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  • 201.
    Jiang, Qiang
    et al.
    Curtin Univ, Western Australian Argon Isotope Facil, Perth, WA 6845, Australia; Curtin Univ, John de Laeter Ctr, Perth, WA 6845, Australia.;Curtin Univ, Sch Earth & Planetary Sci, Perth, WA 6845, Australia.
    Merle, Renaud E.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling. Swedish Museum Nat Hist, Dept Geosci, S-10405 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jourdan, Fred
    Curtin Univ, Western Australian Argon Isotope Facil, Perth, WA 6845, Australia; Curtin Univ, John de Laeter Ctr, Perth, WA 6845, Australia.;Curtin Univ, Sch Earth & Planetary Sci, Perth, WA 6845, Australia.
    Olierook, Hugo K. H.
    Curtin Univ, John de Laeter Ctr, Perth, WA 6845, Australia; Curtin Univ, Sch Earth & Planetary Sci, Perth, WA 6845, Australia; Curtin Univ, Ctr Explorat Targeting Curtin Node, Sch Earth & Planetary Sci, Timescales Mineral Syst, Perth, WA 6845, Australia.
    Chiaradia, Massimo
    Univ Geneva, Dept Earth Sci, Rue Maraichers 13, CH-1205 Geneva, Switzerland.
    Evans, Katy A.
    Curtin Univ, Sch Earth & Planetary Sci, Perth, WA 6845, Australia.
    Wang, Xuan-Ce
    Yunnan Univ, Res Ctr Earth Syst Sci, Yunnan Key Lab Earth Syst Sci, Kunming 650500, Yunnan, Peoples R China; Changan Univ, Sch Earth Sci & Resources, Xian 710054, Peoples R China; Univ Queensland, Sch Earth & Environm Sci, Brisbane, Qld 4072, Australia.
    Conway, Chris E.
    AIST, Inst Earthquake & Volcano Geol, Geol Survey Japan, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 3058567, Japan.
    Bostock, Helen C.
    Univ Queensland, Sch Earth & Environm Sci, Brisbane, Qld 4072, Australia; Natl Inst Water & Atmospher Res, Private Bag 14-901, Wellington 6241, New Zealand.
    Wysoczanski, Richard J.
    Natl Inst Water & Atmospher Res, Private Bag 14-901, Wellington 6241, New Zealand.
    Origin of geochemically heterogeneous mid-ocean ridge basalts from the Macquarie Ridge Complex, SW Pacific2021Inngår i: Lithos, ISSN 0024-4937, E-ISSN 1872-6143, Vol. 380-381, artikkel-id 105893Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Macquarie Ridge Complex (MRC), located at the Australian–Pacific plate boundary south of New Zealand, is a rugged bathymetric ridge comprising a series of submarine seamounts and Macquarie Island, the only subaerial portion of the complex. Mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORBs) from Macquarie Island show various enrichments in incompatible elements with compositions ranging from typical normal MORB to enriched MORB. However, these basalts have isotopic compositions trending towards a high μ-like (μ = 238U/204Pb; HIMU) mantle component, which is unusual for MORB-type rocks. The origin of this mantle signature is not understood, and it is unclear whether this isotopic signature is characteristic of the entire MRC or unique to Macquarie Island. Here we report new major and trace element abundances, and Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopes for samples from the MRC seamounts and from new sampling sites on Macquarie Island. The geochemical and isotopic data show that the entire MRC comprises normal to enriched MORB. Mixing modelling indicates that the heterogeneous isotopic signatures of the MRC basalts are not derived from contamination of the nearby Balleny mantle plume but have affinities with that of the Cenozoic Zealandia intraplate HIMU-like basalts. We propose that the heterogeneous geochemical signatures of the MRC basalts are derived from amphibole-bearing garnet pyroxenite veins, which is supported by the rare earth element partial melting modelling and strong correlations between Nd and Pb isotopic ratios vs La/Sm. We posit that the pyroxenite veins were generated in the oceanic lithospheric mantle, which was metasomatised by hydrous and carbonatitic fluids/melts derived either from delaminated, metasomatised Zealandia subcontinental lithosphere mantle, or from subducted material in the asthenosphere. The subducted material could be derived from ancient and/or recent subduction along the former east Gondwana margin.

  • 202.
    Jiang, Qiang
    et al.
    Western Australian Argon Isotope Facil & John Lae, Perth, WA, Australia; Curtin Univ, Sch Earth & Planetary Sci, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Merle, Renaud E.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling. Swedish Museum Nat Hist, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jourdan, Fred
    Western Australian Argon Isotope Facil & John Lae, Perth, WA, Australia; Curtin Univ, Sch Earth & Planetary Sci, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Olierook, Hugo K. H.
    Curtin Univ, Sch Earth & Planetary Sci, Perth, WA, Australia; Curtin Univ, Ctr Explorat Targeting Curtin Node, Timescales Mineral Syst, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum Nat Hist, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Evans, Katy A.
    Curtin Univ, Sch Earth & Planetary Sci, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Wang, Xuan-Ce
    Yunnan Univ, Sch Geosci, Kunming, Yunnan, Peoples R China.
    Conway, Chris E.
    AIST, Geol Survey Japan, Inst Earthquake & Volcano Geol, Cent 7, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Bostock, Helen C.
    Univ Queensland, Sch Earth & Environm Sci, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.
    Wysoczanski, Richard J.
    Natl Inst Water & Atmospher Res, Wellington, New Zealand.
    Timing of Seafloor Spreading Cessation at the Macquarie Ridge Complex (SW Pacific) and Implications for Upper Mantle Heterogeneity2021Inngår i: Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, E-ISSN 1525-2027, Vol. 22, nr 1, artikkel-id e2020GC009485Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Macquarie Ridge Complex (MRC) on the Australia‐Pacific plate boundary south of New Zealand is an extinct mid‐ocean ridge that has experienced a complex tectonic history and produced highly heterogeneous mid‐ocean ridge basalts (MORBs). When and how seafloor spreading ceased along the proto‐Macquarie mid‐ocean ridge remain elusive, and it is unclear how the mantle source of MORBs is affected by the gradual cessation of seafloor spreading at mid‐ocean ridges. To constrain the tectonic evolution of the MRC, the mantle source variations for MORBs at dying mid‐ocean ridges, and the mechanisms of mantle enrichment and asthenospheric heterogeneities, we report 11 pyroxene, plagioclase, basaltic glass, groundmass, and sericite 40Ar/39Ar and one zircon U‐Pb ages for the MRC MORBs. Our data reveal that basalts from the MRC seamounts were erupted between 25.9 and 1.6 Ma and Macquarie Island at ∼10 Ma. Combined age and plate reconstruction results reveal that the cessation of seafloor spreading at the MRC generally propagated from south to north along the ridge. Basalts produced by the then dying Macquarie mid‐ocean ridge at different times on different seamounts/island show a large variation in isotopic compositions and there is no clear correlation between ages and isotopic ratios. The heterogeneity of mantle source for MORBs from the proto‐Macquarie mid‐ocean ridge suggests that the upper asthenospheric mantle is heterogeneous, and such heterogeneity becomes most obvious at dying mid‐ocean ridges where the degrees of partial melting are low and a large range of melt compositions are produced.

  • 203.
    Jiang, Yuqing
    et al.
    China Univ Petr, Sch Econ & Management, Beijing 102249, Peoples R China..
    Tang, Xu
    China Univ Petr, Sch Econ & Management, Beijing 102249, Peoples R China.;China Univ Petr, Res Ctr Chinas Oil & Gas Ind Dev, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Zhao, Xiaorong
    China Univ Petr, Sch Econ & Management, Beijing 102249, Peoples R China..
    Höök, Mikael
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Mitigation strategies of air pollution: case studies of China and the United States from a consumption perspective2022Inngår i: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 128, s. 24-34Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sino-US trade has been widely analyzed in academic circles as a typical case of bilateral trade. However, the structural pathways by which the US final demand contributes to Chinese air pollution emissions have not been well quantified and analyzed. This study combines an environmental extended multi-regional input-output (EEMRIO) analysis with structural path analysis (SPA) to analyze the evolution and structural patterns of PM2.5 emissions in China caused by 1764 types of final demand products in the US. It was found that the average annual growth rate of PM2.5 emissions in China due to the US final demand was 4.83% during 1995–2015. The results showed that before the global financial crisis, the embodied PM2.5 emissions in Nonmetal mineral products exported from China to the US were continuously decreasing, while embodied PM2.5 exports in Machinery and equipment were rapidly increasing. The direct impact of American demand on China was weakened, with its share dropped by more than half to 3.94%, but the indirect impact remained steady. The embodied PM2.5 emissions were also found to be gradually transitioning from the first production layer to the second and third, which relates to China's domestic economic development demand and environmental regulatory requirements. The maximum emission pathways for the major demand categories were identified, with emissions concentrated to Metallurgy and products and Sea transportation services. China should focus on specific industrial paths, implement comprehensive treatment of upstream and downstream, and achieve a low-emission industrial chain throughout the whole process to effectively reduce PM2.5 emissions.

  • 204.
    Jin, Yi
    et al.
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, Beijing 102249, Peoples R China..
    Tang, Xu
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, Beijing 102249, Peoples R China..
    Feng, Cuiyang
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, Beijing 102249, Peoples R China..
    Höök, Mikael
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Energy and water conservation synergy in China: 2007-20122017Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 127, s. 206-215Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy and water issues are interrelated and have significant impacts on the economy. The amount and intensity of energy and water consumption must be controlled, which was clearly stated in the "11th Five-Year" Plan and "12th Five-Year" Plan. The energy-water nexus is a useful approach to integrate economic sectors. Energy production consumes large inputs of energy and water, while producing most of the energy required by other sectors. This synergy between energy conservation and water saving in energy sectors is intricate. This study assesses the synergistic effect between energy conservation and water saving that has been achieved by energy sectors in China during the 2007-2012 period. The research results suggest that energy sectors have completely achieved 12.40 x 10(8) m(3) water saving through energy conservation and 1.12 x 10(6) tce energy conservation through water saving. Coal, oil and gas production mainly consumed water in indirect ways, while electricity generation primarily consumed water in a direct way. The synergistic energy conservation of the electric power sector was significant and was much larger than that of the coal production sector as well as oil and gas production sector. Prominent water saving can be obtained through improved energy conservation in China's energy sectors.

  • 205.
    Johansson, Gustav
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Kyla i Nyköping och Motala: Kartläggning av kylapotential för Vattenfall Värm2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish energy company Vattenfall is currently the owner of the district heatingsystems in Nyköping and Motala. To be able to also offer cooling solutions tocustomers are becoming more and more important. This report describes the resultsof an investigation of the cooling market in the two cities and the potential needs forcooling today and in the coming 20 years. The total potential for the coming 20 yearsis estimated to be roughly 17 MW for Nyköping and 9 MW for Motala.Two possible district cooling systems for each of the two city centers was modeledand a comparison was made between different cooling techniques namely absorptionand compressor chillers.Absorption chillers driven with district heating during the summer is one way ofincreasing the load in a combined heat and power plant and thereby the possibleelectricity generation. The cost of heat production must be low for absorption chillerto be able to compete as an alternative. The cost for the increased heat load becauseof absorption chillers was simulated with results showing a cost of 34/MWh kr inNyköping and 143 kr/MWh in Motala for the two district cooling cases.Investment calculation showed that neither of the systems in the two cities areprofitable with a required rate of return of 7 %.

