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  • 2251.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Dunsmoor, Joseph E.
    Zielinski, David
    LaBar, Kevin S.
    Spatial proximity amplifies valence in emotional memory and defensive approach-avoidance2015Inngår i: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 70, s. 476-485Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In urban areas, people often have to stand or move in close proximity to others. The egocentric distance to stimuli is a powerful determinant of defensive behavior in animals. Yet, little is known about how spatial proximity to others alters defensive responses in humans. We hypothesized that the valence of social cues scales with egocentric distance, such that proximal social stimuli have more positive or negative valence than distal stimuli. This would predict enhanced defensive responses to proximal threat and reduced defensive responses to proximal reward. We tested this hypothesis across four experiments using 3-D virtual reality simulations. Results from Experiment 1 confirmed that proximal social stimuli facilitate defensive responses, as indexed by fear-potentiated startle, relative to distal stimuli. Experiment 2 revealed that interpersonal defensive boundaries flexibly increase with aversive learning. Experiment 3 examined whether spatial proximity enhances memory for aversive experiences. Fear memories for social threats encroaching on the body were more persistent than those acquired at greater interpersonal distances, as indexed by startle. Lastly, Experiment 4 examined how egocentric distance influenced startle responses to social threats during defensive approach and avoidance. Whereas fear-potentiated startle increased with proximity when participants actively avoided receiving shocks, startle decreased with proximity when participants tolerated shocks to receive monetary rewards, implicating opposing gradients of distance on threat versus reward. Thus, proximity in egocentric space amplifies the valence of social stimuli that, in turn, facilitates emotional memory and approach-avoidance responses. These findings have implications for understanding the consequences of increased urbanization on affective interpersonal behavior.

  • 2252.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Engman, Jonas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Persson, Jonas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Larsson, Elna-Marie
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för radiologi, onkologi och strålningsvetenskap, Enheten för radiologi.
    Wikström, Johan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för radiologi, onkologi och strålningsvetenskap, Enheten för radiologi.
    Kumlien, Eva
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Neurologi.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Medial temporal lobe resection attenuates superior temporal sulcus response to faces2014Inngår i: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 61, s. 291-298Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Face perception depends on activation of a core face processing network including the fusiform face area, the occipital face area and the superior temporal sulcus (STS). The medial temporal lobe (MTL) is also involved in decoding facial expression and damage to the anterior MTL, including the amygdala, generally interferes with emotion recognition. The impairment in emotion recognition following anterior MTL injury can be a direct result from injured MTL circuitry, as well as an indirect result from decreased MTL modulation of areas in the core face network. To test whether the MTL modulates activity in the core face network, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate activation in the core face processing network in patients with right or left anterior temporal lobe resections (ATR) due to intractable epilepsy. We found reductions of face-related activation in the right STS after both right and left ATR together with impaired recognition of facial expressions. Reduced activity in the fusiform and the occipital face areas was also observed in patients after right ATR suggesting widespread effects on activity in the core face network in this group. The reduction in face-related STS activity after both right and left ATR suggests that MTL modulation of the STS may facilitate recognition of facial expression.

  • 2253.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Frans, Örjan
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Tibblin, Bodil
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap.
    Kumlien, Eva
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The effects of medial temporal lobe resections on verbal threat and fear conditioning2010Inngår i: Biological Psychology, ISSN 0301-0511, E-ISSN 1873-6246, Vol. 83, nr 1, s. 41-46Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A left hemisphere advantage in the processing of verbal threat has previously been reported, whereas both hemispheres seem equally important in fear conditioning. Here, we compared the effects of unilateral medial temporal lobe (MTL) resections on verbal threat as well as delay and trace fear conditioning. During verbal threat, right and left MTL-resections attenuated fear potentiated startle in comparison with controls. In contrast to previous studies, MTL-resections did not attenuate delay conditioning of skin conductance responses. Left and right resectioned patients did not differ in psychophysiological responses to verbal threat or delay fear conditioning. Trace conditioning was not observed in any group. Results suggest a bilateral MTL hemispheric involvement in the processing of verbal threat, whereas one intact hemisphere seems sufficient for delay conditioning.

