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  • 2251.
    Van den Berg, Ronald
    et al.
    Baylor Coll Med, Dept Neurosci, Houston, TX 77030 USA; Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Lab Expt Ophthalmol, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Johnson, Addie
    Univ Groningen, Dept Psychol, NL-9712 TS Groningen, Netherlands.
    Martinez Anton, Angela
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Lab Expt Ophthalmol, Groningen, Netherlands; Univ Groningen, Dept Psychol, NL-9712 TS Groningen, Netherlands.
    Schepers, Anne L.
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Lab Expt Ophthalmol, Groningen, Netherlands; Univ Groningen, Dept Psychol, NL-9712 TS Groningen, Netherlands.
    Cornelissen, Frans W.
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Lab Expt Ophthalmol, Groningen, Netherlands; Univ Groningen, Dept Psychol, NL-9712 TS Groningen, Netherlands.
    Comparing crowding in human and ideal observers2012Inngår i: Journal of Vision, ISSN 1534-7362, E-ISSN 1534-7362, Vol. 12, nr 6, artikkel-id 13Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A visual target is more difficult to recognize when it is surrounded by other, similar objects. This breakdown in object recognition is known as crowding. Despite a long history of experimental work, computational models of crowding are still sparse. Specifically, few studies have examined crowding using an ideal-observer approach. Here, we compare crowding in ideal observers with crowding in humans. We derived an ideal-observer model for target identification under conditions of position and identity uncertainty. Simulations showed that this model reproduces the hallmark of crowding, namely a critical spacing that scales with viewing eccentricity. To examine how well the model fits quantitatively to human data, we performed three experiments. In Experiments 1 and 2, we measured observers' perceptual uncertainty about stimulus positions and identities, respectively, for a target in isolation. In Experiment 3, observers identified a target that was flanked by two distractors. We found that about half of the errors in Experiment 3 could be accounted for by the perceptual uncertainty measured in Experiments 1 and 2. The remainder of the errors could be accounted for by assuming that uncertainty (i.e., the width of internal noise distribution) about stimulus positions and identities depends on flanker proximity. Our results provide a mathematical restatement of the crowding problem and support the hypothesis that crowding behavior is a sign of optimality rather than a perceptual defect.

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  • 2252.
    Van den Berg, Ronald
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lindskog, Marcus
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Poom, Leo
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Winman, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Recent Is More: A Negative Time-Order Effect in Nonsymbolic Numerical Judgment.2017Inngår i: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, ISSN 0096-1523Print, Vol. 43, nr 6, s. 1084-1097Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans as well as some nonhuman animals can estimate object numerosities—such as the number of sheep in a flock—without explicit counting. Here, we report on a negative time-order effect (TOE) in this type of judgment: When nonsymbolic numerical stimuli are presented sequentially, the second stimulus is overestimated compared to the first. We examined this “recent is more” effect in two comparative judgment tasks: larger–smaller discrimination and same–different discrimination. Ideal-observer modeling revealed evidence for a TOE in 88.2% of the individual data sets. Despite large individual differences in effect size, there was strong consistency in effect direction: 87.3% of the identified TOEs were negative. The average effect size was largely independent of task but did strongly depend on both stimulus magnitude and interstimulus interval. Finally, we used an estimation task to obtain insight into the origin of the effect. We found that subjects tend to overestimate both stimuli but the second one more strongly than the first one. Overall, our findings are highly consistent with findings from studies on TOEs in nonnumerical judgments, which suggests a common underlying mechanism.

  • 2253.
    Van den Berg, Ronald
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ma, Wei Ji
    A resource-rational theory of set size effects in human visual working memory2018Inngår i: eLIFE, E-ISSN 2050-084X, Vol. 7, artikkel-id e34963Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Encoding precision in visual working memory decreases with the number of encoded items. Here, we propose a normative theory for such set size effects: the brain minimizes a weighted sum of an error-based behavioral cost and a neural encoding cost. We construct a model from this theory and find that it predicts set size effects. Notably, these effects are mediated by probing probability, which aligns with previous empirical findings. The model accounts well for effects of both set size and probing probability on encoding precision in nine delayed-estimation experiments. Moreover, we find support for the prediction that the total amount of invested resource can vary non-monotonically with set size. Finally, we show that it is sometimes optimal to encode only a subset or even none of the relevant items in a task. Our findings raise the possibility that cognitive 'limitations' arise from rational cost minimization rather than from constraints.

  • 2254. van den Berg, Ronald
    et al.
    Ma, Wei Ji
    "Plateau"-related summary statistics are uninformative for comparing working memory models.2014Inngår i: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, ISSN 1943-3921, E-ISSN 1943-393X, Vol. 76, nr 7Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Performance on visual working memory tasks decreases as more items need to be remembered. Over the past decade, a debate has unfolded between proponents of slot models and slotless models of this phenomenon (Ma, Husain, Bays (Nature Neuroscience 17, 347-356, 2014). Zhang and Luck (Nature 453, (7192), 233-235, 2008) and Anderson, Vogel, and Awh (Attention, Perception, Psychophys 74, (5), 891-910, 2011) noticed that as more items need to be remembered, "memory noise" seems to first increase and then reach a "stable plateau." They argued that three summary statistics characterizing this plateau are consistent with slot models, but not with slotless models. Here, we assess the validity of their methods. We generated synthetic data both from a leading slot model and from a recent slotless model and quantified model evidence using log Bayes factors. We found that the summary statistics provided at most 0.15 % of the expected model evidence in the raw data. In a model recovery analysis, a total of more than a million trials were required to achieve 99 % correct recovery when models were compared on the basis of summary statistics, whereas fewer than 1,000 trials were sufficient when raw data were used. Therefore, at realistic numbers of trials, plateau-related summary statistics are highly unreliable for model comparison. Applying the same analyses to subject data from Anderson et al. (Attention, Perception, Psychophys 74, (5), 891-910, 2011), we found that the evidence in the summary statistics was at most 0.12 % of the evidence in the raw data and far too weak to warrant any conclusions. The evidence in the raw data, in fact, strongly favored the slotless model. These findings call into question claims about working memory that are based on summary statistics.

