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  • 201.
    Batalha, Luisa
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Intergroup Relations: When is My Group More Important than Yours?2008Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Intergroup relations are characterised by favourable and unfavourable biases. Towards one’s own group these biases are mostly favourable – ingroup favouritism. Research has, however, shown that outgroup favouritism, that is, the preference for a group to which the person does not belong, also permeates intergroup relations. Several theories such as social identity theory, social dominance theory, and system justification theory offer explanations of the dynamics of intergroup relations and biases. Despite not strictly being a theory of intergroup relations, right-wing authoritarianism also offers an explanation of intergroup bias by accounting for prejudice and ethnocentrism. Likewise, ideological conservatism has been shown to influence intergroup relations.

    Based within these theories, this dissertation attempts to explain the social-psychological mechanisms regulating in- and outgroup favouritism. More specifically, Study I examines issues of power and legitimacy in relation to social perception and gender. Studies II and III examine the relationships between social psychological variables and affirmative action, which is aimed at diminishing inequalities between social groups. Together, the studies showed that gender plays a role in intergroup bias, both as an independent variable and as an object of social discrimination. Conservative ideologies predicted ingroup favouritism, but variably. Attitudes towards affirmative action were influenced by the way this issue is semantically framed. The results are discussed in relation to the theories of intergroup relations exposed above and the pertinent issue of attitude ambivalence in understanding outgroup favouritism.

    Delarbeid
    1. Outgroup favoritism: The role of power perception, gender, and conservatism
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Outgroup favoritism: The role of power perception, gender, and conservatism
    2007 Inngår i: Current Research in Social Psychology, Vol. 13, nr 4, s. 38-49Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-96819 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2008-03-06 Laget: 2008-03-06bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Affirmative action: The role of ideological context, self interest, and conservative ideologies
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Affirmative action: The role of ideological context, self interest, and conservative ideologies
    Manuskript (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-96820 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2008-03-06 Laget: 2008-03-06 Sist oppdatert: 2010-01-13bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Affirmative action: The relationship with stereotyping, recipient's gender, and sexism
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Affirmative action: The relationship with stereotyping, recipient's gender, and sexism
    Manuskript (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-96821 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2008-03-06 Laget: 2008-03-06 Sist oppdatert: 2010-01-13bibliografisk kontrollert
  • 202.
    Batalha, Luisa
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Akrami, Nazar
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Outgroup favoritism: the role of power perception, gender, and conservatism2007Inngår i: Current Research in Social Psychology, ISSN 1088-7423, E-ISSN 1088-7423, Vol. 13, nr 4, s. 38-49Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 203.
    Baur, Elena
    et al.
    LWL Massregelvollzugsklin, Herne, Germany..
    Forsman, Mats
    Swedish Prison & Probat Serv, Res & Evaluat Unit, POB 44015, S-10073 Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Långström, Niklas
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatri. Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm.
    Response to Joyal's (2016) "Linking Crime to Paraphilia: Be Careful with Label"2017Inngår i: Archives of Sexual Behavior, ISSN 0004-0002, E-ISSN 1573-2800, Vol. 46, nr 4, s. 867-868Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 204.
    Bean, Christopher
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap. School of Psychology, University of Adelaide, Australia.
    Chur-Hansen, Anna
    Tran, Jason
    Strodl, Esben
    Smith, Bethany
    Australian psychology student perceptions and experiences of health psychology2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 205.
    Bean, Christopher
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap. School of Psychology, University of Adelaide, Australia.
    Heath, Georgina
    Kosmadopoulos, Anastasi
    Lauren, Holloway
    Rowley, Paul
    Bugg, Jasmine
    Sargent, Charli
    Does less sleep lead to unhealthy food choices? The effect of severe sleep restriction on food appraisal and food choice2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 206.
    Bean, Christopher
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap. School of Psychology, University of Adelaide, Australia.
    Winefield, Helen
    Sargent, Charli
    Hutchinson, Amanda
    Which psychosocial work factors are associated with waist circumference in South Australian employees?2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 207.
    Bean, Christopher
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap. School of Psychology, University of Adelaide, Australia.
    Winefield, Helen
    Sargent, Charli
    Hutchinson, Amanda
    Shi, Zumin
    Work Stress, Dietary Energy Intake, and Leisure-Time Physical Activity: Considering Job Demand-Control-Support model subscales2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 208.
    Beck, Leonie
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teologiska fakulteten, Teologiska institutionen.
    The Role of Personal Relationships in German-American Relations2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    For centuries, statesmen have engaged in personal encounters and correspondences with their political counterparts abroad and thereby exercised what can be called ‘personal diplomacy’ with the aim of influencing the other’s foreign policy. By tracing the use of this strategy in the history of the transatlantic relations between Germany and the United States of America from WWII to the present day, this research aims to analyze the applicability of the concept in this particular bilateral relationship and highlight the successes and failures of different statesmen’s attempts at exerting several types of power. To do so, Raven and French’s so-called ‘Power/Interaction Model of Interpersonal Influence’ is applied to the five case studies, which are the personal relationships between American presidents or secretaries of state and German chancellors or foreign ministers, namely Adenauer and Dulles, Ford and Kissinger, Kohl, Reagan and Bush Senior, Schröder and Bush Junior and Merkel and Obama. What transpires from the examination of their friendships or enmities is that personal relationships do indeed have an impact on statesmen’s political decisions in the German-American relationship, though, whether this influence has been essential or minor differs from case to case. Be that as it may, by presenting the numerous historical instances in which personal diplomacy can be said to have taken place and thereby demonstrating that there exists a trend, this thesis arrives at the verdict that personal diplomacy is a considerable factor in the two countries’ relations and one that demands attention if the scholarly discourse seeks to gain a full understanding of international political processes.

  • 209.
    Beier, Susanne
    et al.
    Heidelberg University.
    Eib, Constanze
    Stockholm University.
    Oehmann, Verena
    Heidelberg University.
    Fiedler, Peter
    Heidelberg University.
    Fiedler, Klaus
    Heidelberg University.
    Influence of judges’ behaviors on perceived procedural justice2014Inngår i: Journal of Applied Social Psychology, ISSN 0021-9029, E-ISSN 1559-1816, Vol. 44, nr 1, s. 46-59Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of judges’ behavior on procedural justice was analyzed in a field study, observing the judges’ behavior during n = 129 trials and assessing the defendants’ and the audiences’ justice perceptions. The observed judicial behavior was unrelated to the defendants’ justice perceptions. However, the more respectful the judge treated the defendants, the fairer the audience perceived the trial. In general, the effect size of the relationship between observational measures and subjective justice ratings was small in comparison to the relationship within defendants’ or audiences’ ratings. There were striking differences in the justice perception between the two data sources, namely defendants and audience. Thus, the source matters and, to avoid a same-source bias, should be taken into account when analyzing justice perceptions.