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    fulltext
  • 206.
    Jonell, Malin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling. Stockholm Univ, Dept Ecol Environm & Plant Sci, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Center.; Royal Swedish Acad Sci, Box 50005, SE-10405 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Brown, Kelsey
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Ecol Environm & Plant Sci, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm Resilience Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.; Royal Swedish Acad Sci, Beijer Inst, Box 50005, SE-10405 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eco-Labeled Seafood: Determinants for (Blue) Green Consumption2016Inngår i: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 8, nr 9, artikkel-id 884Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Eco-certification has become an increasingly popular market-based tool in the endeavor to reduce negative environmental impacts from fisheries and aquaculture. In this study, we aimed at investigating which psychological consumer characteristics influence demand for eco-labeled seafood by correlating consumers’ stated purchasing of eco-labeled seafood to nine variables: environmental knowledge regarding seafood production, familiarity with eco-labels, subjective knowledge, pro-environmental self-identification, sense of personal responsibility, concern for negative environmental impacts from seafood production, perceived consumer effectiveness, gender and education. Questionnaires were distributed to consumers in Stockholm, Sweden, and the data were tested with multiple regression analysis using linear modeling and model averaging (n = 371). Two variables were the best predictors of stated purchasing of eco-labeled seafood: (i) recognition and understanding of eco-labels for seafood (Marine Stewardship Council, Fish for Life, Aquaculture Stewardship Council and KRAV); and (ii) concern for negative environmental impacts associated with seafood production. Meanwhile, consumer environmental knowledge was a weaker predictor. Results from this study suggest that strengthening the emotional component of consumer decision-making and improving the level of consumer familiarity with seafood eco-labels could stimulate more pro-environmental seafood consumption.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 207.
    Jonell, Malin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Henriksson, Patrik
    Leiden University .
    Mangrove-shrimp farms in Vietnam – comparing organic and conventional systems using life cycle assessment2015Inngår i: Aquaculture, ISSN 0044-8486, E-ISSN 1873-5622, Vol. 447, s. 66-75Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Interactions between aquaculture and the environment remain a debated issue, especially in areas where the aquaculture sector is still expanding, such as in theMekong delta in Vietnam. In response to environmental con- cerns, various eco-certification schemes have been introduced for seafood, aiming to improve production prac- tices. In order to reflect upon the criteria of these certification schemes, life cycle assessment (LCA) was applied to conventional and certified extensive organic mangrove–shrimp farms in the lowerMekong. In total, 21 organic and 20 non-organic farms were included in the study for evaluation of effects on global warming (including emissions fromland transformation and occupation), eutrophication and acidification. Monte Carlo simulations and randomsampling were applied to aggregate contributing processes into results. The emissions of greenhouse gasses per ton of shrimp produced were substantial for both groups, and almost solely caused by the release of carbon during mangrove land transformation. Differences in the land area needed to support shrimp production explain the discrepancy. Organic farms emitted less CO2-equivalents (eq.) than the non- organic farms in 75% of theMonte Carlo iterations. Acidification impacts were similar for the two groups, with higher emissions from the non-organic farms in 67% of the iterations. Meanwhile, most mangrove-integrated farms showed a net uptake of eutrophying substances, indicating that both types of mangrove–shrimp produc- tion systems are nutrient limited. In order to put the results into perspective, a comparison with intensive and semi-intensive shrimp farmswas made.While the extensivemangrove–shrimpfarms showed higher emissions of CO2-eq. per ton shrimp produced (20 tons in average for organic and non-organic farms compared to 10 tons from intensive/semi-intensive production), results indicated lower impacts in terms of both acidification and eutrophication. We recommend LCA to be used as a central tool for identifying practices relevant for eco- certification audits, including considerations for land use. However, a better understanding of the consequences of landquality change and linkages to impacts at the ecosystemlevel e.g. effects on ecosystem services, is needed. 

  • 208.
    Jonell, Malin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Troell, Max
    Miljömärkning av fisk och skaldjur - hur långt räcker det?2015Inngår i: Havsutsikt, ISSN 1104-0513, nr 2, s. 8-10Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 209.
    Jones, Benjamin L. H.
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Ecol Environm & Plant Sci, Stockholm, Sweden.;Project Seagrass, Bridgend, Wales..
    Cullen-Unsworth, Leanne C.
    Project Seagrass, Bridgend, Wales..
    De la Torre-Castro, Maricela
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Nordlund, Lina M.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Unsworth, Richard K. F.
    Project Seagrass, Bridgend, Wales.;Swansea Univ, Dept Biosci, Swansea, W Glam, Wales..
    Eklöf, Johan S.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Ecol Environm & Plant Sci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Unintended consequences of sustainable development initiatives: risks and opportunities in seagrass social-ecological systems2022Inngår i: Ecology & Society, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 27, nr 2, artikkel-id 10Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Conserving biodiversity with a growing human population is a key sustainability challenge. Consequently, a vast number of development initiatives across the globe have been designed to combine social, economic, and environmental perspectives. For the most part, the development community is well acquainted with the negative experiences and unintended consequences that some projects have or may bring. However, in tropical coastal ecosystems, this aspect is not completely acknowledged, studied, or understood. Here, we use tropical seagrass meadows as a model social-ecological system to investigate how sustainable development initiatives result in unintended consequences with both positive and negative outcomes for environment and society. We analyze the initiatives and their effects in terms of a typology encompassing ???flow???, ???addition???, and ???deletion??? effects and investigate them across four types of sustainable development initiatives that occur within tropical coastal environments: (1) megafauna conservation, (2) alternative livelihood programs, (3) mosquito net malaria prophylaxis, and (4) marine protected areas. Using these four initiatives as examples, we show that sustainable development initiatives can produce unintended effects with major consequences. Further, we illustrate how not assessing such effects may ultimately undermine the initial goals of the sustainable development intervention. Our study suggests that acknowledging unintended effects and transitioning them so that they become sustainable is more effective than ignoring effects or viewing them as trade-offs. We strongly stress the need for an a priori process in which positive effects, negative effects, and potential uncertainties and surprises are considered when planning the development intervention, and we argue for greater social-ecological monitoring of initiatives. As such, this contribution links to contemporary approaches dealing with the sustainability of natural resources and social-ecological systems and bridges with the importance of development initiatives in the context of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 210.
    Jones, Benjamin L. H.
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Unsworth, Richard K. F.
    Swansea University.
    Nordlund, Lina M.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Ambo-Rappe, Rohani
    Hasanuddin University.
    La Nafie, Yayu A.
    Hasanuddin University.
    Lopez, Mary Rose
    Zoological Society of London (ZSL)-Philippines.
    Udagedara, Susantha
    Cullen-Unsworth, Leanne C.
    Project Seagrass.
    Local Ecological Knowledge Reveals Change in Seagrass Social–Ecological Systems2022Inngår i: Oceans, E-ISSN 2673-1924, Vol. 3, nr 3, s. 419-430Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely recognized that humanity is currently facing multiple planetary crises, including the widespread loss of biodiversity and a rapidly changing climate. The impacts of these crises are often far reaching and threaten food security (SDG goal two: zero hunger). Small-scale fisheries are estimated to provide livelihoods for over one hundred million people and sustenance for approximately one billion people but face a plethora of threats and challenges linked to planetary crises. In this multi-country assessment (150 coastal villages across five countries within the Indo-Pacific), household interviews revealed how seagrass meadows are important to small-scale fisheries, particularly as a place to find and collect a reliable source of food. Interviews also revealed that habitat loss and the over-exploitation of these resources are placing people and their food security at risk. This study exposed how dynamic local ecological knowledge can be, uncovering personal opinions and responsibilities that result in the hybridization of knowledge. Here, we demonstrate the importance of using local ecological knowledge to incorporate shared values into management but also highlight that an integrated approach, pairing local and conventional scientific knowledge, is needed urgently if we are to meet the needs of people while simultaneously conserving biodiversity.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 211.
    Jones, Benjamin L. H.
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Ecol Environm & Plant Sci, Stockholm, Sweden.;Project Seagrass, Bridgend, Wales..
    Unsworth, Richard K. F.
    Project Seagrass, Bridgend, Wales.;Swansea Univ, Dept Biosci, Seagrass Ecosyst Res Grp, swansea, Wales..
    Nordlund, Lina M.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Eklöf, Johan S.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Ecol Environm & Plant Sci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ambo-Rappe, Rohani
    Fac Marine Sci & Fisheries, Makassar, Indonesia.;Hasanuddin Univ, Makassar, Indonesia..
    Carly, Filipo
    Fauna & Flora Int FFI, Myeik City, Myanmar..
    Jiddawi, Narriman S.
    Zanzi Marine & Coastal Solut Ltd, Zanzibar, Tanzania..
    La Nafie, Yayu A.
    Fac Marine Sci & Fisheries, Makassar, Indonesia.;Hasanuddin Univ, Makassar, Indonesia..
    Udagedara, Susantha
    Blue Resources Trust, Colombo, Sri Lanka..
    Cullen-Unsworth, Leanne C.
    Project Seagrass, Bridgend, Wales.;Swansea Univ, Dept Biosci, Seagrass Ecosyst Res Grp, swansea, Wales..
    Dependence on seagrass fisheries governed by household income and adaptive capacity2022Inngår i: Ocean and Coastal Management, ISSN 0964-5691, E-ISSN 1873-524X, Vol. 225, artikkel-id 106247Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Seagrass meadows, like other tropical coastal ecosystems, are highly productive and sustain millions of people worldwide. However, the factors that govern the use of seagrass as a fishing habitat over other habitats are largely unknown, especially at the household scale. Using socioeconomic factors from 147 villages across four countries within the Indo-Pacific, we examined the drivers of household dependence on seagrass. We revealed that seagrass was the most common habitat used for fishing across villages in all the countries studied, being preferred over other habitats for reliability. Using structural equation modelling, we exposed how household income and adaptive capacity appears to govern dependence on seagrass. Poorer households were less likely to own motorboats and dependent on seagrass as they were unable to fish elsewhere, whereas wealthier households were more likely to invest in certain fishing gears that incentivised them to use seagrass habitats due to high rewards and low effort requirements. Our findings accentuate the complexity of seagrass social-ecological systems and the need for empirical household scale data for effective management. Safeguarding seagrass is vital to ensure that vulnerable households have equitable and equal access to the resource, addressing ocean recovery and ensuring sustainable coastal communities.

