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  • 237651.
    Åsard, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English.
    Hillary Rodham Clinton: en politisk biografi2008Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 237652.
    Åsard, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English, The Swedish Institue for North American Studies.
    Hope, Unity, and Diversity: Text and Context in Bill Clinton's 1993 Inauguration1995In: Retoriska frågor: texter om tal och talare från Quintilianus till Clinton tillägnade Kurt Johannesson / [ed] Christer Åsberg, Stockholm: Norstedt , 1995, p. 282-295Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the chapter is to demonstrate the usefulness of a particular approach to the study of presidential inaugurals.

  • 237653.
    Åsard, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English.
    Influence and Presence, Depth and Surface: Studying the American Impact on Other Countries2003In: American Studies in Scandinavia, ISSN 0044-8060, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 13-19Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 237654.
    Åsard, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages.
    Janusansiktet: amerikansk populism i historisk belysning1994Book (Other academic)
  • 237655.
    Åsard, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English, The Swedish Institue for North American Studies.
    Joe McCarthy och konspirationsteorins livskraft i USA1999In: Migration och mångfald: essäer om kulturkontakt och minoritetsfrågor tillägnade Harald Runblom / [ed] Dag Blanck, Uppsala: Centrum för multietnisk forskning , 1999, p. 218-232Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Using Senator Joe McCarthy as a prime example, the author argues that conspiracy theories and thinking have been part and parcel of American politics ever since the founding of the republic. McCarthy's idea that a vast communist conspiracy existed in the...

  • 237656.
    Åsard, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences.
    LO och löntagarfondsfrågan: en studie i facklig politik och strategi1978Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 237657.
    Åsard, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English, The Swedish Institue for North American Studies.
    Makten, medierna och myterna: Socialdemokratiska ledare från Branting till Carlsson1996Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The book analyzes the language used by Social Democratic leaders in Sweden over a period of 100 years. Among the leaders analyzed are Hjalmar Branting, Zeth Höglund, Arthur Engberg, Per Albin Hansson, Alva Myrdal, Tage Erlander, Harald Aronsson, Olof Palme.

  • 237658.
    Åsard, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English, The Swedish Institue for North American Studies.
    Packaging political propaganda: text, context, and the study of political communication1996Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The volume consists of an introduction on the development of the field of political communication; an essay on the methodology of Quentin Skinner; and two concluding essays on political campaign films in Sweden and the U.S. and on Bill Clinton's 1993 Inau

  • 237659.
    Åsard, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English, The Swedish Institue for North American Studies.
    Phillips, Kevin, ARROGANT CAPITAL: WASHINGTON, WALL STREET, AND THE FRUSTRATION OF AMERICAN POLITICS; Frum, David, DEAD RIGHT1996In: American Studies in Scandinavia, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 77-81Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 237660.
    Åsard, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English, The Swedish Institue for North American Studies.
    Politikern Olof Palme2002Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 237661.
    Åsard, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English, The Swedish Institue for North American Studies.
    "Positiv särbehandling i Sverige och USA"2000In: Positiv särbehandling i Sverige och USA / [ed] Erik Åsard & Harald Runblom, Stockholm: Carlssons , 2000, p. 9-41Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 237662.
    Åsard, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English, The Swedish Institue for North American Studies.
    "Senator Joe McCarthy and the Conspiracy Theory in American Political History"2001In: American Studies at the Millennium: Ethnicity, Culture & Literature / [ed] Lena M. Koski, Åbo: Univ. of Turku, Dep. of Art Studies , 2001, p. 13-27Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 237663.
    Åsard, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English, The Swedish Institue for North American Studies.
    Statsministern: 1991 års Ingvar Carlsson-film i jämförande perspektiv1996In: Makten, medierna och myterna: socialdemokratiska ledare från Branting till Carlsson, Stockholm: Carlsson , 1996, p. 304-350Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 237664.
    Åsard, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English, The Swedish Institue for North American Studies.
    The 1996 U.S. Presidential Election: Return of the 'Comeback Kid'1997In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 100, no 3, p. 349-362Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The article analyzes the 1996 U.S. presidential and congressional elections. The author argues that Bill Clinton was re-elected because voters in general felt good about the country and the economy and because women overwhelmingly preferred the incumbent...

  • 237665.
    Åsard, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English, The Swedish Institue for North American Studies.
    The Limits of 'Americanization' in Swedish Politics1999In: The Swedish-American Historical Quarterly, ISSN 0730-028X, Vol. L, no 3, p. 173-181Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 237666.
    Åsard, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English.
    The Stigmatization of the Liberal Label in Modern American Politics2009In: American Studies in Scandinavia, ISSN 0044-8060, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 23-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Liberalism was the dominant political ideology in the United States from the early 1930s until the mid to late 1960s. During that period, Franklin Roosevelt's definition of "liberal" and "conservative" was widely accepted in America. Beginning in the late 1960s and continuing in the 1970s and 1980s, the liberal label became increasingly contested and maligned, and as a result many, if not most, liberal politicians stopped using it. Liberal politicians have not abandoned their liberal world-view, but nowadays they are much more inclined to refer to themselves as "progressives." This article describes the rise and fall of the liberal label in modern U.S. politics and explains why it became a pejorative, shunned by all the recent Democratic candidates for president, from Bill Clinton to Barack Obama.

  • 237667.
    Åsard, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English, The Swedish Institue for North American Studies.
    The Swedish Folkhem vs. the American Dream: Myths and Markers in Two Political Campaign Films1995In: Performances in American Literature and Culture: Essays in Honor of Professor Orm Överland on his 60th Birthday / [ed] Vidar Pedersen & ≥eljka Svrljuga, Bergen: Bergen University Press , 1995, p. 9-27Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The chapter compares the myths and markers in two political campaigns, one produced for President Ronald Reagan's re-election campaign in the U.S. in 1984, the other for Prime Minister Ingvar Carlsson in the Swedish 1991 national election.

