunal organisms, 21 concrete foundations used for anchoring wave power generators were studied during two years, 2007 and 2008. The foundations were placed in two different clusters, located north and south within the Lysekil test site at the Swedish west coast. The degree to which early recruits covered the foundations and the succession of epibenthic communities were documented during two years. A succession in colonization over time was observed, with a higher degree of cover in the northern location. Furthermore, the northern location showed an increase in number of individuals, number of species and in Shannon-Wiener diversity in 2008. Dominant organisms on the foundations were the serpulid tubeworms (Pomatoceros triqueter) and barnacles (Balanus sp.). This comprehensive large-scale study about succession and colonization patterns on wave power foundations suggests that the location of wave energy devices affects colonization patterns. This gives indications on settlement patterns on already operating and planned offshore wave power parks further off the coasts.

    Emneord
    Artificial reefs, Colonization, Epibenthos, Renewable energy, Wave power, Sweden
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-107221 (URN)10.1016/j.ijome.2016.07.007 (DOI)000390812600013 ()
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Swedish Energy AgencyVattenfall ABGöran Gustafsson Foundation for promotion of scientific research at Uppala University and Royal Institute of Technology
    Merknad

    Manuscript version is part of thesis http://uu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:228184

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2009-07-29 Laget: 2009-07-29 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-13bibliografisk kontrollert
    6. Colonization of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) on offshore wave power installations on the Swedish west coast
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Colonization of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) on offshore wave power installations on the Swedish west coast
    (engelsk)Manuskript (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The use of offshore energy conversion is predicted to expand significantly throughout estuarine and marine environments, with a global potential comparable to that of wind and hydro power. Therefore, it is important to study the interactions of offshore wave power devices with the marine environment. The Lysekil Project is a test park for wave power located about 100 km north of Gothenburg at the Swedish west coast. The concept is based on a linear wave power generator placed on the seabed, and connected via a wire to a buoy acting as point absorbers on the surface. Biofouling on offshore wave energy devices is an issue of concern for the operation or survival of the components. On the other side, these structures may provide habitats for marine organisms and thus increase biodiversity and form artificial reefs. In this chapter, size distribution and biomass of blue mussels on sheltered and exposed marking buoys are examined. Further, these results are used for calculating a worst case scenario of mussel growth on the lifting force of a specially designed toroidal buoy. The results show that more wave-exposed buoys were particularly favourable for blue mussel colonization, but that the hydrodynamic forces of the toroidal buoy were not significantly affected by mussel growth. Thus, biofouling is not necessarily negative for the wave energy absorbance of the wave power buoys.

    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-107219 (URN)
    Merknad
    bokkapitelTilgjengelig fra: 2009-07-29 Laget: 2009-07-29 Sist oppdatert: 2010-01-14bibliografisk kontrollert
    7. Wave power - sustainable energy or environmentally costly?: A review with special emphasis on linear wave energy converters
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Wave power - sustainable energy or environmentally costly?: A review with special emphasis on linear wave energy converters
    2010 (engelsk)Inngår i: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 14, nr 4, s. 1329-1335Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Generating electricity from waves is predicted to be a new source of renewable energy conversion expanding significantly, with a global potential in the range of wind and hydropower. Several wave power techniques are on the merge of commercialisation, and thus evoke questions of environmental concern. Conservation matters are to some extent valid independent of technique but we mainly focus on point absorbing linear generators. By giving examples from the Lysekil project, run by Uppsala University and situated on the Swedish west coast, we demonstrate ongoing and future environmental studies to be performed along with technical research and development. We describe general environmental aspects generated by wave power projects; issues also likely to appear in Environmental Impact Assessment studies. Colonisation patterns and biofouling are discussed with particular reference to changes of the seabed and alterations due to new substrates. A purposeful artificial reef design to specially cater for economically important or threatened species is also discussed. Questions related to fish, fishery and marine mammals are other examples of topics where, e.g. no-take zones, marine bioacoustics and electromagnetic fields are important areas. In this review we point out areas in which studies likely will be needed, as ventures out in the oceans also will give ample opportunities for marine environmental research in general and in areas not previously studied. Marine environmental and ecological aspects appear to be unavoidable for application processes and in post-deployment studies concerning renewable energy extraction. Still, all large-scale renewable energy conversion will cause some impact mainly by being area demanding. An early incorporation of multidisciplinary and high quality research might be a key for new ocean-based techniques.