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  • 212.
    Jones, Benjamin L.
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Ecol Environm & Plant Sci, Stockholm, Sweden.;Project Seagrass, Bridgend, Wales..
    Nordlund, Lina M.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Unsworth, Richard K. F.
    Project Seagrass, Bridgend, Wales.;Swansea Univ, Dept Biosci, Swansea, W Glam, Wales..
    Jiddawi, Narriman S.
    Minist Agr Nat Resources Livestock & Fisheries, Fisheries Res Inst, Zanzibar, Tanzania..
    Eklof, Johan S.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Ecol Environm & Plant Sci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Seagrass Structural Traits Drive Fish Assemblages in Small-Scale Fisheries2021Inngår i: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 8, artikkel-id 640528Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Seagrasses ? a group of foundation species in coastal ecosystems ? provide key habitat for diverse and abundant faunal assemblages and support numerous ecosystem functions and services. However, whether the habitat role of seagrasses is influenced by seagrass diversity, by dominant species or both, remains unclear. To that end, we sought to investigate the specific seagrass characteristics (e.g., species diversity, seagrass traits) that influence tropical fish assemblages, and place this in the context of small-scale fishery use. We surveyed seagrass variables at 55 plots, nested within 12 sites around Zanzibar (Tanzania) in the Western Indian Ocean, and used Baited Remote Underwater Video (BRUV) systems to assess fish assemblages across plots. Using linear mixed models, we reveal that seagrass structural complexity and depth were the best predictors of fish abundance, with higher abundance occurring in deeper meadows or meadows with high canopy, leaf length and number of leaves per shoot. Moreover, an interaction between seagrass cover and land-use was the best predictor of fish species richness, where sites closer to human impacts were less affected by cover than sites with lower human impact. Overall, models with seagrass species richness or functional diversity as predictors poorly explained fish assemblages. Fish taxa that were important for small-scale fishery sectors (e.g., emperors, snappers, rabbitfish, and parrotfish) were primarily driven by seagrass structural complexity. Our results provide a unique analysis of the relationship between seagrass habitat and its associated fish assemblages in that we show that seagrass species diversity had little effect on seagrass fish assemblages, which instead appear driven by specific seagrass traits and seagrass cover. If conserving high value species that support adjacent fisheries is the priority for protecting seagrass meadows, then seagrass areas should be chosen with high cover and structural complexity that are in deeper waters. Any conservation measures also need to balance the needs of fishers that use the resources supported by seagrasses.

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  • 213. Joosse, Sofie
    et al.
    Hensle, Lara
    Boonstra, Wiebren J.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Ponzelar, Charlotte
    Olsson, Jens
    Fishing in the city for food: a paradigmatic case of sustainability in urban blue space2021Inngår i: npj Urban Sustainability, E-ISSN 2661-8001, Vol. 1, nr 1, artikkel-id 41Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents fishing in the city for food (FCF) as a trenchant example of urban ecology, and the ways in which urbandwellers use, interact with, and depend on urban blue spaces. Our literature review demonstrates how FCF is studied in a diversebody of scientific publications that rarely draw on each other. As such, FCF and its relevance for sustainable and just planning ofurban blue space remain relatively unknown. Using the literature review, a survey of FCF in European capitals, and examples fromFCF in Stockholm, we demonstrate how attention to FCF raises pertinent and interrelated questions about access to water, foodand recreation; human health; animal welfare and aquatic urban biodiversity.

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  • 214.
    Joosse, Sofie
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Urban & Rural Dev, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Olders, Pepijn
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Boonstra, Wiebren J.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Why are geographical indications unevenly distributed over Europe?2021Inngår i: British Food Journal, ISSN 0007-070X, E-ISSN 1758-4108, Vol. 123, nr 13, s. 490-510Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Through geographical indications, the European Union aims to stimulate economies, especially in lagging rural regions, and to help consumers recognise and locate quality products from specific regions. The highly uneven distribution of geographical indications, and with that the unequal benefits of this policy, have been identified and discussed in the scientific literature on food and rural development. Design/methodology/approach Using a statistical analysis of the distribution of geographical indications, the paper tests the validity of several theoretical explanations that are offered in the literature for the uneven spatial distribution. Findings From this assessment, the paper concludes, amongst others, that common single-cause explanations for the uneven distribution of labels in Europe have weak explanatory value. Rather, the uneven distribution is based on a complex set of causes, with different effects at national and regional level. Moreover, the findings highlight that in contrast to its aim, the policy does not seem to benefit especially lagging rural regions. Originality/value The analysis of the uneven distribution of labels in Europe offered here suggests that a distinction should be drawn between the mechanisms resulting in regional food products versus the mechanisms resulting in regional food labels, such as geographical indications.

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  • 215.
    Josefsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Widenfalk, Lina Ahlback
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, Uppsala, Sweden.;Greensway AB, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Hedblom, Marcus
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, Uppsala, Sweden.;Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Urban & Rural Dev, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Part, Tomas
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Ranius, Thomas
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Ockinger, Erik
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Compensating for lost nature values through biodiversity offsetting-Where is the evidence?2021Inngår i: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 257, artikkel-id 109117Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Biodiversity offsetting is becoming a principal instrument for managing biodiversity and ecosystem services in society. Still, it is unclear whether biodiversity offsetting can fully mitigate losses to natural values. When reviewing published studies on offsetting, we found only 40 evaluations with primary outcome data on biodiversity or ecosystem services. Among these, we found no evidence that biodiversity gains from offsets actually compensate for development-associated losses, because losses were never estimated. The failure to quantify losses is troubling from a conservation perspective, as applying offsets that do not match up losses and gains will result in continued net loss of biodiversity. Instead, most studies (76%) included only reference habitats as comparator and evaluated singular taxa of biodiversity (66%), and rarely ecosystem services (ES). The overall meta-analysed effect size from reference habitat comparisons suggests that offsets perform poorly when contrasted to these habitats. There was a strong bias towards North American freshwater biomes, with only six published evaluations from terrestrial habitats. The bias and small number of studies precluded any detailed meta-analytical enquiries, such as identification of main drivers of outcomes. For biodiversity offsetting to be an important instrument for halting biodiversity losses, all actions must build on solid scientific evidence, and our review show that this evidence base is yet not in place. We conclude that there is a strong need for rigorous evaluation of offsetting projects, and to this end governments could request long-term monitoring programmes as an integral part of offsetting actions and make data openly available for assessment.

  • 216.
    Jägerup, S. B.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling. King Abdullah Univ Sci & Technol KAUST, Fac Phys Sci & Engn, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia..
    Troll, Valentin R.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling. Univ Las Palmas de Gran Canaria ULPGC, Dept Phys GEOVOL, Las Palmas Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain..
    Geiger, Harri
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling. Univ Freiburg, Inst Earth & Environm Sci, D-79104 Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany..
    Deegan, Frances
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Harris, C.
    Univ Cape Town, Dept Geol Sci, ZA-7701 Rondebosch, South Africa..
    Carracedo, J. C.
    Univ Las Palmas de Gran Canaria ULPGC, Dept Phys GEOVOL, Las Palmas Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain..
    Meade, Fiona C.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Omidian, S.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Pedroza, Kirsten
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    van der Zwan, F. M.
    King Abdullah Univ Sci & Technol KAUST, Fac Phys Sci & Engn, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia..
    Silicic frothy xenoliths (xeno-pumice) in recent volcanics from Gran Canaria, Canary Islands2023Inngår i: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, ISSN 0377-0273, E-ISSN 1872-6097, Vol. 440, artikkel-id 107857Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Quaternary small-volume alkaline magmatic episode on Gran Canaria erupted dominantly basanite and nephelinite lavas and scoria deposits that contain a range of mantle and crustal xenoliths. These xenoliths comprise peridotite nodules, partially melted plutonic and volcanic rock fragments, and a group of light colored, felsic, and commonly frothy quartz-bearing rock fragments (xeno-pumice) that show evidence for intense interaction with their host magmas. Here we study a selection of these felsic and, in part, glassy and vesicular xenoliths from North and North-East Gran Canaria, with the aim to unravel their ultimate origin and learn more about magma storage and ascent within and below the island. Inspection of textures, mineral assemblages and glass compositions reveal one group of felsic xenoliths with fresh to partly altered igneous phenocryst assemblages and relict magmatic textures in addition to 818O values of 3.6 to 6.6%o. This group is interpreted to be of igneous origin. A second group of frothy felsic xenoliths displays mineralogy and textural characteristics more similar to sedimentary rocks with frequent occurrence of quartz, a mineral usually not present as phenocrysts in magmatic rocks from the Canary Islands. This second group displays relatively high 818O values (8.1 to 16.8%o), more typical for sedimentary lithologies, and is thus interpreted to represent material derived from the extensive pre-island sedimentary part of the ocean crust. The investigated xenoliths from North Gran Canaria thus provide a snapshot of pre-island sedimentary geology as well as the island's "magmatic" interior. These new data help constrain the available subsurface compositional variations within and below the Canary Islands and will hence be useful in interpreting magma evolution trends and magma storage levels.

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  • 217.
    Kalla, Christelle
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Dekomponeringsanalys av personbilstrafikens CO2-utsläpp i Sverige 1990–20152019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    År 2045 ska Sverige uppnå territoriella nettonollutsläpp och till år 2030 ska utsläppen från transportsektorn ha minskat med 70 % jämfört med år 2010. Sveriges vägtrafik står för en tredjedel av de totala växthusgasutsläppen. För att uppnå klimatmålen bör de mest lämpade styrmedlen och åtgärderna prioriteras. En systematisk undersökning av de faktorer som påverkat utsläppsutvecklingen kan vägleda beslutsfattare att fördela resurserna där de gör mest nytta. Dekomponeringsanalys är en potentiell metod för detta syfte då flera olika faktorers effekter kan särskiljs och mätas. Fem additiva LMDI-I dekomponeringsanalyser genomfördes på utsläppsutvecklingen av fossilt CO2 inom personbilstrafiken mellan åren 1990–2015. De faktorer som undersöktes var befolkning, bil per capita, bränsleteknologier, motorstorlekar, trafikarbete per bil, emissioner och biobränsle. Data från emissionsmodellen HBEFA, Trafikverket och SCB användes i analyserna. Under hela perioden 1990–2015 minskade CO2-utsläppen och dekomponeringsanalyserna visade att alla de ingående faktorerna påverkat utvecklingen. Sett över hela tidsperioden 1990–2015 hade faktorerna påverkat utvecklingen mest i storleksordningen trafikarbete per bil (35 %), bränsleteknologier (15 %), befolkning (15 %), bil per capita (13 %), emissioner (11 %), biobränsle (7 %) samt motorstorlekar (5 %). Procenten anger andelen som faktorn utgjorde av effekternas absoluta summa. Trafikarbete per bil, emissioner, biobränsle och motorstorlekar minskade utsläppen. Bränsleteknologier, befolkning och bil per capita ökade utsläppen. Resultaten kan användas som en indikation för vilka faktorer som kan påverka den framtida utsläppsutvecklingen mest och för vilka åtgärder bör vidtas. Åtgärderförslag är incitament för att välja mer hållbara transportsätt, öka andelen av bilar med lägre utsläpp i fordonsflottan och använda mer biobränsle.

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  • 218.
    Kama, Kärg
    et al.
    University of Birmingham, UK.
    Kuchler, Magdalena
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Geo-Metrics and Geo-Politics: Controversies in Estimating European Shale Gas Resources2019Inngår i: Political Geology: Active Stratigraphies and the Making of Life / [ed] Bobbette, Adam; Donovan, Amy, Cambridge: Palgrave Macmillan, 2019, s. 105-145Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [et]

    This chapter explores the relationship between geoscientific knowledge production and geopolitical agencies in the making of new subsurface resources, specifically unconventional fossil fuels. Focusing on recent controversies surrounding the assessment of potential shale gas resources in Europe, we analyse the ways in which highly speculative and contested resource estimates have come to inform the geopolitical imagination of many EU states and, in turn, provided a new impetus for geoscientific inventories and exploration of shale formations. In the first part of the chapter, we engage with recent volumetric accounts in political geography and cognate disciplines to conceptualize these epistemic struggles of resource-making as a case of “subterranean geo-politics”. The empirical analysis in the second part then traces the geo-politics of shale gas prospecting in Poland and the UK, describing how volumetric projections of resource abundance have become undermined by diverse materialities and socio-political constructions of the subsurface. This is evidenced by the difficulties of translating knowledge across geo-economically disparate sites of resource development, notably the failure to apply the US-based expertise to the European context. Finally, we document more recent efforts by the European Commission and other epistemic authorities to overcome the deficiency and incompatibility of local resource estimates by developing standard, EU-specific geo-metrics for shale energy assessment. 

