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  • 201.
    Andersson, Kerstin
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Reactions to novelties: Developmental aspects1999Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The present thesis considers different aspects of infants' and children's reactions to novelties, that is, unfamiliar persons, objects, and situations. In Study I, the developmental phenomenon stranger wariness was investigated from a temperamental perspective. Stranger wariness at age 10 months was found to be marginally predicted by 5-month individual variation in reactions to frustration, to sensory stimulation, and to novelties and to be predictive of 2-year social inhibition. These results indicate that 10-month stranger wariness does not only reflect a developmental transition but also an individual disposition to be responsive to social novelties.

    In line with what has been suggested for the behavioral inhibition construct, Study II showed that 2-year-olds' reactions to social and non-social novelties should be considered as belonging to one construct. Furthermore, the relations within and between latency, negative/inhibited and positive/approaching reactions to social and non-social novelties were found to be very similar, implying that identifying children as uninhibited means that they are disposed not only towards lack of negative/inhibited reactions, but also towards approaching/positive reactions when confronted with novelties.

    Study III concerned preschool social inhibition in relation to attachment security and social experiences in terms non-parental care. The relative contributions of the three variables to school-age social competence with peers and social self-esteem were also investigated. It was found that attachment security and social inhibition were unrelated to each other and that they made significant independent contributions to the explanation of social competence, whereas social self-esteem was only predicted by preschool social inhibition.

  • 202.
    Andersson, Kerstin
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Reactions to social and non-social novelties in 2-year-olds1999Ingår i: Infant and Child Development, Vol. 8, s. 211-228Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the internal structure of behavioural inhibition (cf. Goldsmith, H.H. and Campos, J.J., 1990) . Observations of 45 2-year-olds’ approaching/positive reactions, inhibited/negative reactions, and latencies, when e

  • 203.
    Andersson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Hagekull, Berit
    Early temperament and stranger wariness as predictors of social inhibition in 2-year-olds1999Ingår i: BRITISH JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY, ISSN 0261-510X, Vol. 17, s. 421-434Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Forty-five infants were followed from age 5 months to 25 months with the aim of studying the stranger wariness phenomenon from a temperamental perspective. Observations and heart rate reactions in a standardized situation of stranger approach, as well as

  • 204.
    Andersson, Patric
    et al.
    Handelshögskolan i Stockholm.
    Nilsson, Håkan
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Den paradoxalaspelkonsumenten? Om påverkan vid satsningar på sportsspel med odds.2014Ingår i: Marknadsföring och påverkanpå konsumenten / [ed] M. Söderlund, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2014, 1, s. 213-232Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 205.
    Andersson, Patric
    et al.
    Stockholm Sch Econ, Dept Mkt & Strategy, S-11383 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Nilsson, Håkan
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Do Bettors Correctly Perceive Odds?: Three Studies of How Bettors Interpret Betting Odds as Probabilistic Information2015Ingår i: Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, ISSN 0894-3257, E-ISSN 1099-0771, Vol. 28, nr 4, s. 331-346Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on three studies investigating how accurately bettors (=people who regularly bet on sports events) interpret the probabilistic information implied by betting odds. All studies were based on data collected by web surveys prompting a total of 186 experienced bettors to convert sets of representative odds into frequency judgments. Bayesian statistical methods were used to analyze the data. From the results, the following conclusions were made: (i) On the whole, the bettors produced well-calibrated judgments, indicating that they have realistic perceptions of odds. (ii) Bettors were unable to consciously adjust judgments for different margins. (iii) Although their interval judgments often covered the estimates implied by the odds, the bettors tended to overestimate the variation of expected profitable bets between months. The results are consistent with prior research showing that people tend to make accurate probability judgments when faced with tasks characterized by constant and clear feedback.

  • 206.
    Andersson, Patrik
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Readability of vertically vibrating aircraft displays1999Ingår i: Displays (Guildford), ISSN 0141-9382, E-ISSN 1872-7387, Vol. 20, nr 1, s. 23-30Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Vibrations pose a problem to the visual system. The vibrations in aircraft are mainly vertical and cause reading errors when the pilots read the instruments. In three experiments, reading capability was tested during vertical vibration of modern military aircraft, using symbols presented on a computer monitor. The results showed that complexity of symbols have a significant effect on the performance. The orientations of symbols were also of importance for their readability. Indexes made up of horizontally oriented lines were found to be especially difficult to read during vertical vibration. Orienting them 45° up or down improved readability in a significant way. The size of the symbols was found to be of importance especially when they were horizontally oriented.

  • 207.
    Andersson, Sanna
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Gerbrand, Anton
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Låt inte stress hindra dig!: Hur övningar i perspektivtagande inspirerade av ACT kan öka psykologisk flexibilitet i arbetslivet samt minska stressresponsens skadeverkningar2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Stressade medarbetare kostar pengar, sänker produktivitet och bidrar till ohälsa. Genom perspektivtagande kan vi ändra förhållningssätt till vårt psykologiska innehåll. ”Självet-som-kontext” ingår i ”psykologisk flexibilitet” och innebär att ta perspektiv till sitt psykologiska innehåll. ”Prosocialt hjälpbeteende” är att ta ett nytt perspektiv till andra. Vår studie undersöker om interventioner i självet-som-kontext och prosocialt hjälpbeteende har effekt på psykologisk flexibilitet i arbetslivet, självupplevd stress samt självet-som-kontext. Även sambandet mellan beroendevariablerna undersöktes. Vi använde en mixad AB-design med intervention. Resultatet visade på minskad självupplevd stress (p=.005) utan effekt av interventionerna (p=.771). Vi fann skillnad mellan interventionerna på psykologisk flexibilitet i arbetslivet (p=.037), men förändringen var inte signifikant (p=.597) Effektstorleken för samtliga skillnader var låg (η2p = .1). Samtliga beroendevariabler korrelerar signifikant (p=<.001).