    Emneord
    Artificial reef, Biofouling, Environmental impact, Offshore renewable energy, Sweden, Wave energy converters
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-107222 (URN)10.1016/j.rser.2009.11.016 (DOI)000275997200017 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2009-07-29 Laget: 2009-07-29 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-13bibliografisk kontrollert
  • 217.
    Langhamer, Olivia
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Elektricitetslära.
    Haikonen, Kalle
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Elektricitetslära.
    Sundberg, Jan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Elektricitetslära.
    Wave power - sustainable energy or environmentally costly?: A review with special emphasis on linear wave energy converters2010Inngår i: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 14, nr 4, s. 1329-1335Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Generating electricity from waves is predicted to be a new source of renewable energy conversion expanding significantly, with a global potential in the range of wind and hydropower. Several wave power techniques are on the merge of commercialisation, and thus evoke questions of environmental concern. Conservation matters are to some extent valid independent of technique but we mainly focus on point absorbing linear generators. By giving examples from the Lysekil project, run by Uppsala University and situated on the Swedish west coast, we demonstrate ongoing and future environmental studies to be performed along with technical research and development. We describe general environmental aspects generated by wave power projects; issues also likely to appear in Environmental Impact Assessment studies. Colonisation patterns and biofouling are discussed with particular reference to changes of the seabed and alterations due to new substrates. A purposeful artificial reef design to specially cater for economically important or threatened species is also discussed. Questions related to fish, fishery and marine mammals are other examples of topics where, e.g. no-take zones, marine bioacoustics and electromagnetic fields are important areas. In this review we point out areas in which studies likely will be needed, as ventures out in the oceans also will give ample opportunities for marine environmental research in general and in areas not previously studied. Marine environmental and ecological aspects appear to be unavoidable for application processes and in post-deployment studies concerning renewable energy extraction. Still, all large-scale renewable energy conversion will cause some impact mainly by being area demanding. An early incorporation of multidisciplinary and high quality research might be a key for new ocean-based techniques.

  • 218. Larsson, Kjell
    et al.
    Rattiste, Kalev
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Lilleleht, Vilju
    Heritability of head size in the common gull Larus canus in relation to environmental conditions during offspring growth1997Inngår i: Heredity, ISSN 0018-067X, Vol. 79, nr 2, s. 201-207Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 219.
    Leijon, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Elektricitetslära.
    Boström, Cecilia
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Elektricitetslära.
    Danielsson, Oskar
    Gustafsson, Stefan
    Haikonen, Kalle
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Elektricitetslära.
    Langhamer, Olivia
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Strömstedt, Erland
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Elektricitetslära.
    Stålberg, Magnus
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Elektricitetslära.
    Sundberg, Jan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Elektricitetslära.
    Svensson, Olle
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Elektricitetslära.
    Tyrberg, Simon
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Elektricitetslära.
    Waters, Rafael
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Elektricitetslära.
    Wave Energy from the North Sea: Experiences from the Lysekil Research Site2008Inngår i: Surveys in geophysics, ISSN 0169-3298, E-ISSN 1573-0956, Vol. 29, nr 3, s. 221-240Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides a status update on the development of the Swedish wave energy research area located close to Lysekil on the Swedish West coast. The Lysekil project is run by the Centre for Renewable Electric Energy Conversion at Uppsala University. The project was started in 2004 and currently has permission to run until the end of 2013. During this time period 10 grid-connected wave energy converters, 30 buoys for studies on environmental impact, and a surveillance tower for monitoring the interaction between waves and converters will be installed and studied. To date the research area holds one complete wave energy converter connected to a measuring station on shore via a sea cable, a Wave Rider™ buoy for wave measurements, 25 buoys for studies on environmental impact, and a surveillance tower. The wave energy converter is based on a linear synchronous generator which is placed on the sea bed and driven by a heaving point absorber at the ocean surface. The converter is directly driven, i.e. it has no gearbox or other mechanical or hydraulic conversion system. This results in a simple and robust mechanical system, but also in a somewhat more complicated electrical system.