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  • 219.
    Karatsolis, Boris-Theofanis
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Paleobiologi.
    Lougheed, Bryan C.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Paleobiologi.
    De Vleeschouwer, D.
    Univ Bremen, MARUM Ctr Marine & Environm Sci, Leobenerstr 8, D-28359 Bremen, Germany.;Univ Bremen, Dept Geosci, Leobenerstr 8, D-28359 Bremen, Germany.;Univ Munster, Westfalische Wilhelms Univ, Inst Geol & Palaeontol, Corrensstr 24, D-48149 Munster, Germany..
    Henderiks, Jorijntje
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Paleobiologi.
    Abrupt conclusion of the late Miocene-early Pliocene biogenic bloom at 4.6-4.4 Ma2022Inngår i: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 13, nr 1, artikkel-id 353Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The late Miocene-early Pliocene biogenic bloom was an extended time interval characterised by elevated ocean export productivity at numerous locations. As primary productivity is nutrient-limited at low-to-mid latitudes, this bloom has been attributed to an increase or a redistribution of available nutrients, potentially involving ocean-gateway or monsoon-related mechanisms. While the exact causal feedbacks remain debated, there is even less consensus on what caused the end of the biogenic bloom. Here, we compile Mio-Pliocene paleoproductivity proxy data from all major ocean basins to evaluate the timing and pacing of this termination. This systematic analysis reveals an abrupt and sustained reduction in low-latitude ocean productivity at 4.6–4.4 Ma. The decline in productivity coincided with a prolonged period of low orbital eccentricity and a shift towards lower-amplitude obliquity, an astronomical configuration linked to reduced East Asian Monsoon intensity and decreased riverine nutrient supply.

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  • 220.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Biodiversity Offsetting: Ethical Views within Environmental Organisations in the European Union2022Inngår i: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, nr 19, artikkel-id 12514Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Biodiversity offsetting is a nature conservation instrument that is increasingly used but also strongly criticised. Previous studies have identified the ethical underpinnings of this criticism, but if and how ethically-based objections exist among persons active in nongovernmental environmental organisations is not clear. This study, therefore, explores occurring ethical views through seven in-depth interviews within this group of stakeholders. Among the results, the respondents in general took a consequential ethical view, according to which both benefits and costs with biodiversity offsetting should be considered and balanced, resting on a strong biocentric or ecocentric base, albeit within an ethical frame of restrictions for when to not use the instrument, indicating a strong deontological ethical basis. Overall, the respondents did not consider that the existence of intrinsic nature values, which they recognised, nor the potential commodification of such values, constituted definite barriers to biodiversity offsetting. Moreover, they did not see that offsetting, per se, would lead to non-virtuous attitudes towards nature. On social justice issues, the views diverged significantly. However, all respondents underlined a strong need for improved governance, including to prevent biodiversity offsetting of high nature values, to restrict flexibilities, and to apply multipliers with sufficient margins.

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  • 221.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Sweden's Climate Act: its origin and emergence2021Inngår i: Climate Policy, ISSN 1469-3062, E-ISSN 1752-7457, Vol. 21, nr 9, s. 1132-1145Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden's 2017 Climate Act is part of a climate policy framework aiming for net zero domestic greenhouse gas emissions by 2045. The framework was based on a proposal from the All Party Committee on Environmental Objectives (the Committee), in which members from all participating parliamentary parties agreed unanimously. This was despite a contested climate debate running in parallel, notwithstanding strong criticism from business confederations and trade unions. Aiming to draw lessons of value for climate policy-making, this study explores the main factors that influenced the work and outcomes of the Committee, based on a series of in-depth interviews and document review. The research design is linked to policy process theories. The interviews mainly concern underlying motives, the role of knowledge, the influence of impact assessments, and international influence. It is shown that a continuous and comprehensive learning process in the Committee was instrumental for achieving consensus, including addressing concerns among some members regarding policy costs and constitutionality. The Committee was also influenced by policy developments elsewhere, referred to as policy diffusion, notably from the U.K. Climate Change Act and the UNFCCC COP 21 policy process. Over time, a cross-party consensus among Committee members emerged and led to the invention of an original policy proposal. The consensus was instrumental for generating support for the proposal in an otherwise conflictual political landscape. As a result, a governmental bill based on the proposal was eventually enacted into law, renewing Sweden's climate policy with a climate change act coupled to ambitious climate objectives.

    Key policy insights

    • Joint learning on factually complex and normatively contested climate issues requires time and comprehensive processes but can lead to policy inventions and ambitious outcomes.
    • Policy diffusion between countries may be important for raising ambitions and shaping innovative, new elements of national climate policy.
    • Framework climate change acts and specific climate laws can be mutually supportive, i.e. frameworks foster more ambitious sectoral laws and the more precise sectoral laws, the easier it is to agree on stricter overall ambitions.
    • Adoption of more stringent climate policies may require precise dismantling of arguments working against action, in particular on policy costs.
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  • 222.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Alfredsson, Eva
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Westling, Nils
    Swedish Energy Agency.
    Lindgren, Oskar
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Klimatpolitiska synergier: Från bördefördelning till skördefördelning2022Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    I takt med ökad klimatpåverkan finns allt starkare argument för en skärpt klimatpolitik. Samtidigt finns ett motstånd som inte minst bygger på uppfattningen att klimatåtgärder är orimligt dyra. Därför framställs klimatåtgärder ofta som en börda som måste fördelas mellan och inom länder. En tänkbar förklaring till denna uppfattning är att de nyttor som klimatåtgärder leder till utöver minskade klimatskador ofta varken synliggörs inför eller beaktas vid politiskt beslutsfattande. De synergieffekter som kan uppstå är i regel signifikanta i ekonomiska termer, i vissa fall större än kostnaden för den ursprungliga klimatåtgärden. Det är således missvisande att prata om klimatpolitik som om det enbart är en börda som måste fördelas, när det även finns nyttor att fördela. Detta framgår i denna rapport som redovisar forskningen om sidonyttor och vad denna kunskap kan innebära för samhället i allmänhet och klimatpolitiken i synnerhet. 

    Den mest välstuderade sidonyttan av klimatåtgärder är förbättrad hälsa till följd av minskade luftföroreningar, men det finns även vetenskapligt stöd för att klimatåtgärder leder till förbättrad energisäkerhet, ökad biologisk mångfald och ökad sysselsättning. I denna rapport kallas dessa sidonyttor för Typ 1-nyttor. Sidonyttor kan också följa av beslut inom andra politikområden, exempelvis inom välfärds- och skatteområdet, där åtgärder vars huvudsakliga syfte är ett annat kan minska utsläppen. Detta kallar vi för Typ 2-nyttor. 

    Samhällsekonomiska analyser är ett viktigt redskap i den politiska beslutsprocessen. I dessa står kostnader ofta i fokus, vilket givetvis är relevant för politiker som söker maximera samhällsnyttan av en begränsad budget och därför prioriterar mellan olika åtgärder. Det är dock viktigt att analysen även beaktar alla de sidonyttor som en åtgärd kan tänkas leda till, annars kan samhällsnyttan bli en helt annan än den största möjliga. 

    Den genomgång av svensk klimatpolitik samt myndigheters och kommittéers klimatarbete som genomförts inom ramen för denna rapport visar att sidonyttor i regel förbises av utredningar och i politiskt beslutsfattande. Detta gäller både på nationell och lokal nivå. Med utgångspunkt i den vetenskapliga kunskapen om sidonyttors storlek och värde, ser vi behov av bland annat följande åtgärder: 

    • Komplettera kommittéförordningen, det regelverk som styr hur politiskt tillsatta utredningar ska arbeta, med krav på att inkludera sidonyttor i konsekvensanalyser. Detsamma gäller instruktioner för myndigheters arbete. 

    • Inför beslutskriterier som gör att sidonyttor verkligen vägs in i besluten, i bästa fall inom både klimatpolitiken och andra politikområden med klimatmässig relevans. 

    • Utveckla modeller för att beräkna sidonyttor inför politiska beslut. Framförallt finns ett behov av aktuella schablonvärden för sidonyttor, i synnerhet schablonvärden uttryckta i ekonomisk vinst per reducerat ton koldioxid. 

    Sammantaget skulle de åtgärder som föreslås i rapporten kunna leda till ett mer välbalanserat beslutsfattande och att den faktiska kostnaden och nyttan av en klimatåtgärd synliggörs. Analyser som beaktar alla relevanta kostnader och nyttor skulle klargöra att det ofta är vilseledande att beskriva en skärpt klimatpolitik som en bördefördelning, när det snarare handlar om en skördefördelning. 