  • 208.
    Andréasson, Per
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Emotional Empathy, Facial Reactions, and Facial Feedback2010Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The human face has a fascinating capability to express emotions. The facial feedback hypothesis suggests that the human face not only expresses emotions but is also able to send feedback to the brain and modulate the ongoing emotional experience. It has furthermore been suggested that this feedback from the facial muscles could be involved in empathic reactions. This thesis explores the concept of emotional empathy and relates it to two aspects concerning activity in the facial muscles. First, do people high versus low in emotional empathy differ in regard to in what degree they spontaneously mimic emotional facial expressions? Second, is there any difference between people with high as compared to low emotional empathy in respect to how sensitive they are to feedback from their own facial muscles? Regarding the first question, people with high emotional empathy were found to spontaneously mimic pictures of emotional facial expressions while people with low emotional empathy were lacking this mimicking reaction. The answer to the second question is a bit more complicated. People with low emotional empathy were found to rate humorous films as funnier in a manipulated sulky facial expression than in a manipulated happy facial expression, whereas people with high emotional empathy did not react significantly. On the other hand, when the facial manipulations were a smile and a frown, people with low as well as high emotional empathy reacted in line with the facial feedback hypothesis. In conclusion, the experiments in the present thesis indicate that mimicking and feedback from the facial muscles may be involved in emotional contagion and thereby influence emotional empathic reactions. Thus, differences in emotional empathy may in part be accounted for by different degree of mimicking reactions and different emotional effects of feedback from the facial muscles.

    Delarbeten
    1. Emotional empathy and facial reactions to facial expressions
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Emotional empathy and facial reactions to facial expressions
    2011 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Psychophysiology, ISSN 0269-8803, E-ISSN 2151-2124, Vol. 25, nr 1, s. 26-31Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates whether people High in emotional empathy are more facially reactive than are people Low in emotional empathy when exposed to pictures of angry and happy facial expressions. Facial electromyographic activity was measured from the corrugator and the zygomatic muscle regions. In accordance with the predictions, the High empathic group reacted with larger corrugator activity to angry as compared to happy faces and with larger zygomatic activity to happy faces. However, the Low empathic group did not differentiate between the angry and happy stimuli at all. The High empathic group, as compared to the Low empathic group, also rated the angry faces as expressing more anger and the happy faces as being happier. It is concluded that high empathic people are particularly sensitive in reacting with facial reactions to facial expressions and that this ability is accompanied by a higher level of empathic accuracy.

    Nyckelord
    emotion, facial expressions, facial reactions, facial EMG, emotional accuracy
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Psykologi
    Forskningsämne
    Psykologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-126763 (URN)10.1027/0269-8803/a000029 (DOI)000287021500004 ()
    Tillgänglig från: 2010-06-24 Skapad: 2010-06-24 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-12Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Emotional Empathy and Facial Feedback
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Emotional Empathy and Facial Feedback
    2008 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of nonverbal behavior, ISSN 0191-5886, E-ISSN 1573-3653, Vol. 32, nr 4, s. 215-224Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We studied if emotional empathy is related to sensitivity to facial feedback. The participants, 112 students, rated themselves on the questionnaire measure of emotional empathy (QMEE) and were divided into one high and one low empathic group. Facial expressions were manipulated to produce a happy or a sulky expression. During the manipulation, participants rated humorous films with respect to funniness. These ratings were the dependent variable. No main effect of facial expression was found. However, a significant interaction between empathy and condition indicated that the high as compared to the low empathic group rated the films as being funnier in a happy condition and a tendency to be less funny in a sulky condition. On the basis of the present results we suggest emotional empathy to be one important and previously ignored factor to explain individual differences in effects of facial feedback.

    Nyckelord
    Emotion, Emotional empathy, Facial expression, Facial feedback
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Psykologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-17859 (URN)10.1007/s10919-008-0052-z (DOI)000259863300003 ()
    Tillgänglig från: 2008-09-08 Skapad: 2008-09-08 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-08Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Emotional empathy, facial manipulations and facial feedback
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Emotional empathy, facial manipulations and facial feedback
    (Engelska)Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt) Submitted
    Abstract [en]

    People with a low but not people with a high degree of emotional empathy have been found to rate humorous films as funnier in a sulky versus a happy facial manipulation, in contrast to what the facial feedback hypothesis predicts (Andréasson & Dimberg, 2008). Experiment 1 replicated this finding with people with extra ordinary high or low degree of emotional empathy. Interestingly, when the facial manipulations were a smile versus a frown, as in experiment 2, people with low as well as high emotional empathy reacted as predicted by the facial feedback hypothesis. In conclusion, emotional empathy is suggested to be related to effects of facial feedback in some facial manipulations but not in others.

    Nyckelord
    Emotional empathy, facial feedback, facial expression, emotion, empathy
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Psykologi
    Forskningsämne
    Psykologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-126767 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2010-06-24 Skapad: 2010-06-24 Senast uppdaterad: 2011-02-25Bibliografiskt granskad
  • 209.
    Andréasson, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Dimberg, Ulf
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Emotional Empathy and Facial Feedback2008Ingår i: Journal of nonverbal behavior, ISSN 0191-5886, E-ISSN 1573-3653, Vol. 32, nr 4, s. 215-224Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied if emotional empathy is related to sensitivity to facial feedback. The participants, 112 students, rated themselves on the questionnaire measure of emotional empathy (QMEE) and were divided into one high and one low empathic group. Facial expressions were manipulated to produce a happy or a sulky expression. During the manipulation, participants rated humorous films with respect to funniness. These ratings were the dependent variable. No main effect of facial expression was found. However, a significant interaction between empathy and condition indicated that the high as compared to the low empathic group rated the films as being funnier in a happy condition and a tendency to be less funny in a sulky condition. On the basis of the present results we suggest emotional empathy to be one important and previously ignored factor to explain individual differences in effects of facial feedback.