  • 220. Lew, TA
    et al.
    Morrow, EH
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi. Zooekologi.
    Rice, WR
    Standing genetic variance for female resistance to harm from males and its relationship to intralocus sexual conflict2006Inngår i: Evolution, Vol. 60, s. 97-105Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 221.
    Liljestrand Rönn, Johanna
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Male-female Coevolution in Bruchid Seed Beetles2009Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Male-female coevolution is at the heart of biology. It is responsible for much of the diversity we see in behaviour and morphology, and it is thought to be an important engine of speciation. The pattern of intersexual coevolution is well established in many taxa, yet understanding of the processes responsible for male-female coevolution remains incomplete. By studying interspecific variation within a closely related group of species, we can gain important information about how traits and behaviours have evolved. In the work done for this thesis, we studied a group of seed beetle species. Our results show that male-female coevolution has been a strong force in shaping both behaviour and morphological traits that are associated with mating and reproduction such as, morphology of male and female genitalia and remating behaviour. The evolution of harmful male genitalia has often been suggested to be a product of sexually antagonistic coevolution, but understanding of these extraordinary adaptations is limited. By combining comparative and experimental methods we show that as seed beetle males evolve more spiny genitalia, harm to females is elevated. We provide evidence for the correlated evolution between these antagonistic adaptations in males, and a female counter adaptation (the amount of connective tissue in the copulatory duct). We also demonstrate that imbalance of relative armament of the sexes affects evolution of the costs and benefits of reproduction. As males evolve genitalia that are more harmful relative to the level of female counteradaptation, costs associated with mating for females increase and population fitness is depressed. Our results unveil a coevolutionary arms race between the sexes and are consistent with a proposed link between sexual conflict, species’ viability and the risk of extinction.

  • 222.
    Liljestrand Rönn, Johanna
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Katvala, Mari
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Interspecific variation in ejaculate allocation and associated effects on female fitness in seed beetles2008Inngår i: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 21, nr 2, s. 461-470Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    When ejaculates are costly to produce, males are expected to allocate their ejaculate resources over successive matings in a manner that optimises their reproductive success. Theory predicts that two factors should affect optimal ejaculate allocation: the sperm competition regime and variation in female fecundity. In seed beetles (Bruchidae), ejaculates vary in size across species from weighing a few, up to as much as twelve percent, of male body weight. Ejaculates in this group contain not only sperm but also a range of additional substances and it has been proposed that females gain benefits from receiving large ejaculates. Male ejaculate allocation may thus affect female fitness and, indirectly, his own reproductive output. Here, we first measured how males allocate ejaculates over successive matings in seven seed beetle species. We then assessed how this allocation affected female fitness. We found that ejaculate weight drops dramatically over successive matings in some species but not in others. This interspecific variation in ejaculate allocation pattern was matched with extensive variation in the effects of ejaculate allocation on female fitness. Species varied both in terms of the size of the effect of male mating history on female fitness and in terms of which female fitness components were affected. In summary, despite the fact that the species included in this study are closely related, interspecific variation in ejaculate allocation patterns and their effects on female fitness was remarkably large. We discuss the possible causes of this variation and its implications for male-female coevolution.