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  • 223.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Josefsson, Henrik
    Schnoor, Tim
    Zetterberg, Charlotta
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Juridiska fakulteten, Juridiska institutionen.
    Utbytbar natur?: Etiska och rättsliga aspekter på ekologisk kompensation, Naturvårdsverket rapport 69972021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 224.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Westling, Nils
    Swedish Energy Agency, 631 04 Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Oskar
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Climate-Related Co-Benefits and the Case of Swedish Policy2023Inngår i: Climate, E-ISSN 2225-1154, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 40-40Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is strong scientific evidence for the existence of the significant economic value of several climate-related co-benefits. However, these are seldom recognised in policy-making, and knowledge is still scarce on some co-benefit types and categories. To identify research needs and highlight policy-making opportunities, we propose a new framework and three-type-taxonomy of climate-related co-benefits. We define climate policy co-benefits, such as improved air quality, as ‘Type 1’; co-benefits for climate objectives from policy-making in other fields, such as taxation, as ‘Type 2’; and co-benefits from policies designed to achieve multiple objectives as ‘Type 3’. In order to apply the framework and to analyse how co-benefits have been regarded in policy-making in a climate pioneering country, we also explore the case of Sweden. It is shown that several co-benefits exist, but that these are overlooked almost entirely in policy-making, constituting a bias against climate mitigation. In order to counteract this problem, the article presents a number of recommendations, including a call to researchers to identify and quantify additional co-benefits and to policy-makers on governance reforms, including the need to organise policy-making processes and set decision criteria that promote the consideration of co-benefits.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 225.
    Karlsson, Oskar
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Environm Sci, Sci Life Lab, S-11418 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Rocklöv, Joacim
    Umeå Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, Sect Sustainable Hlth, Umeå, Sweden..
    Lehoux, Alizée P.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Bergquist, Jonas
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - BMC, Analytisk kemi.
    Rutgersson, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten- och landskapslära.
    Blunt, Martin J.
    Imperial Coll London, Dept Earth Sci & Engn, London, England..
    Birnbaum, Linda S.
    NIEHS, Natl Toxicol Program, Durham, NC USA..
    The human exposome and health in the Anthropocene2021Inngår i: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 50, nr 2, s. 378-389Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 226.
    Kereszturi, Gabor
    et al.
    Massey Univ, Sch Agr & Environm, Volcan Risk Solut, Palmerston North, New Zealand..
    Heap, Michael
    Univ Strasbourg, Inst Terre & Environm Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7063, 5 rue Descartes, F-67084 Strasbourg, France.;Inst Univ France IUF, Paris, France..
    Schaefer, Lauren N.
    US Geol Survey, Geol Hazards Sci Ctr, 1711 Illinois St, Golden, CO 80401 USA..
    Darmawan, Herlan
    Univ Gadjah Mada, Fac Math & Nat Sci, Dept Phys, Yogyakarta, Indonesia..
    Deegan, Frances
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Kennedy, Ben
    Univ Canterbury, Geol Sci, Christchurch, New Zealand..
    Komorowski, Jean-Christophe
    Univ Paris, Inst Phys Globe Paris, CNRS, Paris, France..
    Mead, Stuart
    Massey Univ, Sch Agr & Environm, Volcan Risk Solut, Palmerston North, New Zealand..
    Rosas-Carbajal, Marina
    Univ Paris, Inst Phys Globe Paris, CNRS, Paris, France..
    Ryan, Amy
    Univ Minnesota, Dept Earth & Environm Sci, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA..
    Troll, Valentin R.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Villeneuve, Marlene
    Univ Leoben, Subsurface Engn, Leoben, Austria..
    Walter, Thomas R.
    GFZ German Res Ctr Geosci, D-14473 Potsdam, Germany..
    Porosity, strength, and alteration - Towards a new volcano stability assessment tool using VNIR-SWIR reflectance spectroscopy2023Inngår i: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, ISSN 0012-821X, E-ISSN 1385-013X, Vol. 602, artikkel-id 117929Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Volcano slope stability analysis is a critical component of volcanic hazard assessments and monitoring. However, traditional methods for assessing rock strength require physical samples of rock which may be difficult to obtain or characterize in bulk. Here, visible to shortwave infrared (350-2500 nm; VNIR-SWIR) reflected light spectroscopy on laboratory-tested rock samples from Ruapehu, Ohakuri, Whakaari, and Banks Peninsula (New Zealand), Merapi (Indonesia), Chaos Crags (USA), Styrian Basin (Austria) and La Soufriere de Guadeloupe (Eastern Caribbean) volcanoes was used to design a novel rapid chemometric-based method to estimate uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) and porosity. Our Partial Least Squares Regression models return moderate accuracies for both UCS and porosity, with R2 of 0.43-0.49 and Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) of 0.2-0.4. When laboratory-measured porosity is included with spectral data, UCS prediction reaches an R2 of 0.82 and MAPE of 0.11. Our models highlight that the observed changes in the UCS are coupled with subtle mineralogical changes due to hydrothermal alteration at wavelengths of 360-438, 532-597, 1405-1455, 2179-2272, 2332-2386, and 2460-2490 nm. These mineralogical changes include mineral replacement, precipitation hydrothermal alteration processes which impact the strength of volcanic rocks, such as mineral replacement, precipitation, and/or silicification. Our approach highlights that spectroscopy can provide a first order assessment of rock strength and/or porosity or be used to complement laboratory porosity-based predictive models. VNIR-SWIR spectroscopy therefore provides an accurate non-destructive way of assessing rock strength and alteration mineralogy, even from remote sensing platforms. (c) 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 227.
    Keskin, Müge
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, CEMUS. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Smart Grids and Turkey: An Overview of the Current Power System and Smart Grid Development2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 60 poäng / 90 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Successful integration of the smart grids is crucial for ensuring the efficiency, resiliency, and sustainability of future power systems. With a 46.53% increase in total primary energy supply between 2008 and 2018 (IEA, 2020a), Turkey has the fastest-growing energy market within OECD countries (Erdin and Ozkaya, 2019).Though, Turkey’s current electrical grid faces many challenges; such as high loss rates from the transmission and distribution lines (Damar, 2016; Düzgün, 2018; IBRD/The World Bank, 2016; TEİAŞ, 2019), frequent power outages (Guner and Ozdemir, 2011; Öztürk, 2017; Yanılmaz, 2016) and several incidents of large-scale blackouts (OECD/IEA, 2016; Project Group Turkey, 2015). Smart grid technologies can address Turkey’s power system’s challenges with a holistic approach, as the smart grid does not have a strict definition yet but has distinctive characteristics. This paper provides an overview of Turkey’s current electric power system’s challenges while analyzing Turkey’s progress up to the present day towards the smart grid transition. Also, in order to summarize fundamental smart grid technologies globally, a smart grid framework was designed. Founded upon the framework; Turkey’s previous actions for its power system development were assessed from the smart grid perspective, and further steps were proposed to accomplish a successful smart grid transition. Country-specific remarks regarding the electrical grid were highlighted, such as the risk of terrorism, high seismic activity in the region, and emerging nuclear power in the country. As a result, it is concluded that Turkey has initiated the process towards the smart grid transition not only to achieve a “smart grid ideal” but mainly to meet its growing energy demands. Furthermore, it is also concluded that if the smart grid technologies’ scope could be extended throughout the country, Turkey would overcome the challenges with its power system in short to medium-term. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Keskin Muge Thesis
  • 228. Kjær, Kurt H.
    et al.
    Winther Pedersen, Mikkel
    De Sanctis, Bianca
    De Cahsan, Binia
    Korneliussen, Thorfinn S.
    Michelsen, Christian S.
    Sand, Karina K.
    Jelavić, Stanislav
    Ruter, Anthony H.
    Schmidt, Astrid M. A.
    Kjeldsen, Kristian K.
    Tesakov, Alexey S.
    Snowball, Ian
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Gosse, John C.
    Alsos, Inger G.
    Wang, Yucheng
    Dockter, Christoph
    Rasmussen, Magnus
    Jørgensen, Morten E.
    Skadhauge, Birgitte
    Prohaska, Ana
    Kristensen, Jeppe Å.
    Bjerager, Morten
    Allentoft, Morten E.
    Coissac, Eric
    Alsos, Inger Greve
    Coissac, Eric
    Rouillard, Alexandra
    Simakova, Alexandra
    Fernandez-Guerra, Antonio
    Bowler, Chris
    Macias-Fauria, Marc
    Vinner, Lasse
    Welch, John J.
    Hidy, Alan J.
    Sikora, Martin
    Collins, Matthew J.
    Durbin, Richard
    Larsen, Nicolaj K.
    Willerslev, Eske
    A 2-million-year-old ecosystem in Greenland uncovered by environmental DNA2022Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 612, nr 7939, s. 283-291Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene epochs 3.6 to 0.8 million years ago1 had climates resembling those forecasted under future warming2. Palaeoclimatic records show strong polar amplification with mean annual temperatures of 11–19 °C above contemporary values3,4. The biological communities inhabiting the Arctic during this time remain poorly known because fossils are rare5. Here we report an ancient environmental DNA6 (eDNA) record describing the rich plant and animal assemblages of the Kap København Formation in North Greenland, dated to around two million years ago. The record shows an open boreal forest ecosystem with mixed vegetation of poplar, birch and thuja trees, as well as a variety of Arctic and boreal shrubs and herbs, many of which had not previously been detected at the site from macrofossil and pollen records. The DNA record confirms the presence of hare and mitochondrial DNA from animals including mastodons, reindeer, rodents and geese, all ancestral to their present-day and late Pleistocene relatives. The presence of marine species including horseshoe crab and green algae support a warmer climate than today. The reconstructed ecosystem has no modern analogue. The survival of such ancient eDNA probably relates to its binding to mineral surfaces. Our findings open new areas of genetic research, demonstrating that it is possible to track the ecology and evolution of biological communities from two million years ago using ancient eDNA.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Kaer et al. 2022 Nature
  • 229.
    Kossert, Karsten
    et al.
    Phys Tech Bundesanstalt PTB, Bundesallee 100, D-38116 Braunschweig, Germany..
    Amelin, Yuri
    Australian Natl Univ, Res Sch Earth Sci, Canberra, ACT, Australia..
    Arnold, Dirk
    Phys Tech Bundesanstalt PTB, Bundesallee 100, D-38116 Braunschweig, Germany..
    Merle, Renaud E.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling. Australian Natl Univ, Res Sch Earth Sci, Canberra, ACT, Australia.;Swedish Museum Nat Hist, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mougeot, Xavier
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, List, Lab Natl Henri Becquerel LNE LNHB, F-91120 Palaiseau, France..
    Schmiedel, Michael
    Phys Tech Bundesanstalt PTB, Bundesallee 100, D-38116 Braunschweig, Germany..
    -Garcia, Daniel Zapata
    Phys Tech Bundesanstalt PTB, Bundesallee 100, D-38116 Braunschweig, Germany..
    Activity standardization of two enriched 40K solutions for the determination of decay scheme parameters and the half-life2022Inngår i: Applied Radiation and Isotopes, ISSN 0969-8043, E-ISSN 1872-9800, Vol. 188, artikkel-id 110362Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we describe experiments on two enriched K-40 solutions to accurately determine decay data. The first solution was measured in 2004/2005 by means of a gamma-ray spectrometer with low background and a liquid scintillation (LS) counter to apply the CIEMAT/NIST efficiency tracing method. A combination of results yields an emission probability of the 1461 keV gamma-rays of P-gamma = 0.1030(11) which is lower than current results of data evaluations. The activity concentration of the second solution was also determined by means of LS counting, but here, the CIEMAT/NIST efficiency tracing method as well as the TDCR method were applied. Again, the result was combined with that of independent gamma-ray spectrometry and the gamma-ray emission probability was found to be P-gamma = 0.1029(9) in good agreement with the result obtained from the first solution. A combination of both experiments yields P-gamma = 0.1029(9). The spectra of a TriCarb LS counter were carefully analyzed and a beta minus emission probability P beta- = 0.8954(14) was determined. The new results for P-gamma and P-beta-indicate that the overall probability of the decay via EC in recent data evaluations is overestimated. The LS counting efficiencies were computed with a stochastic model and up-to-date calculations of the beta spectrum and fractional EC probabilities were used. The final activity result of the second solution is combined with the outcome of a comprehensive isotopic analysis to determine the half-life of K-40 which is found to be 1.2536(27) .10(9) years. All above-stated uncertainties are standard uncertainties (k = 1).

  • 230.
    Kottkamp, Eva Maria
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, CEMUS.
    Bugs in the system: Re-grounding planning and environmental assessment practice: The case of Blodstensskogen, Uppsala2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This case study focuses on the planning practice for the building project in Blodstensskogen, Uppsala (SE), that started in 2010. I put together a creative framework of more-than-human theory and methodology, addressing the case as a material-semiotic practice within a natureculture. I deploy analytics and methodological concepts from feminist Environmental Humanities and posthumanities and from new materialism theory with the aim to investigate human-nature relations as well as environmental imaginaries performed in the case. Through the more-than-human framework other subjects are highlighted like the threatened cinnober beetle that contributed to a halt of the building project. Giving rise to a flickering in the description and terms of relating to Blodstensskogen, the beetle acts as a ‘bug’ in the planning process, disturbing standard practice and environmental imaginaries. I use the ‘bug’ as a guiding concept to emphasise the more-than-human materiality of the practice as well as to illuminate where environmental imaginaries and human-nature relations are challenged.