  • 210. Bell, Simon
    et al.
    van Zon, Roland
    Van Herzele, Ann
    Hartig, Terry
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för bostads- och urbanforskning (IBF).
    Health benefits of nature experience: Implications of practice for research2011Inngår i: Forests, trees, and human health / [ed] Nilsson, Kjell, Marcus Sangster, Christos Gallis, Terry Hartig, Sjerp de Vries, Klaus Seeland & Jasper Schipperijn, Dordrecht: Springer , 2011, 1st Edition, s. 183-202Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 211.
    Bengtsgård, Kerstin
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Social inhibition and socioemotional functioning in middle childhood2000Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Social inhibition, or in lay language "shyness", means a tendency to react with fearful and hesitant behaviors innovel social encounters. Lowinhibition, on the other hand is associated with a capacity to easily approachnovel social situations. However, low-inhibition might co-occur with difficulties in inhabiting undesired socialbehaviors. When disinhibited behavior in the sense of a lack of normal reserve, or indiscriminate socialbahaviors, is seen, this phenomenon is, in this thesis, named overfriendliness.

    Study I and Study II aimed at investigating socioemotional functioning in socially high and low-inhibitedchildren, with a special focus on overfriendliness. In Study I, high- and low-inhibited groups were compared toa medium-inhibited group with respect to problem behaviors and social competencies. Among low-inhibitedchildren, a group of overfriendly children was compared to a low-overfriendly group. Study II aimed atfurthering the knowledge about socioemotional functioning in high-inhibited children and in low-inhibitedchildren, when considering high and low overfriendliness. Study III considered problem behaviors in high-andlow-inhibited children when taking dysregulation - as indicated by negative emotionality and impersistence invarious activities - into account. Dysregulation was found to be associated with comorbid internalizing,externalizmg and attention problem behaviors. Results from the three studies show that high social inhibitionwas associated with a heightened risk for internalizing problem behaviors, less well developed socialcompetencies and socioemotional distress reactions. Low social inhibition was, if not co-occurring withoverfriendliness or with broad dysregulation, associated with especially well functioning development, and withlow risk for internalizing problems. Overfriendliness was primarily characterized by attention problembehaviors. When compared with the low-overfriendly group the high-overfriendly group also showed morethrill seeking, hyperactivity, externalising problem behaviors, internalizing problem behaviors, and less welldeveloped social competencies.

    Results indicated presence of different developmental pathways among socially low-inhibited children, andpointed to the importance of taking the heterogeneity among low-inhibited children into account in the study ofsocioemotional development.

  • 212. Bennett-Levy, James
    et al.
    McManus, Freda
    Westling, Bengt E.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Fennell, Melanie
    Acquiring and Refining CBT Skills and Competencies: Which Training Methods are Perceived to be Most Effective?2009Inngår i: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, ISSN 1352-4658, E-ISSN 1469-1833, Vol. 37, nr 5, s. 571-583Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A theoretical and empirical base for CBT training and supervision has started to emerge. Increasingly sophisticated maps of CBT therapist competencies have recently been developed, and there is evidence that CBT training and supervision can produce enhancement of CBT skills. However, the evidence base suggesting which specific training techniques are most effective for the development of CBT competencies is lacking. Aims: This paper addresses the question: What training or supervision methods are perceived by experienced therapists to be most effective for training CBT competencies? Method: 120 experienced CBT therapists rated which training or supervision methods in their experience had been most effective in enhancing different types of therapy-relevant knowledge or skills. Results: In line with the main prediction, it was found that different training methods were perceived to be differentially effective. For instance, reading, lectures/talks and modelling were perceived to be most useful for the acquisition of declarative knowledge, while enactive learning strategies (role-play, self-experiential work), together with modelling and reflective practice, were perceived to be most effective in enhancing procedural skills. Self-experiential work and reflective practice were seen as particularly helpful in improving reflective capability and interpersonal skills. Conclusions: The study provides a framework for thinking about the acquisition and refinement of therapist skills that may help trainers, supervisors and clinicians target their learning objectives with the most effective training strategies.

  • 213.
    Bennich-Björkman, Li
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet.
    Academic Leadership: Embracing Uncertainty and Diversity by Building Communication and Trust2017Inngår i: Handbookof Research on  Creativity and Leadership / [ed] Mumford, Lewis, Hemlin, Sven, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2017Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 214.
    Berbyuk, Tanya
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Gjerss, Gabriel
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Snabbhet och precision hos det visuella korttidsminnet för randmönster och ovaler2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här uppsatsen handlar om korttidsminnet (arbetsminnet) och dess kapacitet att lagra och processa information. Ett perceptionsexperiment som utfördes ger en inblick i hur korttidsminnet fungerar i praktiken och innefattar randmönster och ovaler som stimuli. Responstid och precision mäts och jämförs med avseende på betingelser som position och orientering. Uppsatsens hypotes är att samma respektive olika position på stimuli har betydelse för både snabbhet och precision. Resultatet bekräftade denna hypotes. Det visade sig också att även orientering på våra stimuli har en signifikant effekt på precision. Dock finns det ingen signifikant skillnad i snabbhet eller precision med avseende på om det är ovaler eller spatial frekvens.

  • 215.
    Bergh Johannesson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Kunskapscentrum för katastrofpsykiatri. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Psykiatri, Ulleråker, Akademiska sjukhuset.
    Arnberg, Filip K
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Kunskapscentrum för katastrofpsykiatri. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Psykiatri, Ulleråker, Akademiska sjukhuset.
    Michel, Per-Olof
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Kunskapscentrum för katastrofpsykiatri. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Psykiatri, Ulleråker, Akademiska sjukhuset.
    Svenskarna som överlevde tsunamin mår relativt bra: Uppföljning sex år efter katastrofen 20042012Inngår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 109, nr 37, s. 1607-1609Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hälsoläget i hela den undersökta populationen av överlevande svenskar sex år efter flodvågskatastrofen 2004 ter sig relativt gott.

    Jämfört med den förra undersökningen tre år efter tsunamin finns indikationer på en viss fortsatt återhämtning.

    Kvinnor visar besvär i något större utsträckning än män.

    En minoritet har fortfarande problem, i synnerhet de som var utsatta för livshot. Fördjupade studier kommer att belysa faktorer av betydelse för olika vägar till återhämtning.

  • 216.
    Bergh Johannesson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Kunskapscentrum för katastrofpsykiatri. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Psykiatri, Ulleråker, Akademiska sjukhuset.
    Lundin, Tom
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Kunskapscentrum för katastrofpsykiatri. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Psykiatri, Ulleråker, Akademiska sjukhuset.
    Hultman, Christina M.
    Department of Medical Epimediology and Biostatistics, Karolonska Institutet.
    Lindam, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Kunskapscentrum för katastrofpsykiatri.
    Dyster-Aas, Johan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Kunskapscentrum för katastrofpsykiatri. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Psykiatri, Akademiska sjukhuset.
    Arnberg, Filip
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Kunskapscentrum för katastrofpsykiatri. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Psykiatri, Ulleråker, Akademiska sjukhuset.
    Michel, Per-Olof
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Kunskapscentrum för katastrofpsykiatri. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Psykiatri, Ulleråker, Akademiska sjukhuset.
    The effect of Traumatic Bereavement on Tsunami-Exposed Survivors2009Inngår i: Journal of Traumatic Stress, ISSN 0894-9867, E-ISSN 1573-6598, Vol. 22, nr 6, s. 497-504Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Fourteen months after the 2004 tsunami, mental health outcome was assessed in 187 bereaved relatives, 308 bereaved friends, and in 3,020 nonbereaved Swedish survivors. Of the bereaved relatives, 41% reported posttraumatic stress reactions and 62% reported impaired general mental health. Having been caught or chased by the tsunami in combination with bereavement was associated with increased posttraumatic stress reactions. Complicated grief reactions among relatives were almost as frequent as posttraumatic stress reactions. The highest levels of psychological distress were found among those who had lost children. Traumatic bereavement, in combination with exposure to life danger, is probably a risk factor for mental health sequelae after a natural disaster.