  • 210.
    Andréasson, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Dimberg, Ulf
    Emotional empathy, facial manipulations and facial feedbackArtikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    People with a low but not people with a high degree of emotional empathy have been found to rate humorous films as funnier in a sulky versus a happy facial manipulation, in contrast to what the facial feedback hypothesis predicts (Andréasson & Dimberg, 2008). Experiment 1 replicated this finding with people with extra ordinary high or low degree of emotional empathy. Interestingly, when the facial manipulations were a smile versus a frown, as in experiment 2, people with low as well as high emotional empathy reacted as predicted by the facial feedback hypothesis. In conclusion, emotional empathy is suggested to be related to effects of facial feedback in some facial manipulations but not in others.

  • 211.
    Annas, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ekselius, L
    von, Knorring L
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Effects of personality on skin conductance habituation.1996Ingår i: Psychophysiology, 1996, Vol. 33, nr Aug., s. 19-Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 212.
    Annas, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Genetic influences on classical conditioning.1995Ingår i: Psychophysiology, 1995, Vol. 32, s. 16-Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 213.
    Annas, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Genetic influences on classical-conditioning1995Ingår i: PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, ISSN 0048-5772 [Natvet], Vol. 32, s. S16, Suppl 1-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 214.
    Annas, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Genetic influences on the skin conductance orienting reaction to fear-relevant and -irrelevant stimuli.1996Ingår i: Psychophysiology, 1996, Vol. 33, nr Aug., s. 19-Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 215.
    Annas, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Garpenstrand, H
    Ekblom, J
    Oreland, L
    Fredrikson, Mats
    The D4DR gene and platelet MAO are markers for human fear conditioning.1997Ingår i: Psychophysiology, 1997, Vol. 34, nr August, s. 18-Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 216. Appel, L
    et al.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Winqvist, I
    Michelgård, Åsa
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Bani, M
    Långström, B
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Enhanced amygdalar NK1-receptor availability in patients with social anxiety disorder.2007Ingår i: Biological Psychiatry, 2007, s. 147-Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 217.
    Appel, Lieuwe
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för onkologi, radiologi och klinisk immunologi.
    Michelgård, Åsa
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Psykiatri, Akademiska sjukhuset.
    Linnman, Claes
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Fernandez, Manuel
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Psykiatri, Akademiska sjukhuset.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Langström, Bengt
    von Knorring, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Psykiatri, Akademiska sjukhuset.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Altered NK1-receptor availability in patients with post traumatic stress disorder2009Ingår i: [Biological Psychiatry 2009, 65(8), Suppl. 1, 118S, no. 394], 2009, s. 118S-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that can develop after one or more traumatic events causing extreme stress or grave physical harm. The neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor is the primary receptor for substance P (SP); a neuropeptide suggested being involved in anxiety and depression. The present study investigated differences in NK1-receptor availability between PTSD patients and healthy controls, using positron emission tomography (PET). Methods: Eleven male refugee patients (age: 41±10) with DSM-IV defined PTSD and nine healthy male control subjects (age: 33±10) were investigated using the PET-tracer [11C]GR205171, supplied by Uppsala Imanet. GR205171 is a highly selective NK1-receptor antagonist. Scans were performed during 60 minutes in the resting state. Parametric images were generated using the graphical reference Patlak method assuming irreversible binding of [11C]GR205171 from 20-60 minutes and having cerebellum as reference region. Exploratory whole brain analyses were performed using the statistical parametric mapping (SPM2) software. Results: PTSD patients had lower [11C]GR205171 binding compared to controls, in frontal cortical clusters encompassing bilaterally insula and left Brodmann area 11, reflecting lower NK1-receptor availability. No areas were found in which PTSD patients had higher [11C]GR205171 binding. Conclusions: This is the first study reporting differences in NK1-receptor availability in PTSD patients relative to controls. A tentative conclusion is that PTSD patients have a down regulation of the NK1-receptor system, which could be either a risk factor or due to emotional trauma processing.

  • 218.
    Araya, T
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The recall of stereotypes: The effects of incidentally activated directed forgetting instructions2003Ingår i: Experimental Psychology, ISSN 1618-3169, Vol. 50, nr 4, s. 247-256Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on the automotive model (J. A. Bargh, 1990) and the directed forgetting paradigm, the present study investigated whether incidentally activated forget and remember cues can lead to similar effects as explicitly given instructions. To this end, the p

  • 219.
    Araya, T
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Akrami, N
    Ekehammar, B
    Forgetting Congruent and Incongruent Stereotypical Information2003Ingår i: The Journal of Social Psychology, ISSN 0022-4545, nr 143, s. 433-449Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In two studies, we investigated the directed forgetting effects of stereotypically congruent, incongruent, and irrelevant information, studied after that in-group (Swedish) and out-group (immigrant) social categories had been subliminally primed. Based on

  • 220.
    Araya, T
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Akrami, N
    Ekehammar, B
    Hedlund, L-E
    Reducing Prejudice through Priming of Control-related Words2002Ingår i: Experimental Psychology, Vol. 29, nr 3, s. 222-227Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the effect of incidentally presented constructs that imply self-control on activated stereotypes associated with immigrants. To activate immigrant stereotypes, participants responded to a scale that measures people’s prejudice toward immig

  • 221.
    Araya, T
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ekehammar, B
    Akrami, N
    Remembering things that never occurred: The effects of to-be-forgotten stereotypical information2003Ingår i: Experimental Psychology, Vol. 51, nr 1, s. 27-32Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Participants, 68 female and male non-psychology university students, studied stereotypical and non-stereotypical words either with an initially activated social category (immigrant prime) or with no social category (neutral prime). They were then instruct

  • 222.
    Araya, Tadesse
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Stereotypes: Suppression, Forgetting, and False Memory2003Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents four studies investigating (1) whether incidentally primed control-related words can attenuate the impact of activated stereotypes on subsequent evaluation of a target person, (2) the impact of motivated forgetting on the recall of stereotypically congruent and incongruent information, and (3) the impact of a directed forgetting instruction on the false recall and recognition of nonpresented stereotypical information.