  • 223. Lind, Henrik
    et al.
    Franzen, Markus
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Pettersson, Börge
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Ekologisk botanik.
    Nilsson, L. Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Ekologisk botanik.
    Metapopulation pollination in the deceptive orchid Anacamptis pyramidalis2007Inngår i: Nordic Journal of Botany, ISSN 0107-055X, E-ISSN 1756-1051, Vol. 25, nr 3-4, s. 176-182Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Pollen dispersal between local plant populations within a range of 6 kin in a geographically defined metapopulation of the lepidopteran-pollinated deceptive orchid Anacamptis pyramidalis was studied on the island Oland in the Baltic Sea. Local A. pyramidalis populations were examined for pollinators, flowering individuals, and fruit set. Population sizes of pollen vector species were estimated using a mark-release-recapture technique. As pollen vectors, the burner moth Zygaena minos and the butterfly Aporia crataegi dominated. 205 out of 745 marked lepidopterans were pollinarium carriers. The proportion carriers of the total was considerably higher in Z. minos (50.3%), than in A. crataegi (21.5%) and nymphalidae (8.2%). Furthermore, Z minos moved much shorter distances than A. crataegi did, while no difference in potential pollen dispersal distances were found between males and females. The number of individual vectors recaptured in another local population of A. pyramidalis was low: A. crataegi (8) and Z minos (1). The ratio of pollinaria transferred to another local A. pyramidolis population compared to pollinaria remaining within the same local population was 1:41. This study highlights that pollen dispersal distances vary between pollen vector species.

  • 224.
    Lisney, Thomas J.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    A review of the sensory biology of chimaeroid fishes (Chondrichthyes; Holocephali)2010Inngår i: Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, ISSN 0960-3166, E-ISSN 1573-5184, Vol. 20, nr 4, s. 571-590Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The chimaeroid fishes (Chondrichthyes: Holocephali) are a small, ancient and poorly studied group of cartilaginous fishes that have puzzled and intrigued taxonomists, ichthyologists and evolutionary biologists for over 100 years. Like their close relatives, the elasmobranchs (sharks, skates and rays), chimaeroids possess an extensive battery of sense organs that allow them to detect information about the external environment in order to find mates, locate food and preferred habitats and avoid predators. In recent years the sensory systems of elasmobranchs have received an up-swell of attention from biologists, which has resulted in a greater understanding of the sensory capabilities and behaviour of these fishes. However, very little recent work has been done on the chimaeroids. The aim of this review is to provide a survey of the existing literature on the major senses (vision, smell, taste, mechanoreception, hearing and electroreception) in chimaeroids, in order to stimulate and identify areas for future research. In chimaeroids information on sensory systems is largely restricted to one or two species (with the exception of some aspects of the visual system) and for some sensory systems essentially nothing is known. Most studies are anatomical in nature and so there is a demand for a greater degree of neurophysiological and behavioural assessment of sensory capability in these fishes. The majority of chimaeroids occupy deep-sea habitats and are becoming increasingly threatened by the expansion of deep-sea fisheries, so an understanding of the sensory biology and behaviour of chimaeroids may be important for the protection and management of these fascinating fishes.

  • 225. Lohmus, M.
    et al.
    Björklund, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Sundström, L. F.
    Devlin, R. H.
    Effects of temperature and growth hormone on individual growth trajectories of wild-type and transgenic coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch2010Inngår i: Journal of Fish Biology, ISSN 0022-1112, E-ISSN 1095-8649, Vol. 76, nr 3, s. 641-654Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, individual growth patterns of wild-type and growth-enhanced coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch at 8, 12 and 16 degrees C water temperature were followed. Despite large differences among individuals in growth rates, there was generally little variation in the shape of the growth curves among O. kisutch individuals of both genotypes and at all temperatures. Typically, individuals that were relatively large initially were also relatively large at the end of the growth period. The limitation in variation was more pronounced in the growth-enhanced O. kisutch than in the wild type, where the relative size of some individuals reared at 12 and 8 degrees C changed by the end of the trial. As a warmer temperature seems to decrease the plasticity of growth trajectories in wild-type fish, it is possible that global warming will influence the ability of wild fish to adapt their growth to changing conditions.