  • 237668.
    Åsard, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English, The Swedish Institue for North American Studies.
    "Vad göder vår tids konspirationsteorier?"2003In: Oförtrutet: bildande yttringar från tjugo års bokutgivning / [ed] Trygve Carlsson, Stockholm: Carlssons Bokförlag , 2003, p. 554-557Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 237669.
    Åsard, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English, The Swedish Institue for North American Studies.
    Bennett, W. Lance
    Democracy and the marketplace of ideas: Communication and Government in Sweden and the United States1997Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The book explores the institutional links between society and government that shape political communication. These regulators of national communication include parties and electoral representation systems, interest groups, campaign finance mechanisms, and

  • 237670.
    Åsard, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Languages, Department of English, The Swedish Institue for North American Studies.
    Bennett, W. Lance
    "Regulating the Marketplace of Ideas: Political Rhetoric in Swedish and American National Elections"1995In: Political Studies, ISSN 0032-3217, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 645-663Article in journal (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    First in this article election and party systems, interest groups, political financing, and the mass media are identified as the most obvious market mechanisms operating to regulate the flow of ideas in democratic societies. Second, this framework is then

  • 237671.
    Åsard, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Languages, Department of English, The Swedish Institue for North American Studies.
    Gronbeck, Bruce E.
    "Televised Party Leader and Presidential Candidate Debates in Sweden and the United States"2000In: Argument at Century's End: Reflecting on the Past and Envisioning the Future: Selected Papers from the Eleventh NCA/AFA Conference on Argumentation, National Communication Association, Annandale, CA , 2000, p. 394-402Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 237672.
    Åsard, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Languages, Department of English, The Swedish Institue for North American Studies.
    Nicholson, Barbara L.
    "The 1994 U.S. Midterm Elections: Significant Shift or Temporary Turmoil?"1995In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 98, no 3, p. 321-330Article in journal (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors review a number of plausible explanations for the Republican victory in the 1994 U.S. midterm elections. They explore such issues as a re-emerging populist sentiment, voter frustration with Congress and the Democratic majority, the loss of pow

  • 237673.
    Åsard, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Languages, Department of English, The Swedish Institue for North American Studies.
    Runblom, Harald
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Languages, Department of English, The Swedish Institue for North American Studies.
    "Positiv särbehandling i Sverige och USA"2000In: Social forskning, ISSN 0283-202X, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 5-6Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 237674.
    Åsberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Deposition of CIGS absorber layer by gas flow sputtering: Initiation of project2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The photovoltaic solar cell industry is growing rapidly, but high cost per watt is still an obstacle. Thin film solar cells, especially thin film solar cells using CIGS absorbers that have the highest proven efficiency, have the potential to reduce the cost through cheap manufacturing. Academic research concerning CIGS solar cells has so far been focused on cells with absorber layers deposited by co-evaporation, which can be used to make very high efficiency cells but is a deposition process ill suited for large scale production.

    In this thesis a process for depositing CIGS absorber layers by gas flow sputtering, a deposition technique enabling high rate depositions of low energy particles that is potentially easier to apply to a large scale production, has been outlined. Equipment for CIGS-deposition by gas flow sputtering has been prepared, characteristics of the process have been investigated and ultimately a series of first prototype CIGS absorber layers has been deposited as part of complete solar cells.

    A lot of focus in this thesis is on the practical work and problem solving around the equipment, e.g. pulsed DC power supplies and electrical connections, heating and heating control in a reactive vacuum environment, and on the basic functionality of the gas flow sputter, how process and film properties like deposition rate, thickness uniformity etc. vary with sputter conditions like pressure, gas flow etc.

    Following the process design the first prototype series produced crystalline CIGS absorbers of desired elemental composition and thickness but having rather small grain sizes, while the complete cells exhibited solar cell IV-characteristics but very poor efficiencies.

  • 237675.
    Åsberg, Carl Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Wallensteen, Peter
    New Threats and New Security: The post-Cold War Debate Revisited1998In: Preventing Violent Conflicts: Past Record and Future Challenges, Dept. Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University , 1998, p. 35-Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 237676.
    Åsberg, Cay
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences.
    Solvärme med säsongslager i Lyckebo2011Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate and clarify the facts surrounding one of Vattenfall's district heating plants; The "solar field" and associated rock cavern in Lyckebo, Storvreta. The plant was built in the '80s by the formerly municipal utility,Uppsalakraftvärme AB, as an experimental building. A ground water filled cavern would serve as seasonal storage of solar heat from an adjacent solar field.

     

    Since both the energy company and the facility itself has undergone major changes over the past 30 years, there was a great need to gather facts in order to provide a picture of its current condition and potential for continued use. The thesis investigates the plant's history and problems with the rock cavern losses, and how the operation developed. It also presents the calculations regarding the possibilities of again supplementing the facility with solar energy - which is not the case today - as well as the economic conditions for it.

     

    Regarding a re-launch of solar energy, primarily a concentrating solar collector has been studied, as it has the advantages of an integrated control system. The calculations show that an implementation would be modestly profitable as an investment from Vattenfall. A far more successful concept however would be to go for a shareholder owned plant - a Solar cooperative. Such a solution has all the prerequisites to once again make Storvreta known for its solar energy storage, as well as produce a needed portion of goodwill for Vattenfall.

  • 237677.
    Åsberg, Emilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Made in... Sweden?: Ursprungsregler som handelshinder2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats har för avsikt att närmare undersöka hur ursprungsregler inom det multilaterala handelssystemet är utformade, hur de tillämpas och om de kan tänkas användas på ett protektionistisk eller diskriminerande sätt och därför utgöra handelshinder. Det har under arbetets gång visat sig att det finns belägg för att ursprungsreglerna är mycket komplexa och svårhanterliga i många avseenden och att de administrativa procedurerna kring ursprungsregler är kunskapskrävande, tidskrävande och kostsamma. Att länder själva ges möjligheten att utforma ursprungsregler medför också risker för att reglerna används på ett protektionistiskt sätt även om de länder som antagit WTO:s avtal om ursprungsregler underkastat sig att respektera och följa de grundläggande riktlinjer och principer som avtalet om ursprungsregler bygger på. Att reglerna kan sägas vara diskriminerande har också mycket att göra med komplexiteten på regelverken i fråga och i många avseenden drabbas utvecklingsländerna till stor utsträckning som enligt studier lider viss brist på expertis inom området och som därför också har svårt att göra sin röst hörd vid förhandlingar kring ursprungsregler. 