  • 2255.
    Van den Berg, Ronald
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ma, Wei Ji
    Robust averaging during perceptual judgment is not optimal.2012Inngår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 109, nr 13Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2256.
    Van den Berg, Ronald
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ma, WJ
    "Plateau"-related summary statistics are uninformative for comparing working memory models.2014Inngår i: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, ISSN 1943-3921, E-ISSN 1943-393XArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Performance on visual working memory tasks decreases as more items need to be remembered. Over the past decade, a debate has unfolded between proponents of slot models and slotless models of this phenomenon (Ma, Husain, Bays (Nature Neuroscience 17, 347-356, 2014). Zhang and Luck (Nature 453, (7192), 233-235, 2008) and Anderson, Vogel, and Awh (Attention, Perception, Psychophys 74, (5), 891-910, 2011) noticed that as more items need to be remembered, "memory noise" seems to first increase and then reach a "stable plateau." They argued that three summary statistics characterizing this plateau are consistent with slot models, but not with slotless models. Here, we assess the validity of their methods. We generated synthetic data both from a leading slot model and from a recent slotless model and quantified model evidence using log Bayes factors. We found that the summary statistics provided at most 0.15 % of the expected model evidence in the raw data. In a model recovery analysis, a total of more than a million trials were required to achieve 99 % correct recovery when models were compared on the basis of summary statistics, whereas fewer than 1,000 trials were sufficient when raw data were used. Therefore, at realistic numbers of trials, plateau-related summary statistics are highly unreliable for model comparison. Applying the same analyses to subject data from Anderson et al. (Attention, Perception, Psychophys 74, (5), 891-910, 2011), we found that the evidence in the summary statistics was at most 0.12 % of the evidence in the raw data and far too weak to warrant any conclusions. The evidence in the raw data, in fact, strongly favored the slotless model. These findings call into question claims about working memory that are based on summary statistics.

  • 2257.
    Van den Berg, Ronald
    et al.
    Univ Groningen, Inst Math & Comp Sci, Groningen, Netherlands; Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Lab Expt Ophthalmol, Groningen, Netherlands; Univ Groningen, Sch Behav & Cognit Neurosci, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Roerdink, Jos B. T. M.
    Univ Groningen, Inst Math & Comp Sci, Groningen, Netherlands; .
    Cornelissen, Frans W.
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Lab Expt Ophthalmol, Groningen, Netherlands; Univ Groningen, Sch Behav & Cognit Neurosci, Groningen, Netherlands.
    A neurophysiologically plausible population code model for feature integration explains visual crowding2010Inngår i: PloS Computational Biology, ISSN 1553-734X, E-ISSN 1553-7358, Vol. 6, nr 1, artikkel-id e1000646Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An object in the peripheral visual field is more difficult to recognize when surrounded by other objects. This phenomenon is called "crowding". Crowding places a fundamental constraint on human vision that limits performance on numerous tasks. It has been suggested that crowding results from spatial feature integration necessary for object recognition. However, in the absence of convincing models, this theory has remained controversial. Here, we present a quantitative and physiologically plausible model for spatial integration of orientation signals, based on the principles of population coding. Using simulations, we demonstrate that this model coherently accounts for fundamental properties of crowding, including critical spacing, "compulsory averaging", and a foveal-peripheral anisotropy. Moreover, we show that the model predicts increased responses to correlated visual stimuli. Altogether, these results suggest that crowding has little immediate bearing on object recognition but is a by-product of a general, elementary integration mechanism in early vision aimed at improving signal quality.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 2258.
    Van den Berg, Ronald
    et al.
    Department of Mathematics and Computing Science and School of Behavioral and Cognitive Neurosciences, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands..
    Roerdink, Jos B. T. M.
    Department of Mathematics and Computing Science and School of Behavioral and Cognitive Neurosciences, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands..
    Cornelissen, Frans W.
    Department of Mathematics and Computing Science and School of Behavioral and Cognitive Neurosciences, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands..
    On the generality of crowding: visual crowding in size, saturation, and hue compared to orientation2007Inngår i: Journal of Vision, ISSN 1534-7362, E-ISSN 1534-7362, Vol. 7, nr 2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Perception of peripherally viewed shapes is impaired when surrounded by similar shapes. This phenomenon is commonly referred to as "crowding". Although studied extensively for perception of characters (mainly letters) and, to a lesser extent, for orientation, little is known about whether and how crowding affects perception of other features. Nevertheless, current crowding models suggest that the effect should be rather general and thus not restricted to letters and orientation. Here, we report on a series of experiments investigating crowding in the following elementary feature dimensions: size, hue, and saturation. Crowding effects in these dimensions were benchmarked against those in the orientation domain. Our primary finding is that all features studied show clear signs of crowding. First, identification thresholds increase with decreasing mask spacing. Second, for all tested features, critical spacing appears to be roughly half the viewing eccentricity and independent of stimulus size, a property previously proposed as the hallmark of crowding. Interestingly, although critical spacings are highly comparable, crowding magnitude differs across features: Size crowding is almost as strong as orientation crowding, whereas the effect is much weaker for saturation and hue. We suggest that future theories and models of crowding should be able to accommodate these differences in crowding effects.

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  • 2259.
    Van den Berg, Ronald
    et al.
    Baylor Coll Med, Dept Neurosci, Houston, TX 77030 USA.
    Shin, Hongsup
    Baylor Coll Med, Dept Neurosci, Houston, TX 77030 USA.
    Chou, Wen-Chuang
    Baylor Coll Med, Dept Neurosci, Houston, TX 77030 USA.
    George, Ryan
    Baylor Coll Med, Dept Neurosci, Houston, TX 77030 USA; Rice Univ, Dept Computat & Appl Math, Houston, TX 77005 USA.
    Ma, Wei Ji
    Baylor Coll Med, Dept Neurosci, Houston, TX 77030 USA.
    Variability in encoding precision accounts for visual short-term memory limitations2012Inngår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 109, nr 22, s. 8780-8785Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is commonly believed that visual short-term memory (VSTM) consists of a fixed number of "slots" in which items can be stored. An alternative theory in which memory resource is a continuous quantity distributed over all items seems to be refuted by the appearance of guessing in human responses. Here, we introduce a model in which resource is not only continuous but also variable across items and trials, causing random fluctuations in encoding precision. We tested this model against previous models using two VSTM paradigms and two feature dimensions. Our model accurately accounts for all aspects of the data, including apparent guessing, and outperforms slot models in formal model comparison. At the neural level, variability in precision might correspond to variability in neural population gain and doubly stochastic stimulus representation. Our results suggest that VSTM resource is continuous and variable rather than discrete and fixed and might explain why subjective experience of VSTM is not all or none.