  • 2254.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Frick, Andreas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Human serotonin transporter availability predicts fear conditioning2015Inngår i: International Journal of Psychophysiology, ISSN 0167-8760, E-ISSN 1872-7697, Vol. 98, nr 3, s. 515-519Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2255.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Duke Univ, Ctr Cognit Neurosci, Durham, NC 27708 USA.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Kragel, Philip A.
    Duke Univ, Ctr Cognit Neurosci, Durham, NC 27708 USA..
    Zielinski, David J.
    Duke Univ, Pratt Sch Engn, Durham, NC 27708 USA..
    Brady, Rachael
    Duke Univ, Pratt Sch Engn, Durham, NC 27708 USA..
    LaBar, Kevin S.
    Duke Univ, Ctr Cognit Neurosci, Durham, NC 27708 USA..
    Medial prefrontal pathways for the contextual regulation of extinguished fear in humans2015Inngår i: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 122, s. 262-271Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The maintenance of anxiety disorders is thought to depend, in part, on deficits in extinction memory, possibly due to reduced contextual control of extinction that leads to fear renewal. Animal studies suggest that the neural circuitry responsible fear renewal includes the hippocampus, amygdala, and dorsomedial (dmPFC) and ventromedial (vmPFC) prefrontal cortex. However, the neural mechanisms of context-dependent fear renewal in humans remain poorly understood. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), combined with psychophysiology and immersive virtual reality, to elucidate how the hippocampus, amygdala, and dmPFC and vmPFC interact to drive the context-dependent renewal of extinguished fear. Healthy human participants encountered dynamic fear-relevant conditioned stimuli (CSs) while navigating through 3-D virtual reality environments in the MRI scanner. Conditioning and extinction were performed in two different virtual contexts. Twenty-four hours later, participants were exposed to the CSs without reinforcement while navigating through both contexts in the MRI scanner. Participants showed enhanced skin conductance responses (SCRs) to the previously-reinforced CS + in the acquisition context on Day 2, consistent with fear renewal, and sustained responses in the dmPFC. In contrast, participants showed low SCRs to the CSs in the extinction context on Day 2, consistent with extinction recall, and enhanced vmPFC activation to the non-reinforced CS -. Structural equation modeling revealed that the dmPFC fully mediated the effect of the hippocampus on right amygdala activity during fear renewal, whereas the vmPFC partially mediated the effect of the hippocampus on right amygdala activity during extinction recall. These results indicate dissociable contextual influences of the hippocampus on prefrontal pathways, which, in turn, determine the level of reactivation of fear associations.

  • 2256.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Michelgård Palmquist, Åsa
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Psykiatri, Akademiska sjukhuset.
    Pissiota, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Appel, Lieuwe
    Frans, Örjan
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Liberzon, Israel
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Arousal modulation of memory and amygdala-parahippocampal connectivity: A PET-psychophysiology study in specific phobia2011Inngår i: Psychophysiology, ISSN 0048-5772, E-ISSN 1469-8986, Vol. 48, nr 11, s. 1463-1469Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Phobic fear is accompanied by intense bodily responses modulated by the amygdala. An amygdala moderated psychophysiological measure related to arousal is electrodermal activity. We evaluated the contributions of electrodermal activity to amygdala-parahippocampal regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during phobic memory encoding in subjects with spider or snake phobia. Recognition memory was increased for phobia-related slides and covaried with rCBF in the amygdala and the parahippocampal gyrus. The covariation between parahippocampal rCBF and recognition was related to electrodermal activity suggesting that parahippocampal memory processes were associated with sympathetic activity. Electrodermal activity further mediated the amygdala effect on parahippocampal activity. Memory encoding during phobic fear therefore seems contingent on amygdala's influence on arousal and parahippocampal activity.