  • 237678.
    Åsberg, Emilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Tiga är silver - tala är guld: Karteller och det svenska eftergiftsprogrammet2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det svenska samhället och dess konkurrenslagstiftning bygger på principer om frihandel och perfekt konkurrens där monopol i princip är förbjudna. Tanken bakom detta är att konkurrens är något bra som leder till välfungerande marknader. Den rivalitet som uppstår mellan företag som konkurrerar med varandra föder ett större utbud för konsumenterna med varor och tjänster till bättre kvalité och lägre priser än om konkurrensen inte funnits. Samhällskollektivet som helhet vinner också på konkurrens då det bl a möjliggör nya innovationer, forskning och utveckling, högre sysselsättning och en starkare internationell ställning i världshandeln – något som främjar samhällsekonomin. För att konkurrensen ska fungera på ett bra sätt måste marknadens aktörer hålla sig till samma spelregler. Dessa spelregler återfinns i konkurrenslagen. Lagen innehåller två centrala förbudsbestämmelser varav en förbjuder konkurrensbegränsande samarbeten d v s karteller. Karteller stör konkurrensen på marknaden, något lagstiftaren och samhället ser mycket allvarligt på. Bryter ett företag mot förbudet kan det åläggas att betala konkurrensskadeavgift till staten, en slags böter som kan uppgå till mycket stora belopp. Konkurrensskadeavgifterna ska verka avskräckande och på så sätt motverka kartellbildning. Som ett komplement till detta finns det också inom konkurrensrätten utrymme för eftergift och nedsättning av konkurrensskadeavgifter för de företag som avslöjar en kartell som de medverkar i. Denna uppsats frågar sig vad syftet och tanken bakom detta eftergiftsprogram är då benådning är en aning främmande i den svenska rättsordningen samt om det finns andra åtgärder för att avskräcka företag från att bilda karteller.

     

    Tanken bakom det svenska eftergiftsprogrammet är att det ska motverka företag från att medverka i karteller då incitamenten för alla deltagande parter att avslöja det förbjudna samarbetet och komma undan utan böter är påtagligt stor. Att delta i en kartell är förbjudet och osäkerheten i vilka man kan och inte kan lita på i ett förbjudet samarbete är något som bör få en part som överväger att ingå i ett sådant samarbete att tänka till igen. Vidare ska konkurrensmyndighetens arbete med att utreda kartellsamarbeten underlättas med hjälp av eftergiftsprogrammet, något det sannolikt också gör. Men, genom att snegla på länder som USA och Kanada från vilka inspirationen till eftergift i huvudsak kommer, skulle det även kunna finnas andra åtgärder att tillgripa i jakten på karteller. 

  • 237679.
    Åsberg, Kerstin Hulter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Medicinal history.
    Svenska barn ska inte behöva dö i streptokockinfektion2012In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 109, no 47Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 237680.
    Åsberg, Kerstin Hulter
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Medicinal history.
    Östlund, KristerUppsala University, University Library.
    Medicin och Farmaci 400 år vid Uppsala universitet: föreläsningar vid Medicinska och Farmaceutiska fakulteternas högtidlighållande av tillsättningen av Johannes Chesnecopherus på den första professuren 1613 oktober 20132014Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 237681.
    Åsberg, Malin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Sciences.
    Österberg, Lina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Dokumentation av vitalparametrar på kirurgiska vårdavdelningar dygnet innan överförande till intensivvårdsavdelning2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    SAMMANFATTNING

    Syfte.

    Studiens syfte var att undersöka dokumentationen av de vitalparametrar som ingår i MEWS samt saturation på kirurgiska vårdavdelningar för patienter som på grund av akut försämring överförts till intensivvårdsavdelning och därmed bidra till ett underlag för utvärdering av MEWS som bedömningsverktyg.

    Metod.

    För studien valdes kvantitativ tvärsnittsstudie som studiedesign. Journaler för patienter som förflyttats från en kirurgisk vårdavdelning till Centrala Intensivvårdsavdelningen (CIVA) på grund av akut försämrat tillstånd under våren 2011 granskades. Av 158 granskade journaler motsvarade 19 inklusionskriterierna och värderades genom utarbetad granskningsmall innehållande samtliga vitalparametrar som ingår i MEWS varefter beräkning av MEWS- poäng utfördes.

    Resultat.

    I snitt dokumenterades mätvärden från fyra av de sex parametrarna i journalerna vilket visar på att dokumentationen av de vitala parametrarna är ofullständig på de granskade kirurgiska vårdavdelningarna. De parametrar som dokumenterats i flest journaler var temperatur och blodtryck. Saturation dokumenterades i 16 journaler. Vidare visar studien att den vanligaste frekvensen av mätningar var en till två gånger per dygn. I 14 av de 19 granskade journalerna genererade de dokumenterade mätningarna MEWS- poäng fyra och över vilket enligt MEWS- mallen ska innebära att åtgärder vidtas.

    Slutsats.

    Dokumentationen av vitalparametrar på granskade vårdavdelningar bedömdes som otillräcklig både med avseende på antal dokumenterade parametrar samt dokumentationsfrekvens över dygnet

  • 237682.
    Åsberg, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM.
    Folkbiblioteket som lokal resurs. En fallstudie på Sandvikens folkbibliotek2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 237683.
    Åsberg, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology.
    Enhancing the Interactivity in the Classroom via Smartphone2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order to enrich the interactivity in the classroom a digital survey system can be employed to enable teachers to enquire questions to the students and review the answers in a quick and effortless way. Today at Uppsala University a commercial survey system is in use that consists of; handheld devices used by students to submit an answer, Wi-Fi adapters that receive the answers from the devices and software that creates and presents survey sessions. This report is concerned about finding an alternative to that system and is aimed primarily to improve the economical factor. The approach is to make use of the increasing amount of Smartphone devices that flourish among students today. This resulted into a solution that holds the basic features of the original system. The design employs a Smartphone application which lets the students select a survey from a content manager and then fill it out by interacting with an online survey service. The outcome of a survey can, similarly to the original system, be presented in an integrated fashion within a presentation slide to reduce the need of switching windows when showing a presentation.

