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  • 201.
    Lennerfors, Thomas Taro
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Industriell teknik.
    Confucian Ethics and Global Capitalism2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 202.
    Lennerfors, Thomas Taro
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Industriell teknik.
    "Ethics as practice" as ethico-politics: the contributions from Alain Badiou's ethical thought2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 203.
    Lennerfors, Thomas Taro
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Industriell teknik.
    Marketing the Information Society: Sustainability, Speed and Technomass2013Ingår i: The possibilities of ethical ICT / [ed] Terrell Ward Bynum, William Fleishman, Anne Gerdes, Gitte Moldrup Nielsen, Simon Rogerson, 2013, s. 310-315Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 204.
    Lennerfors, Thomas Taro
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Industriell teknik.
    Recovery of the spiritual: the Buddhist turn of Sustainability2011Ingår i: Standing Conference on Organizational Symbolism, 2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    According to some, sustainability will become the big business trend during the 2010's (HBR 2009). A sustainable company would be one that is successful not only from an economic perspective but also from a social and environmental perspective. Performance is measured by a triple bottom line, instead of solely a single bottom line (Elkington 1994). Whether or not it is true that sustainability will be the new business trend, sustainability is increasingly becoming a competing discourse to the dominant discourse of neo-liberalism and globalization. While some see the relationship between business and sustainability as conflictual (Hornborg 1997), many argue that business and sustainability can go hand in hand (Ellis 2010).

    During the last couple of years, sustainability has been explicitly linked to religions such as Islam (Jaufeerally forthcoming) and Buddhism (Sivaraksa 2009). In this paper, I will discuss the "Buddhist turn" of sustainability and discuss how Buddhism might contribute to the understanding of sustainability.

    In the paper, I will introduce and discuss the current discourses on sustainability. Then I will survey the existing literature that greets a new era of Buddhist economics, since its foundation by Ernst Friedrich Schumacher in the 1970's. Sivaraksa (2009) and indeed many others have continued in the tradition of Schumacher, explicitly linking Buddhism and sustainable business practices. I will discuss what we can learn from this tradition and its shortcomings. 

  • 205.
    Lennerfors, Thomas Taro
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Industriell teknik.
    Smart Ethics2013Ingår i: ICT-ethics: Sweden and Japan / [ed] Elin Palm, Linköping: CTE centrum för tillämpad etik / center for applied ethics , 2013Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 206.
    Lennerfors, Thomas Taro
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Industriell teknik.
    Sustainable and Fast ICT: Lessons from Dromology2014Ingår i: Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, ISSN 1477-996X, E-ISSN 1758-8871, Vol. 12, nr 4, s. 284-297Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This paper aims to suggest that ethical issues in information and communications technology (ICT) should be researched from a holistic perspective, including environmental values and other values inherent in ICT. This paper thoroughly discusses the value of speed by drawing on ICT advertisements and theories of speed, primarily Paul Virilio’s work.

    Design/methodology/approach – The methodology consists of a semiotic analysis of ICT-related advertisements primarily from Sweden. These empirical data are combined with a close reading of Paul Virilio’s work, and the analysis moves abductively between theory and empirical data.

    Findings – Speed is promoted in ICT-related advertisements and may be analyzed using concepts of dromology, dromocracy, dromoscopy, the dromosphere, instantaneity and grey ecology. Research limitations/implications – Most of the data are from the Swedish context.

    Social implications – To create a sustainable society, one must explicitly discuss how speed forms and shapes society.

    Originality/value – The paper combines philosophical theories with everyday commercials. It draws on the work of Paul Virilio, whose theories are seldom used in studies of information ethics, and redraws attention to the need for a holistic perspective to understand the values of ICT.

  • 207.
    Lennerfors, Thomas Taro
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Industriell teknik.
    The Confucian Ethics of Junzi in Contemporary Light Capitalism2015Ingår i: Taiwan Journal of East Asian StudiesArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent times, many have proclaimed a return to traditional values and a move away from one Capitalism towards various capitalisms. This present paper explores the relationship between Confucianism and capitalism. It argues that Confucian capitalism can mean state-led development, that Confucian values are seen as the driver for economic growth, and that Confucianism can be seen as the driver of social change of capitalism. By explaining the trend of "light capitalism" and its three evils of uncertainty, insecurity and unsafety, it is argued that Confucian ethics and the striving for becoming an exemplary person (junzi) within a web of relationships can be a way to introduce social change into capitalist practices. 

  • 208.
    Lennerfors, Thomas Taro
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Industriell teknik.
    Thinking Ethics with Badiou2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, I will draw on the work of Alain Badiou to construct an ethical theory centered around the notions 'event', 'subject', 'points', and 'life'. I first review Badiou's critique of ethics, which is discussed in his book Ethics. This concerns the critique of combatting a universal Evil, respecting the Other and the Ethics of nihilism. In this work his positive theory concerns the creation of faithful subjects. To keep going! or to keep being faithful to the event is of ethical importance.

     

    To develop these ideas, I then use Badiou's later work to construct an ethical theory - where Logics of Worlds and Second Manifesto are key texts. He there sketches three different kinds of subject - the faithful, the reactive and the obscure. Still, ethical primacy is with the faithful subject. By delving into what Badiou writes about the faithful subject in relation to the concepts of 'points' and 'life', I hope to develop a coherent understanding of his ethical theory. 

     

    I will try to relate these ethical theories to the secondary work on Badiou and to other contemporary ethical theories, and also discuss its relevance for ethics, responsibility and sustainability in business. 