  • 2257.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Michelgård Palmquist, Åsa
    Pissiota, Anna
    Frans, Örjan
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Cortico-Striatal Substance P Release Correlates with Phobia Related Trait Anxiety2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2258.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Michelgård, Åsa
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Pissiota, Anna
    Uppsala universitet.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Appel, Lieuwe
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Bodily arousal gates amygdala-hippocampal interaction in phobic memory encoding2009Inngår i: Biological Psychiatry, ISSN 0006-3223, E-ISSN 1873-2402, Vol. 65, nr 8, s. 126S-126SArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 2259.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Pissiota, Anna
    Uppsala universitet.
    Michelgård, Åsa
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Appel, Lieuwe
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Functional connectivity of the amygdala in specific phobia2008Inngår i: Biological Psychiatry, ISSN 0006-3223, E-ISSN 1873-2402, Vol. 63, nr 7, s. 169S-169SArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 2260.
    Åhs, Johan
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Modality of measurement and power, a comparison between rCBF, psychophysiology and self assessment measures2006Inngår i: Biol. Psychiatry 59, 40S-40S, 2006Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 2261.
    Åkerström, Bengt
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Adults with Autism and Mental Retardation. A Life-Span Perspective2001Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A review of the literature with a life-span perspective on autism gave rise to the formulation of a general research problem: Can demographic factors, individual factors, and social factors (i.e., education, residential facilities, treatment and other services) explain some of the variance in autistic behaviour and social adaptation in adult life? Historic influences, such as the Acts on services for people with mental retardation, reflected in social factors were emphasised.

    In a retrospective design two groups of adults with autism (DSM-III-R criteria) and mental retardation were studied, the RFA group, sampled through Riksföreningen Autism (n = 48, mean age 35 years) and the County group, a treated population group (n =39, mean age 37 years).

    The results showed that the RFA group functioned on a higher intellectual level and had better adult social adaptation (measured by the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales) than the County group. There were no differences in autistic behaviour (measured by the Childhood Autism Rating Scale) either in childhood or in adulthood. Concerning social factors, the Acts for mentally retarded had had major practical consequences. From the common situation with confinement in large institutions, better opportunities for education, more normal residence (group homes), and for occupation (day-centres) had emerged. Regarding treatment, the most persistent trend was the high use of psychoactive medication. After merging the two groups, analyses showed that the major predictive factors of adult autistic behaviour and social adaptation were intellectual level, speech ability and, with regard to social adaptation, epilepsy. The main conclusion is that intellectual level and speech ability are relatively more important than other factors for functioning of adults with autism and mental retardation. The results are discussed with reference to the adequacy of the measures used to capture effects of the social factors and the importance of also investigating samples with higher intellectual levels.

  • 2262.
    Åsander, Jenny
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Acceptance and Commitment Therapy vid bariatrisk kirurgi - Långtidsuppföljning efter 2 år2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Under de senaste åren har fetma ökat, 14% beräknas lida av fetma i dagens svenska samhälle. Många har gjort ett flertal viktminskningsförsök utan bestående resultat. Bariatrisk kirurgi är det som enligt forskning ger bäst viktminskningsresultat. Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) har tidigare visat sig vara effektiv i jämförelse med treatment as usual. Den här studien utforskar graden av terapeutstöd av ACT-baserad internetbehandling efter bariatrisk kirurgi vid en två-årsuppföljning. I förmätningen ingick 31 deltagare men svarsfrekvensen i denna uppföljning var endast 19 stycken deltagare. Deltagarna randomiserades in i två betingelser. En grupp fick både internetbehandling och terapeutstöd medan den andra enbart fick internetbehandling. Uppföljningen har gjorts genom att undersöka beroendemåtten kroppsuppfattning, att leva i värderad riktning, ätstörningsrelaterade beteenden, psykologisk flexibilitet samt livskvalitet. Inga signifikanta interaktionseffekter uppmättes på något av beroendemåtten. Signifikanta huvudeffekter av tid uppmättes enbart på delskalan ”Restraint” (restriktivt ätande) på ”Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire” (EDE-Q). Deltagarna har även skattat upplevelsen av Behandlingen som helhet. Studiens resultat visar att det i huvudsak inte finns några signifikanta skillnader mellan grupperna. I förhållande till studiens från början ringa storlek är bortfallet stort, något som försvårar tolkningen av resultaten.