    In conclusion there is a basic and free alternative to the current system assuming every student has a Smartphone available. One of the advantages beside the economical factor include being easier to manage for the teachers as there is no need to administer response devices to the students prior to a survey session.

  • 237684.
    Åsberg, Per
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Four essays in housing economics1998Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This essay consists of four self-contained essays in housing economics.

    Essay I: A dynamic partial equilibrium asset model is used to study the capitalisation effects in themarket for owner-occupied housing that resulted from the Swedish 1991 tax reform. Simulations ofanticipated as well as unanticipated implementations of the tax reform suggest that the 1991 tax reformcaused a substantial decline in real housing prices and housing investments. Further, we find that thepost reform tax system is far less sensitive to inflation compared to the pre-reform tax system.However, the post-reform tax system is still a nominal tax system and therefore inflation will still causelarge and arbitrary tax subsidies to owner-occupiers.

    Essay II: Housing tenure choice is studied in a two-period model with stochastic rents and houseprices. We show that a risk-averse household chooses the tenure mode with lowest variance in the costof housing. The tenure mode chosen depends on the variance in the prices of apartment buildings, thevariance in the prices of owner-occupied housing and the correlation between these two prices. Whenthe correlation is positive and above a critical level, a risk-averse household prefers ownership as aninsurance against future uncertain housing costs.

    Essay III: Housing tenure choice is investigated in a numerical two-period model where. both rents andprices on owner-occupied housing are stochastic. With a positive correlation between prices onapartment buildings and prices on private homes, owner occupation serves as an insurance against thefuture uncertainty in housing costs. Because of this insurance mechanism, increased uncertainty in thecost of housing has an ambiguous effect on saving. In addition, non-durable consumption may either bean increasing or a decreasing function of unrealised capital gains from owner-occupied housing.

    Essay IV: Pooled and longitudinal data for the years 1989 and 1992 were used to study the housingdecisions of young Swedish adults before and after the 1991 Swedish tax reform. Although thehousehold formation and tenure choice decisions of young adults were found to be simultaneouslydetermined, neglecting the cross equation correlation between these two decisions had no major impacton the estimated coefficients. Demographic factors were found to significantly affect both thehousehold formation and tenure choice decisions. Economic factors were also found to significantlyaffect young adults' choice of tenure mode. This is, however, not the case in the household formationdecision. Young adults' decision whether to form a household was found to be rather insensitive toeconomic factors. Furthermore, the impact of the relative cost of owned versus rented housing wasfound to be significantly lower after the Swedish 1991 tax reform. A possible explanation to accountfor this phenomenon is the smaller variation in relative cost of owned versus rented housing betweenhouseholds after the 1991 Swedish tax reform. Finally, neglecting household specific heterogeneity inthe tenure choice estimation causes a downward bias in the parameter estimates.

  • 237685.
    Åsberg, Per
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Housing decisions of young Swedish adults1999In: Journal of Housing Economics, no 8, p. 116-143Article in journal (Other scientific)
  • 237686.
    Åsberg, Per
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Housing decisions of young Swedish adults1999In: JOURNAL OF HOUSING ECONOMICS, ISSN 1051-1377, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 116-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pooled and longitudinal data for the years 1989 and 1992 were used to study the housing decisions of young Swedish adults before and after the 1991 Swedish tax reform. Although the household formation and tenure choice decisions of young adults were found

  • 237687.
    Åsberg, Per
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Owner-Occupation as an Insurance1997In: Household and Corporate Behaviour under Uncertainty, Department of Economics, Uppsala , 1997Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 237688.
    Åsberg, Per and Ekman, Erik
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Tenure Choice in a Stochastic Framework1997In: Household and Corporate Behaviour under Uncertainty, Department of Economics, Uppsala , 1997Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 237689.
    Åsberg, S.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Hijazi, Ziad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Siegbahn, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Andersson, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Granger, C. B.
    Hanna, M.
    Horowitz, J. D.
    Lopes, R. D.
    Lindahl, Bertil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Galectin-3 is associated with worse clinical outcome in patients with atrial fibrillation: A substudy from the ARISTOTLE trial2014In: European Heart Journal, ISSN 0195-668X, E-ISSN 1522-9645, Vol. 35, p. 426-426Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 237690.
    Åsberg, Signild
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Outcome of Stroke Prevention: Analyses Based on Data from Riks-Stroke and Other Swedish National Registers2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis was to explore variations in stroke prevention and the effect of prevention on outcome. The studies were based on patients registered in the Swedish Stroke Register between 2001 and 2009 and although used to different extents in each paper, additional information was retrieved through linkage to The National Patient Register, the Cause of Death Register, the Prescribed Drug Register and the Total Population Register.

    Cardiovascular risk factors were prevalent among ischemic stroke (IS) patients; however, they were not always prescribed the drugs recommended, and increasing age was an important negative predictor (Paper I).

    After IS, the rate of hemorrhage in patients prescribed antiplatelet agents (2.4 per 100 person-years) was double to results from randomized controlled trails, but was similar for patients prescribed warfarin (2.5 per 100 person-years).  Age ≥75 years and previous hemorrhage were associated with a moderately increased risk of future hemorrhage (Paper II).

    Among IS patients with atrial fibrillation, one-third was prescribed warfarin and two-thirds were prescribed antiplatelets. After adjustment for a propensity score (used to adjust for the non-randomized design), warfarin was associated with a reduced risk of death (0.67; 95% CI, 0.63-0.71) (Paper III). The rate of subsequent hemorrhagic stroke was 0.4 per 100 person-years and the risk did not change (HR 1.04; 95% CI, 0.73-1.48) when later years of the 2000s (inclusion period 2005-8: follow-up until 2009) was compared with earlier years (inclusion period 2001-4: follow-up until 2005) (Paper IV, cohort).

    Although the risk of first-ever hemorrhagic stroke more than doubled with warfarin than without, the risk did not change between 2006 and 2009 (Paper IV, case-control).