    In three experiments, Study I showed that participants initially primed with the social category, immigrant, and subsequently primed with words that were evocative of control or self-control made less negative impression of a target displaying ambiguous behaviors than participants not exposed to such words.

    Study II, using a directed-forgetting paradigm, demonstrated in two experiments that participants subliminally primed with Swedish facial photographs who later studied stereotypically incongruent words roughly recalled an equal number of items regardless of the forget or remember instructions.

    Study III showed that participants primed with the social category, immigrant and then studied a list of stereotypically related and unrelated words falsely recognized more nonpresented stereotypical words when they were furnished with a forget than a remember instruction. Similarly, Study IV (Experiment 2) demonstrated that participants primed with the social category, immigrant, but not with a neutral category, falsely recalled more nonpresented stereotypical words when their cognitive capacity was depleted through a concurrent memory load task.

    The thesis presents a review and a discussion of some of the theoretical underpinnings of the extant literature on stereotyping and intergroup relations and of the social implications of the present findings.

  • 223.
    Araya, Tadesse
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    When tolerance leads to intolerance: accessibility effects on social judgment2009Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 50, nr 4, s. 325-331Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the effects of unobtrusively primed constructs that were evocative of tolerance (e.g., tolerant, nonprejudiced) on subsequent task performances and found, contrary to our expectation, contrast effects in the judgment of an ambiguous behavioral description (Study 1 and 2). Suspecting that these results might be the outcome of social-comparison processes, in Study 3, we attempted to corroborate our findings by providing the participants with either an explicit or implicit comparison standard. The results showed that the participants who were provided with the implicit comparison standard evaluated the target behavior as more intolerant as compared to those with the explicit or no comparison standard. The results are discussed in relation to the moderating role of automatic social-comparison processes in the incidence of assimilation and contrast effects and the reduction of prejudice.

  • 224.
    Arnberg, Filip K
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Psykiatri, Akademiska sjukhuset. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Kunskapscentrum för katastrofpsykiatri.
    Alaie, Iman
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Parling, Thomas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Jonsson, Ulf
    Karolinska institutet; Statens beredning för medicinsk utvärdering.
    Recent randomized controlled trials of psychological interventions in healthcare: A review of their quantity, scope, and characteristics2013Ingår i: Journal of Psychosomatic Research, ISSN 0022-3999, E-ISSN 1879-1360, Vol. 75, nr 5, s. 401-408Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study aimed to describe the quantity, scope, and fundamental characteristics of recently published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of psychological interventions.

    Methods: We queried two major databases (PsycINFO and PubMeD) for primary reports published in 2010 of RCTs of psychological interventions for participants with a medical condition. We collected data on the characteristics of the trials, participants, interventions, outcomes, and reports.

    Results: Of 3,696 retrieved reports 295 primary publications were included. About half (53%) of trials included participants with a mental disorder and more than half evaluated interventions based on a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) framework. A majority of trials recruited participants in North America and Europe (79%). A minority of the trials focused on children and adolescents (17%) or the elderly (8%). The median sample size of the intervention arm was n = 41. Thirty-nine percent of trials reported solely patient-reported outcomes. Only 5% of reports indicated funding from for-profit organizations. The median 2010 impact factor of the journals in which reports were published was 2.96.

    Conclusion: This snapshot of the research on psychological interventions suggests that the evidence base for psychological interventions is expanding mainly for CBT interventions for adults in high-income countries. Although the restrictive inclusion criteria limit the generalizability of these results, researchers and funding agencies might be advised to strive for greater diversity regarding interventions, geographical/cultural settings and age groups. Regularly updated reviews of this research field, with gradually refined methodology and increased scope, may further inform funders and researchers.

  • 225.
    Arnberg, Filip K
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Kunskapscentrum för katastrofpsykiatri. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Psykiatri, Akademiska sjukhuset.
    Bergh Johannesson, Kerstin
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Kunskapscentrum för katastrofpsykiatri. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Psykiatri, Akademiska sjukhuset.
    Melin, Lennart
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Differences in social support between groups of tsunami survivors and the correlation between social support and posttraumatic stress after 14 months2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 226.
    Arnberg, Filip K
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Kunskapscentrum för katastrofpsykiatri. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Psykiatri, Akademiska sjukhuset.
    Bergh Johannesson, Kerstin
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Kunskapscentrum för katastrofpsykiatri. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Psykiatri, Akademiska sjukhuset.
    Melin, Lennart
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Is Social Support Equally Important for Both Directly and Indirectly Affected Disaster Victims?2011Ingår i: European Journal of Psychotraumatology: Volume 2 Supplement 1, 2011, s. 72-72Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been much research on social support and its association with both general mental and physical health, and social support is an important salutogenic factor after traumatic events. Still, the magnitude of the effect of social support on posttraumatic stress (PTS) is not fully understood. In particular, the importance of social support after disasters may be contingent on exposure severity. In a survey of Swedish tourists 14 months after the tsunami in Southeast Asia (N4910), in which the survivors were exposed to few post-disaster adversities, detailed information on exposure severity allowed for an examination of the effect of the interaction between social support and exposure severity on PTS. Social support was assessed by the Crisis Support Scale and PTS by the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. Preliminary analyses will be presented, and the size and significance of the effect will be discussed.

  • 227.
    Arnberg, Filip K
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Kunskapscentrum för katastrofpsykiatri. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Psykiatri, Ulleråker, Akademiska sjukhuset.
    Melin, Lennart
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Can Demographic and Exposure Characteristics Predict Levels of Social Support in Survivors from a Natural Disaster?2013Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 6, s. e65709-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective Lack of social support is a strong predictor for poor mental health after disasters. Psychosocial post-disaster interventions may benefit from targeting survivors at risk oflow support, yet it is unknown whether demographic and disaster exposure characteristics are associated with social support. This study assessed if age, gender, educational status, cohabitation, and disaster exposure severity predicted aspects of informal social support in a cohort of Swedish survivors from the 2004 Southeast Asian tsunami.