  • 2263.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Larsson, Maria
    Bäckman, Lars
    Differential sex effects in olfactory functioning: The role of verbal processing2002Inngår i: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, ISSN 1355-6177, E-ISSN 1469-7661, Vol. 8, s. 691-698Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2264.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Larsson, Maria
    Bäckman, Lars
    Odor Identification in Old Age: Demographic, Sensory, and Cognitive Correlates2005Inngår i: Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition, ISSN 1382-5585, E-ISSN 1744-4128, Vol. 12, s. 231-244Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2265.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Larsson, Maria
    Bäckman, Lars
    Recollective experience in odor recognition: influences of adult age and familiarity2006Inngår i: Psychological Research, ISSN 0340-0727, E-ISSN 1430-2772, Vol. 70, s. 68-75Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2266.
    Öberg-Blåvarg, Christina
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Bad Odors Stick Better Than Good Ones: Olfactory Qualities and Odor Recognition2009Inngår i: Experimental Psychology, ISSN ISSN-L 1618-3169, ISSN-Print 1618-3169, ISSN-Online 2190-5142, Vol. 56, nr 6, s. 375-380Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2267.
    Örnkloo, Helena
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Fitting Objects into Holes: On the Development of Spatial Cognition Skills2007Inngår i: Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0012-1649, E-ISSN 1939-0599, Vol. 43, nr 2, s. 404-416Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors examined 14- to 26-month-old infants' understanding of the spatial relationships between objects and apertures in an object manipulation task. The task was to insert objects with various cross-sections (circular, square, rectangular, ellipsoid, and triangular) into fitting apertures. A successful solution required the infant to mentally rotate the object to be fit into the aperture and use that information to plan the action. The object was presented standing up in half of the trials; in the other half, it was lying down. The results showed that infants solved the problem consistently from age 22 months and that a successful solution was associated with appropriate preadjustments before the hand arrived with the block to the aperture. No sex differences were found.

  • 2268.
    Örnkloo, Helena
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Young Children’s Ability to Solve Spatial  Problems Involving a Choice2009Inngår i: European Journal of Developmental Psychology, ISSN 1740-5629, E-ISSN 1740-5610, Vol. 6, nr 6, s. 685-704Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    When do young children become able to make an adequate choice between two alternatives based on spatial information? Children of 20, 30, and 40 months of age were either presented with two objects with different cross-sections and one aperture, or one object and two different apertures. In each trial there was one object-aperture match and the task was to find that match and insert the object. All the children understood the task and tried to solve the problems but the 20-month-olds performed randomly and not even the 40-month-olds chose all the correct correspondences consistently. The results also showed that it is easier to choose between apertures than objects. This contrasts with the ability to solve the insertion problem once the choice was made. When choosing the correct object or aperture, the 40-month-olds inserted the triangle successfully in 85% of the cases. The boys and girls were equally good at solving the task, but the boys did it faster. The results show that making a choice adds significantly to the difficulty of solving spatial problems. It requires systematic examination of the objects and apertures involved, a working memory that can handle at least three items at a time, and an ability to inhibit an incorrect choice. Such executive functions are typically found in older preschool children but the present task shows that with an appropriate setup their development can be traced from a much earlier age.