    In summary, the prescription of secondary preventive drugs varies with age, even though cardiovascular risk factors are prevalent in all ages. The risk of death and hemorrhage are affected by the type of antithrombotic prescribed. Therefore, it is important individual’s stroke and bleeding risks in stroke prevention are assessed.

    List of papers
    1. Ischemic Stroke and Secondary Prevention in Clinical Practice: A Cohort Study of 14 529 Patients in the Swedish Stroke Register
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ischemic Stroke and Secondary Prevention in Clinical Practice: A Cohort Study of 14 529 Patients in the Swedish Stroke Register
    Show others...
    2010 (English)In: Stroke, ISSN 0039-2499, E-ISSN 1524-4628, Vol. 41, no 7, p. 1338-1342Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Purpose

    Secondary prevention is recommended after stroke, but adherence to guidelines is unknown. We studied the prescription of antiplatelet drugs, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, statins, and anticoagulant drugs and their relation to risk of death.

    Methods

    Patients with first-ever ischemic stroke in 2005 were registered in the Swedish Stroke Register. Odds ratios, hazard ratios, and 95% CIs were calculated using logistic and Cox proportional hazard regression models. Adjustments were performed for age, sex, cardiovascular risk factors, other drug therapies, and activities of daily living function.

    Results

    In total, 14 529 patients with a mean age of 75.0 (±11.6) years were included. They were followed for 1.4 (±0.5) years: 52% had hypertension, 26% atrial fibrillation, 19% diabetes, and 15% were smokers. The odds ratio for prescription of antiplatelet was 2.20 (95% CI, 1.86 to 2.60) among the oldest patients (≥85 years of age) compared with the youngest (18 to 64 years of age). The corresponding odds ratio was 0.38 (0.32 to 0.45) for prescriptions of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, 0.09 (0.08 to 0.11) for statins, and 0.07 (0.05 to 0.09) for anticoagulant therapy. Prescription of statin and anticoagulant therapy was associated with reduced risk of death (hazard ratio, 0.78 [0.65 to 0.91] and hazard ratio, 0.58 [0.44 to 0.76], respectively) but not the prescription of antiplatelet drugs or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors.

    Conclusions

    The prescription of antiplatelet, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, statins, and anticoagulant therapy was strongly age related. Statin and anticoagulant therapy was associated with reduced risk of death and seemed to be underused among elderly patients. These findings should encourage physicians to follow today's guidelines for stroke care.

    Keywords
    cerebral infarction, risk factors, secondary prevention, age groups
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-135177 (URN)10.1161/STROKEAHA.110.580209 (DOI)000279272200008 ()20522818 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2010-12-06 Created: 2010-12-06 Last updated: 2019-03-11Bibliographically approved
    2. Hemorrhages After Ischemic Stroke: Relation to Age and Previous Hemorrhages in a Nationwide Cohort of 58 868 Patients
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hemorrhages After Ischemic Stroke: Relation to Age and Previous Hemorrhages in a Nationwide Cohort of 58 868 Patients
    2013 (English)In: International Journal of Stroke, ISSN 1747-4930, E-ISSN 1747-4949, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 80-86Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    In randomized controlled trials of secondary prevention after stroke, the risk of hemorrhage varies between 1% and 5% per year in patients with antithrombotic therapy, i.e. anticoagulants and antiplatelets.

    Aim:

    To explore the rate and the risk of hemorrhage after stroke in a nationwide cohort.

    Methods:

    We identified 58 868 first-ever ischemic stroke patients in the Swedish Stroke Register during 2001 to 2005 (=index stroke) and followed them by record linkage to the National Patient Register. Rates of hemorrhage and hazard ratios, for comparisons of rates between subgroups, were calculated.

    Results:

    Of the 58 586 ischemic stroke patients identified, 5527 (9.4%) had a history of hemorrhage. During follow-up (mean 2.0 years), 2876 patients endured a hemorrhage, giving an average hemorrhage rate of 2.6 (95% confidence interval 2.5-2.7) per 100 person-years. After index stroke, 11% of the patients were discharged with anticoagulants, and 79% with antiplatelets. Given the differences in baseline characteristics, the hemorrhage rates (per 100 person-years) were 2.5 (95% confidence interval 2.2-2.8), 2.4 (95% confidence interval 2.3-2.5), and 3.8 (95% confidence interval 3.5-4.2) in patients prescribed anticoagulants, antiplatelets, and no antithrombotics, respectively. There was an increased risk of hemorrhage in patients ≥75 years compared to those <75 years (hazard ratio = 1.61, 95% CI 1.49-1.73), and in patients with previous hemorrhages compared to those without (hazard ratio = 1.82, 95% confidence interval 1.64-2.02).

    Conclusions:

    When antithrombotics were used in large-scale clinical practice, the observed rates of hemorrhage were similar with anticoagulant therapy but increased with antiplatelet therapy, compared to rates reported in randomized controlled trials. Old age and previous hemorrhage were associated with an increased risk of hemorrhage after an ischemic stroke.

    Keywords
    Ischemic stroke, Age Groups, Antiplatelet and anticoagulant treatment for secondary stroke prevention, Hemorrhage
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Research subject
    Medical Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-171611 (URN)10.1111/j.1747-4949.2011.00718.x (DOI)000313880700006 ()
    Available from: 2012-03-23 Created: 2012-03-23 Last updated: 2019-03-11Bibliographically approved
    3. Reduced Risk of Death with Warfarin: Results of an Observational Nationwide Study of 20 442 Patients with Atrial Fibrillation and Ischemic Stroke
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reduced Risk of Death with Warfarin: Results of an Observational Nationwide Study of 20 442 Patients with Atrial Fibrillation and Ischemic Stroke
    2013 (English)In: International Journal of Stroke, ISSN 1747-4930, E-ISSN 1747-4949, Vol. 8, no 8, p. 689-695Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Warfarin is demonstrated to be superior in efficacy over antiplatelet agents (AP) for the prevention of stroke, but the relationship between warfarin and mortality is less clear. Our aim was to investigate this relationship in a large cohort of unselected patients with atrial fibrillation and ischemic stroke.