    Methods The participants were 3,536 disaster survivors who responded to a mail survey 14 months after the disaster (49% response rate). Their perceptions of present emotional support, contact with others, tangible support, negative support and overall satisfaction with informal support were assessed with the Crisis Support Scale and analysed in five separate ordinal regressions.

    Results Demographic factors and exposure severity explained variation in social supports although the effect size and predictive efficiency were modest. Cohabitation and female gender were associated with both more positive and more negative support. Single-household men were especially at risk for low emotional support and younger women were more likely to perceive negative support. Higher education was associated with more positive support, whereas no clear pattern was found regarding age as a predictor. Disaster exposure severity was associated with more negative support and less overall support satisfaction.

    Conclusions After a disaster that entailed little disruptions to the community the associations between demographic characteristics and social support concur with findings in the general population. The findings suggest that psychosocial disaster interventions may benefit from targeting specific groups of survivors.

  • 228.
    Arnold, Oliver
    et al.
    Otto Von Guericke Univ, POB 4120, D-39106 Magdeburg, Germany.
    Kibbe, Alexandra
    Otto Von Guericke Univ, POB 4120, D-39106 Magdeburg, Germany.
    Hartig, Terry
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för bostads- och urbanforskning (IBF). Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Kaiser, Florian G.
    Otto Von Guericke Univ, Personal & Social Psychol, Magdeburg, Germany.
    Capturing the Environmental Impact of Individual Lifestyles: Evidence of the Criterion Validity of the General Ecological Behavior Scale2018Ingår i: Environment and Behavior, ISSN 0013-9165, E-ISSN 1552-390X, Vol. 50, nr 3, s. 350-372Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Do behavioral measures of ecological lifestyles reflect actual environmental impact? Three convenience samples of German adults (N = 881) completed such a measure, the General Ecological Behavior (GEB) scale. Their household electricity consumption was self-reported (Study 1), assessed by a smart-meter (Study 2), or reported by the power company (Study 3). The latter two studies controlled for income, which can boost consumption just as it opens possibilities for behaving ecologically. Within and across studies, analyses revealed a negative association between self-reported ecological behavior and electricity consumption (-.18 rs -.22), even with adjustment for income. Furthermore, customers in a green electricity program reported more ecological engagement and consumed one third less electricity than did regular customers. These results indicate the criterion validity of the GEB scale for a highly practically relevant criterion and encourage the use of generic behavior measures in efforts to understand and foster more ecological lifestyles.

  • 229. Asberg Johnels, Jakob
    et al.
    Gillberg, Christopher
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Miniscalco, Carmela
    Face-Viewing Patterns in Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders: Speaking up for the Role of Language Comprehension.2014Ingår i: Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, ISSN 1092-4388, E-ISSN 1558-9102, Vol. 57, nr 6, s. 2246-2252Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim was to examine whether viewing patterns toward the mouth, eyes, and nonmouth-noneyes areas differed between young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typically developing (TD) children when viewing a person speaking. The role of language comprehension in such viewing patterns was also examined.

    Method: Eleven children with ASD (approximately 4.5 years old) and 29 TD toddlers (approximately 2.5 years old) participated. The groups were matched on language comprehension raw scores from the Reynell Developmental Language Scales III. All children viewed short films of a woman speaking while their eye movements were recorded with eye-tracking equipment.

    Results: Children with ASD spent proportionally less time viewing the mouth and more time viewing the nonmouth-noneyes areas. Time viewing the eyes did not differ between groups. Increased mouth viewing was associated with lower language comprehension in the group with ASD.

    Conclusion: Variability in language comprehension is an important factor to monitor when interpreting face-viewing patterns in young children with ASD, particularly with regard to mouth viewing. The results may help explain divergent findings in this field of research.

  • 230. Asmundson, Gordon
    et al.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Carlbring, Per
    Ghaderi, Ata
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Hofmann, Stefan
    Stewart, Sherry
    Cognitive behaviour therapy in full flight2004Ingår i: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, ISSN 1650-6073, E-ISSN 1651-2316, Vol. 33, nr 3, s. 113-Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 231.
    Asplund, Robert Persson
    et al.
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Behav Sci & Learning, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Dagoo, Jesper
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Behav Sci & Learning, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Fjellstrom, Ida
    Karolinska Inst, Div Psychol, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Niemi, Linnea
    Karolinska Inst, Div Psychol, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hansson, Katja
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Zeraati, Forough
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ziuzina, Masha
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Geraedts, Anna
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Clin Psychol, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Ljotsson, Brjann
    Karolinska Inst, Div Psychol, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms Univ, Dept Psychol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Behav Sci & Learning, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Internet-based stress management for distressed managers: results from a randomised controlled trial2018Ingår i: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 75, nr 2, s. 105-113Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    The aim of this randomised controlled trial (RCT) was to evaluate the efficacy of a guided internet-based stress management intervention (iSMI) among distressed managers compared with a attention control group (AC) with full access to treatment-as-usual.

    Method

    A total sample of 117 distressed managers, mainly employed in the healthcare, IT, communication and educational sector, were randomised to either iSMI (n=59) or an AC group (n=58). The iSMI consisted of eight modules including cognitive behavioural stress management and positive management techniques. Participants received a minimal and weekly guidance from a psychologist or master-level psychology student focusing on support, feedback and adherence to the intervention. Self-report data were assessed at pre, post and 6 months after the intervention. The primary outcome was perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale-14). The secondary outcomes included mental and work-related health outcomes.