  • 217.
    Bergh, Robin
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Prejudiced Personalities Revisited: On the Nature of (Generalized) Prejudice2013Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In the media, one type of prejudice is often discussed as isolated from other types of prejudice. For example, after Breivik’s massacre, intolerance toward Muslims was intensely debated (for good reasons). However, his manifesto also disclosed extreme attitudes towards women and gays, a fact which passed without much notice. Still, in understanding why some individuals are so extremely intolerant compared to others, the psychological unity underlying different kinds of prejudice (e.g., racism, sexism) needs to be considered. This psychological unity, referred to as generalized prejudice, provided the starting point for personality theories on prejudice because it suggests that some people are simply more biased than other people in principle. Today it is well known that two basic personality characteristics, agreeableness and openness to new experiences, are powerful predictors of prejudice. However, more precisely what these variables can, versus cannot, explain has received little attention. Consequently, the aim of this thesis was to provide a more fine-grained analysis of generalized prejudice and its personality roots. Paper I demonstrated that personality mainly accounts for variance shared by several prejudice targets (generalized prejudice) whereas group membership mainly predicts unique variance in prejudice towards a particular target group. Thus, personality and group membership factors explain prejudice for different reason, and do not contradict each other. Paper II demonstrated, across three studies, that agreeableness and openness to experience are related to self-reported (explicit) prejudice, but not automatically expressed (implicit) biases. Personality seems informative about who chooses to express devaluing sentiments, but not who harbors spontaneous biases. Finally, Paper III examined the assumption that personality explains (explicit) generalized prejudice because some people simply favor their own group over all other groups (ethnocentrism). Providing the first direct test of this assumption, the results from three studies suggest that while agreeableness and openness to experience explain generalized prejudice, they do not account for purely ethnocentric attitudes. This indicates a fundamental difference between ethnocentrism and generalized prejudice. All in all, self-reported personality seems to have little to do with spontaneous group negativity or simple ingroup favoritism. However, personality strongly predicts deliberate and verbalized devaluation of disadvantaged groups.

    Delarbeid
    1. Generalized prejudice: Common and specific components
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Generalized prejudice: Common and specific components
    2011 (engelsk)Inngår i: Psychological Science, ISSN 0956-7976, E-ISSN 1467-9280, Vol. 22, nr 1, s. 57-59Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Psykologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-141035 (URN)10.1177/0956797610390384 (DOI)000294708600012 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2011-01-10 Laget: 2011-01-10 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-11bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. The Personality Underpinnings of Explicit and Implicit Generalized Prejudice
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>The Personality Underpinnings of Explicit and Implicit Generalized Prejudice
    2012 (engelsk)Inngår i: Social Psychology and Personality Science, ISSN 1948-5506, E-ISSN 1948-5514, Vol. 3, nr 5, s. 614-621Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The idea of prejudice as a tendency that can be generalized from one target to another and the personality–prejudice relationship have been widely examined using explicit measures. However, less is known about this tendency and its relation to personality for implicit prejudice measures, like the implicit association test (IAT). Three studies including explicit and corresponding implicit prejudice measures toward various target groups confirmed a generalized factor for both types of measures with a stronger common component for the explicit factor. Personality was significantly related to the explicit measures only. Also, the personality and prejudice measures were unrelated to explicit and implicit attitudes toward an irrelevant target which rules out potential method confound. These results indicate that explicit and implicit prejudice measures tap different psychological constructs relating differently to the individual’s self-reported personality. The findings have implications for the debate on whether IAT scores reflect personally endorsed attitudes.

    Emneord
    personality, generalized prejudice, implicit association test, cultural stereotypes, personal attitudes
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-208609 (URN)10.1177/1948550611432937 (DOI)000208936600013 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2013-10-25 Laget: 2013-10-04 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-06bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Ethnocentric Personality: A 60-Year Old Myth?
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Ethnocentric Personality: A 60-Year Old Myth?
    (engelsk)Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig) Submitted
    Abstract [en]

    After World War II, researchers began searching for a prejudiced personality. This inquiry relied, and still relies, on interrelations between prejudice toward different targets (generalized prejudice) and correlations with ideology and personality variables. The conventional wisdom here became that some people are systematically more biased toward all outgroups (ethnocentrism). However, it is not conclusive that generalized prejudice reflect outgroup biases. For example, Gays and overweight people could be targeted by prejudice alike because they are minorities, not because they are outgroups. Based on three experiments employing the minimal group paradigm, this paper provides the first direct test of the ethnocentric personality assumption. We found that personality (Agreeableness & Openness to Experience) only accounted for a small share of the variance in ethnocentrism but, in line with previous research, a large share in generalized prejudice. We propose a re-evaluating the ethnocentric personality notion and a distinction between ethnocentrism and generalized prejudice.

    Emneord
    Ethnocentrism, generalized prejudice, personality, agreeableness, openness to experience
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Psykologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-210291 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2013-11-04 Laget: 2013-11-04 Sist oppdatert: 2014-01-23bibliografisk kontrollert
  • 218.
    Bergh, Robin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Harvard Univ, Dept Psychol, William James Hall,33 Kirkland St, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA..
    Akrami, Nazar
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Are non-agreeable individuals prejudiced?: Comparing different conceptualizations of agreeableness2016Inngår i: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 101, s. 153-159Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has documented associations between prejudice and agreeableness, as well as openness to experience, from the five-factor model (FFM). Still, empathy/altruism and narcissism/honesty-humility are related traits and also potent predictors of prejudice. Thus, we examined whether there is an association between prejudice and agreeableness, as a global trait, or if the correlations depend on facets that are part of the broader FM factor, but belong to other dimensions in the HEXACO model. We further analyzed how well the documented relations of agreeableness on prejudice hold up when entered alongside empathy/altruism and honesty-humility within the HEXACO framework. Results from Sweden and the United States showed that only FFM agreeableness, and not the HEXACO counterpart, correlates with an index of prejudice (racism and sexism). Furthermore, the negative relations of FFM agreeableness were absent or reversed in regression analyses with the other HEXACO predictors. Instead, we found negative effects of honesty-humility and empathy/altruism on prejudice. Thus, the effect of agreeableness on prejudice is directly contingent on its definition in relation to honesty-humility and empathy/altruism. In conclusion, we found little evidence of an association between a global agreeableness trait and prejudice.