    Methods

    This observational study was based on patients who were discharged alive and registered in the Swedish Stroke Register in 2001 through 2005. Vital status was retrieved by linkage to the Swedish Cause of Death Register. We calculated a propensity score for the likelihood of warfarin prescription at discharge from hospital. The risk of death and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated in Cox regression models.

    Results

    Out of the 20 442 patients with atrial fibrillation and ischemic stroke (mean age=79.5 years), 31% (n=6399) were prescribed warfarin. After adjustment for the propensity score, warfarin was associated with a reduced risk of death (0.67; 95% CI, 0.63-0.71). The crude rate (per 100 person-years) of fatal non-hemorrhagic stroke was lower in patients who received warfarin (1.60; 95% CI, 1.34-1.89) compared to those who received AP (6.83; 95% CI, 6.42-7.25). The rates (per 100 person-years) of fatal hemorrhagic stroke were 0.21 (95% CI, 0.12-0.32) and 0.43 (95% CI, 0.34-0.55) in patients prescribed warfarin and AP therapy, respectively.

    Conclusions

    In addition to its established benefit for stroke prevention, warfarin therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation and ischemic stroke was associated with a reduced risk of death, without an increased risk of fatal hemorrhagic stroke.

    Keywords
    Ischemic Stroke, Atrial Fibrillation, Anticoagulants, Antiplatelets, Mortality, Epidemiology
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Research subject
    Medical Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-171626 (URN)10.1111/j.1747-4949.2012.00855.x (DOI)000327257600020 ()22928583 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2012-03-23 Created: 2012-03-23 Last updated: 2019-03-11Bibliographically approved
    4. The Risk of Warfarin-Associated Hemorrhagic Stroke for the Years 2001 to 2009: An Analysis Based on 20 486 Stroke Patients in the Swedish Stroke Register
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Risk of Warfarin-Associated Hemorrhagic Stroke for the Years 2001 to 2009: An Analysis Based on 20 486 Stroke Patients in the Swedish Stroke Register
    2012 (English)In: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, ISSN 1538-7933, E-ISSN 1538-7836Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    Keywords
    Epidemiology, Stroke, Risk factors, Anticoagulants
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Research subject
    Medical Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-171627 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-03-23 Created: 2012-03-23 Last updated: 2019-03-11Bibliographically approved
  • 237691.
    Åsberg, Signild
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Eriksson, Marie
    Umea Univ, Dept Stat, USBE, S-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Statin therapy and the risk of intracerebral haemorrhage: a nationwide observational study2015In: International Journal of Stroke, ISSN 1747-4930, E-ISSN 1747-4949, Vol. 10, p. 46-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundThe association between statin therapy and intracerebral haemorrhage is still unclear. The aim was to investigate whether prior use of statin was associated with risk of intracerebral haemorrhage. MethodsBetween 2006 and 2009, we identified 7696 cases of intracerebral haemorrhage that were first-ever strokes in the Swedish Stroke Register and 14670 stroke-free controls that were matched on age and gender in the Population Register. Drug therapy at the time of intracerebral haemorrhage was extracted from the Drug Prescription Register. The risk of intracerebral haemorrhage with statins was estimated by conditional logistic regression. ResultsIn cases and controls, the median age was 73 years and 53% were men. Intracerebral haemorrhage cases had higher prevalence of antithrombotic therapy, hypertension, and diabetes than controls. Statins were used by 1276 (166%) of the intracerebral haemorrhage cases and by 2552 (174%) of the controls. The crude odds ratios of intracerebral haemorrhage did not differ significantly between patients with and without statins, but after adjustment for antithrombotic therapy, hypertension, and diabetes, patients with statins had a decreased risk of intracerebral haemorrhage (odds ratio=068, 95% confidence interval, 063-074). The highest proportion (>20%) of antecedent statins was seen in the 70-84 age group, for both cases and controls. ConclusionsIn this matched case-controlled study, statin therapy was associated with a decreased risk of incident intracerebral haemorrhage. Future studies on risk of stroke with statin therapy after intracerebral haemorrhage are needed.

  • 237692.
    Åsberg, Signild
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Eriksson, Marie
    Umeå University, Department of Statistics.
    Henriksson, Karin M
    Lund University, Department of Laboratory Medicine.
    Terént, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    The Risk of Warfarin-Associated Hemorrhagic Stroke for the Years 2001 to 2009: An Analysis Based on 20 486 Stroke Patients in the Swedish Stroke Register2012In: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, ISSN 1538-7933, E-ISSN 1538-7836Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 237693.
    Åsberg, Signild
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Eriksson, Marie
    Henriksson, Karin M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Terént, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Warfarin-Associated Intracerebral Hemorrhage After Ischemic Stroke2014In: Stroke, ISSN 0039-2499, E-ISSN 1524-4628, Vol. 45, no 7, p. 2118-2120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Purpose-The aim was to investigate the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in patients with ischemic stroke taking warfarin and whether this risk changed over time. Methods-Between 2001 and 2008, the Swedish Stroke Register registered 12 790 patients with ischemic stroke discharged on warfarin. The patients was studied in two 4-year periods (inclusion 2001-2004: follow-up until 2005 and inclusion 2005-2008: follow-up until 2009) for which rates of subsequent ICH were calculated. Adjusted hazard ratios, comparing the second period with the first period, were estimated in Cox regression models. Results-Of 6039 patients, 58 patients (1.0%) in the first period and 69 of 6751 patients (1.0%) in the second period had subsequent ICH. Annual rates of ICH ranged from 0.37% in the first period to 0.39% in the second period (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 0.73-1.48). Conclusions-In this nationwide study, the risk of warfarin-associated ICH among ischemic stroke patients was low and did not change during the 2000s.

  • 237694.
    Åsberg, Signild
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Eriksson, Marie
    Umeå University, Department of Statistics.
    Henriksson, Karin Maria
    Lund University, Department of Laboratory Medicine.
    Terént, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Reduced Risk of Death with Warfarin: Results of an Observational Nationwide Study of 20 442 Patients with Atrial Fibrillation and Ischemic Stroke2013In: International Journal of Stroke, ISSN 1747-4930, E-ISSN 1747-4949, Vol. 8, no 8, p. 689-695Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Warfarin is demonstrated to be superior in efficacy over antiplatelet agents (AP) for the prevention of stroke, but the relationship between warfarin and mortality is less clear. Our aim was to investigate this relationship in a large cohort of unselected patients with atrial fibrillation and ischemic stroke.