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  • 2260.
    Van den Berg, Ronald
    et al.
    Baylor Coll Med, Dept Neurosci, Houston, TX 77030 USA.
    Vogel, Michael
    Univ Houston, Dept Math, Houston, TX 77204 USA.
    Josic, Kresimir
    Univ Houston, Dept Math, Houston, TX 77204 USA; Univ Houston, Dept Biol & Biochem, Houston, TX 77204 USA.
    Ma, Wei Ji
    Baylor Coll Med, Dept Neurosci, Houston, TX 77030 USA.
    Optimal inference of sameness2012Inngår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 109, nr 8, s. 3178-3183Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Deciding whether a set of objects are the same or different is a cornerstone of perception and cognition. Surprisingly, no principled quantitative model of sameness judgment exists. We tested whether human sameness judgment under sensory noise can be modeled as a form of probabilistically optimal inference. An optimal observer would compare the reliability-weighted variance of the sensory measurements with a set size-dependent criterion. We conducted two experiments, in which we varied set size and individual stimulus reliabilities. We found that the optimal-observer model accurately describes human behavior, outperforms plausible alternatives in a rigorous model comparison, and accounts for three key findings in the animal cognition literature. Our results provide a normative footing for the study of sameness judgment and indicate that the notion of perception as near-optimal inference extends to abstract relations.

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  • 2261.
    Van den Berg, Ronald
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Yoo, Aspen H.
    NYU, Ctr Neural Sci, New York, NY 10003 USA.; NYU, Dept Psychol, New York, NY 10003 USA.
    Ma, Wei Ji
    NYU, Ctr Neural Sci, New York, NY 10003 USA.; NYU, Dept Psychol, New York, NY 10003 USA.
    Fechner’s law in metacognition: A quantitative model of visual working memory confidence.2017Inngår i: Psychological Review, ISSN 0033-295XPrint, Vol. 124, nr 2, s. 197-214Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Although visual working memory (VWM) has been studied extensively, it is unknown how people form confidence judgments about their memories. Peirce (1878) speculated that Fechner’s law—which states that sensation is proportional to the logarithm of stimulus intensity—might apply to confidence reports. Based on this idea, we hypothesize that humans map the precision of their VWM contents to a confidence rating through Fechner’s law. We incorporate this hypothesis into the best available model of VWM encoding and fit it to data from a delayed-estimation experiment. The model provides an excellent account of human confidence rating distributions as well as the relation between performance and confidence. Moreover, the best-fitting mapping in a model with a highly flexible mapping closely resembles the logarithmic mapping, suggesting that no alternative mapping exists that accounts better for the data than Fechner’s law. We propose a neural implementation of the model and find that this model also fits the behavioral data well. Furthermore, we find that jointly fitting memory errors and confidence ratings boosts the power to distinguish previously proposed VWM encoding models by a factor of 5.99 compared to fitting only memory errors. Finally, we show that Fechner’s law also accounts for metacognitive judgments in a word recognition memory task, which is a first indication that it may be a general law in metacognition. Our work presents the first model to jointly account for errors and confidence ratings in VWM and could lay the groundwork for understanding the computational mechanisms of metacognition.

  • 2262.
    Van den Berg, Ronald
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Zylberberg, Ariel
    Department of Neuroscience, Zuckerman Mind Brain Behavior Institute, Kavli Institute of Brain Science, and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA.
    Kiani, Roozbeh
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA.
    Shadlen, Michael N.
    Department of Neuroscience, Zuckerman Mind Brain Behavior Institute, Kavli Institute of Brain Science, and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA.
    Wolpert, Daniel M.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Confidence Is the Bridge between Multi-stage Decisions2016Inngår i: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Demanding tasks often require a series of decisions to reach a goal. Recent progress in perceptual decision-making has served to unite decision accuracy, speed, and confidence in a common framework of bounded evidence accumulation, furnishing a platform for the study of such multi-stage decisions. In many instances, the strategy applied to each decision, such as the speed-accuracy trade-off, ought to depend on the accuracy of the previous decisions. However, as the accuracy of each decision is often unknown to the decision maker, we hypothesized that subjects may carry forward a level of confidence in previous decisions to affect subsequent decisions. Subjects made two perceptual decisions sequentially and were rewarded only if they made both correctly. The speed and accuracy of individual decisions were explained by noisy evidence accumulation to a terminating bound. We found that subjects adjusted their speed-accuracy setting by elevating the termination bound on the second decision in proportion to their confidence in the first. The findings reveal a novel role for confidence and a degree of flexibility, hitherto unknown, in the brain’s ability to rapidly and precisely modify the mechanisms that control the termination of a decision.

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  • 2263.
    Vegelius, Jan
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten.
    On various G index generalizations and their applicability within the clinical domain1976Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 2264.
    Versluys, Lara
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Fischer, Håkan
    Wik, G
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Order effects related to habituation in the central and peripheral nervous system.1996Inngår i: Psychophysiology, 1996, Vol. 33, s. 86-Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 2265.
    Vetter, Max
    et al.
    Heidelberg University.
    Eib, Constanze
    Stockholm University.
    Hill-Kloß, Sonja
    Heidelberg University.
    Wollscheid, Philipp
    Heidelberg University.
    Hagemann, Dirk
    Heidelberg University.
    Entwicklung und Validierung einer Skala zum sozialen Exhibitionismus im Internet (SEXI)2014Inngår i: DiagnosticaArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [de]

    Socially exhibitionistic behavior in virtual environments has been a scarcely researched issue, despite its increasing relevancein modern societies. Although many theoretical approaches have been suggested, there is a lack of empirical work on this construct. Onepossible reason for this deficit is the absence of an appropriate instrument for the measurement. In order to measure socially exhibitionisticbehavior, a 15-item-scale and a corresponding shortened 8-item version was developed. An explorative factor analysis yielded theexpected one-factor solution. Discriminant validity was investigated by analyzing the correlation structure between the new scale andseveral other measures of personality (Study 1). This was followed by an extensive validation study to investigate both discriminantand convergent validity (Study 2) and a quasi-experimental study comprising extreme prototypes of socially exhibitionistic behavior(Study 3). The findings strongly suggest that the new scale is an appropriate instrument for the measurement of socially exhibitionisticbehavior in virtual environments