    Results

    Participants in the iSMI intervention reported significantly less symptoms of perceived stress (d=0.74, 95% CI 0.30 to 1.19) and burnout (d=0.95, 95% CI 0.53 to 1.37) compared with controls, at postassessment. Significant medium-to-large effect sizes were also found for depression, insomnia and job satisfaction. Longterm effects (6 months) were seen on the mental health outcomes.

    Conclusion

    This is one of the first studies showing that iSMIs can be an effective, accessible and potentially time-effective approach of reducing stress and other mental-related and work-related health symptoms among distressed managers. Future studies are needed addressing distressed managers and the potential of indirect effects on employee stress and satisfaction at work.

  • 232.
    Astor, Kim
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Gaze following in 4.5- and 6-month-old infants: The impact of proximity on standard gaze following performance tests2019Ingår i: Infancy, ISSN 1525-0008, E-ISSN 1532-7078, Vol. 24, nr 1, s. 79-89Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Gaze following (GF), the ability to synchronize visual attention with others, is often considered a foundation of social cognition. In this study, GF was assessed while changing the space between an actor's eyes and the gaze target. This was done to address a potential confound in the gold standard GF performance test, namely the spatial bias of the actors? eye position that occurs when the actor turns the head to look at a target, offsetting the eye position from a centered position toward the attended target. Our results suggest that both 4.5 (n = 27) and 6 (n = 30)-month-old infants can follow an actor's gaze regardless of proximity. This is the first demonstration that early GF is not dependent on proximity cues, and our results strengthen previous findings suggesting that GF develops well before 6 months of age. The study was preregistered, and all data and analysis routines can be downloaded with provided links.

  • 233.
    Ata, Ghaderi
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Psychometric properties of the Swedish version of Self-concept Questionnaire2005Ingår i: European journal of Psychological Assessment, Vol. 21, s. 139-146Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 234.
    Ata, Ghaderi
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The Foundation of the Self and the Assessment of Self-esteem2006Ingår i: The Concept of Self in Psychology, Nova Science Publishers , 2006Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 235.
    Ata, Ghaderi
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ätstörningar2006Ingår i: Kognitiv beteendeterapi inom psykiatrin., Natur & Kultur , 2006Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 236.
    Ata, Ghaderi
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Malin, Mårtensson
    Hanna, Schwan
    Primary prevention of eating disorders: A randomized trial of “everybody’s different” prevention program.2005Ingår i: Eating Disorders: The journal of Treatment and Prevention, Vol. 13, s. 245-259Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 237. Augusti, Else-Marie
    et al.
    Melinder, Annika
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Look who's talking: Pre-verbal infants' perception of face-to-face and back-to-back social interactions2010Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, nr 1, artikel-id 161Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Four-, 6-, and 11-month old infants were presented with movies in which two adult actors conversed about everyday events, either by facing each other or looking in opposite directions. Infants from 6 months of age made more gaze shifts between the actors, in accordance with the flow of conversation, when the actors were facing each other. A second experiment demonstrated that gaze following alone did not cause this difference. Instead the results are consistent with a social cognitive interpretation, suggesting that infants perceive the difference between face-to-face and back-to-back conversations and that they prefer to attend to a typical pattern of social interaction from 6 months of age.

  • 238. Augusti, Else-Marie
    et al.
    Melinder, Annika
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Look who's talking: pre-verbal infants perception of pointing comprehension2010Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 161, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 239.
    Axelsson, Emma L
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Dawson, Rachelle L
    Research School of Psychology, ANU College of Health & Medicine, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
    Yim, Sharon Y
    Research School of Psychology, ANU College of Health & Medicine, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
    Quddus, Tashfia
    Research School of Psychology, ANU College of Health & Medicine, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
    Mine, Mine, Mine: Self-Reference and Children’s Retention of Novel Words2018Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, artikel-id 958Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Adults demonstrate enhanced memory for words encoded as belonging to themselves compared to those belonging to another. Known as the self-reference effect, there is evidence for the effect in children as young as three. Toddlers are efficient in linking novel words to novel objects, but have difficulties retaining multiple word-object associations. The aim here was to investigate the self-reference ownership paradigm on 3-year-old children’s retention of novel words. Following exposure to each of four novel word-object pairings, children were told that objects either belonged to them or another character. Children demonstrated significantly higher immediate retention of self-referenced compared to other-referenced items. Retention was also tested 4 h later and the following morning. Retention for self- and other-referenced words was significantly higher than chance at both delayed time points, but the difference between the self- and other-referenced words was no longer significant. The findings suggest that when it comes to toddlers’ retention of multiple novel words there is an initial memory enhancing effect for self- compared to other-referenced items, but the difference diminishes over time. Children’s looking times during the self-reference presentations were positively associated with retention of self-referenced words 4 h later. Looking times during the other-reference presentations were positively associated with proportional looking at other-referenced items during immediate retention testing. The findings have implications for children’s memory for novel words and future studies could test children’s explicit memories for the ownership manipulation itself and whether the effect is superior to other forms of memory supports such as ostensive naming.

  • 240.
    Axelsson, Emma L.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Australian Natl Univ, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
    Swinton, Jaclyn
    Australian Natl Univ, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
    Winiger, Amanda. I
    Australian Natl Univ, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
    Horst, Jessica. S
    Univ Sussex, Brighton, East Sussex, England.
    Napping and toddlers' memory for fast-mapped words2018Ingår i: First language, ISSN 0142-7237, E-ISSN 1740-2344, Vol. 38, nr 6, s. 582-595Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    When toddlers hear a novel word, they quickly and independently link it with a novel object rather than known-name objects. However, they are less proficient in retaining multiple novel words. Sleep and even short naps can enhance declarative memory in adults and children and this study investigates the effect of napping on children’s memory for novel words. Forty two-and-a-half-year-old children were presented with referent selection trials for four novel nouns. Children’s retention of the words was tested immediately after referent selection, four hours later in the afternoon, and the following morning. Half of the toddlers napped prior to the afternoon retention test. Amongst the toddlers who napped, retention scores remained steady four hours after exposure and the following morning. In contrast, for the wake group, there was a steady decline in retention scores by the following morning and significantly lower retention scores compared to the nap group. Napping following exposure to novel word–object associations could help in maintaining memories and limiting decay. Nap duration was also associated with better retention scores, but there were no effects of sleep quality, habitual napping, or sleepiness. The findings have implications for the role of napping in children’s language acquisition.