  • 219.
    Bergh, Robin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Akrami, Nazar
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ethnocentric Personality: A 60-Year Old Myth?Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    After World War II, researchers began searching for a prejudiced personality. This inquiry relied, and still relies, on interrelations between prejudice toward different targets (generalized prejudice) and correlations with ideology and personality variables. The conventional wisdom here became that some people are systematically more biased toward all outgroups (ethnocentrism). However, it is not conclusive that generalized prejudice reflect outgroup biases. For example, Gays and overweight people could be targeted by prejudice alike because they are minorities, not because they are outgroups. Based on three experiments employing the minimal group paradigm, this paper provides the first direct test of the ethnocentric personality assumption. We found that personality (Agreeableness & Openness to Experience) only accounted for a small share of the variance in ethnocentrism but, in line with previous research, a large share in generalized prejudice. We propose a re-evaluating the ethnocentric personality notion and a distinction between ethnocentrism and generalized prejudice.

  • 220.
    Bergh, Robin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Akrami, Nazar
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Social identity and prejudiced personality2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 221.
    Bergh, Robin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Akrami, Nazar
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Does the personality-prejudice relationship change as a function of identity salience?2009Inngår i: 11th European Social Cognition Network Meeting 2009: Warsaw, Poland, Warsaw, Poland, 2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 222.
    Bergh, Robin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Akrami, Nazar
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Social identity and prejudiced personality2010Inngår i: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 48, nr 3, s. 317-321Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested that the relation between personality and prejudice varies as a function of identity salience but previous empirical results are not conclusive. Extending previous research, we conducted an experimental study (N = 122) with pre- and post-manipulation measures of personality, and a post-manipulation measurement of prejudice, under conditions of control (no identity manipulation), personal or national identity. The results revealed no differences in the magnitude of the personality-prejudice correlations across conditions, neither for the pre- nor post-manipulation scores. Correlations based on pre- and post-manipulation variables, within each condition, did not differ significantly either. This indicates that neither prejudice nor personality variables were affected by identity salience. Thus, the study provides no support for the contention that the personality-prejudice relation varies as a function of social identity.

  • 223. Bergh, Robin
    et al.
    Akrami, Nazar
    Ekehammar, Bo
    The compatibility of personality and social identity processes: The effect of gender identity on neuroticism.2012Inngår i: European Journal of Personality, ISSN 0890-2070, E-ISSN 1099-0984, Vol. 26, s. 175-181Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 224.
    Bergh, Robin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Akrami, Nazar
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    The Compatibility of Personality and Social Identity Processes: The Effect of Gender Identity on Neuroticism2012Inngår i: European Journal of Personality, ISSN 0890-2070, E-ISSN 1099-0984, Vol. 26, nr 3, s. 175-181Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In an experimental study (N?=?186), we examined the effect of identity (gender versus personal) on participants' self-rated neuroticism and estimates of mean neuroticism for men and women. Self-rated neuroticism was measured before and after the identity salience manipulation. Following self-categorization theory, we predicted that identity salience would affect levels of self-rated neuroticism and the estimates (perceptions) of mean neuroticism for each sex. From a personality perspective, we expected substantial correlations between pre-manipulation and post-manipulation neuroticism scores in both identity conditions. The relation between participants' self-rated neuroticism and their estimates of mean neuroticism for their own sex was also examined. The effect of identity salience was unclear with regard to self-rated neuroticism levels, whereas the manipulation had apparent effects on estimated mean neuroticism levels for men and women. Also, self-rated neuroticism was found to predict estimates of mean neuroticism for men and women in the gender, but not personal, identity condition. Finally, in line with a personality perspective, the relative positions in self-rated neuroticism were highly stable in both conditions. The findings indicate a compatibility of self-categorization theory and personality perspectives and suggest that both are valuable to understand the changeability and stability of the self.

  • 225.
    Bergh, Robin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Akrami, Nazar
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    The Personality Underpinnings of Explicit and Implicit Generalized Prejudice2012Inngår i: Social Psychology and Personality Science, ISSN 1948-5506, E-ISSN 1948-5514, Vol. 3, nr 5, s. 614-621Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The idea of prejudice as a tendency that can be generalized from one target to another and the personality–prejudice relationship have been widely examined using explicit measures. However, less is known about this tendency and its relation to personality for implicit prejudice measures, like the implicit association test (IAT). Three studies including explicit and corresponding implicit prejudice measures toward various target groups confirmed a generalized factor for both types of measures with a stronger common component for the explicit factor. Personality was significantly related to the explicit measures only. Also, the personality and prejudice measures were unrelated to explicit and implicit attitudes toward an irrelevant target which rules out potential method confound. These results indicate that explicit and implicit prejudice measures tap different psychological constructs relating differently to the individual’s self-reported personality. The findings have implications for the debate on whether IAT scores reflect personally endorsed attitudes.

  • 226.
    Bergh, Robin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Harvard Univ, Dept Psychol, William James Hall,33 Kirkland St, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA..
    Akrami, Nazar
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Sidanius, Jim
    Harvard Univ, Dept Psychol, William James Hall,33 Kirkland St, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA..
    Sibley, Chris G.
    Univ Auckland, Dept Psychol, Auckland 1, New Zealand..
    Is Group Membership Necessary for Understanding Generalized Prejudice?: A Re-Evaluation of Why Prejudices Are Interrelated2016Inngår i: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, ISSN 0022-3514, E-ISSN 1939-1315, Vol. 111, nr 3, s. 367-395Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many scholars have proposed that people who reject one outgroup tend to reject other outgroups. Studies examining a latent factor behind different prejudices (e.g., toward ethnic and sexual minorities) have referred to this as generalized prejudice. Such research has also documented robust relations between latent prejudice factors and basic personality traits. However, targets of generalized prejudice tend to be lower in power and status and thus it remains an open question as to whether generalized prejudice, as traditionally studied, is about devaluing outgroups or devaluing marginalized groups. We present 7 studies, including experiments and national probability samples (N = 9,907 and 4,037) assessing the importance of outgroup devaluation, versus status- or power based devaluations, for understanding the nature of generalized prejudice, and its links to personality. Results show that (a) personality variables do not predict ingroup/outgroup biases in settings where power and status differences are absent, (b) women and overweight people who score high on generalized prejudice devalue their own groups, and (c) personality variables are far more predictive of prejudice toward low-compared with high-status targets. Together, these findings suggest that the personality explanation of prejudice including the generalized prejudice concept is not about ingroups versus outgroups per se, but rather about devaluing marginalized groups.

  • 227.
    Bergh, Robin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Harvard Univ, Dept Psychol, 33 Kirkland St, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA.
    Lindskog, Marcus
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The group-motivated sampler2019Inngår i: Journal of experimental psychology. General, ISSN 0096-3445, E-ISSN 1939-2222, Vol. 148, nr 5, s. 845-862Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Does ingroup favoritism reflect experience or some preset motivation? The latter possibility is well examined in social psychology, but models from cognitive psychology suggest that unrepresentative samples of experience can generate biases even in the absence of motivational concerns. It remains unclear, however, how motivation and initially sampled experiences interact when both influences are possible, and people encounter new groups. Extending classic arguments about motivated information gathering, we propose that people can be described as “group-motivated samplers”—marked by a tendency to primarily seek out information about one’s own group, and to attend more to information that portrays the ingroup in a positive light. Four experiments showed that information seeking almost always starts with the ingroup, and that people chose to gather more information from the ingroup compared to an outgroup. In subsequent group evaluations, people were excessively positive about ingroups giving a good initial impression. Participants were also fairly accurate, on average, about the direction and magnitude of group differences when the ingroup was de facto better, but downplayed those differences in the opposite situation. Further analyses indicated that first experiences led to biased evaluations because people failed to discount for nonrepresentative (positive) ingroup experiences, whereas interpretive biases seem responsible for evaluations based on belonging to a better/worse performing group. Taken together, while social psychologists know that people tend to portray ingroups in a flattering light, we show how people selectively incorporate early experiences to build those impressions. 