  • 209.
    Lennerfors, Thomas Taro
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Industriell teknik.
    Vintage Book Review. Small is Beautiful: Economics as if People Mattered, E. F. Schumacher2013Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Management, ISSN 0956-5221, E-ISSN 1873-3387, Vol. 29, nr 4, s. 402-403Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 210.
    Lennerfors, Thomas Taro
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Industriell teknik.
    Which way is up? Acrobats and ascetics in technological development2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, I will let the Sloterdijkian concept of anthropotechnics (from the book You Must Change Your Life!), the creation of human beings from training, repetitions, and habits, to guide my research. Human life is about training and repetition, about ascetism. But, in human beings there are also always upward-tending traits, so when one encounters humans, one will always find acrobats. Different cultures, such as religious cultures, aristocratic cultures, military cultures, athletic cultures and cognitive cultures, have different vertical tensions.

     

    The paper brings Sloterdijk to a face-to-face discussion with the technological development staff of a Swedish shipping company (the guys who design, draw, calculate, how ships should be built and rebuilt). It discusses the rationales behind technological development in this company over the last 50 years and explores how ascetics and acrobats have moulded themselves individually and collectively, working on themselves and working on artefacts. In this anthropotechnic training camp, people have constantly asked themselves: which way is up?  

  • 211.
    Liepa, Marcis
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för speldesign, teknik och lärande.
    How Male Gamers Perceive Games with Non-sexualized Female Protagonists: Swedish Males Aged 18 and Above2013Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Some game publishers and developers do not think that games with non-sexualized female protagonists are worth making because they would not sell. With close to a half of gamers being female (47%) it is a bit puzzling that they are not catered to. This could be because publishers think that male gamers, who they perceive as their main demographic, would not buy games with non-sexualized female protagonists. A study was done to see if that statement is correct. By questioning 91 Swedish male gamers, aged 18 and above, it was found that in games where one can choose the character’s sex 46% of the subjects play as a female character at least half of the time and in total 90% of the 91 subjects have at some point chosen to play as a female character. No one of the subjects have any negative thoughts about there being more games with non-sexualized female protagonists who are heroic in their own right and not a trophy, when asked 47% said it would be “Very good”, 24% said it would be “Good” and 29% said that they have “No opinion” in the matter.

  • 212.
    Linander, Helen
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teologiska fakulteten, Teologiska institutionen, Tros- och livsåskådningsvetenskap, Etik.
    Etiska emotioner: Om emotionens roll i etik2013Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den här uppsatsen har varit att undersöka emotionernas roll i vår etik. Detta har jag undersökt med hjälp av filosofen Martha Nussbaum, vilken har utformat en väl tilltagen teori om både emotioner och dess roll i etik. Genom att sätta upp tre punkter på vad en teori om emotioners roll i etik bör innehålla, (1. innehåll, 2. giltighet, 3. a) motivation och b) handling) har jag tolkat och analyserat Nussbaums teori, som hon skriver om i sina böcker Hiding from humanity: disgust, shame, and the law och Upheavals of thought: the intelligence of emotions.

    Nussbaums teori har behandlat alla punkter jag ställde upp och bör därmed anses vara komplett, om än inte helt övertygande på alla punkter. Det hon kommit fram till är:

    1. En emotion består av kognitiva processer som genom sitt fokus på ett medvetet objekt bildar övertygelser och värderingar om sådant som berör det vi tillskriver vara viktigt.

    2. Emotionen har inte ensamt giltighet att besluta huruvida en handling är rätt eller fel.

    3. a) Den har en stark motiverande funktion, men innebär inte att en 3 b) handling måste äga rum.

    Nussbaums teori är väl utarbetad när hon förklarar varför det är viktigt att emotionen bör ha en roll i vår etik. Teorin är dock mindre utarbetad, och mindre övertygande, när det gäller att förklara hur det ska gå till när vi adapterar emotionerna på etiken.

  • 213.
    Lindgren, Malin
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teologiska fakulteten, Teologiska institutionen.
    "Att undervisa i Guds vilja": en inehållsmässig idéanalys av sex konfirmandböckers framställning av kristen etik2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 214.
    Lundmark, Frida
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teologiska fakulteten, Teologiska institutionen.
    Principer utan moral: En undersökning av Audis principer för liberala demokratier utan antagande om etisk realism.2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 215.
    Löfquist, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teologiska fakulteten, Teologiska institutionen, Tros- och livsåskådningsvetenskap, Etik.
    After Fukushima: nuclear power and societal choice2015Ingår i: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 18, nr 3, s. 291-303Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of article is to evaluate nuclear power in relation to alternative energy sources. A central claim is that the accident in Fukushima does not change the challenges facing the global system for electricity production. Given the need to minimize climate change and that nuclear power provides electricity with lower carbon emissions than fossil fuels, it is impossible to replace both nuclear power and fossil fuel plants in a few years. These plants provide a substantial part of our total generating capacity and cannot be easily substituted. However, if we made significant but non-radical reductions of our electricity consumption, the process of replacing both nuclear power and fossil fuels with renewable sources becomes easier. Reduction can be motivated by an egalitarian theory of justice which claims that it is wrong to maintain a lifestyle that threatens present humans and transfers risks unto future generations. Finally, it is concluded that our total electricity consumption is as important as its production when we plan for our society’s energy future.

  • 216.
    Löfquist, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teologiska fakulteten, Teologiska institutionen.
    Climate change, justice and the right to development2011Ingår i: Journal of Global Ethics, ISSN 1744-9626, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 251-260Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary human rights documents of the United Nations claim that every human has a right to development, a right that also includes continuous improvement of each person's living conditions. On one interpretation, this implies a right to a never-ending improvement of living conditions. According to the author, this interpretation faces several counterintuitive implications. First, it seems reasonable that we cannot have a right to improvement without regard to environmental sustainability; improvements must instead focus on well-being, a concept that is partially unrelated to material improvements. Second, if development is a human right, there are several distributional problems with this right. The paper discusses three different responses to the idea that everybody has a right to continuous improvement and concludes that the best solution is to reject the idea that everyone has such a right. This does not imply that we must reject a right to a certain minimum level of well-being; it just means that this right cannot include claims for never-ending improvement.