  • 241.
    Backman, L
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Almkvist, O
    Nyberg, L
    Andersson, J
    Functional changes in brain activity during priming in Alzheimer's disease2000Ingår i: JOURNAL OF COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE, ISSN 0898-929X, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 134-141Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are often impaired on certain forms of implicit memory, such as word-stem completion priming (WSCP). Lesion data suggest that deficient WSCP may be associated with abnormal functioning in the posterior neocortex. Usi

  • 242.
    Backman, L
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Farde, L
    Dopamine and cognitive functioning: Brain imaging findings in Huntington's disease and normal aging2001Ingår i: SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY, ISSN 0036-5564, Vol. 42, nr 3, s. 287-296Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent brain imaging studies in Huntington's disease CHD) and normal aging suggest a relationship between central dopaminergic neurotransmission and cognitive performance. Results demonstrate substantial losses in dopamine (DA) function in both. HD and ag

  • 243.
    Backman, L
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ginovart, N
    Dixon, RA
    Wahlin, TBR
    Wahlin, A
    Halldin, C
    Farde, L
    Age-related cognitive deficits mediated by changes in the striatal dopamine system2000Ingår i: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY, ISSN 0002-953X, Vol. 157, nr 4, s. 635-637Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The study examined the influence of losses in dopaminergic function on age-related cognitive deficits. Method: Eleven healthy subjects (21-68 years of age) completed a set of cognitive tasks used to assess perceptual speed and episodic memory.

  • 244.
    Backman, L
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Small, BJ
    Fratiglioni, L
    Stability of the preclinical episodic memory deficit in Alzheimer's disease2001Ingår i: BRAIN, ISSN 0006-8950, Vol. 124, s. 96-102Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We sought to determine the course of the preclinical episodic memory deficit in Alzheimer's disease. Using data from a population-based study, we compared persons who developed Alzheimer's disease (n = 15) with persons who were non-demented (n = 105) 6 an

  • 245.
    Baird, J C
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Berglund, B
    Olsson, Mats J
    Magnitude estimation of perceived odor intensity: Empirical and theoretical properties1996Ingår i: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, Vol. 22, s. 244-255Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Four subjects judged the odor intensities of 7 pyridine concentrations and a blank. Computer simulations of a judgment model were compared with the empirical data. The model generates data patterns that closely mimic empirical findings. The following patt

  • 246.
    Bakker, Marta
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    How hands shape the mind: The P400 as an index of manual actions and gesture perception2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Being able to perform and understand actions is crucial for proper functioning in the social world. From birth, we use our bodies to act and to promote learning about ourselves, our environment and other people’s actions and intentions. Our mind is embodied; thus, our actions play a crucial role in cognitive and social development.

    This thesis focuses on the close interrelation between action and perception and the role of our hands in this link. Three empirical studies on action processing are presented in a framework of embodied cognition that emphasises the role of bodily experience in social development. All three studies were designed to measure event-related potentials (ERPs) in infants 4 to 9 months old, when they observed manual actions, grasping and the give-me gesture.

    Study I demonstrates the neural underpinnings of infants’ action–perception link at the age when their ability to grasp for objects in a functional manner emerges. Neural processing has been found to be influenced by infants’ own manual experience of exactly the same grasping action.

    Study II reveals that brief active motor training with goal-directed actions, even before the solid motor plans for grasping are developed, facilitates processing of others’ goal-directed actions.

    Study III shows that the same neural correlate that indexes processing of reaching actions is involved in encoding of the give-me gesture, a type of non-verbal communication that conveys a request. This ability was found not to be directly dependent on the infants’ own ability to respond behaviourally to another person’s gesture.

    This thesis pinpoints the neural correlate, P400, involved in the processing of goal-directed actions and gestures. The findings highlight the importance of motor experience, as well as the involvement of attentional processes in action processing. Additionally, the data from Study III may suggest a possible involvement of grasping skills in encoding non-verbal communicative gestures.

    Delarbeten
    1. Neural correlates of action perception at the onset of functional grasping
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Neural correlates of action perception at the onset of functional grasping
    2015 (Engelska)Ingår i: Social Cognitive & Affective Neuroscience, ISSN 1749-5016, E-ISSN 1749-5024, Vol. 10, nr 6, s. 769-796Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Event-related potentials were recorded while infants observe congruent or incongruent grasping actions at the age when organized grasping first emerges (4-6 months of age). We demonstrate that the event-related potential component P400 encodes the congruency of power grasps at the age of 6 months (Experiment 1) and in 5-month-old infants that have developed the ability to use power grasps (Experiment 2). This effect does not extend to precision grasps, which infants cannot perform (Experiment 3). Our findings suggest that infants' encoding of the relationship between an object and a grasping hand (the action-perception link) is highly specialized to actions and manual configurations of actions that infants are able to perform.