    The study suggests that by standing in material-semiotic solidarity with other-than-human species and calling for more responsibility, citizen activists introduced a post-anthropocentric approach to the planning practice. The Environmental Assessment report reflects Blodstensskogen differently, showing a use-based relation and atomised perspective on the ecological happening. While a potential Environmental Impact Assessment would be more promising in terms of making more complex accounts of ecosystems by suggesting advanced understanding of relationality, in practice the effectivity of those assessments for sustainability goals may be limited by the guidelines’ anchoring in human-centred philosophy as well as the current negligence of diversity of methods. Re-grounding planning practice, facilitated by arts-based approaches, could allow planning practitioners to transgress disciplinary boundaries, unsettling the compartmentalisation in handling the urban development project and make space for diverse and more layered accounts of Blodstensskogen. It could further allow to address colonising conceptualisations, in order to make urban planning practice in this case and future cases in Uppsala more effective with regard to sustainability.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 231.
    Kremer, A.
    et al.
    Alfred Wegener Inst, Helmholtz Ctr Polar & Marine Res, Bremerhaven, Germany..
    Stein, R.
    Alfred Wegener Inst, Helmholtz Ctr Polar & Marine Res, Bremerhaven, Germany..
    Fahl, K.
    Alfred Wegener Inst, Helmholtz Ctr Polar & Marine Res, Bremerhaven, Germany..
    Ji, Z.
    State Ocean Adm, Inst Oceanog 2, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Yang, Z.
    State Ocean Adm, Inst Oceanog 2, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Wiers, S.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Matthiessen, J.
    Alfred Wegener Inst, Helmholtz Ctr Polar & Marine Res, Bremerhaven, Germany..
    Forwick, M.
    UiT Arctic Univ Norway, Tromso, Norway..
    Lowemark, L.
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm, Sweden..
    O'Regan, M.
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Chen, J.
    State Ocean Adm, Inst Oceanog 2, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Snowball, Ian
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Changes in sea ice cover and ice sheet extent at the Yermak Plateau during the last 160 ka - Reconstructions from biomarker records2018Inngår i: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 182, s. 93-108Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Yermak Plateau is located north of Svalbard at the entrance to the Arctic Ocean, i.e. in an area highly sensitive to climate change. A multi proxy approach was carried out on Core PS92/039-2 to study glacial interglacial environmental changes at the northern Barents Sea margin during the last 160 ka. The main emphasis was on the reconstruction of sea ice cover, based on the sea ice proxy IP25 and the related phytoplankton - sea ice index PIP25. Sea ice was present most of the time but showed significant temporal variability decisively affected by movements of the Svalbard Barents Sea Ice Sheet. For the first time, we prove the occurrence of seasonal sea ice at the eastern Yermak Plateau during glacial intervals, probably steered by a major northward advance of the ice sheet and the formation of a coastal polynya in front of it. Maximum accumulation of terrigenous organic carbon, IP25 and the phytoplankton biomarkers (brassicasterol, dinosterol, HBI III) can be correlated to distinct deglaciation events. More severe, but variable sea ice cover prevailed at the Yermak Plateau during interglacials. The general proximity to the sea ice margin is further indicated by biomarker (GDGT) - based sea surface temperatures below 2.5 degrees C.

  • 232.
    Kristjónsdóttir, Marta Karen
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Shaping the Climate Action trajectory within the Fashion Industry: a case study of a Small Medium Sized Enterprise2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The apparel and footwear industry’s contribution to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is one of the fifth largest per industry, equal to that of livestock, after electricity and heat, oil and gas, agriculture, and transportation (Ellen MacArthur Foundation, 2017). For industry-wide emissions reduction, investing in renewable energy and energy efficiency programs across highest impacting life cycle phases offer the most effective solution. However, identifying the highest impacting life cycles phases shows varied results depending on the particular type of business model under examination. This paper responds to the lack of existing data and empirical research on how to accurately measure, report and reduce carbon emissions across the highly complex and globally interconnected apparel value chain. This is done through a single case study investigation of an Icelandic fashion brand. A hybrid approach of a standard Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and the Sustainable Global Value Chain (SGVC) functions to produce a Hotspot Identification Tool (HIT) to establish a holistic portrayal of business operations in relation to emission impacts and level of controllability across Scopes. The conceptual analysis and qualitative results identify the most relevant emission hotspots to lie within the company’s privately owned manufacturing facilities, as well as the procurement phase, due to its direct connection with and influence on material production, user phase, and end-of-life. The main obstacle in this pursuit is identified as restriction of resources in terms of time, capital and expertise. It is suggested that this be overcome by joining a Multi-Stakeholder Initiative where resources and expertise is pooled in a pre-competitive manner to reach common objectives. The investigation further suggests a need for global fashion brands to leverage their influential position on down- and upstream activities across the value chain, i.e. with their supply chain partners and consumers. I argue that fashion brands play an integral role in supporting local efforts to build a decarbonisation pathway towards climate neutral economies on a global scale.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 233.
    Krmicek, Lukas
    et al.
    Czech Acad Sci, Inst Geol, Rozvojova 269, CZ-16502 Prague 6, Czech Republic.;Brno Univ Technol, Inst Geotech, Fac Civil Engn, Veveri 95, CZ-60200 Brno, Czech Republic.;BIC Brno, Technol Innovat Transfer Chamber, Purkynova 648-125, CZ-61200 Brno, Czech Republic..
    Troll, Valentin R.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Galiova, Michaela Vasinova
    BIC Brno, Technol Innovat Transfer Chamber, Purkynova 648-125, CZ-61200 Brno, Czech Republic.;Brno Univ Technol, Inst Chem & Technol Environm Protect, Fac Chem, Purkynova 118, CZ-61200 Brno, Czech Republic..
    Thordarson, Thor
    Univ Iceland, Fac Earth Sci, Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Brabec, Marek
    Brno Univ Technol, Inst Geotech, Fac Civil Engn, Veveri 95, CZ-60200 Brno, Czech Republic..
    Trace element composition in olivine from the 2022 Meradalir eruption of the Fagradalsfjall Fires, SW-Iceland2022Inngår i: Czech Polar Reports, ISSN 1805-0689, E-ISSN 1805-0697, Vol. 12, nr 2, s. 222-231Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on determining the trace element composition in olivine from olivine tholeiitic basalts sampled in Iceland during the 2022 Meradalir eruption of the 2021 -ongoing Fagradalsfjall Fires. The chemistry of Meradalir olivine is characteristic for a volcanic origin where olivine crystals represent the product of crystallisation. Olivine from the Meradalir basalt magma falls within the field characteristic for the melting of a dominantly peridotitic mantle source. However, the data show that the 2022 Meradalir olivine crystalized from a compositionally more evolved magma than olivine from the preceding 2021 Geldingadalir eruption of the Fagradalsfjall Fires.

  • 234.
    Krmicek, Lukas
    et al.
    Brno Univ Technol, Inst Geotech, Fac Civil Engn, Veveri 95, CZ-60200 Brno, Czech Republic.;Czech Acad Sci, Inst Geol, Rozvojova 269, CZ-16502 Prague 6, Czech Republic.;BIC Brno, Technol Innovat Transfer Chamber, Purkynova 648-125, CZ-61200 Brno, Czech Republic..
    Troll, Valentin R.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Thordarson, Thor
    Univ Iceland, Fac Earth Sci, Sturlugata 7, IS-102 Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Brabec, Marek
    Brno Univ Technol, Inst Geotech, Fac Civil Engn, Veveri 95, CZ-60200 Brno, Czech Republic..
    Moreland, William M.
    Univ Iceland, Fac Earth Sci, Sturlugata 7, IS-102 Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Mato, Adam
    Masaryk Univ, Fac Sci, Dept Geol Sci, Kotlarska 2, CZ-61137 Brno, Czech Republic..
    The 2023 Litli-Hrútur eruption of the Fagradalsfjall Fires, SW-Iceland: Insights from trace element compositions of olivine2023Inngår i: Czech Polar Reports, ISSN 1805-0689, E-ISSN 1805-0697, Vol. 13, nr 2, s. 257-270Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study provides data on the trace element composition of olivine from olivine tholeiitic basalts sampled during the July-August 2023 Litli-Hrutur eruption of the Fagradalsfjall Fires in the Reykjanes Volcanic Belt. Chemistry of the Litli-Hrutur olivine is characteristic for volcanic olivine crystals that represent products of magmatic crystallisation. The investigated olivine megacrysts show forsterite (Fo) content in the range of 81 (rims) to 85 (cores) mole percent [defined as Fo = Mg/(Mg + Fe)]. Olivine Ni concentrations (1540-1840 ppm) correlate positively with the Fo contents. In addition, Ca contents show a range from 1890 to 2460 ppm at relatively low Ti concentrations. Olivine from the Litli-Hrutur samples shows an equilibrium with peridotitic mantle melts, yet the data show that the 2023 Litli-Hrutur and the 2022 Meradalir olivine populations crystallised from compositionally more evolved magma batches than olivine crystals from the 2021 Geldingadalir eruption of the Fagradalsfjall Fires. These results imply that magmatic differentiation has taken place between the initial 2021 events and the subsequent 2022 and 2023 eruptions as a result of crystal-liquid fractionation, shifting the overall magma chemistry towards more evolved compositions with time. This implies that fractional crystallisation in sub -alkaline magma reservoirs operates on the scale of years, which is a fundamental advance in our understanding of these common magmatic systems.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 235.
    Kuchler, Magdalena
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Post-conventional energy futures: Rendering Europe's shale gas resources governable2017Inngår i: Energy Research & Social Science, ISSN 2214-6296, E-ISSN 2214-6326, Vol. 31, s. 32-40Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Following the shale gas boom in the United States, unconventional natural gas extracted from organic-rich shale rock formations has generated increasing attention in the European Union (EU). This considerable interest has been spurred by a range of optimistic volumetric appraisals of shale gas resource potential trapped beneath the European continent. The paper critically examines rationalities and practices through which states of resource availability and recoverability are made visible, measurable, intelligible, and thus rendered governable, namely open to new fields of possibilities to act upon. By implementing the concept of socio-technical imaginaries as governmentality approach, the analysis is guided by two objectives: first, to identify visions of shale gas potential contained in a range of resource estimates; second, to scrutinize rationalities of government, that is how shale gas resources are made knowable and purposeful, as well as technologies of government that operationalize these rationalities via practices of calculation, visualization, and inscription. The paper illustrates that, these highly speculative and uncertain assessments can forge powerful volumetric imaginaries of shale gas potential that yield specific governing effects concerned with securitization of unconventional hydrocarbons availability. Consequently, these imaginaries prescribe and legitimize techno-political hopes for certain post-conventional energy futures underpinning the fossil fuel abundance narrative.

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  • 236.
    Kuchler, Magdalena
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för Tema.
    The human rights turn: ENGOs’ changing tactics in the quest for a more transparent, participatory and accountable CDM2017Inngår i: Environmental Politics, ISSN 0964-4016, E-ISSN 1743-8934, Vol. 26, nr 4, s. 648-668Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-state actors are increasingly participating in international climate diplomacy. The tactics employed by diverse civil society agents to influence climate policymaking are radicalizing through the adoption of more confrontational language. Activist groups have been seeking opportunities to influence policymakers regarding the rules related to transparency, public participation and accountability in the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). By scrutinizing efforts of three environmental NGOs (ENGOs) — Climate Action Network, Center for International Environmental Law and Carbon Market Watch — the analysis concentrates on what tactical shifts have occurred in the framing positions and approaches of these activists during the 1997-2015 period. After several years of legal advocacy, expertise and/or critique in an effort to reform input legitimacy of CDM governance, the selected ENGOs have recently drifted away from narratives of green governmentality and ecological modernization and, instead, radicalized their rhetorical tactics by turning to a human rights perspective under the umbrella of climate justice.