  • 217.
    Löfquist, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teologiska fakulteten, Teologiska institutionen, Tros- och livsåskådningsvetenskap, Etik.
    Future Generations and Nuclear Waste Management2010Ingår i: Ethics, Energy & the Future: Technology for a Sustainable Society, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands, June 24-26, 2010, 2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 218.
    Löfquist, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teologiska fakulteten, Teologiska institutionen, Tros- och livsåskådningsvetenskap, Etik.
    Humanitarianism: Between Realism and Utopia2017Ingår i: Antae Journal, ISSN 2523-2126, Vol. 4, nr 1, s. 102-113Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The main claim in this article is that humanitarianism can be depicted as an attempt of establishing a realistic utopia. The claimed is supported by comparison between More’s Utopia and Dunant’s A memory of Solferino. Despite the differences in style and context, both authors show a sensitive analysis of human nature and war as a phenomenon. They both show that war should be conducted in a way that reduces suffering. It is also important that several of their ideas that were far flung at the time have become political mainstream. This in turn illustrate that some utopian depictions can turn out to be realistic. Dunant’s text illustrates this by making concrete proposals that brought about long lasting changes in the conduct of war. Despite coming short of abolishing war his text represent a realistic utopia that expanded the field of what was politically possible.

  • 219.
    Löfquist, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teologiska fakulteten, Teologiska institutionen, Tros- och livsåskådningsvetenskap, Etik.
    Is there a universal human right to electricity?2019Ingår i: International Journal of Human Rights, ISSN 1364-2987, E-ISSN 1744-053XArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article considers three answers to the question whether electricity access should be a universal human right. A first position is that there is no human right to electricity but perhaps contractual rights related to various societies. A second position is that electricity is a derived human right, a right based on other rights, grounded on rights such as the right to adequate housing. A third position is that there is a universal human right to electricity. It is argued that the second position is the strongest since it supports the idea that humans often need access to electricity but avoids the stronger claim that all humans must have this access. The latter claim faces the challenge that rights language should focus on the needs of humans and not be extended too far to include everything that could be beneficial for humans. Such an extension might diminish the attention on the actual aim of human rights: That all humans should have a good enough life.

  • 220.
    Löfquist, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teologiska fakulteten, Teologiska institutionen, Tros- och livsåskådningsvetenskap, Etik.
    Recension av Ole Jensen På kant med klodens klima: Om behovet av et ændret natursyn2011Ingår i: Svensk teologisk kvartalskrift, ISSN 0039-6761, Vol. 87, nr 4, s. 187-187Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 221.
    Löfquist, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teologiska fakulteten, Teologiska institutionen, Tros- och livsåskådningsvetenskap, Etik.
    The Future of Nuclear Power: Some implications for global energy consumption and energy production2013Ingår i: Assessing energy futures, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany, January 28-February 1, 2013, 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 222.
    Löfquist, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teologiska fakulteten, Teologiska institutionen.
    Tillväxtens framtid : introduktion till utvecklingsetik2010Bok (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    De flesta av oss delar tanken på att samhället kan bli bättre. Vi vill bekämpa fattigdomen, öka rättvisan, förbättra välfärden och skydda miljön. Problemet är att dessa mål inte automatiskt går att förena och att vi ibland måste välja ett framför andra.

    Den här boken presenterar flera olika sätt att se på samhällets utveckling och vilka mål som vi bör eftersträva. Boken har ett etiskt perspektiv och fokuserar på utvecklingens moraliska dimensioner och frågor som: Är det möjligt att utrota fattigdomen utan att öka jämlikheten? Vad innebär ett ökat krav på rättvisa?Vad innebär det om naturens gränser sätter stopp för fortsatta materiella förbättringar?

    Tillväxtens framtid är en introduktion till utvecklingsetik och är tänkt att användas inom miljö- och utvecklingsstudier vid universitet och högskola. Den kan även användas för vidareutbildning inom offentlig biståndsverksamhet samt hjälp-och frivilligorganisationer.

  • 223.
    Löfquist, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teologiska fakulteten, Teologiska institutionen, Tros- och livsåskådningsvetenskap, Etik.
    Virtue Ethics and Disasters2018Ingår i: Basic Concepts and Normative Theories in Disaster Ethics / [ed] Dranseika, Vilius; Gordijn, Bert; O’Mathúna Dónal P., Springer Publishing Company, 2018, s. 203-215Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Virtue ethics studies the character traits of good persons. This includes analysis of how ordinary persons can emulate moral role models in order to improve their moral character. This chapter investigates the link between virtues and disasters by relating classic and contemporary virtue ethical thinking to the character traits of humanity and resilience. The article finds ample support for the claim that these two character traits can be analysed as virtues and that classical virtue theorists can help us articulate the content of these traits. The contemporary discourse about virtues and disasters includes the long-standing analysis of the role of reason and emotions in virtues but the discourse also considers what kind of virtues that are relevant in disaster situations. Two important examples of the latter are the virtues of humanitarian workers and the virtues of those who suffer disasters. The chapter conclude that that future research should consider how training can strengthen individual resilience and how the pursuit of moral excellence can be included in the humanitarian field as a complement to minimum standards.