  • 2269.
    Östberg, Monica
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Parenting stress: Conceptual and methodological issues1999Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    High parenting stress has been connected with negative consequences for both parent and child. The aim of the present thesis was to examine factors contributing to high stress, and to develop a psychometrically sound, reliable, and valid instrument for measuring parenting stress. Self-reported parenting stress was investigated using a revised Swedish version of the Parent Domain of the American Parenting Stress Index. Dimensionality was examined in factor analyses (FA) on data from a nation-wide representative sample and cross-validated on another sample. Based on FA, new subscales, measuring different aspects of parents' perception of stress in their parenting role, were constructed. High internal consistencies, as well as a good stability over amean interval of 30 days, were found.

    Different aspects of construct validity were examined in four samples. Mothers in a clinical sample indicated higher levels of parenting stress compared to fathers in the same families, and to mothers in a normal sample. A multidimensional model of determinants of parenting stress was tested and cross-validated using a structural equation modeling procedure. The results provided general support for the proposed model, and socialsupport was shown to have both a direct and a moderating influence on parenting stress.

    Within the examined age-range (6 months to 3 years), child gender or age did not relate to parenting stress. Older, less educated and single mothers reported more stress. A higher stress experience was also associated with more caretaking hassles, psychosocial problems, high work load and low social support. Mothers with high stressreported more depressive mood and were judged to be more unresponsive to their children; they also regarded their children as more temperamentally difficult. Clinical implications conserning the use of the scale in intervention contexts were discussed.

  • 2270.
    Östberg, Monica
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Pediatrik.
    Rydell, Ann-Margret
    An efficacy study of a combined parent and teacher management training programme for children with ADHD2012Inngår i: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 66, nr 2, s. 123-130Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Several parent training programmes and behavioural teacher training programmes built on learning theory have been developed for problem prevention and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and/or oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) during the last few decades. Group format has often been used for parent training but single-subject designs are more common in teacher training. More studies have focussed on pre-school children than on older children, and a minority have been conducted in public mental health settings. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate a combined parent and teacher manual-based group training programme for children with ADHD conducted by the staff at a child and adolescent psychiatric clinic in Sweden. Method: The intervention was a modified version of Barkley's programme. Children were randomized to an Intervention or a Control group. Sixty-one parents and 68 teachers answered questions about ADHD and ODD symptoms, and about behavioural problems when the study started and at a 3-month follow-up. Results: Results showed that the intervention resulted in a reduction of the number of children who met DSM-IV criteria for ADHD and/or ODD. Effects were more pronounced in the home setting than in the school setting, and were further accentuated when both parents and teachers of the same child took part in the intervention. Teachers with more problematic classroom situations benefited most from the intervention. Conclusion: The programme, "Strategies in Everyday Life", has, in a regular clinical setting, demonstrated promising effects on children's disruptive behaviour, and a clinical implication was to recommend involving both parents and teachers in the programme.

  • 2271.
    Östholm, Hanna
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och lärdomshistoria. Avd. för vetenskapshistoria.
    Feminismens klassiker: Kompendium för kvällskurs2002Collection/Antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Antologi av fack- och skönlitterära källtexter från mitten av 1700-talet till slutet av 1900-talet. Ett uppslagsverk över författarna och andra relevanta personer (sammanställt av redaktören) finns i kompendiet.

    Texter av: Hedvig Charlotta Nordenflycht, Marie Gouze, Anna Maria Lenngren, Carl Jonas Love Almquist, Harriet Taylor Mill, John Stuart Mill, Elin Wägner, August Bebel, August Strindberg, Mathilda Malling, Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson, Elisabeth Grundtvig, Frida Steenhoff, Sigmund Freud, Rosa Mayreder, Mathilda Betham, Fortunée de Briquet, Wilhelmina Stålberg, Per G. Berg, Ellen Fries, Alice Lyttkens, Karin Westman Berg, Elise Ottesen-Jensen, Alva Myrdal, Viola Klein, Wilhelm Reich, Alfred C. Kinsey, Kristina Ahlmark Michanek, Sonja Åkesson, Shere Hite, Göran Palm, Mary Daly, Gerd Brantenberg, Rigmor Robert, Kerstin Uvnäs Moberg, Nina Björk

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