  • 226. Lohmus, Mare
    et al.
    Sundstrom, L. Fredrik
    Björklund, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Devlin, Robert H.
    Genotype-Temperature Interaction in the Regulation of Development, Growth, and Morphometrics in Wild-Type, and Growth-Hormone Transgenic Coho Salmon2010Inngår i: PloS one, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 5, nr 4, s. e9980-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The neuroendocrine system is an important modulator of phenotype, directing cellular genetic responses to external cues such as temperature. Behavioural and physiological processes in poikilothermic organisms (e. g. most fishes), are particularly influenced by surrounding temperatures. Methodology/Principal Findings: By comparing the development and growth of two genotypes of coho salmon (wild-type and transgenic with greatly enhanced growth hormone production) at six different temperatures, ranging between 8 degrees and 18 degrees C, we observed a genotype-temperature interaction and possible trend in directed neuroendocrine selection. Differences in growth patterns of the two genotypes were compared by using mathematical models, and morphometric analyses of juvenile salmon were performed to detect differences in body shape. The maximum hatching and alevin survival rates of both genotypes occurred at 12 degrees C. At lower temperatures, eggs containing embryos with enhanced GH production hatched after a shorter incubation period than wild-type eggs, but this difference was not apparent at and above 16 degrees C. GH transgenesis led to lower body weights at the time when the yolk sack was completely absorbed compared to the wild genotype. The growth of juvenile GH-enhanced salmon was to a greater extent stimulated by higher temperatures than the growth of the wild-type. Increased GH production significantly influenced the shape of the salmon growth curves. Conclusions: Growth hormone overexpression by transgenesis is able to stimulate the growth of coho salmon over a wide range of temperatures. Temperature was found to affect growth rate, survival, and body morphology between GH transgenic and wild genotype coho salmon, and differential responses to temperature observed between the genotypes suggests they would experience different selective forces should they ever enter natural ecosystems. Thus, GH transgenic fish would be expected to differentially respond and adapt to shifts in environmental conditions compared with wild type, influencing their ability to survive and interact in ecosystems. Understanding these relationships would assist environmental risk assessments evaluating potential ecological effects.

  • 227.
    Lohmus, Mare
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Sundström, L. Fredrik
    Björklund, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Dress for success: human facial expressions are important signals of emotions2009Inngår i: Annales Zoologici Fennici, ISSN 0003-455X, E-ISSN 1797-2450, Vol. 46, nr 1, s. 75-80Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to test how emotions affect individual neutral facial expressions and the reliability of humans to read these expressions, we photographed faces of 25 women wearing clothes in which they felt attractive, unattractive, or comfortable while expressing an emotionally neutral face. Men found the faces of women in attractive clothes the most attractive, whereas the faces of women in comfortable and unattractive clothes were ranked as intermediate and least attractive, respectively, even though the clothes were not visible in the photographs. Our results demonstrate that despite very subtle effects, the emotional state of women is perceived by men and that the two sexes are concordant on the signal sent and received. We show a close connection between exterior attributes, confidence, and how a person is perceived by others.