  • 2266.
    Victor, Trent
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Keeping Eye and Mind on the Road2005Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is devoted to understanding and counteracting the primary contributing factor in traffic crashes: inattention. Foremost, it demonstrates the fundamental importance of proactive gaze in the road centre area for action guidance in driving. Inattention is explained with regard to two visual functions (vision-for-action and vision-for-identification), three forms of attentional selection (action-driven-, stimulus-driven-, and goal-directed attention), and two forms of prediction influences (extrapolation-based- and decision-based prediction influences). In Study I an automated eye-movement analysis method was developed for a purpose-built eye-tracking sensor, and was successfully validated. This analysis method was further developed, and several new measures of gaze concentration to the road centre area were created. Study II demonstrated that a sharp decrease in the amount of road centre viewing time is accompanied by a dramatic spatial concentration towards the road centre area in returning gaze during visual tasks. During cognitive tasks, a spatial gaze concentration to road centre is also evident; however contrary to visual tasks, road centre viewing time is increased because the eyes are not directed towards an object within the vehicle. Study III found that gaze concentration measures are highly sensitive to driving task demands as well as to visual and auditory in-vehicle tasks. Gaze concentration to the road centre area was found as driving task complexity increased, as shown in differences between rural curved- and straight sections, between rural and motorway road types, and between simulator and field motorways. Further, when task duration was held constant and the in-vehicle visual task became more difficult, drivers looked less at the road centre area ahead, and looked at the display more often, for longer periods, and for more varied durations. In closing, it is shown how this knowledge can be applied to create in-vehicle attention support functions that counteract the effects of inattention.

    Delarbeid
    1. Automating driver visual behavior measurement
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Automating driver visual behavior measurement
    2012 (engelsk)Inngår i: Vision in Vehicles IX: Proceedings of 9th International Conference on Vision in Vehicles / [ed] Gale, Alastair G.: Bloomfield, John: Underwood, Geoffrey: Wood, Joanne, 2012Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93871 (URN)978-0-9571266-1-9 (ISBN)
    Konferanse
    9th International Conference on Vision in Vehicles, Loughborough University UK, 2012
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2005-12-15 Laget: 2005-12-15 Sist oppdatert: 2013-07-24bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Gaze Concentration in Visual and Cognitive Tasks: Using Eye Movements to Measure Driving Information Loss
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Gaze Concentration in Visual and Cognitive Tasks: Using Eye Movements to Measure Driving Information Loss
    Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Submitted
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93872 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2005-12-15 Laget: 2005-12-15bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Sensitivity of eye-movement measures to in-vehicle task difficulty
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Sensitivity of eye-movement measures to in-vehicle task difficulty
    2005 Inngår i: Transportation Research Part F: Psychology and Behaviour, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 167-190Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93873 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2005-12-15 Laget: 2005-12-15bibliografisk kontrollert
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
    Download (pdf)
    COVER01
  • 2267.
    Vigerland, Sarah
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Ctr Psychiat Res, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Cty Council, Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lenhard, Fabian
    Karolinska Inst, Ctr Psychiat Res, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Cty Council, Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bonnert, Marianne
    Stockholm Cty Council, Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Div Psychol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lalouni, Maria
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Stockholm Cty Council, Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hedman, Erik
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Div Psychol, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Osher Ctr Integrat Med, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Åhlén, Johan
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Olen, Ola
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Serlachius, Eva
    Karolinska Inst, Ctr Psychiat Res, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Cty Council, Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ljotsson, Brjann
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Div Psychol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for children and adolescents: A systematic review and meta-analysis2016Inngår i: Clinical Psychology Review, ISSN 0272-7358, E-ISSN 1873-7811, Vol. 50, s. 1-10Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) is a relatively novel treatment format with the potential to increase accessibility of evidence-based care. However, little is known about the feasibility and efficacy of ICBT in children and adolescents. We conducted a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis of ICBT for children and adolescents to provide an overview of the field and assess the efficacy of these interventions. A systematic literature search of six electronic databases was performed to identify ICBT intervention studies for children with a psychiatric condition, such as social anxiety disorder, or a somatic condition, such as chronic pain. Two reviewers independently rated study quality. Twenty-five studies, targeting 11 different disorders, were included in the review. Study quality and presentation of treatment variables, such as therapist time and treatment adherence, varied largely. Twenty-four studies (N = 1882) were included in the meta-analysis and ICBT yielded moderate between-group effect sizes when compared with waitlist, g = 0.62, 95% CI [0.41, 0.84]. The results suggest that CBT for psychiatric and somatic conditions in children and adolescents can be successfully adapted to an intemet-delivered format.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 2268. Vinnerljung, Bo
    et al.
    Lindblad, Frank
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatri.
    Hjern, Anders
    Rasmussen, Finn
    Dalen, Monica
    School performance at age 16 among international adoptees: A Swedish national cohort study2010Inngår i: International Social Work, ISSN 0020-8728, E-ISSN 1461-7234, Vol. 53, nr 4, s. 510-527Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    School performance at age 16 for 6448 intercountry adoptees to Sweden was compared with that of siblings and majority population peers. The school performance of Korean-born adoptees was on a par with non-adopted peers, but non-Korean adoptees' school performance was lower, as was that of adoptees who were older at the time of adoption.

  • 2269.
    Volgsten, Helena
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Forskargrupper (Inst. för kvinnor och barns hälsa), Obstetrisk och reproduktiv hälsoforskning. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    Jansson, Caroline
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Forskargrupper (Inst. för kvinnor och barns hälsa), Reproduktionsbiologi.
    Skoog Svanberg, Agneta
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Forskargrupper (Inst. för kvinnor och barns hälsa), Reproduktiv hälsa.
    Darj, Elisabeth
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Internationell mödra- och barnhälsovård (IMCH), Internationell kvinno- och mödrahälsovård och migration. Department of Public Health and Nursing, NTNU, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, St Olav’s Hospital, Trondheim, Norway.
    Stavreus-Evers, Anneli
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Forskargrupper (Inst. för kvinnor och barns hälsa), Reproduktionsbiologi.
    Longitudinal study of emotional experiences, grief and depressive symptoms in women and men after miscarriage2018Inngår i: Midwifery, ISSN 0266-6138, E-ISSN 1532-3099, Vol. 64, s. 23-28Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Although miscarriage is common and affects up to 20 % of pregnant women, little is known about these couples’ short term and long term experiences after miscarriage.The aim of the present study was to study emotional experience, grief and depressive symptoms in women and men,one week and four months after miscarriage. Research design /setting:Women, (n=103), and their male partner (n=78), were recruited at the gynecological clinic after miscarriage. Control women were recruitedfrom the general population.Three validated questionnaires concerning psychological wellbeing and mental health, RIMS, PGS and MADRS-S were answered by the participants one week and four months after the miscarriage. Findings: It was shown that for women, the emotional experiences of miscarriage, grief and depressive symptoms were more pronounced than for their male partners. Grief and depressive symptoms were reduced with time, which was not the case for the emotional experiences of miscarriage. Previous children was favorable for emotional experience while previous miscarriage or infertility treatment made the emotional experience worse. Conclusion: Grief and depressive symptoms is reducedover time while emotional experiences such as isolation, loss of baby and a devastating event persist for longer time than four months. Lack of previous children, previous miscarriageand infertility diagnosis could increase negative emotional experiencesafter miscarriage, this was especially pronounced for grief reaction.The questionnaires could be used both clinically and in research to understand the emotional experiences after miscarriage.