  • 224.
    Löfquist, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teologiska fakulteten, Teologiska institutionen, Tros- och livsåskådningsvetenskap, Etik.
    Virtues and Humanitarian Ethics2017Ingår i: Disasters. The Journal of Disaster Studies, Policy and Management, ISSN 0361-3666, E-ISSN 1467-7717, Vol. 41, nr 1, s. 41-54Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses the contribution of virtue ethics, the study of good character traits, to the humanitarian context. It argues that a virtue ethics perspective paints a realistic picture of the use of ethical standards in morally complex circumstances. Virtuous relief workers can employ standards in their thinking, but they are also committed to professional excellence that goes beyond any formal code. The concept of virtue ethics places a stress on moral development, which can be facilitated by role models that impart modest and feasible ideals. However, virtue ethics cannot provide simple guidelines on how to resolve difficult situations. It is possible that two virtuous persons can disagree on what should be done in a particular instance. In addition, a virtue ethics perspective emphasises the need for both individuals and organisations to discuss the actual purpose of relief work in order to pinpoint the virtues of a good relief professional.

  • 225.
    Löfquist, Lars
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teologiska fakulteten, Teologiska institutionen, Tros- och livsåskådningsvetenskap, Etik.
    Pellegrini-Masini, Giuseppe
    Corvino, Fausto
    Energy justice and intergenerational ethics: theoretical perspectives and institutional designs2019Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 226.
    Maltais, Aaron
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Radically non-ideal climate politics and the obligation to at least vote green2013Ingår i: Environmental Values, ISSN 0963-2719, E-ISSN 1752-7015, Vol. 22, nr 5, s. 589-608Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Obligations to reduce one's green house gas emissions appear to be difficult to justify prior to large-scale collective action because an individual's emissions have virtually no impact on the environmental problem. However, I show that individuals' emissions choices raise the question of whether or not they can be justified as fair use of what remains of a safe global emissions budget. This is true both before and after major mitigation efforts are in place. Nevertheless, it remains difficult to establish an obligation to reduce personal emissions because it appears unlikely that governments will in fact maintain safe emissions budgets. The result, I claim, is that under current conditions we lack outcome, fairness, promotional, virtue or duty based grounds for seeing personal emissions reductions as morally obligatory.

  • 227.
    Mascalzoni, Deborah
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Petrini, Carlo
    Taruscio, Domenica
    Gainotti, Sabina
    The Role of Solidarity(-ies) in Rare Diseases Research2017Ingår i: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, ISSN 0065-2598, E-ISSN 2214-8019, Vol. 1031, s. 589-604Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Solidarity plays a relevant role in rare diseases (RDs) research to create and enable research in the field. In Europe RDs are estimated to affect between 27 and 36 million people even though single RDs can count very few patients, making the contribution of everyone essential to reach solid results. Often RD research is initiated by patient groups devoting substantial time and resources to the scientific enterprise. In RD research solidarity is often evocated and expressed, in different ways and on different levels, so that it is possible to talk about "solidarities" played by different stakeholders and sometimes conflicting with each other. In this paper we describe different contexts in which solidarity is expressed and embedded in RD research, in particular the context of tight relationships between individuals and their families or in small communities/ethnic groups; among individuals suffering from different RDs and researchers working on a specific RD or a group of RDs, and within society at large. In all these cases the different types of solidarity should be balanced against each other and also against conflicting values. The request to a patient to share data and samples to increase scientific knowledge on the basis of solidarity values needs to be balanced against the need to protect her privacy and autonomy; the duty for a researcher to allow fair access to RD sample and data collections which were donated in a spirit of solidarity is balanced against the need to be competitive in the research world. In the Report "Solidarity. Reflections on an emerging concept in bioethics", the Nuffield Council of Bioethics defines solidarity as "shared practices reflecting a collective commitment to carry 'costs' (financial, social, emotional or otherwise) to assist others". Therefore, if a solidarity framework has to be solid and ethically sound it needs to be framed as a shared value, reflected in the different practices by all the stakeholders and be based on reciprocity (not one sided). The context of solidarity(ies) provides a solid base for framing the research endeavor as collectively valuable, not only for possible results of the research, but as intrinsic valid societal practice. This paper tries to draw the lessons on solidarity that we can derive from the RD world where "solidarities" have been part of the game for long time and are declined on many different levels.

  • 228.
    Masterton, Malin
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Duties to past persons: The moral standing and posthumous interests of old human remains2012Ingår i: More than just bones: Ethics and research on human remains / [ed] Halvard Fossheim, Oslo: The Norwegian National Research Ethics Committees , 2012, s. 113-137Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Research involving human remains presents complex challenges. For the archaeologist or anthropologist, for example, the remains represent among other things a source of knowledge about people and places, conditions and developments. However, the remains also represent the individuals from whom they originate. And while the dead can no longer be hurt or mistreated in the same way that the living can be hurt or mistreated, there are still strong and obvious reasons for treating them with some level of conscientiousness and consideration. Perhaps most obvious among these reasons is the notion of respect for the individual.

    .

  • 229.
    Masterton, Malin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Hälso- och sjukvårdsforskning.
    Renberg, Tobias
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Hansson, Mats G
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia
    University of Copenhagen.
    Ethical Review Boards are poor advocates for patient perspectives2014Ingår i: Research Ethics, ISSN 1747-0161, E-ISSN 2047-6094, Vol. 10, nr 3, s. 169-181Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In medical research, patients are increasingly recognized with ‘lay knowledge’ but their views are poorly researched. The study objective was to investigate patients’ attitudes to medical research. This is in comparison to lay and expert members on ethical review boards (ERB), as their task is to evaluate the risk−benefits of research, which are ultimately grounded in attitudes and values. From focus-group interviews with patients suffering from chronic inflammatory diseases, a postal questionnaire was developed and sent to patient members of the Swedish Rheumatism Association (n = 1195) and to all ERB board members in Sweden (N = 583). Response rates were 65 percent and the surveys were conducted in Jan−May 2011. Agreement across the groups included priority for medical research on diagnostic and early detection of disease. A key difference was expert and lay ERB members giving higher priority to basic research/research on lifestyle and prevention (primarily benefiting future patients), whereas patients prioritized research on daily function. On this significant point, lay members did not share the opinion of this patient group, indicating that they may be poor representatives for patients’ views. These results call for further research: how can patient perspectives be included in ERB discussions and in what way should patients’ values influence the research agenda.