    Nyckelord
    grasping, experience, infant, P400, event-related potential
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Psykologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-258358 (URN)10.1093/scan/nsu119 (DOI)000356272800002 ()25193947 (PubMedID)
    Tillgänglig från: 2015-07-13 Skapad: 2015-07-13 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-08-29Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Enhanced neural processing of goal-directed actions during active training in 4-month-old infants
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Enhanced neural processing of goal-directed actions during active training in 4-month-old infants
    2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of cognitive neuroscience, ISSN 0898-929X, E-ISSN 1530-8898, Vol. 28, nr 3, s. 472-482Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The current study explores the neural correlates of action perception and its relation to infants' active experience performing goal-directed actions. Study 1 provided active training with sticky mittens that enables grasping and object manipulation in prereaching 4-month-olds. After training, EEG was recorded while infants observed images of hands grasping toward (congruent) or away from (incongruent) objects. We demonstrate that brief active training facilitates social perception as indexed by larger amplitude of the P400 ERP component to congruent compared with incongruent trials. Study 2 presented 4-month-old infants with passive training in which they observed an experimenter perform goal-directed reaching actions, followed by an identical ERP session to that used in Study 1. The second study did not demonstrate any differentiation between congruent and incongruent trials. These results suggest that (1) active experience alters the brains' response to goal-directed actions performed by others and (2) visual exposure alone is not sufficient in developing the neural networks subserving goal processing during action observation in infancy.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Psykologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-270101 (URN)10.1162/jocn_a_00909 (DOI)000369760000009 ()26679217 (PubMedID)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    EU, Europeiska forskningsrådet, CACTUS 312292Knut och Alice Wallenbergs Stiftelse, KWA 2012.0120
    Tillgänglig från: 2015-12-21 Skapad: 2015-12-21 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-08-29Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. The neural basis of non-verbal communication - enhanced processing of perceived give-me gestures in 9-month-old girls
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>The neural basis of non-verbal communication - enhanced processing of perceived give-me gestures in 9-month-old girls
    Visa övriga...
    2015 (Engelska)Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, s. 59-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the neural basis of non-verbal communication. Event-related potentials were recorded while 29 nine-month-old infants were presented with a give me gesture (experimental condition) and the same hand shape but rotated 90 degrees, resulting in a non-communicative hand configuration (control condition). We found different responses in amplitude between the two conditions, captured in the P400 ERR component. Moreover, the size of this effect was modulated by participants' sex, with girls generally demonstrating a larger relative difference between the two conditions than boys.

    Nyckelord
    give-me gesture, ERP, P400, sex differences, non-verbal communication, social perception, infancy
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Psykologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-246336 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00059 (DOI)000348913300001 ()25705196 (PubMedID)
    Tillgänglig från: 2015-03-10 Skapad: 2015-03-05 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-08-29
  • 247.
    Bakker, Marta
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Daum, Moritz M.
    Handl, Andrea
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Neural correlates of action perception at the onset of functional grasping2015Ingår i: Social Cognitive & Affective Neuroscience, ISSN 1749-5016, E-ISSN 1749-5024, Vol. 10, nr 6, s. 769-796Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Event-related potentials were recorded while infants observe congruent or incongruent grasping actions at the age when organized grasping first emerges (4-6 months of age). We demonstrate that the event-related potential component P400 encodes the congruency of power grasps at the age of 6 months (Experiment 1) and in 5-month-old infants that have developed the ability to use power grasps (Experiment 2). This effect does not extend to precision grasps, which infants cannot perform (Experiment 3). Our findings suggest that infants' encoding of the relationship between an object and a grasping hand (the action-perception link) is highly specialized to actions and manual configurations of actions that infants are able to perform.

  • 248.
    Bakker, Marta
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Kaduk, Katharina
    Elsner, Claudia
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Juvrud, Joshua
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The neural basis of non-verbal communication - enhanced processing of perceived give-me gestures in 9-month-old girls2015Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, s. 59-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the neural basis of non-verbal communication. Event-related potentials were recorded while 29 nine-month-old infants were presented with a give me gesture (experimental condition) and the same hand shape but rotated 90 degrees, resulting in a non-communicative hand configuration (control condition). We found different responses in amplitude between the two conditions, captured in the P400 ERR component. Moreover, the size of this effect was modulated by participants' sex, with girls generally demonstrating a larger relative difference between the two conditions than boys.

  • 249.
    Bakker, Marta
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Kochukhova, Olga
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Development of social perception: A conversation study of 6-, 12-and 36-month-old children2011Ingår i: Infant Behavior and Development, ISSN 0163-6383, E-ISSN 1879-0453, Vol. 34, nr 2, s. 363-370Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A conversation is made up of visual and auditory signals in a complex flow of events. What is the relative importance of these components for young children's ability to maintain attention on a conversation? In the present set of experiments the visual and auditory signals were disentangled in four filmed events. The visual events were either accompanied by the speech sounds of the conversation or by matched motor sounds and the auditory events by either the natural visual turn taking of the conversation or a matched turn taking of toy trucks. A cornea-reflection technique was used to record the gaze-pattern of subjects while they were looking at the films. Three age groups of typically developing children were studied; 6-month-olds, 1-year-olds and 3-year-olds. The results show that the children are more attracted by the social component of the conversation independent of the kind of sound used. Older children find spoken language more interesting than motor sound. Children look longer at the speaking agent when humans maintain the conversation. The study revealed that children are more attracted to the mouth than to the eyes area. The ability to make more predictive gaze shifts develops gradually over age.

  • 250.
    Bakker, Marta
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Sommerville, Jessica A.
    Univ Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Enhanced neural processing of goal-directed actions during active training in 4-month-old infants2016Ingår i: Journal of cognitive neuroscience, ISSN 0898-929X, E-ISSN 1530-8898, Vol. 28, nr 3, s. 472-482Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study explores the neural correlates of action perception and its relation to infants' active experience performing goal-directed actions. Study 1 provided active training with sticky mittens that enables grasping and object manipulation in prereaching 4-month-olds. After training, EEG was recorded while infants observed images of hands grasping toward (congruent) or away from (incongruent) objects. We demonstrate that brief active training facilitates social perception as indexed by larger amplitude of the P400 ERP component to congruent compared with incongruent trials. Study 2 presented 4-month-old infants with passive training in which they observed an experimenter perform goal-directed reaching actions, followed by an identical ERP session to that used in Study 1. The second study did not demonstrate any differentiation between congruent and incongruent trials. These results suggest that (1) active experience alters the brains' response to goal-directed actions performed by others and (2) visual exposure alone is not sufficient in developing the neural networks subserving goal processing during action observation in infancy.

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