  • 2270.
    Vollmar, R.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Wagner, R.Uppsala universitet.
    The usefulness of haptic displays for visually impaired people reading 3D pictures2000Inngår i: Computers helping people with special needs. ICCHP 2000., , s. 313-317Konferanseproceedings (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 2271.
    von Hofsten, C
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    On the early development of predictive abilities1997Inngår i: Evolving Explanations of Development: Ecological approaches to Organism-Environmental Systems., APA publications , 1997, s. 163-194Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 2272.
    von Hofsten, C
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Rosander, K
    Development of smooth pursuit tracking in young infants1997Inngår i: Vision Research, Vol. 37, s. 1799-1810Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2273.
    von Hofsten, C
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Rosander, K
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The development of gaze control and predictive tracking in young infant1996Inngår i: Vision Research, Vol. 36, s. 81-96Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2274.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Action in Development2007Inngår i: Developmental Science, ISSN 1363-755X, E-ISSN 1467-7687, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 54-60Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is argued that cognitive development has to be understood in the functional perspective provided by actions. Actions reflect all aspects of cognitive development including the motives of the child, the problems to be solved, and the constraints and possibilities of the child's body and sensorimotor system. Actions are directed into the future and their control is based on knowledge of what is going to happen next. Such knowledge is available because events are governed by rules and regularities. The planning of actions also requires knowledge of the affordances of objects and events. An important aspect of cognitive development is about how the child acquires such knowledge.

  • 2275.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Action, the foundation for cognitive development2009Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 50, nr 6, s. 617-623Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is argued that action constitutes the foundation for cognitive development. Action is a principal component of all aspects of cognitive development including social understanding. It reflects the motives of the child, the problems to be solved, the goals to be attained, and the constraints and possibilities of the child's body and sensory-motor system. Actions are directed into the future and their control is based on knowledge of what is going to happen next. The child's sensory-motor system is especially designed to facilitate the extraction of this knowledge. In addition, the infant is endowed with motives that ensure that these innate predispositions are transformed into a system of knowledge for guiding actions. By acting on the world, infants develop their cognition.

  • 2276.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    An action perspective on motor development2004Inngår i: Trends in cognitive sciences, ISSN 1364-6613, E-ISSN 1879-307X, Vol. 8, nr 6, s. 266-272Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Motor development has all too often been considered as a set of milestones with little significance for the psychology of the child. Nothing could be more wrong. From an action perspective, motor development is at the heart of development and reflects all its different aspects, including perception, planning and motivation. Recent converging evidence demonstrates that, from birth onwards, children are agents who act on the world. Even in the newborn child, their movements are never just reflexes. On the contrary, they are purposeful goal-directed actions that foresee events in the world. Thus, motor development is not just a question of gaining control over muscles; equally important are questions such as why a particular movement is made, how the movements are planned, and how they anticipate what is going to happen next.

  • 2277.
    von, Hofsten Claes
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Motor Development and Skill Acquisition1997Inngår i: Encyclopedia of Pedagogical Sciences, Pergamon Press , 1997Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2278.
    von, Hofsten Claes
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Planning and perceiving what is going to happen next1995Inngår i: The development of future oriented processes, University of Chicago press , 1995, s. 63-86Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2279.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Predictive Actions2014Inngår i: Ecological psychology, ISSN 1040-7413, E-ISSN 1532-6969, Vol. 26, nr 1-2, s. 79-87Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Controlling actions must be done ahead of time because events precede the feedback signals about them. The only way to overcome this problem is to anticipate what is going to happen next and use that information to regulate the ones actions. There are at least 3 types of rules that need to be mastered in order to accomplish this. First, those that regulate physical reality like the laws of nature. Secondly, those that regulate their own body movements. The muscles of the body interact in very complex ways in the execution of goal directed actions and subjects must be in control of these rules. Thirdly, the rules that regulate the interaction between individuals must be mastered. It is about understanding the social signals that inform about other people's emotions and intentions. In the present article, the development of predictive control is discussed in this context and how infants get to anticipate what is going to happen next.

  • 2280.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Prehension2005Inngår i: Cambridge Encyclopedia of Child Development / [ed] Brian Hopkins, Cambridge University Press, 2005, s. 348-351Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2281. von Hofsten, Claes
    et al.
    Adell, Malin
    Uhlig, Helena
    Kochukhova, Olga
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    What eye movements reveal about autism.2009Inngår i: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, ISSN 1750-9467, E-ISSN 1878-0237, Vol. 3, s. 556-569Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2282.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Feng, Q
    Spelke, E. S
    Object representation and predictive action in infancy2000Inngår i: Developmental Science, ISSN 1363-755X, E-ISSN 1467-7687, Vol. 3, nr 2, s. 193-205Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that 6-month-old infants extrapolate object motion on linear paths when they act predictively on fully visible moving objects but not when they observe partly occluded moving objects. The present research probed whether differences in the tasks presented to infants or in the visibility of the objects account for these findings, by investigating infants’ predictive head tracking of a visible object that moves behind a small occluder. Six-month-old infants were presented with an object that moved repeatedly on linear or nonlinear paths, with an occluder covering the place where all the paths intersected. The first time infants viewed an object’s motion, their head movements did not anticipate either linear or nonlinear motion, but they quickly learned to anticipate linear motion on successive trials. Infants also learned to anticipate nonlinear motion, but this learning was slower and less consistent. Learning in all cases concerned the trajectory of the object, not the specific locations at which the object appeared. These findings suggest that infants form object representations that are weakly biased toward inertial motion and that are influenced by learning. The findings accord with the thesis that a single system of representation underlies both predictive action and perception of object motion, and that occlusion reduces the precision of object representations.