  • 230.
    Masterton, Malin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Hälso- och sjukvårdsforskning.
    Renberg, Tobias
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia
    University of Copenhagen.
    Patients’ attitudes towards  animal testing: “To conduct research on animals is, I suppose, a necessary evil”2014Ingår i: BioSocieties, ISSN 1745-8552, E-ISSN 1745-8560, Vol. 9, nr 1, s. 24-41Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A strong argument for the practice of animal testing in medical research is the potential benefit to patients in getting improved pain relief, minimising morbidity and mortality. However, patients’ opinions on the ethics of animal testing are seldom sought, despite their role as principal stakeholders. This study compared the attitudes of patients and researchers on animal testing. Focus-group interviews were held with patients suffering from chronic inflammatory diseases, resulting in a questionnaire that was distributed January–May 2011. The questionnaire was posted to patient members of the Swedish Rheumatism Association (n=1195) and to all scientific experts serving on Ethical Review Boards in Sweden (n=364), with response rates of 65 per cent and 60 per cent, respectively. Results show that patients hold a positive stance towards animal testing, but with many caveats, and the level of support is comparable to those held by the general public found in national surveys. A clear majority of researchers were positive towards animal testing, and large statistical differences between patients and researchers were found regarding their attitudes towards testing animals commonly held as pets (P<0.001). Women were more critical than men regarding which species are used for what purposes (P<0.001). Researchers need to be aware that their more positive attitude towards animal testing is not shared to an equal degree with patients, who are the intended end-users and beneficiaries of medical research. The moral basis for using animals in research needs to be further discussed by all stakeholders.

  • 231.
    McLellan, Iain
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teologiska fakulteten, Teologiska institutionen.
    What are the systematic needs andexperiences of LGBTQ humanitarian workers?2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 80 poäng / 120 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is the product of the author’s personal experience as a gay person working

    in the humanitarian sector who has experience of the challenges faced in countries of

    conflict and in countries where the rights of LGBTQ people are not assured. LGBTQ

    people have specific needs that are documented through research, highlighting the

    risks they face while working in high risk locations. With such limitations in the way

    that LGBTQ people are supported in the field, or in their home nations, with particular

    relevance to religiously supported heteronormativity which is relevent especially given

    the particular needs and concerns that LGBTQ people face in everyday life, these

    issues are exacerbated in conflict or hazardous settings. To establish the experiences

    of LGBTQ people, semi structured qualitative interviews have been used to illicit

    nuanced details from differing LGBTQ perspectives to provide some supportive insight

    into the conditions that individuals work in. These interviews were triangulated against

    the current data that exists, and an online quantitative and qualitative survey which

    investigated in more specificity the experiences of LGBTQ people and what support

    mechanisms would benefit them. Motivations, experience, health implications and

    support to LGBT staff are discussed from the point of view of LGBTQ staff,

    represented as much as possible by individuals of varying gender, sexual orientation,

    and race. The findings are used to provide recommendations for what agencies can

    do to provide a level of support to their own LGBTQ staff, a concept for which there

    are still significant gaps in literature, data, and practice.

  • 232.
    Mindus, Patricia
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Filosofiska institutionen, Avdelningen för praktisk filosofi.
    A Real Mind: The Life and Work of Axel Hägerström2009Bok (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This comprehensive presentation of Axel Hägerström (1868-1939) fills a void in nearly a century of literature, providing both the legal and political scholar and the non-expert reader with a proper introduction to the father of Scandinavian realism. Based on his complete work, including unpublished material and personal correspondence selected exclusively from the Uppsala archives, A Real Mind follows the chronological evolution of Hägerström’s intellectual enterprise and offers a full account of his thought. The book summarizes Hägerström’s main arguments while enabling further critical assessment, and tries to answer such questions as: If norms are neither true nor false, how can they be adequately understood on the basis of Hägerström’s theory of knowledge? Did the founder of the Uppsala school uphold emotivism in moral philosophy? What consequences does such a standpoint have in practical philosophy? Is he really the inspiration behind Scandinavian state absolutism?

    A Real Mind places the complex web of issues addressed by Hägerström within the broader context of 20th century philosophy, stretching from epistemology to ethics. His philosophy of law is examined in the core chapters of the book, with emphasis on the will-theory and the relation between law and power. The narrative is peppered with vignettes from Hägerström’s life, giving an insightful and highly readable portrayal of a thinker who put his imprint on legal theory. The appendix provides a selected bibliography and a brief synopsis of the major events in his life, both private and intellectual.

    "The work offers an excellent reconstruction of Hägerström’s work and life, and presents his personal and intellectual evolution balancing perfectly the chronological and the systematic dimensions."Liborio L. Hierro, Professor of Jurisprudence, Faculty of Law, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain

    "The book is excellently-sourced, always well-argued, and makes a case for a revival of interest in Hägerström. I believe this to be important. Hägerström is relevant, insightful and interesting."Michael Freeman, LLM, Barrister, Professor of English Law, Faculty of Laws, University College London, United Kingdom

  • 233.
    Mindus, Patricia
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Filosofiska institutionen, Avdelningen för praktisk filosofi.
    Anatomia del cittadino: Tre modi di intendere la cittadinanza e alcuni problemi indesiderati2009Ingår i: Analisi & Diritto, ISSN 1126-5779, Vol. 1, s. 73-97Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This essay aims to distinguish analytically the meanings of “citizenship” in the contemporary debate. According to the semantic area of reference, citizenship stands for a political status referring to the individual’s position within the polity; a legal status referring to the overall position of a subject characterized by a determinate sphere of capacities; a social status indicating the ascribed or achieved position of a person within the social stratification in the group. After distinguishing the three semantic areas and specifying the methodology used, focus switches to the structure, genesis and internal composition of the semantic areas. These are subsequently summed up in a scheme that accounts for the basic problem that a given semantic area attempts to respond to. The purpose is to explain, on the basis of practical examples, why the distinction is important and why there is so much confusion in the current debate. In the last section, I suggest another distinction, inspired by Aristotle’s third book of Politics according to which we should distinguish between what the citizen is and who a citizen is. The stake of the issue is to inquire on the plausibility of assuming that a person has to enjoy a determinate attribute or capacity in order to have the right or the legal obligation implied by the status of citizenship.