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  • 237.
    Kuchler, Magdalena
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling. Global Energy Systems.
    Bridge, Gavin
    Durham University, United Kingdom.
    Down the black hole: Sustaining national socio-technical imaginaries of coal in Poland2018Inngår i: Energy Research & Social Science, ISSN 2214-6296, E-ISSN 2214-6326, Vol. 41, nr S1, s. 136-147Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the socio-technical imaginaries surrounding infrastructures of coal mining and coal combustion in Poland. Contemporary policy makers in Poland mobilise a national imaginary inherited from communist times – encapsulated in the slogan ‘Poland stands on coal’ – that fuses infrastructures of coal extraction and combustion with the fate of the nation. This socio-technical imaginary provides support for coal futures, even in the face of contradictory evidence for domestic resource depletion, poor regional air quality, and global climate change. To examine this process, the paper brings research on socio-technical imaginaries into conversation with work on resource materialities. It highlights how certain materialities of coal (abundance, accessibility, energy density, location) were integral to the emergence of a national socio-technical imaginary of modernisation via coal; and how other materialities (declining resource quality, effects of emissions on respiratory health, coal as CO2-in-waiting) now collide with the political strategies of a government determined to reassert ‘black gold’ as a bedrock of national development for years to come. The paper considers how contemporary political efforts to rehabilitate coal and secure its future in Poland draw selectively upon a socio-technical imaginary of coal-fuelled national modernisation.

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  • 238.
    Kuchler, Magdalena
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Bridge, Gavin
    Univ Durham, Dept Geog, Sci Site, Durham DH1 3LE, England..
    Speculating on shale: Resource-making and the 'politics of possibility' in Poland and the UK2023Inngår i: Political Geography, ISSN 0962-6298, E-ISSN 1873-5096, Vol. 107, artikkel-id 102978Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the speculative character of knowledge and action in relation to subterranean resources, drawing on the curtailed histories of shale gas development in Poland and the UK. It adopts a political-economic orientation towards speculation rather than a narrowly financial one, seeking to understand the 'politics of possibility' associated with speculative resources. Specifically, we build on work in political geography to understand speculation as a form of productive 'resonance' replicating across epistemic, economic, and political domains. Thinking of speculation as resonance - as synchronous vibration across different areas of social life, stimulated by and intensifying uncertainty - offers a novel way of thinking about the possibilities of subterranean resources for forging political alignments. We show how speculation was integral to demonstrating the resource potential of shale in both Poland and the UK, and consider how this speculative character of shale subsequently infiltrated into economic and policy realms. Resonating across these domains, and amplifying epistemic uncertainties about shale, speculation produced a politics of possibility orientated towards 'gambling' on potential outcomes. By taking seriously the political possibilities of the uncertainties attached to subterranean resources, we extend the value of speculation as a concept for analysing the constitutive role of uncertainty in politicaleconomic governance.

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  • 239.
    Kuchler, Magdalena
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Craig-Thompson, Alexander
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Alofe, Emmanuel
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Tryggvason, Ari
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    SubCity: Planning for a sustainable subsurface in Stockholm2024Inngår i: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 144, s. 105545-, artikkel-id 105545Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    With an expected increase in urbanisation and low-carbon transition efforts, the planning of cities is becoming more challenging, and societies need to rethink how urban infrastructures will be constructed in the future. There is a growing recognition that the use of space below the city will need to be significantly enhanced. However, once transformed, underground space becomes a permanent feature, and major metropolitan areas worldwide are gradually acknowledging the subsurface as a valuable, non-renewable resource, emphasising the necessity for long-term, comprehensive, and sustainable planning of its utilisation. Sweden, including the Stockholm region, has favourable geological conditions for building underground facilities and a long tradition of subsurface engineering. Despite these advantages, Stockholm lacks a comprehensive, long-term underground plan or strategy. For years, major subsurface projects have been driven by short-term needs, potentially hindering the optimal use of space below the cityscape. The overall purpose of this paper is twofold. First, we explore the nascent area of scholarly work concerned with the case of Stockholm’s subsurface. We do so by evaluating the current status and potential of urban underground planning in Stockholm municipality. Second, we seek to advance existing planning knowledge and practices concerning Stockholm’s subsurface by identifying several distinct but interrelated gaps and challenges that impede the immediate integration of urban underground space into strategic decision-making for the future of underground planning in Stockholm. We suggest that further research is necessary in several key areas to facilitate the effectiveness and sustainability of long-term urban underground use and planning in Stockholm City and its metropolitan area.

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    SubCity: Planning for a sustainable subsurface in Stockholm
  • 240.
    Kuchler, Magdalena
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Höök, Mikael
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Fractured visions: Anticipating (un)conventional natural gas in Poland2020Inngår i: Resources policy, ISSN 0301-4207, E-ISSN 1873-7641, Vol. 68, artikkel-id 101760Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To better understand the recent Polish shale gas "frenzy", it is pertinent to study (un)conventional natural gas in the broader context of Poland as a post-communist country that has struggled to achieve a meaningful transformation of its coal-dominated energy system. By scrutinising official documents issued by the Polish government institutions between 1990 and 2017, we disclose specific fractures in how the role and scope of natural gas in the energy system have been envisioned in national policies and strategies. We demonstrate that the fractures occur at the intersection of two distinct logics: security concerned with the preservation of existing conditions and transition focused on change in the energy system. We draw attention to the shortcomings of prognostic practices underpinning both security and transition: overestimation in demand forecasts and uncertainty of resource estimates. In the effort to transform the national energy system, Poland's natural gas policy miscalculations have resulted in a substantial demand-side discontinuity and lock-in to one external gas supplier, which exacerbated the country's preoccupation with supply-side security. Yet, Polish high hopes for developing home-grown gas from shales lacked concrete policy visions and were a symptom of long-term stress that has gradually accumulated as the result of supply-demand imbalances.

  • 241.
    Kuchler, Magdalena
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Stigson, Gubb Marit
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Vindenergi.
    Unravelling the ‘collective’ in sociotechnical imaginaries: A literature review2024Inngår i: Energy Research & Social Science, ISSN 2214-6296, E-ISSN 2214-6326, Vol. 110, s. 103422-103422, artikkel-id 103422Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of sociotechnical imaginaries (STI) has been increasingly implemented in social science energy research to examine collectively held visions of desirable energy futures. In this paper, we attempt to make sense of the notion of a ‘collective’ central to the STI approach. We do so by performing a literature review of 69 peer-reviewed empirical articles that specifically delve into STIs concerning energy systems and transitions. We ask how ‘collective’ or ‘collectively held imaginary’ is defined and mobilised in these studies and what methods and empirical material scholars employ to access it analytically. Our literature review reveals a predominant emphasis on national collectives, frequently serving as the primary lens for analysis, with studies also exploring the interplay between national and local/regional STIs. Beyond the nation-state, we find instances of research delving into local/regional collectives and internationally or transnationally held STIs. Moreover, we illustrate how the choice of a specific ‘collective’ entry point influences methodological choices. Drawing from our literature review, we call for a more critical and comprehensive engagement with the notion of a ‘collective’ to elucidate how and why specific STIs gain prominence and power or lose acceptance and are marginalised within various collectives, especially in the context of low-carbon energy transitions. We further urge STI scholars to focus on diverse collectives that contribute to a sense of belonging beyond the confines of scale and place, such as class, gender, race, or ethnicity. Additionally, we emphasise the role of individuals, including those less socially prominent, in (re)shaping energy imaginaries.

  • 242. Kujawa, Anna
    et al.
    Orczewska, Anna
    Falkowski, Michal
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Bohdan, Adam
    Buchholz, Lech
    Chylarecki, Przemyslaw
    Gutowski, Jerzy M.
    Latałowa, Malgorzata
    Mysłajek, Robert W.
    Nowak, Sabina
    Walankiewicz, Wieslaw
    Zalewska, Anna
    The Białowieża Forest – a U NESCO Natural Heritage Site – protection priorities2016Inngår i: Forest Research Papers, E-ISSN 2082-8926, Vol. 77, nr 4, s. 302-323Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 243.
    Kuriakose, Jaise
    et al.
    Univ Manchester, Tyndall Ctr Climate Change Res, Sch Engn, Oxford Rd, Manchester M13 9PL, England..
    Anderson, Kevin
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling. Univ Manchester, Tyndall Ctr Climate Change Res, Sch Engn, Oxford Rd, Manchester M13 9PL, England.;Uppsala Univ, Dept Earth Sci, Nat Resources & Sustainable Dev, Uppsala, Sweden.;Univ Bergen, Ctr Climate & Energy Transformat, Bergen, Norway..
    Darko, Deborah
    CSIR, Water Res Inst, Accra, Ghana..
    Obuobie, Emmanuel
    CSIR, Water Res Inst, Accra, Ghana..
    Larkin, Alice
    Univ Manchester, Tyndall Ctr Climate Change Res, Sch Engn, Oxford Rd, Manchester M13 9PL, England..
    Addo, Salifu
    Energy Commiss Ghana, Accra, Ghana..
    Implications of large hydro dams for decarbonising Ghana's energy consistent with Paris climate objectives2022Inngår i: Energy for Sustainable Development, ISSN 0973-0826, E-ISSN 2352-4669, Vol. 71, s. 433-446Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydropower is a renewable source of electricity generation that is a common feature of Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC), especially in developing countries. However, far from benign, research shows that signifi-cant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions emanate from shallow reservoirs when they are sited in the tropics. Ghana provides a case study for exploring the implications of hydro reservoir emissions within a future energy system consistent with the Paris climate objectives. Being a fast-developing country, Ghana needs to generate significant amounts of low-carbon electricity to meet growing demand over the coming 30 years. Analysis of existing Ghanaian dams (Akosombo, Kpong and Bui) and the forthcoming Pwalugu dam suggests that their average emis-sions intensities (gCO2/kWh) are similar to those of coal-fired power stations during the first 30 years of their op-erating lifetime. The case study demonstrates that cumulative (post-2020) carbon dioxide emissions from the planned and identified hydro resources will consume 40 % of Ghana's Paris-compliant carbon budget, yet provide just under 1 % of its future energy demand (under Paris-compliant scenarios). The analysis suggests that new hy-dropower in the tropics can significantly reduce the emission space available for other sectors such as transport and industry when faced with a highly restricted emissions budget. In conclusion, for Ghana specifically, rather than constructing more dams, energy efficiency and diversifying renewable energy supply options, including floating solar power, would deliver an energy transition for Ghana that is much more closely aligned with the Paris goals. (c) 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of International Energy Initiative. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

  • 244.
    Kurland, Sara
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling. Stockholm Univ, Dept Zool, Div Populat Genet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Saha, Atal
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Zool, Div Populat Genet, Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ Agder, Ctr Coastal Res, Dept Nat Sci, Kristiansand, Norway..
    Keehnen, Naomi
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Zool, Div Populat Genet, Stockholm, Sweden.;SLU, Dept Ecol, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Celorio-Mancera, Maria de la Paz
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Zool, Div Populat Genet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Diez-del-Molino, David
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Zool, Div Populat Genet, Stockholm, Sweden.;Ctr Palaeogenet, Stockholm, Sweden.;Swedish Museum Nat Hist, Dept Bioinformat & Genet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ryman, Nils
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Zool, Div Populat Genet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Laikre, Linda
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Zool, Div Populat Genet, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Zool, Div Populat Genet, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    New indicators for monitoring genetic diversity applied to alpine brown trout populations using whole genome sequence data2024Inngår i: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 33, nr 2, artikkel-id e17213Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    International policy recently adopted commitments to maintain genetic diversity in wild populations to secure their adaptive potential, including metrics to monitor temporal trends in genetic diversity - so-called indicators. A national programme for assessing trends in genetic diversity was recently initiated in Sweden. Relating to this effort, we systematically assess contemporary genome-wide temporal trends (40 years) in wild populations using the newly adopted indicators and whole genome sequencing (WGS). We use pooled and individual WGS data from brown trout (Salmo trutta) in eight alpine lakes in protected areas. Observed temporal trends in diversity metrics (nucleotide diversity, Watterson's. and heterozygosity) lie within proposed acceptable threshold values for six of the lakes, but with consistently low values in lakes above the tree line and declines observed in these northern-most lakes. Local effective population size is low in all lakes, highlighting the importance of continued protection of interconnected systems to allow genetic connectivity for long-term viability of these populations. Inbreeding (FROH) spans 10%-30% and is mostly represented by ancient (<1 Mb) runs of homozygosity, with observations of little change in mutational load. We also investigate adaptive dynamics over evolutionarily short time frames (a few generations); identifying putative parallel selection across all lakes within a gene pertaining to skin pigmentation as well as candidates of selection unique to specific lakes and lake systems involved in reproduction and immunity. We demonstrate the utility of WGS for systematic monitoring of natural populations, a priority concern if genetic diversity is to be protected.