  • 228.
    Bergh, Robin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Harvard Univ, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA..
    Sidanius, Jim
    Harvard Univ, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA..
    Sibley, Chris G.
    Univ Auckland, Auckland 1, New Zealand..
    Dimensions of Social Dominance: Their Personality and Socio-political Correlates within a New Zealand Probability Sample2015Inngår i: NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY, ISSN 1179-7924, Vol. 44, nr 2, s. 25-34Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Social Dominance Orientation (SDO) was introduced as a unidimensional construct predicting numerous socio-political attitudes. However, recent findings suggest that SDO is composed of two sub-dimensions: dominance (SDO-D) and anti-egalitarianism (SDO-E). Despite converging evidence concerning their empirical differentiability, there is little consensus on how to best define them. Thus, we examined the correlates of SDO-D and SDO-E using a broad array of personality, political, ethnic and gender issue variables within a New Zealand national probability sample (N = 5,741) with European and Maori participants. SDO-D primarily related to the personality trait of honesty-humility, hostile and benevolent sexism. SDO-E primarily related to political conservatism and pro-Maori policies. In many cases, the predictive power differed between SDO-D and SDO-E, and across ethnic groups.

  • 229.
    Berglund, Kristina
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Roman, Erika
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap.
    Balldin, Jan
    Berggren, Ulf
    Eriksson, Matts
    Gustavsson, Petter
    Fahlke, Claudia
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Do men with excessive alcohol consumption and social stability have an addictive personality?2011Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 52, nr 3, s. 257-260Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The existence of an "addictive" personality has been extensively debated. The current study investigated personality in male individuals with excessive alcohol consumption (n = 100) in comparison to a population-based control group (n = 131). The individuals with excessive alcohol consumption were recruited by advertisements in a regional daily newspaper and controls from a population based Swedish Twin Registry. Personality was assessed by the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP). Comparisons were made with normative data. Furthermore, by using a multivariate projection-based approach (Principal Component Analysis; PCA), hidden structures of traits and possible relationships among the individuals with excessive consumption and the controls was investigated. The individuals with excessive alcohol consumption as well as the controls had mean values within the normative range in all scales of the KSP. Moreover, the PCA analysis revealed no systematic between-group separation. Taken together, this result demonstrates that male individuals with excessive alcohol consumption do not have a personality different from that of a general population, which supports the notion of no "addictive personality".

  • 230.
    Bergman, Kristian
    et al.
    Barn- och ungdomspsykiatrin, Stockholms läns landsting.
    Diderholm, Sofia
    Studenthälsan, Uppsala universitet.
    Rautalinko, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Problemorienterande samtal: manual för behandlare2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med metoden Problemorienterande samtal är att i fyra samtal aktivera en klients reflekterande förmåga. Behandlaren vill väcka klientens nyfikenhet att utforska inre samband kring egen central problematik och därigenom öka hennes förståelse av sig själv.

  • 231. Bergman, O
    et al.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Appel, L
    Linnman, Claes
    Faria, Vanda
    Henningsson, S
    Hariri, A
    Bani, M
    Bettica, P
    Merlo Pich, E
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Eriksson, E
    Westberg, L
    Amygdala blood flow is associated with dopamine transporter gene pslymorphism in patients with social anxiety disorder and healthy controls.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 232. Bergman, P
    et al.
    Åborg, Carl
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Stoetzer, U
    Ahlberg, G
    Hallsten, L
    Lundberg, I
    Johansson, G
    Svartengren, M
    Do job demands and job control affect problem-solving?2012Inngår i: Work, nr 42, s. 195-203Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 233.
    Bergström, Malin
    et al.
    Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS), Stockholm University/Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Clinical Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fransson, Emma
    Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS), Stockholm University/Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fabian, Helena
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Socialmedicin/CHAP.
    Hjern, Anders
    Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS), Stockholm University/Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Clinical Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sarkadi, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Socialmedicin/CHAP.
    Salari, Raziye
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Socialmedicin/CHAP.
    Preschool children living in joint physical custody arrangements show less psychological symptoms than those living mostly or only with one parent2018Inngår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 107, nr 2, s. 294-300Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: Joint physical custody (JPC), where children spend about equal time in both parent's homes after parental separation, is increasing. The suitability of this practice for preschool children, with a need for predictability and continuity, has been questioned.

    METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we used data on 3656 Swedish children aged three to five years living in intact families, JPC, mostly with one parent or single care. Linear regression analyses were conducted with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, completed by parents and preschool teachers, as the outcome measure.

    RESULTS: Children in JPC showed less psychological problems than those living mostly (adjusted B 1.81; 95% CI [0.66 to 2.95]) or only with one parent (adjusted B 1.94; 95% CI [0.75 to 3.13]), in parental reports. In preschool teacher reports, the adjusted Betas were 1.27, 95% CI [0.14 to 2.40] and 1.41, 95% CI [0.24 to 2.58], respectively. In parental reports, children in JPC and those in intact families had similar outcomes, while teachers reported lower unadjusted symptom scores for children in intact families.

    CONCLUSION: Joint physical custody arrangements were not associated with more psychological symptoms in children aged 3-5, but longitudinal studies are needed to account for potential preseparation differences.

  • 234.
    Bergström, Malin
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Karolinska Inst, Ctr Hlth Equ Studies CHESS, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Clin Epidemiol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sarkadi, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholm Univ, Karolinska Inst, Ctr Hlth Equ Studies CHESS, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Clin Epidemiol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fransson, Emma
    Stockholm Univ, Karolinska Inst, Ctr Hlth Equ Studies CHESS, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    "We also communicate through a book in the diaper bag"-Separated parents' ways to coparent and promote adaptation of their 1-4 year olds in equal joint physical custody2019Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, nr 4, artikkel-id e0214913Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Joint physical custody (JPC) refers to a practice where children with separated parents share their time between the parents' respective homes. Studies on parents' views of JPC for young children are scarce. The aim of this interview study was to explore parents' perceptions on how they experience and practice equally shared JPC for their 1-4 year-olds in Sweden. Forty-six parents (18 fathers and 28 mothers) of 50 children (31 boys and 19 girls) under 5 years of age were interviewed. Parents were recruited through information in the media and represented a broad range of socioeconomic backgrounds, as well as both voluntary and court-ordered custody arrangements. The interviews were semi-structured and analyzed using systematic text condensation. Two themes emerged regarding the research question. In the first theme, Always free, never free, parents described their striving to coparent without a love relationship. While they appreciated the freedom of being a "half-time parent", doing things one's own way, they felt constrained by the long-term commitment to live close to and keep discussing child rearing issues with the ex-partner. Good communication was key and lessened parent's feelings of being cut-off from half of the child's life. When JPC was ordered by court or conflicts were intense, parents tried to have less contact and worried when the children were in the other home. The second theme, Is it right, is it good?, included descriptions of how the parents monitored the child's responses to the living arrangement and made changes to optimize their adjustment. Adaptations included visits for the child with the other parent mid-week, shared meals or adapting schedules. In conclusion, these parents worked hard to make JPC work and cause minimal damage to their children. Most parents were pleased with the arrangements with the notable exception of couples experiencing ongoing conflict.