  • 228.
    Lundström, Jan O.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Populationsbiologi och naturvårdsbiologi.
    Schäfer, Martina
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Populationsbiologi och naturvårdsbiologi.
    Petersson, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Persson Vinnersten, Thomas Z.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Populationsbiologi.
    Landin, J.
    Brodin, Yngve
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Populationsbiologi.
    Production of wetland Chironomidae (Diptera) and the effects of using Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis for mosquito control2010Inngår i: Bulletin of entomological research, ISSN 0007-4853, E-ISSN 1475-2670, Vol. 100, nr 1, s. 117-125Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Massive mosquito nuisance problems, caused by the flood-water mosquito Aedes sticticus, occur after floods in the flood plains of the River Dalalven, central Sweden. Since 2002, the biological mosquito larvicide Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) has been used to control these mosquitoes. Here, we report results from the first six years of monitoring Chironomidae, the most Susceptible non-target organisms, in three wetlands with Bti-treatment against mosquitoes and in three wetlands without treatment. Emergence traps were used for continuous insect sampling from May to September each year, 2002-2007, and were emptied once a week. A total of 21,394 chironomids of 135 species were collected, and the Subfamily Orthocladiinae dominated the fauna followed by Chironominae and Tanypodinae. The annual chironomid production in the wetlands was low, with ail average of 1.91.7 individuals per m(2) and 42 g ash-free dry weight per m(2) We found no reduced production of chironomids at neither family, nor subfamily level, in Bti-treated as compared to untreated wetlands. This is the first long-term follow-up study of the possible effects of Bti-based mosquito larval control oil chironomid species production. In the short-term view, one species had higher production in treated areas. In the long-term view, four species had higher and one species had lower production in treated areas. We conclude that the B3ti-based control of floodwater mosquitoes does not cause and, major direct negative effects on chironomid production, and therefore does not seem to induce any risk for indirect negative effects on birds, bats or any other predators feeding on chironomids.

  • 229.
    Lõhmus, Mare
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Björklund, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Leptin Affects Life History Decisions in a Passerine Bird: A Field Experiment2009Inngår i: PLOS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 4, nr 2, s. e4602-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Organisms face trade-offs regarding their life-history strategies, such as decisions of single or multiple broods within a year. In passerines displaying facultative multiple breeding, the probability of laying a second clutch is influenced by several life-history factors. However, information about the mechanistic background of these trade-offs is largely lacking. Leptin is a protein hormone produced by white fat cells, and acts as a signal between peripheral energy depots and the central nervous system. In addition, leptin affects cells at all levels of the reproductive axis and plays a critical role in regulating the allocation of metabolic energy to reproduction. As such, it is possible that leptin levels influence the decision of whether or not to invest time and energy into a second clutch. Accordingly, we expect a treatment with exogenous leptin to result in an increased number of second broods. Methodology/Principal Findings: At a later stage during the first brood, female great tits were treated either with long-term leptin-filled cholesterol pellets (the experimental birds) or with pellets containing only cholesterol (the control birds). We found that leptin-treated females were significantly more likely to have a second brood and that the earlier females were more likely to lay a second clutch than the late females. Conclusions/Significance: As both timing of first brood and treatment with leptin were important in the decision of having multiple broods, the trade-offs involved in the breeding strategy most likely depend on multiple factors. Presumably leptin has evolved as a signal of energy supply status to regulate the release of reproductive hormones so that reproduction is coordinated with periods of sufficient nutrients. This study investigated the role of leptin as a mediator between energy resources and reproductive output, providing a fundamentally new insight into how trade-offs work on a functional basis.

  • 230.
    Maklakov, AA
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi. Zooekologi.
    Kremer, N
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi. Zooekologi.
    Arnqvist, G
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi. Zooekologi.
    Aeging and the evolution of female resistance to remating in seed beetles2006Inngår i: Biology Letters, Vol. 2, s. 62-64Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 231.
    Maklakov, AA
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi. Zooekologi.
    Lubin, Y
    Indirect genetic benefits in a spider with direct costs of mating2006Inngår i: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, Vol. 61, s. 31-38Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 232.
    Maklakov, Alex A
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi. Zooekologi.
    Kremer, Natasha
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi. Zooekologi.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Adaptive male effects on female ageing in seed beetles2005Inngår i: Proceedings of the Royal Society London B, Vol. 272, s. 2485-2489Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 233.
    Maklakov, Alexei A.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Friberg, Urban
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Dowling, Damian K.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Within-population variation in cytoplasmic genes affects female life span and aging in Drosophila melanogaster2006Inngår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 60, nr 10, s. 2081-2086Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) may play an important role in aging. Yet, few empirical studies have tested this hypothesis, partly because the degree of sequence polymorphism in mtDNA is assumed to be low. However, low sequence variation may not necessarily translate into low phenotypic variation. Here, we report an experiment that tests whether there is within-population variation in cytoplasmic genes for female longevity and senescence. To achieve this, we randomly selected 25 "mitochondrial founders" from a single, panmictic population of Drosophila melanogaster and used these founders to generate distinct "mt" lines in which we controlled for the nuclear background by successive backcrossing. Potential confounding effects of cytoplasmically transmitted bacteria were eliminated by tetracycline treatment. The mt lines were then assayed for differences in longevity, Gompertz intercept (frailty), and demographic rate of change in mortality with age (rate-of-senescence) in females. We found significant cytoplasmic effects on all three variables. This provides evidence that genetic variation in cytoplasmic genes, presumably mtDNA, contributes to variation in female mortality and aging.