  • 2283.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
     The Role of Looking in Social Cognition: Perspectives from Development and Autism.2008Inngår i: Social Cognition: Development, Neuroscience and Autism / [ed] Tricia Striano and Vincent Reid, Wiley-Blackwell , 2008Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 2284.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The role of looking in social development: perspectives from development and autism2008Inngår i: Social Cognition: Development, Neuroscience and Autism / [ed] V. Reid and P. Striano, Oxford: Blackwell , 2008Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2285.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Johansson, Katarina
    Planning to reach for a rotating rod: Developmental aspects2009Inngår i: Zeitschrift für Entwicklungspsychologie und pädagogische Psychologie, ISSN 0049-8637, E-ISSN 2190-6262, Vol. 41, nr 4, s. 207-213Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Hand adjustments of 6- and 10-month-old infants and adults were studied as they reached to grasp a rotating rod. It was found that the subjects in all three age groups adjusted the hand prospectively to the rotating rod during the approach of it. They also adjusted the reaches to the rotating rod in such a way that almost all of the grasps were overhand ones as predicted by the endpoint comfort hypothesis. Finally, it was found that the rotation of the hand was made up of movement units as translational movements are, and that the approach units were relatively independent of the rotational ones.

  • 2286.
    Von Hofsten, Claes
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Kochukhova, Olga
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Rosander, Kerstin
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Predictive tracking over occlusions by 4-month-old infants2007Inngår i: Developmental Science, ISSN 1363-755X, E-ISSN 1467-7687, Vol. 10, nr 5, s. 625-640Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Two experiments investigated how 16-20-week-old infants visually tracked an object that oscillated on a horizontal trajectory with a centrally placed occluder. To determine the principles underlying infants' tendency to shift gaze to the exiting side before the object arrives, occluder width, oscillation frequency, and motion amplitude were manipulated resulting in occlusion durations between 0.20 and 1.66 s. Through these manipulations, we were able to distinguish between several possible modes of behavior underlying 'predictive' actions at occluders. Four such modes were tested. First, if passage-of-time determines when saccades are made, the tendency to shift gaze over the occluder is expected to be a function of time since disappearance. Second, if visual salience of the exiting occluder edge determines when saccades are made, occluder width would determine the pre-reappearance gaze shifts but not oscillation frequency, amplitude, or velocity. Third, if memory of the duration of the previous occlusion determines when the subjects shift gaze over the occluder, it is expected that the gaze will shift after the same latency at the next occlusion irrespective of whether occlusion duration is changed or not. Finally, if infants base their pre-reapperance gaze shifts on their ability to represent object motion (cognitive mode), it is expected that the latency of the gaze shifts over the occluder is scaled to occlusion duration. Eye and head movements as well as object motion were measured at 240 Hz. In 49% of the passages, the infants shifted gaze to the opposite side of the occluder before the object arrived there. The tendency to make such gaze shifts could not be explained by the passage of time since disappearance. Neither could it be fully explained in terms of visual information present during occlusion, i.e. occluder width. On the contrary, it was found that the latency of the pre-reappearance gaze shifts was determined by the time of object reappearance and that it was a function of all three factors manipulated. The results suggest that object velocity is represented during occlusion and that infants track the object behind the occluder in their 'mind's eye'.

  • 2287.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Rosander, Kerstin
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The Development of Sensorimotor Intelligence in Infants2018Inngår i: Studying The Perception-Action System As A Model System For Understanding Development / [ed] Plumert, J M, Elsevier, 2018, s. 73-106Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Infancy is the most dynamic part of human development. During this period, all basic sensorimotor and cognitive abilities are established. In this chapter, we will trace some of the important achievements of this development with a focus on how infants achieve predictive control of actions, i.e., how they come to coordinate their behavior with the ongoing events in the world without lagging behind. With the maturation of the brain, new possibilities that have profound effects on cognition open up. Some of them are core abilities, i.e., they function at birth or very early in development. Important examples are the structured perception of objects and surfaces and the control of arm movements. Closely after birth, infants move their arms to the vicinity of objects in front of them demonstrating that they have some control of their arms and indicating that they perceive objects as such. Another example is the rapid onset of smooth-pursuit eye movements during the second month of life and the emerging ability to predict when and where an occluded moving object will reappear. At 4 months of age, out of sight is no longer of mind. The child's sensorimotor system is especially designed to facilitate the extraction of knowledge about the world including other people. In addition, the infant is endowed with motives that ensure that the innate predispositions are transformed into a system of knowledge for guiding actions predictively. By perceiving and acting on the world, infants develop their cognition and through developmental studies; we can learn more about these processes.

  • 2288.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Uhlig, Helena
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Adell, Malin
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Kochukhova, Olga
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    How children with autism look at events2009Inngår i: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, ISSN 1750-9467, Vol. 3, nr 2, s. 556-569Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Patterns of eye movements were studied in a group of 10 preschool children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and in two reference groups with typically developing (TD) children, 12 3-year-olds and 12 1-year-olds. Three hypotheses were tested regarding the origins of problems experienced by children with ASD in dynamic situations. The first one stated that the children with ASD have deficient motion perception. The second one stated that children with ASD are deficient in predicting events, and the third one that the roots are to be found in deficient social perception. The results show that the children with ASD tracked moving objects with smooth pursuit and predicted the reappearance of temporarily occluded moving object in the same way as the TD children. Their eye movements, however, revealed deficient social perception. They looked at a video-taped conversation much less than the TD children, they did not predict the onset of the next turn in the conversation, and the fixations on the speakers were shorter. These effects did not appear in a control video with objects taking turns and making sounds in a similar alternating way to the two participants in the conversation.

  • 2289.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Vishton, P
    Spelke, E.S.
    Feng, Q.
    Rosander, Kerstin
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Predictive action in infancy: Tracking and reaching for moving objects1998Inngår i: Cognition, ISSN 0010-0277, E-ISSN 1873-7838, Vol. 67, nr 3, s. 255-285Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Because action plans must anticipate the states of the world which will be obtained when the actions take place, effective actions depend on predictions. The present experiments begin to explore the principles underlying early-developing predictions of object motion, by focusing on 6-month-old infants' head tracking and reaching for moving objects. Infants were presented with an object that moved into reaching space on four trajectories: two linear trajectories that intersected at the center of a display and two trajectories containing a sudden turn at the point of intersection. In two studies, infants' tracking and reaching provided evidence for an extrapolation of the object motion on linear paths, in accord with the principle of inertia. This tendency was remarkably resistant to counter-evidence, for it was observed even after repeated presentations of an object that violated the principle of inertia by spontaneously stopping and then moving in a new direction. In contrast to the present findings, infants fail to extrapolate linear object motion in preferential looking experiments, suggesting that early-developing knowledge of object motion, like mature knowledge, is embedded in multiple systems of representation.