  • 235.
    Berlin, Lisa
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The Role of Inhibitory Control and Executive Functioning in Hyperactivity/ADHD2003Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examined inhibition, executive functioning and their possible relation to childhood problems of hyperactivity and inattention, in its clinical form referred to as Attention Deficit Hyper-activity Disorder (ADHD). Concurrent as well as longitudinal relations were of interest, and both clinical and non-clinical samples were studied.

    Study I demonstrated concurrent relations between executive inhibition and both hyperactivity and conduct problems in preschool. However, the relation between inhibition and conduct problems could be attributed to the large overlap between hyperactivity and conduct problems.

    In Study II, linear relations were found between executive inhibition and hyperactivity, whereas inhibition to the unfamiliar was related to hyperactivity, social initiative, as well as social anxiety. Non-linear analyses showed that children with high levels of both types of inhibition were at risk for developing low social initiative and social anxiety, whereas children with low levels of inhibition were at risk for developing hyperactivity, but at the same time protected from social anxiety.

    In Study III, executive inhibition was longitudinally related to ADHD symptoms in both school and at home for boys, but only in the school context for girls. Executive inhibition was also related to more general executive functioning deficits, and concurrent relations were found between executive functioning and ADHD symptoms, although in both cases only for boys. Inhibition and executive functioning made independent contributions to the understanding of ADHD symptoms for boys, and together explained about half the variance in inattention problems.

    In Study IV, group differences were found between ADHD children and controls for both inhibition and various other executive function measures. These measures also discriminated well between groups. The best model, which included measures tapping inhibition, working memory and emotion regulation, classified 86% of the children correctly.

    In summary, the results of the present thesis were mostly supportive of Barkley’s hybrid model of ADHD, although it should be noted that the question of whether inhibition should be regarded as primary to other executive functions requires further investigation.

  • 236.
    Berlin, Lisa
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Development psychology.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Development psychology.
    Response inhibition, hyperactivity, and conduct problems among preschool children2002Inngår i: Journal of clinical child and adolescent psychology, ISSN 1537-4416, Vol. 31, nr 2, s. 242-251Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Investigated the relation among response inhibition, hyperactivity, and conduct problems in a nonclinical sample of 115 preschool children, using 2 different types of go/no-go tasks well as a Stroop-like task. In line with the assumption that hyperactivity is related to disinhibition, the results showed that it was the measures of response inhibition, and not other performance measures, that were related to teacher ratings of hyperactivity. There was also a significant relation between response inhibition and conduct problems. Interestingly, the correlation between response inhibition and conduct problems was not significant when partialling out the effect of hyperactivity, whereas the correlation between inhibition and hyperactivity did remain significant when controlling for conduct problems. Although the association between inhibition, hyperactivity, and conduct problems appeared to be partly different for boys and girls, these differences were not statistically significant.

  • 237.
    Berman, Anne H.
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Liu, Bojing
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ullman, Sara
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden.;Swedish Police, Dept Invest, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Jadbäck, Isabel
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Tellas Consulting AB, Malmo, Sweden..
    Engström, Karin
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Children's Quality of Life Based on the KIDSCREEN-27: Child Self-Report, Parent Ratings and Child-Parent Agreement in a Swedish Random Population Sample2016Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, nr 3, artikkel-id e0150545Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The KIDSCREEN-27 is a measure of child and adolescent quality of life (QoL), with excellent psychometric properties, available in child-report and parent-rating versions in 38 languages. This study provides child-reported and parent-rated norms for the KIDSCREEN-27 among Swedish 11-16 year-olds, as well as child-parent agreement. Sociodemographic correlates of self-reported wellbeing and parent-rated wellbeing were also measured. Methods A random population sample consisting of 600 children aged 11-16, 100 per age group and one of their parents (N = 1200), were approached for response to self-reported and parentrated versions of the KIDSCREEN-27. Parents were also asked about their education, employment status and their own QoL based on the 26-item WHOQOL-Bref. Based on the final sampling pool of 1158 persons, a 34.8% response rate of 403 individuals was obtained, including 175 child-parent pairs, 27 child singleton responders and 26 parent singletons. Gender and age differences for parent ratings and child-reported data were analyzed using t-tests and the Mann-Whitney U-test. Post-hoc Dunn tests were conducted for pairwise comparisons when the p-value for specific subscales was 0.05 or lower. Child-parent agreement was tested item-by-item, using the Prevalence-and Bias-Adjusted Kappa (PABAK) coefficient for ordinal data (PABAK-OS); dimensional and total score agreement was evaluated based on dichotomous cut-offs for lower well-being, using the PABAK and total, continuous scores were evaluated using Bland-Altman plots. Results Compared to European norms, Swedish children in this sample scored lower on Physical wellbeing (48.8 SE/49.94 EU) but higher on the other KIDSCREEN-27 dimensions: Psychological wellbeing (53.4/49.77), Parent relations and autonomy (55.1/49.99), Social Support and peers (54.1/49.94) and School (55.8/50.01). Older children self-reported lower wellbeing than younger children. No significant self-reported gender differences occurred and parent ratings showed no gender or age differences. Item-by-item child-parent agreement was slight for 14 items (51.9%), fair for 12 items (44.4%), and less than chance for one item (3.7%), but agreement on all dimensions as well as the total score was substantial according to the PABAK-OS. Visual interpretation of the Bland-Altman plot suggested that when children's average wellbeing score was lower parents seemed to rate their children as having relatively higher total wellbeing, but as children's average wellbeing score increased, parents tended to rate their children as having relatively lower total wellbeing. Children living with both parents had higher wellbeing than those who lived with only one parent. Conclusions Results agreed with European findings that adolescent wellbeing decreases with age but contrasted with some prior Swedish research identifying better wellbeing for boys on all dimensions but Social support and peers. The study suggests the importance of considering children's own reports and not only parental or other informant ratings. Future research should be conducted at regular intervals and encompass larger samples.