    Methods

    This observational study was based on patients who were discharged alive and registered in the Swedish Stroke Register in 2001 through 2005. Vital status was retrieved by linkage to the Swedish Cause of Death Register. We calculated a propensity score for the likelihood of warfarin prescription at discharge from hospital. The risk of death and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated in Cox regression models.

    Results

    Out of the 20 442 patients with atrial fibrillation and ischemic stroke (mean age=79.5 years), 31% (n=6399) were prescribed warfarin. After adjustment for the propensity score, warfarin was associated with a reduced risk of death (0.67; 95% CI, 0.63-0.71). The crude rate (per 100 person-years) of fatal non-hemorrhagic stroke was lower in patients who received warfarin (1.60; 95% CI, 1.34-1.89) compared to those who received AP (6.83; 95% CI, 6.42-7.25). The rates (per 100 person-years) of fatal hemorrhagic stroke were 0.21 (95% CI, 0.12-0.32) and 0.43 (95% CI, 0.34-0.55) in patients prescribed warfarin and AP therapy, respectively.

    Conclusions

    In addition to its established benefit for stroke prevention, warfarin therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation and ischemic stroke was associated with a reduced risk of death, without an increased risk of fatal hemorrhagic stroke.

  • 237695.
    Åsberg, Signild
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Farahmand, B.
    Epi Consultant, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hasvold, P.
    AstraZeneca Nord Balt, Sodertalje, Sweden.
    Johansson, S.
    AstraZeneca Gothenburg, Molndal, Sweden.
    Appelros, P.
    Orebro Univ, Univ Hlth Care Res Ctr, Fac Med & Hlth, Orebro, Sweden.
    Non-cardioembolic TIA and ischemic stroke: Implications of severity2018In: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6314, E-ISSN 1600-0404, Vol. 138, no 4, p. 369-376Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Our purpose was to explore major vascular and bleeding outcomes in relation to risk and severity scores (ABCD2 or NIHSS) in patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA) or acute ischemic stroke (AIS).

    Methods: This nationwide observational study was based on data from 4 national registries. Outcomes were assessed by Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses.

    Results: The total cohort comprised 21268 patients (median age 73years, 47.6% females). Based on ABCD2-score, the TIA-population (n=10174) was divided into low-risk (0-3 p, n=3463) and high-risk (4-7 p, n=6711). Based on NIHSS-score, the AIS-population (n=11454) was divided into minor (0-5 p, n=8596), moderate (6-10 p, n=1630) and severe (11 p, n=1228). During follow-up (mean 1.7years), the composite endpoint of stroke, myocardial infarction or death occurred in 3572 (16.5%) of all the patients, and major bleeding in 668 (3.1%) patients. Using low-risk TIA as reference, the adjusted hazard ratios (HR, 95% CI) of the composite endpoint were 1.41 (1.23-1.62) for high-risk TIA, 1.94 (1.70-2.22) for minor, 2.86 (2.45-3.34) for moderate and 4.18 (3.57-4.90) for severe stroke. When analyzed separately, the association with increased risk remained significant for stroke and death, but not for myocardial infarction. The HR of major bleeding were 1.31 (0.99-1.73) for high-risk TIA, 1.49 (1.13-1.95) for minor, 1.54 (1.08-2.21) for moderate and 2.10 (1.44-3.05) for severe stroke.

    Conclusions: This study confirms the association between severity of the index ischemic stroke and risk of future major vascular and bleeding events, and highlights the increased risk also for patients with high-risk TIA.

  • 237696.
    Åsberg, Signild
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Henriksson, Karin M.
    Farahmand, Bahman
    Asplund, Kjell
    Norrving, Bo
    Appelros, Peter
    Stegmayr, Birgitta
    Åsberg, Kerstin Hulter
    Drug and Therapeutic Committee, County Council of Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Terént, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Ischemic Stroke and Secondary Prevention in Clinical Practice: A Cohort Study of 14 529 Patients in the Swedish Stroke Register2010In: Stroke, ISSN 0039-2499, E-ISSN 1524-4628, Vol. 41, no 7, p. 1338-1342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Purpose

    Secondary prevention is recommended after stroke, but adherence to guidelines is unknown. We studied the prescription of antiplatelet drugs, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, statins, and anticoagulant drugs and their relation to risk of death.

    Methods

    Patients with first-ever ischemic stroke in 2005 were registered in the Swedish Stroke Register. Odds ratios, hazard ratios, and 95% CIs were calculated using logistic and Cox proportional hazard regression models. Adjustments were performed for age, sex, cardiovascular risk factors, other drug therapies, and activities of daily living function.

    Results

    In total, 14 529 patients with a mean age of 75.0 (±11.6) years were included. They were followed for 1.4 (±0.5) years: 52% had hypertension, 26% atrial fibrillation, 19% diabetes, and 15% were smokers. The odds ratio for prescription of antiplatelet was 2.20 (95% CI, 1.86 to 2.60) among the oldest patients (≥85 years of age) compared with the youngest (18 to 64 years of age). The corresponding odds ratio was 0.38 (0.32 to 0.45) for prescriptions of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, 0.09 (0.08 to 0.11) for statins, and 0.07 (0.05 to 0.09) for anticoagulant therapy. Prescription of statin and anticoagulant therapy was associated with reduced risk of death (hazard ratio, 0.78 [0.65 to 0.91] and hazard ratio, 0.58 [0.44 to 0.76], respectively) but not the prescription of antiplatelet drugs or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors.

    Conclusions

    The prescription of antiplatelet, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, statins, and anticoagulant therapy was strongly age related. Statin and anticoagulant therapy was associated with reduced risk of death and seemed to be underused among elderly patients. These findings should encourage physicians to follow today's guidelines for stroke care.