  • 2290.
    von Hofsten, Olov
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Hofsten, von, Claes
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Sulutvedt, Unni
    Laeng, Bruno
    Brennen, Tim
    Magnussen, Svein
    Simulating newborn face perception2014Inngår i: Journal of Vision, ISSN 1534-7362, E-ISSN 1534-7362, Vol. 14, nr 13, s. 16-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A frequently asked question concerns what a newborn infant can actually see. The contrast sensitivity function of newborn infants is well known, but its implications for the ability of newborns to perceive faces of adults remain unclear. We filtered gray scale animations of facial expressions in terms of both spatial frequency and contrast to correspond to the properties of newborn infants' acuity and showed them to adult participants. We reasoned that if adults were unable to identify the depicted facial expressions, then it would also seem unlikely that newborn infants could identify the same expressions. We found that for the simulated acuity the different expressions could be rather well identified at a distance of 30 cm, but when the distance was increased to 120 cm their discriminability was much degraded. This shows that although the perception of faces and facial expressions can function at the low visual resolution of the newborn infant, it is insufficient for distinguishing faces and facial expressions at moderate distances.

  • 2291. Von Lindern, E.
    et al.
    Lymeus, F.
    Hartig, Terry
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för bostads- och urbanforskning (IBF).
    The restorative environment: Acomplementary concept for salutogenesis studies2017Inngår i: Handbook of Salutogenesis / [ed] M.B. Mittelmark et al., New York: Springer, 2017, s. 181-195Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2292.
    Von Lindern, Eike
    et al.
    Univ Zurich, Dept Psychol, Appl Social & Hlth Psychol, Binzmuhlestr 14,Box 14, CH-8050 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Hartig, Terry
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för bostads- och urbanforskning (IBF).
    Lercher, Peter
    Med Univ Innsbruck, Dept Hyg Microbiol & Social Med, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria.
    Traffic-related exposures, constrained restoration, and health in the residential context2016Inngår i: Health and Place, ISSN 1353-8292, E-ISSN 1873-2054, Vol. 39, s. 92-100Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic-related exposures may undermine the restorative character of the home, and this may in turn undermine health and residential satisfaction. We addressed this possibility with data for adults residing in a large valley near Innsbruck, Austria (N=572). We joined objective measures of traffic-related sound and air pollutants with reports from door-to-door surveys concerning perceived disturbance from traffic-related exposures, restorative qualities of the living environment, self-perceived health and residential satisfaction. We analyzed these data with successive tests of nested structural equation models, with and without the restorative quality variables. The results suggest that the negative impact of traffic-related exposures on self-perceived health and satisfaction with the living environment involves the constraint of restorative qualities of the living environment, over and above the share traditionally attributed to such exposures viewed as stressors. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of the distinction between environmental stressors and constraints on restoration.

  • 2293. von Lindern, Eike
    et al.
    Lymeus, Freddie
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Hartig, Terry
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    A Complementary Concept for Salutogenesis Studies2017Inngår i: The Restorative Environment / [ed] Mittelmark, Maurice B.; Sagy, Shifra; Eriksson, Monica; Bauer, Georg F.; Pelikan, Jürgen M.; Lindström, Bengt; Espnes, Geir Arild, Springer Publishing Company, 2017, s. 181-195Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 2294. Väfors Fritz, Marie
    et al.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Koposov, Roman
    Af Klinteberg, Britt
    Antisocial process screening device: validation on a Russian sample of juvenile delinquents with the emphasis on the role of personality and parental rearing.2008Inngår i: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, ISSN 0160-2527, E-ISSN 1873-6386, Vol. 31, nr 5, s. 438-46Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The objectives of the present study were 1) to validate the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) in a sample of Russian juvenile delinquents; 2) to examine subgroups of delinquents with higher versus lower levels of childhood problem behaviors with respect to the APSD subscales, personality traits, and parental rearing; and 3) to attempt to replicate the previous finding that the APSD subscale measuring callous/unemotional traits can differentiate subgroups of delinquents with different precursors for problem behaviors (predominantly biological versus predominantly social). A group of 250 Russian juvenile inmates (mean age=16.4) was examined by means of the APSD completed by the staff at the correctional institution. The inmates completed several self-reports assessing their current and childhood behavior problems, personality traits and experienced parental rearing practices. A factor structure of the APSD was obtained that is similar, albeit not identical, to that from the original studies by Frick and colleagues [Frick, P.J., O'Brien, B.S., Wootton, J.M., McBurnett, K., (1994). Psychopathy and conduct problems in children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 700-707]; [Frick, P.J., Barry, C.T., Bodin, S.D., (1999). Applying the concept of psychopathy to children: Implications for the Assessment of antisocial youth. In Gacono, C.B. (Ed), The clinical and forensic assessment of psychopathy: A practitioners guide. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum]; [Frick, P.J., Lilienfeld, S.O., Ellis, M., Loney, B., Silverthorn, P., (1999). The association between anxiety and psychopathy dimensions in children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 27, 383-392]; callous unemotional traits in the present sample were expressed in manipulative behavior. Results further disclosed higher levels of antisocial and aggressive activities, higher levels of personality attributes such as narcissism and novelty seeking, as well as lower cooperativeness, and negatively perceived parental rearing in a subgroup with higher (versus lower) number of childhood symptoms of conduct disorder and oppositional disorder. The juvenile delinquents with higher levels as compared to lower levels of callous unemotional traits also perceived their parents as using more negative rearing strategies. The findings are discussed in terms of interactional processes between personality of the juvenile delinquents and parental rearing in the development of antisocial behavior.

  • 2295. Västfjäll, D
    et al.
    Juslin, Patrik N
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Hartig, Terry
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Music, subjective well-being, and health: The role of everyday emotions.2012Inngår i: Music, health, and well-being / [ed] R. MacDonald, G. Kreutz, & L. Mitchell, New York: Oxford University Press, 2012, s. 405-423Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2296. Västfjäll, D
    et al.
    Juslin, Patrik N
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Hartig, Terry
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för bostads- och urbanforskning (IBF).
    Musik leder till bättre folkhälsa2012Inngår i: Tvärsnitt, ISSN 0348-7997, Vol. 2, nr 10Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 2297.
    Wallert, John
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Forskargrupper (Inst. för kvinnor och barns hälsa), Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    Ekman, Urban
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institute.
    Westman, Eric
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institute.
    Madison, Guy
    Department of Psychology, Umeå Universit.
    The Worst Performance Rule with Elderly in Abnormal Cognitive Decline2017Inngår i: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, Vol. 64, s. 9-17Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Compared to best performances, worst performances on multi-trial psychometric tests often show stronger correlations with other g-loaded cognitive tests, which is known as the Worst Performance Rule (WPR). While worst performances may be more sensitive or specific to cognitive decline, clinical psychometric research and neuropsychological practice tends to neglect the WPR. Here, we examined the WPR-paradigm relative to abnormal cognitive decline. Specifically, we studied the WPR with binned simple reaction time task responses when rank-correlated with five different estimates of psychometric g within a memory clinic sample (n = 103) of elderly diagnosed with either Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) (n = 53) or dementia (n = 50). Three of the gestimates were composite scores constructed from 2, 6, and 28 established test scores. Results showed a consistent WPR-pattern in the whole sample for each of the five estimates (block design rs = −0.201 to −0.120; digit span rs = −0.284 to −0.112; g2 rs = −0.311 to −0.162; g6 rs = −0.314 to −0.107; g28 rs = −0.269 to −0.121). Our findings contradict classical test theory, and highlight the underused potential of the WPR when assessing cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients.