  • 238.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Eib, Constanze
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Griep, Yannick
    University of Calgary, Canada; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    How do job insecurity and organizational justice relate to depressive symptoms and sleep difficulties: a multilevel study on immediate and prolonged effects in swedish workers2019Inngår i: Psychologie Appliquee: Revue Internationale, ISSN 0269-994X, E-ISSN 1464-0597Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on stress and justice literature, we argue that perceptions of job insecurity induce feelings of low procedural justice, which has immediate and prolonged negative effects on health (depressive symptoms, sleep difficulties). Moreover, we explore whether the strength of the job insecurity–justice relationship differs between individuals as a function of their average level of job insecurity over time. Finally, we explore whether the procedural justice–health relationship differs between individuals as a function of variability in justice perceptions over time. We analyzed Swedish panel data from permanent workers over four consecutive waves (with a two‐year time lag between waves) using multilevel analysis, separating within‐ and between‐person variance. Results showed that job insecurity associated negatively with procedural justice at the same time point for all waves. Prolonged effects were less stable. We found immediate (but not prolonged) indirect effects of job insecurity on health outcomes via procedural justice. Average levels in job insecurity over time moderated the within‐person job insecurity–justice relationship. However, variability in procedural justice over time did not moderate the within‐person justice–health relationship. In conclusion, disentangling within‐ and between‐person variability of job insecurity and justice perceptions contributes to the understanding of health effects.

    Fulltekst tilgjengelig fra 2020-09-10 00:00
  • 239.
    Berntsen, Sveinung
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Livsstil och rehabilitering vid långvarig sjukdom.
    Igelström, Helena
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Livsstil och rehabilitering vid långvarig sjukdom.
    Hetlelid, Ken J.
    Henriksson, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Livsstil och rehabilitering vid långvarig sjukdom.
    Nordin, Karin
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Livsstil och rehabilitering vid långvarig sjukdom.
    Phys-Can Feasibility Study: Objectively Recorded Physical Activity in Cancer Patients2014Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 240. Bertenthal, B.
    et al.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Boyer, T. W.
    Differential Contributions of Development and Learning to Infants’ Knowledge of Object Continuity and Discontinuity2013Inngår i: Child Development, ISSN 0009-3920, E-ISSN 1467-8624, Vol. 84, nr 2, s. 413-421Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sixty infants divided evenly between 5 and 7months of age were tested for their knowledge of object continuity versus discontinuity with a predictive tracking task. The stimulus event consisted of a moving ball that was briefly occluded for 20 trials. Both age groups predictively tracked the ball when it disappeared and reappeared via occlusion, but not when it disappeared and reappeared via implosion. Infants displayed high levels of predictive tracking from the first trial in the occlusion condition, and showed significant improvement across trials in the implosion condition. These results suggest that infants possess embodied knowledge to support differential tracking of continuously and discontinuously moving objects, but this tracking can be modified by visual experience.

  • 241. Bertenthal, B.
    et al.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Boyer, T.W.
    Infants´ knowledge of object continuity and discontinuity2013Inngår i: Child Development, ISSN 0009-3920, E-ISSN 1467-8624, Vol. 84, nr 2, s. 413-421Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sixty infants divided evenly between 5 and 7 months of age were tested for their knowledge of object continuity versus discontinuity with a predictive tracking task. The stimulus event consisted of a moving ball that was briefly occluded for 20 trials. Both age groups predictively tracked the ball when it disappeared and reappeared via occlusion, but not when it disappeared and reappeared via implosion. Infants displayed high levels of predictive tracking from the first trial in the occlusion condition, and showed significant improvement across trials in the implosion condition. These results suggest that infants possess embodied knowledge to support differential tracking of continuously and discontinuously moving objects, but this tracking can be modified by visual experience.

  • 242.
    Bhardwaj, Manisha
    et al.
    University of Houston.
    Van den Berg, Ronald
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ma, Wei Ji
    New York University.
    Josić, Krešimir
    University of Houston.
    Do people take stimulus correlations into account in visual search?2016Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, nr 3, artikkel-id e0149402Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In laboratory visual search experiments, distractors are often statistically independent of each other. However, stimuli in more naturalistic settings are often correlated and rarely independent. Here, we examine whether human observers take stimulus correlations into account in orientation target detection. We find that they do, although probably not optimally. In particular, it seems that low distractor correlations are overestimated. Our results might contribute to bridging the gap between artificial and natural visual search tasks.

  • 243.
    Bingham, Geoffrey P.
    et al.
    Indiana University, Department of Psychology .
    Lind, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informationsvetenskap.
    Large continuous perspective transformations are necessary and sufficient for accurate perception of metric shape2008Inngår i: Perception & Psychophysics
    , ISSN 0031-5117, E-ISSN 1532-5962, Vol. 70, nr 3, s. 524-540
    Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the ability to perceive the metric shape of elliptical cylinders. A large number of previous studies have shown that small perspective variations (≤ 10°) afforded by stereovision and by head movements fail to allow accurate perception of metric shape. If space perception is affine (Koenderink & van Doorn, 1991), observers are unable to compare or relate lengths in depth to frontoparallel lengths (i.e., widths). Frontoparallel lengths can be perceived correctly, whereas lengths in depth generally are not. We measured reaches to evaluate shape perception and investigated whether larger perspective variations would allow accurate perception of shape. In Experiment 1, we replicated previous results showing poor perception with small perspective variations. In Experiment 2, we found that a 90° continuous change in perspective, which swapped depth and width, allowed accurate perception of the depth/width aspect ratio. In Experiment 3, we found that discrete views differing by 90° were insufficient to allow accurate perception of metric shape and that perception of a continuous perspective change was required. In Experiment 4, we investigated continuous perspective changes of 30°, 45°, 60°, and 90° and discovered that a 45° change or greater allowed accurate perception of the aspect ratio and that less than this did not. In conclusion, we found that perception of metric shape is possible with continuous perspective transformations somewhat larger than those investigated in the substantial number of previous studies.

  • 244.
    Birgegard, Andreas
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Sohlberg, Staffan
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Debriefing after subliminal stimulation: Does information to participants prevent persistent effects?2004Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 245. Birgegard, Andreas
    et al.
    Sohlberg, Staffan
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Persistent effects of subliminal stimulation: sex differences and the effectiveness of debriefing2008Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 49, nr 1, s. 19-29Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Persistent and non-trivial effects of unconscious stimuli have been reported (Sohlberg & Birgegard, 2003). This raises the ethical question of whether informing participants about such stimuli effectively returns them to a normal state. Two experiments (sex-mixed, N = 70 and 118) tested two kinds of debriefing to participants following subliminal (tachistoscopic) attachment-related or control stimulation. Measures were the Beck Depression Inventory, Structural Analysis of Social Behavior, and Retrospective Attachment. Results showed persistent effects. Simple debriefing about the stimulus was effective in preventing these, while more elaborate debriefing also describing the effects and mechanisms for them was less effective. Persistent effects were also strongly related to participant sex, but debriefing effects were similar in men and women with regard to the purpose of debriefing. The findings have implications for ethical recommendations for subliminal research, and suggest that this unexplored area requires more attention.

  • 246.
    Birgegård, Andreas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Producing, Preventing, and Explaining Persistent Complex Subliminal Stimulation Effects2003Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Strong recent focus on unconscious processes has increased interest in subliminal stimulation and similar experimental technologies. Assumptions about the persistence of effects of unconscious stimulation are generally conservative, referring to seconds or minutes (Silverman, 1977; Velmans, 1991). In Study I, five experiments (N = 365) showed complex effects of unconscious stimulation ten days after subliminal exposure, implying that persistence estimates need reevaluation. Experimental stimuli were "mommy and I are one" (MIO) and "mommy and I are dissimilar" (MIDIS), and neutral control stimuli. Effects consisted of higher correlations between measures pertaining to the self-mother relationship and measures of psychological adjustment.