  • 237697.
    Åsberg, Signild
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Henriksson, Karin M
    Lund University, Department of Laboratory Medicine.
    Farahmand, Bahman
    Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Enviromental Medicine.
    Terént, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Hemorrhages After Ischemic Stroke: Relation to Age and Previous Hemorrhages in a Nationwide Cohort of 58 868 Patients2013In: International Journal of Stroke, ISSN 1747-4930, E-ISSN 1747-4949, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 80-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    In randomized controlled trials of secondary prevention after stroke, the risk of hemorrhage varies between 1% and 5% per year in patients with antithrombotic therapy, i.e. anticoagulants and antiplatelets.

    Aim:

    To explore the rate and the risk of hemorrhage after stroke in a nationwide cohort.

    Methods:

    We identified 58 868 first-ever ischemic stroke patients in the Swedish Stroke Register during 2001 to 2005 (=index stroke) and followed them by record linkage to the National Patient Register. Rates of hemorrhage and hazard ratios, for comparisons of rates between subgroups, were calculated.

    Results:

    Of the 58 586 ischemic stroke patients identified, 5527 (9.4%) had a history of hemorrhage. During follow-up (mean 2.0 years), 2876 patients endured a hemorrhage, giving an average hemorrhage rate of 2.6 (95% confidence interval 2.5-2.7) per 100 person-years. After index stroke, 11% of the patients were discharged with anticoagulants, and 79% with antiplatelets. Given the differences in baseline characteristics, the hemorrhage rates (per 100 person-years) were 2.5 (95% confidence interval 2.2-2.8), 2.4 (95% confidence interval 2.3-2.5), and 3.8 (95% confidence interval 3.5-4.2) in patients prescribed anticoagulants, antiplatelets, and no antithrombotics, respectively. There was an increased risk of hemorrhage in patients ≥75 years compared to those <75 years (hazard ratio = 1.61, 95% CI 1.49-1.73), and in patients with previous hemorrhages compared to those without (hazard ratio = 1.82, 95% confidence interval 1.64-2.02).

    Conclusions:

    When antithrombotics were used in large-scale clinical practice, the observed rates of hemorrhage were similar with anticoagulant therapy but increased with antiplatelet therapy, compared to rates reported in randomized controlled trials. Old age and previous hemorrhage were associated with an increased risk of hemorrhage after an ischemic stroke.

  • 237698.
    Åsberg, Signild
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology. Riksstroke, Västerbotten County Council, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hijazi, Ziad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Norrving, Bo
    Riksstroke, Västerbotten County Council, Umeå, Sweden.; Department of Neurology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Terént, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology. Riksstroke, Västerbotten County Council, Umeå, Sweden.
    Öhagen, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Timing of oral anticoagulant therapy in acute ischemic stroke with atrial fibrillation: study protocol for a registry-based randomised controlled trial2017In: Trials, ISSN 1745-6215, E-ISSN 1745-6215, Vol. 18, no 1, article id 581Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Oral anticoagulation therapy is recommended for the prevention of recurrent ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Current guidelines do not provide evidence-based recommendations on optimal time-point to start anticoagulation therapy after an acute ischemic stroke. Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) may offer advantages compared to warfarin because of faster and more predictable onset of action and potentially a lower risk of intracerebral haemorrhage also in the acute phase after an ischemic stroke. The TIMING study aims to establish the efficacy and safety of early vs delayed initiation of NOACs in patients with acute ischemic stroke and AF.

    METHODS/DESIGN: The TIMING study is a national, investigator-led, registry-based, multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled study. The Swedish Stroke Register is used for enrolment, randomisation and follow-up of 3000 patients, who are randomised (1:1) within 72 h from ischemic stroke onset to either early (≤ 4 days) or delayed (≥ 5-10 days) start of NOAC therapy. The primary outcome is the composite of recurrent ischemic stroke, symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage, or all-cause mortality within 90 days after randomisation. Secondary outcomes include: individual components of the primary outcome at 90 and 365 days; major haemorrhagic events; functional outcome by the modified Rankin Scale at 90 days; and health economics. In an optional biomarker sub-study, blood samples will be collected after randomisation from approximately half of the patients for central analysis of cardiovascular biomarkers after study completion. The study is funded by the Swedish Medical Research Council. Enrolment of patients started in April 2017.

    CONCLUSION: The TIMING study addresses the ongoing clinical dilemma of when to start NOAC after an acute ischemic stroke in patients with AF. By the inclusion of a randomisation module within the Swedish Stroke Register, the advantages of a prospective randomised study design are combined with the strengths of a national clinical quality register in allowing simplified enrolment and follow-up of study patients. In addition, the register adds the possibility of directly assessing the external validity of the study findings.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02961348 . Registered on 8 November 2016.

  • 237699.
    Åsblom, Fanny
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Literature.
    Carema Care?: En retorisk argumentations- och kriskommunikationsanalys av vårdföretaget Carema Care2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen behandlar vårdföretaget Carema Cares två bloggar som skapades i och med krisen som uppstod kring företaget år 2011. Detta görs genom en granskning av argumentationen Carema Care för på bloggarna utifrån kriskommunikationsstrategier och retoriska strategier.

  • 237700.
    Åsblom, Filip
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology.
    Wiki as a Collaboration and Information Tool in Business: Analysis and Implementation2009Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis, carried out within the framework of the Master of Science Program in Sociotechnical Systems Engineering, investigates wiki as a collaboration and information tool in business. The author takes a broad approach to the technology and takes both technology and organisational aspects into account.

    It describes how wiki technology differs from other common technologies such as e-mail, instant messaging, et cetera. It also describes how such tools act as a collaborative tool seen in different aspects of collaboration.

    Three case studies within IBM are described where wiki technology has been used in different ways, both with collaborative and informative purposes.

    The author describes how a wiki was implemented for a Swedish geographically disperse service line, Application Innovation Services (AIS), of IBM. The effect on information availability within AIS is measured with two questionnaires, before and after implementation, and the result shows that the wiki implementation has affected the information availability in a positive way.

    Keywords: wiki, social software, collaboration, knowledge management, web 2.0

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