  • 234.
    Mindus, Patricia
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Filosofiska institutionen.
    Austin and Scandinavian Realism2013Ingår i: The Legacy of John Austin's Jurisprudence / [ed] Michael Freeman and Patricia Mindus, Springer-Verlag New York, 2013, s. 73-106Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The imperative theory of law exemplified in the work of John Austin is the object of much criticism in the movement of Scandinavian legal realism (SLR). The very core notions of command, sovereignty and will are targeted. This paper explores the Scandinavian readings of Austin’s theory, chiefly by reconstructing the main arguments of Axel Hägerström’s criticism of the will-theory and Karl Olivecrona’s reading of the imperative character of law. Special attention is paid to the affinities between the various outlooks and to their core differences. On one hand, strong resemblances can be discovered in the common methodological afflatus and respect for Hume’s principle. On the other hand – apart from contrasting opinions on minor aspects (such as tacit consent grounding custom) – among the unbridgeable divergences mention should be made of the view on morals: Austin embraced a form of cognitivism, while the Scandinavians supported a strict form of non-cognitivism. In order to assess the originality of the Scandinavian attack on the imperative theory of law, the aim of the paper is to test to what extent it stimulated the seminal work on the question of law’s authoritative dimension in SLR.

  • 235.
    Mindus, Patricia
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Filosofiska institutionen.
    Cidadania, Identidade e o Poder Soberano de Excluir2019Ingår i: Revista do Ministério Publico, ISSN 2595-3966, Vol. 40, nr 158, s. 117-139Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [pt]

    Nos nossos dias, nos passaportes e carteiras de identidade, a cidadania não é, em geral, distinta da “nacionalidade”. Não obstante, o recurso jurídico à noção de “nacionalidade” foi estabelecido somente após um longo e acidentado percurso. Mas o que entendemos com a equiparação da cidadania com a nacionalidade e, sobretudo, quais são os efeitos para o discurso jurídico da cidadania? Este artigo analisa a questão abordando, em primeiro lugar, a ambiguidade da ideia de nação em si e, em segundo lugar, a artificialidade das tipologias de nacionalidade que encontramos principalmente na literatura. 

  • 236.
    Mindus, Patricia
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Filosofiska institutionen, Avdelningen för praktisk filosofi.
    Citizenship and Arbitrary Law-Making: On the Quaintness of Non-national Disenfranchisement2016Ingår i: SMP - Società Mutamento Politica, ISSN 2038-3150, Vol. 7, nr 13, s. 103-118Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper explores forms of arbitrariness in relation to citizenship and migration policies. Non-national disenfranchisement follows from certain migration policies, and these may be cast as an arbitrary form of domination, that may undermine political legitimacy. Political exclusion is the vertex of a chain of other forms of exclusion: the denizenship of the politically powerless is particularly bothersome because liberal-democratic systems lack incentives to promote their rights. We have singled out the specificity and quaintness of the argumentative strategy employed to sustain non-national disenfranchisement. It differs from other argumentations in favour of disenfranchisement because it is not framed in derogatory terms and shifts the burden of proof from the state over to the individual.

  • 237.
    Mindus, Patricia
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Filosofiska institutionen.
    Cittadini e no. Forme e funzioni dell'inclusione e dell'esclusione2014Bok (Refereegranskat)
  • 238.
    Mindus, Patricia
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Filosofiska institutionen.
    Dimensions of Citizenship2014Ingår i: German Law Journal, ISSN 2071-8322, E-ISSN 2071-8322, Vol. 15, nr 5, s. 735-750Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Maastricht Treaty (the “Treaty”) first introduced the status of EU citizenship. The twentieth anniversary of the signing of the Treaty, marked in 2013, was declared the European Year of the Citizen. Union citizenship has been understood as the world’s first post-national citizenship, although it is still complementary to national citizenships. EU citizens enjoy rights that have been expanded, modified, and reinterpreted in light of the EU integration process. The Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) has been a driving force in this process. This twentieth anniversary has provided the occasio for this special issue. Indeed, much has happened over the last two decades. The Maastricht Treaty entered into force on the heels of German reunification, and afterwards, a series of EU treaties followed: The Amsterdam Treaty, the Nice Charter of Fundamental Rights, the aborted constitutionalization process and the Rome Treaty in 2004, and the Treaty of Lisbon. The Euro took over former national currencies in 2002; the enlargement process led to today’s twenty-eight Member States. But the ratio of this special issue is based on other events as linked to the 2008 financial crisis, bailouts, the fiscal compact, and similar measures. In a nutshell, the timeliness of this volume is linked to the current financial disarray. Since prognosis presupposes diagnosis, no further words are necessary as to the importance of this task. It is (almost) self-evident that before taking action and preparing for the future, one needs to address the very first question: Nosce te ipsum...