    These ethically problematic findings prompted investigation in Study II of whether debriefing information to participants could prevent persistent effects of subliminal stimuli, an issue not previously investigated. Two experiments (N=188) tested two kinds of information to participants following subliminal MIDIS or control stimulation. Results showed different persistent effects depending on participant sex. Simple information about the stimulus was effective in preventing these, but elaborate information describing the effects and mechanisms for them was not. The findings have implications for ethical recommendations for subliminal research, and suggest that this unexplored area requires more attention.

    In Study III, a theoretical account for the persistent effects is presented, based on unconscious activation of a relational schema containing goal motivation. Unless the goal is fulfilled or activation dissipates due to attributability or irrelevance of the goal, the activation will be maintained (motivated maintenance). Being unconscious, the influence results in automatic schematic processing of environmental cues, including perceptual, judgment, and behavioral biases. These in turn interactively maintain the activation of the schema (interactive maintenance).

    The discussion includes the conclusion that previous estimates of the persistence of unconscious stimulation effects need revision. Theoretical and empirical questions concerning the studies are discussed and ethical research implications are considered.

    Delarbeid
    1. Persistent complex subliminal activation effects: First experimental observations
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Persistent complex subliminal activation effects: First experimental observations
    2003 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, ISSN 0022-3514, E-ISSN 1939-1315, Vol. 85, nr 2, s. 302-316Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A strong recent focus on unconscious processes has increased interest in subliminal stimulation and other experimental activation technologies. Five experiments using male and female university students (N = 365) were carried out to compare 5-ms exposures of "mommy and I" stimuli with 5-ms control stimulation. Measures of self-mother similarity and other variables taken 7-14 days after exposure were more strongly correlated among experimental participants. Such complex, persistent effects may follow when powerfully activating stimuli administered under wholly unconscious conditions provokes schematic processing of social information and behavioral confirmation. These scientifically exciting and ethically problematic findings imply a need for further reduction of the role accorded to conscious volition and control in psychology.

    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-91177 (URN)10.1037/0022-3514.85.2.302 (DOI)12916572 (PubMedID)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2003-12-17 Laget: 2003-12-17 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-14bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Debriefing after subliminal stimulation: Does information to participants prevent persistent effects?
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Debriefing after subliminal stimulation: Does information to participants prevent persistent effects?
    2003 (engelsk)Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) In press
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-91178 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2003-12-17 Laget: 2003-12-17 Sist oppdatert: 2014-01-24bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. A theoretical account of persistent effects of subliminal stimuli: Unattributable automatic salience of motivationally relevant cues
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>A theoretical account of persistent effects of subliminal stimuli: Unattributable automatic salience of motivationally relevant cues
    2003 (engelsk)Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) In press
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-91179 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2003-12-17 Laget: 2003-12-17 Sist oppdatert: 2014-01-24bibliografisk kontrollert
  • 247. Birgegård, Andreas
    et al.
    Björck, Caroline
    Norring, Claes
    Sohlberg, Staffan
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Clinton, David
    Anorexic self-control and bulimic self-hate: differential outcome prediction from initial self-image2009Inngår i: International Journal of Eating Disorders, ISSN 0276-3478, E-ISSN 1098-108X, Vol. 42, nr 6, s. 522-530Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE:: The study investigated initial self-image (structural analysis of social behavior) and its relation to 36-month outcome, among patients with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Hypotheses were that degree of different aspects of self-image would predict outcome in the groups. METHOD:: Participants were 52 patients with anorexia and 91 with bulimia from a longitudinal naturalistic database, and outcome measures included eating disorder and psychiatric symptoms and a general outcome index. Stepwise regression was used to investigate which self-image variables were related to outcome, and multiple regression contrasted the groups directly on each obtained predictor. RESULTS:: Consistent with hypotheses, in bulimia degree of self-hate/self-love moderately predicted outcome, whereas self-control-related variables powerfully predicted outcome in anorexia. CONCLUSION:: It is important to focus on self-image in the treatment of both diagnostic groups, but especially in anorexia nervosa, where control-submission interactions between patient and therapist should be handled with care.

  • 248. Björck, Caroline
    et al.
    Björk, Tabita
    Clinton, David
    Sohlberg, Staffan
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Norring, Claes
    Self-image and treatment drop-out in eating disorders2008Inngår i: Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, ISSN 1476-0835, E-ISSN 2044-8341, Vol. 81, nr 1, s. 95-104Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Drop-out from treatment is a serious problem in eating disorders which remains poorly understood. The present study investigated whether self-image and interpersonal theory could help to explain why eating disorder patients drop out of treatment. METHOD: Intake data on eating disorder patients who terminated treatment prematurely (N=54) were compared with patients who had completed treatment (N=54) and those who were still in treatment after 12 months (N=54). Self-image was assessed using the structural analysis of social behaviour (SASB), and comparisons were made on demographic and clinical variables. RESULTS: Patients who dropped out had initially presented with less negative self-image and fewer psychological problems compared with remainers. Low levels of SASB self-blame discriminated drop-outs from completers and remainers and significantly predicted treatment drop-out. DISCUSSION: Drop-out in eating disorders appears to be a complex phenomenon, not necessarily as pathological as often assumed. There may be important differences in the treatment goals of drop-outs and therapists; patients who drop out may be choosing to disengage at a time when symptom improvement creates space for closer examination of interpersonal issues.

  • 249. Björck, C.T.
    et al.
    Clinton, D.
    Sohlberg, S.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Hällström, T.
    Norring, C.
    Interpersonal Profiles in Eating Disorders: Ratings of SASB Self-Image2003Inngår i: Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, Vol. 76, s. 337-349Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 250.
    Björk, Ingrid
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Språkvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik och filologi.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för visuell information och interaktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Bildanalys och människa-datorinteraktion.
    Robots, ethics and language2015Inngår i: Computers & Society: The Newsletter of the ACM Special Interest Group on Computers and Society Special Issue on 20 Years of ETHICOMP / [ed] Mark Coeckelbergh, Bernd Stahl, and Catherine Flick; Vaibhav Garg and Dee Weikle, ACM Digital Library, 2015, s. 268-273Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Following the classical philosophical definition of ethics and the psychological research on problem solving and decision making, the issue of ethics becomes concrete and opens up the way for the creation of IT systems that can support handling of moral problems. Also in a sense that is similar to the way humans handle their moral problems. The processes of communicating information and receiving instructions are linguistic by nature. Moreover, autonomous and heteronomous ethical thinking is expressed by way of language use. Indeed, the way we think ethically is not only linguistically mediated but linguistically construed – whether we think for example in terms of conviction and certainty (meaning heteronomy) or in terms of questioning and inquiry (meaning autonomy). A thorough analysis of the language that is used in these processes is therefore of vital importance for the development of the above mentioned tools and methods. Given that we have a clear definition based on philosophical theories and on research on human decision-making and linguistics, we can create and apply systems that can handle ethical issues. Such systems will help us to design robots and to prescribe their actions, to communicate and cooperate with them, to control the moral aspects of robots’ actions in real life applications, and to create embedded systems that allow continuous learning and adaptation.

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