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  • 245.
    Költringer, Chiara
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten- och landskapslära.
    Bradák, Balázs
    Stevens, Thomas
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten- och landskapslära.
    Almqvist, Bjarne
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Banak, Adriano
    Lindner, Martin
    Kurbanov, Redzhep
    Snowball, Ian
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Palaeoenvironmental implications from Lower Volga loess - Joint magnetic fabric and multi-proxy analyses2021Inngår i: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 267, s. 107057-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Magnetic fabric (MF) investigations complemented by geochemical and grain surface analyses of the understudied and controversial marine isotope stage (MIS) 5 b, 4 and 3 loess deposits in the Lower Volga region, Russia show that the material has been transported and deposited by wind and to a large extent experienced post-depositional reworking. Grain surface features suggest that the material was glacially ground and fluvially transported prior to final aeolian deposition as loess. Secondary magnetic fabrics in the loess reveal pedogenic and cryogenic processes and a generally cold environment with brief shifts to warmer climate during late MIS 5 and MIS 3. Palaeowind reconstructions derived from preserved primary aeolian MF, indicate locally influenced westerly and north-westerly flow as part of a wider scale westerly wind pattern, similar to modern day winter conditions. We suggest that the climate of the last glacial in the Northern Caspian Lowland was cold and dry, with higher windspeeds and less variability during MIS 4 compared to MIS 3.

  • 246.
    Költringer, Chiara
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten- och landskapslära.
    Stevens, Thomas
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten- och landskapslära.
    Bradák, Balázs
    Department of Physics, University of Burgos, Av. de Cantabria, s/n 09006, Burgos, Spain.
    Almqvist, Bjarne
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Kurbanov, Redzhep
    MSU, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Geography, M.V., Leninskie Gory, 1, Moscow 119991, Russia;IGRAS, Department of Quaternary Paleogeography, Institute of Geography, Staromonetny, 29, Moscow 119017, Russia .
    Snowball, Ian
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Yarovaya, Sofya
    MSU, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Geography, M.V., Leninskie Gory, 1, Moscow 119991, Russia.
    Enviromagnetic study of Late Quaternary environmental evolution in Lower Volga loess sequences, Russia2021Inngår i: Quaternary Research, ISSN 0033-5894, E-ISSN 1096-0287, Vol. 103, s. 49-73Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The late Quaternary development of the Lower Volga region of Russia is characterized by an alternating influence of marine and continental environments resulting from fluctuations in Caspian Sea level during the last glaciation. However, sediments deposited under continental conditions have received very little research attention compared to the under- and overlying marine deposits, such that even their origin is still in debate. Detailed magnetic mineralogical analyses presented here show clear similarities to loess. The results suggest that climate during the time of loess deposition, the Atelian regression (27-80 ka, MIS 4-3), was dry and cool, similar to the modern-day Northern Caspian lowland. The magnetic properties recorded in the loess-paleosol sequences of the Lower Volga also point to short episodes of potentially more humid and warmer climate during the late Atelian. The new findings in regard to the local Caspian climate and environmental evolution support decreased river discharge from the Russian Plain and Siberian Plain as the dominant factor causing the low Caspian sea level stand during the Atelian, although local-regional climate changes might have had an additional influence.

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  • 247.
    Langley, Paul
    et al.
    Univ Durham, Dept Geog, South Rd, Durham DH1 3LE, England.
    Bridge, Gavin
    Univ Durham, Dept Geog, South Rd, Durham DH1 3LE, England.
    Bulkeley, Harriet
    Univ Durham, Dept Geog, South Rd, Durham DH1 3LE, England.
    van Veelen, Bregje
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Decarbonizing capital: Investment, divestment and the qualification of carbon assets2021Inngår i: Economy and Society, ISSN 0308-5147, E-ISSN 1469-5766, Vol. 50, nr 3, s. 494-516Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Private investment capital is now widely regarded as strategically significant to the governance of climate change. A dedicated and dynamic carbon finance sector has emerged that features techniques and practices for decarbonizing capital, facilitating investment in low-carbon projects and enterprises or enabling divestment from high-carbon firms and sectors. We bring together and develop the concepts of 'qualification' and 'assetization' to analyse how decarbonizing capital is proceeding. With specific reference to green bonds and the equities of fossil fuel corporations, we show how investment and divestment entail the qualification of things as assets with more-or-less specific carbon properties. But the qualification of assets as `low-' or 'high-carbon' is also shown to be contingent, contested and compromised, featuring contrasting modalities of qualification that are decarbonizing capital in uncertain and incomplete ways.

  • 248.
    Lazarova, Maria
    et al.
    Bulgarian Acad Sci, Inst Biodivers & Ecosyst Res, BU-1113 Sofia, Bulgaria..
    Marinova, Elena
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Ctr Archaeol Sci, B-3001 Louvain, Belgium.;Royal Belgian Inst Nat Sci, Dept Palaeontol, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium..
    Tonkov, Spassimir
    Sofia Univ St Kliment Ohridski, Fac Biol, Palynol Lab, Dept Bot, Sofia 1164, Bulgaria..
    Snowball, Ian
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    A 5000-year pollen and plant macrofossil record from the Osogovo Mountain, Southwestern Bulgaria: Vegetation history and human impact2015Inngår i: Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, ISSN 0034-6667, E-ISSN 1879-0615, Vol. 223, s. 1-9Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Pollen and plant macrofossil analyses were performed on a sequence 105 cm deep obtained from a peat bog (1750 m) that is located above the present timber-line in the Osogovo Mountain, Southwestern Bulgaria. The palaeovegetation reconstruction, supported by a radiocarbon chronology, revealed the vegetation dynamics and human impact during the last 5000 years. The peat bog formed when a coniferous belt of Abies alba and Pinus (Pinus sylvestris, Pinus nigra) covered the high mountain slopes. Charcoal fragments indicate the presence of a broad-leaved tree community composed of Quercus, Corylus, Carpinus, Tilia, Acer and Ulmus at lower altitudes. Stands of Fagus sylvatica in places with higher air and soil humidity, like river valleys and deep ravines, became established. The pollen assemblages after c. 3200 cal. BP record an important change in the forest composition that led to the replacement of the conifers, mostly A. alba, by the invading communities of F. sylvatica. The reasons for this replacement included factors related to both climate change and anthropogenic disturbance. During the last centuries a large-scale degradation of the woodlands in the mountain has occurred. On a regional scale the palaeoecological evidence is compared with information from palynological, archaeological and historical sources in Southwestern Bulgaria.

  • 249.
    Lechowicz, Kosma
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Kuchler, Magdalena
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Disassembling Poland's high-carbon imaginaries from within: The case of local activism in Upper Silesia2024Inngår i: Energy Research & Social Science, ISSN 2214-6296, E-ISSN 2214-6326, Vol. 111, s. 103461-103461, artikkel-id 103461Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper seeks to understand how dominant high-carbon imaginaries, such as those associated with coal, can be disassembled from within. Although resistance can have a disruptive potential to threaten the prevailing energy narrative, in certain contexts, the complete replacement of the dominant imaginary with an alternative one may not always be feasible or preferable. The paper shows how thinking about disassembly from within can be achieved by bringing the interpretative envelope of sociotechnical imaginaries (STI) into productive conversation with the concepts of hyperobject and hyposubjects. While the analytical framework of STI accounts for the material-normative co-production of future-making, the hyperobject emphasises the effects of human-natural interconnectedness, and hyposubjects elucidate how this mesh can be used generatively through attunement and subscendence. The paper illustrates this way of thinking about disassembling from within by focusing on Upper Silesia, a region in Poland uniquely bound to coal. Through the case of a local activist group Queer Silesia, the paper provides a perspective on disassembly from within where elements of the old but prevailing imaginary can be repurposed to create visions of the post-coal future without erasing the resource's legacy or compromising social cohesion.

  • 250.
    Lehoux, A. P.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling. Univ Paris Est, CNRS, Lab Navier, ENPC,IFSTTAR, Champs Sur Marne, France.;Univ Avignon & Pays Vaucluse, INRA, EMMAH, F-84000 Avignon, France..
    Faure, P.
    Univ Paris Est, CNRS, Lab Navier, ENPC,IFSTTAR, Champs Sur Marne, France..
    Michel, E.
    Univ Avignon & Pays Vaucluse, INRA, EMMAH, F-84000 Avignon, France..
    Courtier-Murias, D.
    Univ Paris Est, CNRS, Lab Navier, ENPC,IFSTTAR, Champs Sur Marne, France..
    Rodts, S.
    Univ Paris Est, CNRS, Lab Navier, ENPC,IFSTTAR, Champs Sur Marne, France..
    Coussot, P.
    Univ Paris Est, CNRS, Lab Navier, ENPC,IFSTTAR, Champs Sur Marne, France..
    Transport and Adsorption of Nano-Colloids in Porous Media Observed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging2017Inngår i: Transport in Porous Media, ISSN 0169-3913, E-ISSN 1573-1634, Vol. 119, nr 2, s. 403-423Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We use magnetic resonance imaging to follow the adsorption of colloids during their transport through a porous medium (grain packing). We injected successive pulses of a suspension of nanoparticles able to adsorb onto the grains. To get quantitative information we carry out 2D imaging and 1D measurements of the evolution in time of the distribution profile of all particles (suspended or adsorbed) in cross-sectional layers along the sample axis during the flow. For the first injections we observe the 1D profile amplitude progressively damping as particles advance through the sample, due to their adsorption. 2D imaging shows that successive injections finally result in a coverage of grains by adsorbed particles regularly progressing along the sample. The analysis of the results makes it possible to get a clear description of the adsorption process. In our specific case (particle charged oppositely to the adsorption sites) it appears that the particles rapidly explore the pores and adsorb as soon as they encounter available sites on grains, and the surplus of particles goes on advancing in the sample. A further analysis of the profiles makes it possible to distinguish the respective concentration distribution of suspended and adsorbed particles over time at each step of the process.

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