  • 239.
    Mindus, Patricia
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Filosofiska institutionen.
    EU Citizenship: Twenty Years On: Special Issue German Law Journal2014Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Maastricht Treaty (the “Treaty”) first introduced the status of EU citizenship. The twentieth anniversary of the signing of the Treaty, marked in 2013, was declared the European Year of the Citizen. Union citizenship has been understood as the world’s first post-national citizenship, although it is still complementary to national citizenships. EU citizens enjoy rights that have been expanded, modified, and reinterpreted in light of the EU integration process. The Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) has been a driving force in this process. This twentieth anniversary has provided the occasio for this special issue. Indeed, much has happened over the last two decades. The Maastricht Treaty entered into force on the heels of German reunification, and afterwards, a series of EU treaties followed: The Amsterdam Treaty, the Nice Charter of Fundamental Rights, the aborted constitutionalization process and the Rome Treaty in 2004, and the Treaty of Lisbon. The Euro took over former national currencies in 2002; the enlargement process led to today’s twenty-eight Member States. But the ratio of this special issue is based on other events as linked to the 2008 financial crisis, bailouts, the fiscal compact, and similar measures. In a nutshell, the timeliness of this volume is linked to the current financial disarray. Since prognosis presupposes diagnosis, no further words are necessary as to the importance of this task. It is (almost) self-evident that before taking action and preparing for the future, one needs to address the very first question: Nosce te ipsum...

  • 240.
    Mindus, Patricia
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Filosofiska institutionen.
    Gli anni svedesi di Ernst Cassirer e il confronto con Axel Hägerström2012Ingår i: Rivista di filosofia, ISSN 0035-6239, Vol. 103, nr 2, s. 277-304Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, some recent literature on Ernst Cassirer and foremost on the years he spent in Sweden (1935-1941) is presented against the background of the contemporary streaming of ideas. Sweden’s philosophical panorama was then characterized to a large extent by the so-called Uppsala school of Axel Hägerström and Adolph Phalén, that developed a strong criticism of subjectivism as well as a non-cognitivist and language-centred form of meta-ethics. Cassirer engaged in dialogue with both the theoretical and practical philosophy he encountered in Sweden – an occasion for him to attune his original philosophical stance – that, today, offers a significant opportunity for scholars to understand the context of an otherwise often overlooked period in his intellectual life.

  • 241.
    Mindus, Patricia
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Filosofiska institutionen, Avdelningen för praktisk filosofi.
    La gestión privada del gobierno de Internet: La capacidad de autodeterminación en juego2016Ingår i: Revista de Estudios Políticos, ISSN 0048-7694, E-ISSN 1989-0613, Vol. 173, s. 113-140Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To better understand what issues today’s technologies raise in relation to political liberty, understood as self-determination, attention should shift from the level of contents of the Internet to its more basic architecture and governance (critical internet resources [CIR], protocols, governance ecology, etc.). Mainstream political science has for a long time eschewed the field of Internet governance. There is nonetheless an interesting debate on how we should handle this new world we have in common that is constituted by the infosphere. The paper shows why the debate on the control of the Internet is often misleading: too much attention on traditional institutional actors has obscured the fact that the «seats of power» are now elsewhere. In order to move within the private ordering that currently characterizes Internet governance, in a way that is respectful of fundamental rights, we need to rethink the relationships between social powers.

  • 242.
    Mindus, Patricia
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Filosofiska institutionen.
    L'impatto del giusrealismo sul modello sociale scandinavo: Axel Hägerström fra diritto, morale e politica2010Ingår i: Il Bigiavi - Italian Society for Law and Literature, nr 2, s. 3-31Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 243.
    Mindus, Patricia
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Filosofiska institutionen.
    Preface2013Ingår i: The Legacy of John Austin's Jurisprudence / [ed] Michael Freeman and Patricia Mindus, Springer-Verlag New York, 2013, s. iv-viiiKapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 244.
    Mindus, Patricia
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Filosofiska institutionen.
    Realism Today: On Dagan’s Quest Beyond Cynicism and Romanticism in Law2014Ingår i: International Journal for the Semiotics of Law, ISSN 0952-8059, E-ISSN 1572-8722Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the contribution by the contemporary legal realist Hanoch Dagan. Dagan’s brand of realism defines law on the basis of its institutions or social practices, not of its norms or rules. The paper first provides a critical overview of this realist theory of law: It is not synonymous with the predictive theory of law, with Leiter’s theory of judges, or Frank’s “breakfast theory”. By focusing on the role of judges and the methodology of legal reasoning, we discover that the core difference between realism and positivism lies in the claim that law is affected by a strong form of indeterminacy, stemming from the plurality of legal sources, not from the open texture of legal language as expressed in rules; and we are also able to distinguish this form of realism from contemporary movements in legal theory, such as critical legal studies and law & economics. The normative dimension of realism is also addressed: This theory of law develops a specific concept of justice, on the ground of a cognitivist theory of value.

  • 245.
    Mindus, Patricia
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Filosofiska institutionen, Avdelningen för praktisk filosofi.
    Social Tools and Legal Gears: Hägerström on the Nature of Law: Hägerström on the Nature of Law2014Ingår i: Axel Hägerström and Modern Social Thought / [ed] Sven Eliaeson, Patricia Mindus, Stephen P. Turner, Oxford: Bardwell Press, 2014, s. 257-281Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most renowned ideas of Scandinavian legal realism (SLR) is that the law is like a machine. This paper examines the figure of speech on the basis of the understanding that metaphors are conceptual maps that go from a less abstract or complex source dominion (e.g. the machine) to a target dominion of increased complexity or abstractness (e.g. the legal system). I distinguish, in the first section, various referents in the source dominion, namely different machines, so as to outline a reading that historically makes sense and that does not treat just any tool as a machine. In the second section, I list different meanings of the metaphor in its specific relation to law, the target dominion. By looking at both the source and the target dominion, I stress the terms in which Hägerström applied the metaphor, to better understand the limits of validity in the figure of speech. My aim is to grasp what features of the legal system the metaphor enables us to highlight.