  • 234.
    Maklakov, Alexei A.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Fricke, Claudia
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Sexual selection affects lifespan and aging in the seed beetle2007Inngår i: Aging Cell, ISSN 1474-9718, E-ISSN 1474-9726, Vol. 6, nr 6, s. 739-744Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sexual selection in general, and sexual conflict in particular, should affect the evolution of lifespan and aging. Using experimental evolution, we tested whether removal of sexual selection leads to the evolution of accelerated or decelerated senescence. We subjected replicated populations of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus to either of two selection regimes for 35 generations. These regimes either allowed (polygamy) or removed the potential (monogamy) for sexual selection to operate. To test for the evolution of intrinsic differences between the two selection regimes, we assayed longevity in replicate cohorts of virgin females and males. Virgin females from populations evolving under sexual selection had reduced lifespan as predicted by the sexual conflict theory of aging. However, this reduction was due to increased baseline mortality rather than an increase in age-specific mortality rates with age. We discuss these findings in light of other data from this model system and suggest that system-specific idiosyncrasies may often modulate the general effects of male-female coevolution on the evolution of aging.

  • 235.
    Maklakov, Alexei A.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Kremer, Natacha
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Ageing and the evolution of female resistance to remating in seed beetles2006Inngår i: Biology Letters, ISSN 1744-9561, E-ISSN 1744-957X, Vol. 2, nr 1, s. 62-64Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Female remating behaviour is a key mating system parameter that is predicted to evolve according to the net effect of remating on female fitness. In many taxa, females commonly resist male remating attempts because of the costs of mating. Here, we use replicated populations of the seed beetle Acanthoscelides obtectus selected for either early or late life reproduction and show that 'Early' and 'Late' females evolved different age-specific rates of remating. Early females were more likely to remate with control males as they aged, while Late females were more resistant to remating later in life. Thus, female remating rate decreases with age when direct selection on late-life fitness is operating and increases when such selection is relaxed. Our findings not only demonstrate that female resistance to remating can evolve rapidly, but also that such evolution is in accordance with the genetic interests of females.

  • 236.
    Maklakov, Alexei A.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Kremer, Natacha
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    The effects of male age at mating on female life-history traits in a seed beetle2007Inngår i: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 18, nr 3, s. 551-555Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Age at first reproduction is an important component of life history across taxa and can ultimately affect fitness. Because genetic interests of males and females over reproductive decisions commonly differ, theory predicts that conflict may arise over the temporal distribution of matings. To determine the potential for such sexual conflict, we studied the direct costs and benefits associated with mating at different times for females, using seed beetles (Acanthoscelides obtectus) as a model system. Virgin females were resistant to male mating attempts at a very early age but subsequently reduced their resistance. Although we found no difference in life span or mortality rates between females mated early in life and those mated later, females that mated early in life suffered a 12% reduction in lifetime fecundity. Thus, there are direct costs associated with mating early in life for females. Yet, males mate even with newly hatched females. We suggest that these data indicate a potential for sexual conflict over the timing of first mating and that female resistance to mating, at least in part, may represent a female strategy aimed at delaying mating to a later time in life.