  • 2298.
    Wallert, John
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Forskargrupper (Inst. för kvinnor och barns hälsa), Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    Gustafson, Emelie
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Forskargrupper (Inst. för kvinnor och barns hälsa), Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    Held, Claes
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Uppsala kliniska forskningscentrum (UCR). Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Madison, Guy
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Norlund, Fredrika
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Forskargrupper (Inst. för kvinnor och barns hälsa), Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    von Essen, Louise
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Forskargrupper (Inst. för kvinnor och barns hälsa), Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    Olsson, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Forskargrupper (Inst. för kvinnor och barns hälsa), Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    Predicting Adherence to Internet-Delivered Psychotherapy for Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety After Myocardial Infarction: Machine Learning Insights From the U-CARE Heart Randomized Controlled Trial2018Inngår i: Journal of Medical Internet Research, ISSN 1438-8871, E-ISSN 1438-8871, Vol. 20, nr 10, artikkel-id e10754Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Low adherence to recommended treatments is a multifactorial problem for patients in rehabilitation after myocardial infarction (MI). In a nationwide trial of internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (iCBT) for the high-risk subgroup of patients with MI also reporting symptoms of anxiety, depression, or both (MI-ANXDEP), adherence was low. Since low adherence to psychotherapy leads to a waste of therapeutic resources and risky treatment abortion in MI-ANXDEP patients, identifying early predictors for adherence is potentially valuable for effective targeted care.

    Objectives: The goal of the research was to use supervised machine learning to investigate both established and novel predictors for iCBT adherence in MI-ANXDEP patients.

    Methods: Data were from 90 MI-ANXDEP patients recruited from 25 hospitals in Sweden and randomized to treatment in the iCBT trial Uppsala University Psychosocial Care Programme (U-CARE) Heart study. Time point of prediction was at completion of the first homework assignment. Adherence was defined as having completed more than 2 homework assignments within the 14-week treatment period. A supervised machine learning procedure was applied to identify the most potent predictors for adherence available at the first treatment session from a range of demographic, clinical, psychometric, and linguistic predictors. The internal binary classifier was a random forest model within a 3×10–fold cross-validated recursive feature elimination (RFE) resampling which selected the final predictor subset that best differentiated adherers versus nonadherers.

    Results: Patient mean age was 58.4 years (SD 9.4), 62% (56/90) were men, and 48% (43/90) were adherent. Out of the 34 potential predictors for adherence, RFE selected an optimal subset of 56% (19/34; Accuracy 0.64, 95% CI 0.61-0.68, P<.001). The strongest predictors for adherence were, in order of importance, (1) self-assessed cardiac-related fear, (2) sex, and (3) the number of words the patient used to answer the first homework assignment.

    Conclusions: For developing and testing effective iCBT interventions, investigating factors that predict adherence is important. Adherence to iCBT for MI-ANXDEP patients in the U-CARE Heart trial was best predicted by cardiac-related fear and sex, consistent with previous research, but also by novel linguistic predictors from written patient behavior which conceivably indicate verbal ability or therapeutic alliance. Future research should investigate potential causal mechanisms and seek to determine what underlying constructs the linguistic predictors tap into. Whether these findings replicate for other interventions outside of Sweden, in larger samples, and for patients with other conditions who are offered iCBT should also be investigated.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 2299.
    Wallert, John
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Forskargrupper (Inst. för kvinnor och barns hälsa), Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    Held, Claes
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Uppsala kliniska forskningscentrum (UCR). Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Kardiologi. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Forskargrupper (Inst. för kvinnor och barns hälsa), Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    Madison, Guy
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University.
    Olsson, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Forskargrupper (Inst. för kvinnor och barns hälsa), Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    Psycho-affective pathology in adults with congenital heart disease: Important progress is being made within a challenging field2019Inngår i: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, ISSN 2047-4873, E-ISSN 2047-4881Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2300.
    Wallert, John
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Forskargrupper (Inst. för kvinnor och barns hälsa), Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    Held, Claes
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Uppsala kliniska forskningscentrum (UCR). Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Kardiologi.
    Madison, Guy
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University.
    Olsson, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Forskargrupper (Inst. för kvinnor och barns hälsa), Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    Temporal changes in myocardial infarction incidence rates are associated with periods of perceived psychosocial stress: A SWEDEHEART national registry study2017Inngår i: American Heart Journal, ISSN 0002-8703, E-ISSN 1097-6744, Vol. 191, s. 12-20Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundPsychosocial stress might trigger myocardial infarction (MI). Increased MI incidence coincides withrecurrent time periods during the year perceived as particularly stressful in the population.

    MethodsA stress-triggering hypothesis on the risk of MI onset was investigated with Swedish population data on MIhospital admission date and symptom onset date (N = 156,690; 148,176) as registered from 2006 through 2013 in thenational quality registry database Swedish Web-system for Enhancement and Development of Evidence-based care in Heartdisease Evaluated According to Recommended Therapies (SWEDEHEART). Poisson regression was applied to analyze dailyMI rates during days belonging to the Christmas and New Year holidays, turns of the month, Mondays, weekends, andsummer vacation in July compared with remaining control days.

    ResultsAdjusted incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for MI rates were higher during Christmas and New Year holidays(IRR = 1.07 [1.04-1.09],Pb.001) and on Mondays (IRR = 1.11 [1.09-1.13],Pb.001) and lower in July (IRR = 0.92 [0.90-0.94],Pb.001) and over weekends (IRR = 0.88 [0.87-0.89],Pb.001), yet not during the turns of the month (IRR = 1.01[1.00–1.02],P= .891). These findings were also predominantly robust with symptom onset as alternative outcome, whenadjusting for both established and some suggested-but-untested confounders, and in 8 subgroups.

    ConclusionsFluctuations in daily MI incidence rates are systematically related to time periods of presumed psychosocialstress. Further research might clarify mechanisms that are amenable to clinical alteration.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
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