  • 246.
    Mindus, Patricia
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Filosofiska institutionen.
    What Does E- add to Democracy?: Designing an Agenda for Democracy Theory In the Information Age2014Ingår i: Transforming Politics and Policy in the Digital Age / [ed] Jonathan Bishop, Hershey, PA: IGI Global, 2014, s. 200-223Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Technologies carry politics since they embed values. It is therefore surprising that mainstream political and legal theory have taken the issue so lightly. Compared to what has been going on over the past few decades in the other branches of practical thought, namely ethics, economics, and the law, political theory lags behind. Yet the current emphasis on Internet politics that polarizes the apologists holding the Web to overcome the one-to-many architecture of opinion building in traditional representative democracy, and the critics who warn that cyber-optimism entails authoritarian technocracy has acted as a wake up call. This chapter sets the problem, “What is it about ICTs, as opposed to previous technical devices, that impact on politics and determine uncertainty about democratic matters?,” into the broad context of practical philosophy by offering a conceptual map of clusters of micro-problems and concrete examples relating to “e-democracy.” The point is to highlight when and why the hyphen of e-democracy has a conjunctive or a disjunctive function in respect to stocktaking from past experiences and settled democratic theories. The chapter's claim is that there is considerable scope to analyse how and why online politics fail or succeed. The field needs both further empirical and theoretical work.

  • 247.
    Mindus, Patricia
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Filosofiska institutionen, Avdelningen för praktisk filosofi.
    À l'origine du non-cognitivisme moderne: Axel Hägerström2009Ingår i: Analisi e Diritto, ISSN 1126-5779, Vol. 1, s. 159-176Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article on Axel Hägerström’s theory is presented in four sections. First, focus is on his meta-ethics, a perhaps lesser explored, but no less important aspect, which earned him the title of “father of modern non-cognivism”. His inaugural lecture at the Uppsala University, On the Truth of Moral Propositions from 1911 will be examined. Some very hot debates in the thirties and forties originated from this lecture that gave Hägerström his notorious nickname “axiological nihilist”. In section two, I will explain why his position cannot be properly understood as nihilism. This enables us to avoid a common misinterpretation and to illustrate in a more appropriate way Hägerström’s view of Hume’s law. By pointing to the specific features of Hägerström’s theory, the aim in section three is to determine what arguments of his can be considered the first form of modern non-cognitivism, as distinct from both classical moral relativism and Hobbes’ conventionalism. In section four, light is shed on the argumentative strategies used by Hägerström in defending the four meta-ethical theses that make up his “axiological nihilism”. This exposition enables further critical assessment on where to locate Hägerström in the contemporary debate on entanglement.

  • 248.
    Mindus, Patricia
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Filosofiska institutionen.
    Eliaeson, SvenUppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för rysslandsstudier.Turner, Stephen P.University of South Florida.
    Axel Hägerström and Modern Social Thought2014Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 249.
    Mindus, Patricia
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Filosofiska institutionen.
    Säfström, Nils
    Public Domain And Democracy in the Digital Age 2016Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To say that a piece of information or a creative work is ‘in the public domain’ implies freedom of access and use. By ensuring the right to information, the public domain is a crucial component of democratic politics – but how this occurs is unclear. What information can be used, by whom and under which circumstances? What information should be used? Our entering the digital age brings these questions to a head: Internet is blurring the distinction between public and private and governments are increasingly being demanded to digitalize and open official archives and develop new business areas such as Public Sector Information (PSI). The papers in this special issue will investigate the largely underexplored connections between information, public domain, democracy and digital technologies from empirical, conceptual and normative perspectives with the goal to renew the debate on the design, governance and justification of the public domain in the digital age.

  • 250.
    Molin, Emma
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teologiska fakulteten, Teologiska institutionen, Tros- och livsåskådningsvetenskap, Etik.
    Legitimate legal authority and the obligation to obey: An analysis of Joseph Raz´s arguments on legitimate authority2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Two central issues in literature discussing legal authority seems to the the questions of what the law has when it has authority and under what conditions the law can be said to have authority. This thesis analyses an answer to these two questions as it has been developed by legal philosopher Joseph Raz. The analysis is conducted through scrutinizing the relation within and between three central concepts in Raz´s theory on legal authority; authority as normative power, the service conception and the obligation to obey. As for the concept of normative power, Raz seems to alternate between defining normative power as the ability to change protected reasons for action and as being a protected reason for action. The question the thesis aims to answer is whether normative power is best understood as the ability to change protected reasons for action or as being a protected reason for action? Raz does not seem to make a distinction between the two and thus, he regards both definitions as plausible. However, the analysis suggests that while it might be plausible to use both definitions as a definition of normative power, they are not interchangeable, but rather seems to represent two different levels of normative power. The analysis of the second concept, the service conception, examines Raz´s statement that justified exclusionary reasons entail a moral obligation to obey the law. Here the thesis asks if a moral obligation to obey is a plausible consequence of justified exclusionary reasons, given Raz´s own definition of obedience. The analysis suggests that a moral obligation to obey is not a plausible consequence of exclusionary reasons being justified and thus, that there seems to be incoherence between the two. Lastly, the thesis asks about the coherence between Raz´s two statements A. that justified exclusionary reasons entail a moral obligation to obey and B. that there is no moral obligation to obey the law. This last question had to be somewhat revised as the first statement (A) had already been suggested to be incoherent by the previous analysis. As such, this last question was revised into asking how the law can have legitimate authority when its legitimacy is tied to a moral obligation to obey, which is denied by Raz? The analysis suggests that these two statements are incoherent and that, as such, it is implausible that the law has the possibility to have legitimate authority at the same time as there exists no moral obligation to obey, as the former is dependent on the latter. The thesis ends in a number of concluding reflections.

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