  • 237.
    Maklakov, Alexei A.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Lubin, Yael
    Indirect genetic benefits of polyandry in a spider with direct costs of mating2006Inngår i: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, ISSN 0340-5443, E-ISSN 1432-0762, Vol. 61, nr 1, s. 31-38Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The search for the evolutionary explanation of polyandry is increasingly focused on direct and indirect selection on female resistance. In a polyandrous spider Stegodyphus lineatus, males do not provide material benefits and females are resistant to remating. Nevertheless, polyandrous females may obtain indirect genetic benefits that offset the costs associated with multiple mating. We manipulated the opportunity for females to select between different partners and examined the effect of female mating history (mated once, mated twice, or rejected the second male) on offspring body mass, size, condition, and survival under high- and low-food rearing regimens. We found that multiple mating, not female choice, results in increased female offspring body mass and condition. However, these effects were present only in low-food regimen. We did not find any effects of female mating history on male offspring variables. Thus, the benefits of polyandry depend not only on sex, but also on offspring environment. Furthermore, the observed patterns suggest that indirect genetic benefits cannot explain the evolution of female resistance in this system.

  • 238. Mayer, Ian
    et al.
    Rosenqvist, Gunilla
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Borg, Bertil
    Ahnesjö, Ingrid
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Berglund, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Schulz, Rüdiger W.
    Plasma-levels of sex steroids in 3 species of pipefish (Syngnathidae)1993Inngår i: Canadian Journal of Zoology, ISSN 0008-4301, E-ISSN 1480-3283, Vol. 71, nr 9, s. 1903-1907Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The pipefishes (Syngnathidae) are marine teleosts in which the males brood the young. In some species sex-role reversal occurs when, contrary to the usual pattern, females compete more intensely than males for access to mates. This paper reports an investigation of the sex hormones of males and females to see whether they deviate from the ''normal'' teleost pattern. To that end, plasma levels of the androgens testosterone (T), 11-ketotestosterone (OT), 11beta-hydroxytestosterone, 11-ketoandrostenedione, and 11beta-hydroxyandrostenedione (OHA), together with 17alpha-hydroxy-20beta-dihydroprogesterone (17,20-P) and 17beta-estradiol (E2), were measured by means of radioimmunoassay in three species of pipefish: Nerophis ophidion, Syngnathus typhle, and Syngnathus acus. Plasma levels of OT, the dominant circulating androgen in breeding males of most teleost species, was found to be highest in breeding males and low or non-detectable later in the brooding males. This observed decline in male OT levels from the prespawning to the postspawning (=brooding) period is in general agreement with what has been found in other teleosts. In both breeding and brooding S. acus males, T was quantitatively the dominant androgen, whereas OHA was the major androgen in S. acus females, as well as in the females and breeding or brooding males of both S. typhle and N. ophidion. In breeding S. acus and S. typhle males the levels of T, OHT, and OT were higher than in corresponding brooding males and females. The 17,20-P level was below detection limit. E2 was also usually non-detectable, but was most consistently found in breeding Syngnathus males.

  • 239.
    Mazzi, D
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för evolutionsbiologi. Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi. Zooekologi.
    Bakker, TCM
    A Predator's Dilemma: prey choice and parasite susceptibility in three-spined sticklebacks2003Inngår i: Parasitology, Vol. 126, s. 339-347Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 240.
    Mazzi, D
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för evolutionsbiologi. Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi. Zooekologi.
    Kunzler, R
    Bakker, TCM
    Female preference for symmetry in computer-animated three-spined sticklebacks2003Inngår i: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, Vol. 54, s. 156-161Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 241.
    Mazzi, Dominique
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi. Zooekologi.
    Parasites make male pipefish careless2004Inngår i: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, Vol. 17, s. 519-527Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 242. Merilä, J
    et al.
    Sheldon, BC
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för evolutionsbiologi. Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi. Zooekologi.
    Griffith, S
    Heterotic effects on fitness in a wild bird population2003Inngår i: Annales Zoologici Fennici, Vol. 40, s. 269-280Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 243. Merilä, Juha
    et al.
    <