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  • 238801.
    Åqvist, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Kazemi, Masoud
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Isaksen, Geir Villy
    Univ Tromso, Dept Chem, Ctr Theoret Computat Chem, N-9037 Tromso, Norway..
    Brandsdal, Bjorn Olav
    Univ Tromso, Dept Chem, Ctr Theoret Computat Chem, N-9037 Tromso, Norway..
    Entropy and Enzyme Catalysis2017In: Accounts of Chemical Research, ISSN 0001-4842, E-ISSN 1520-4898, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 199-207Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CONSPECTUS: The role played by entropy for the enormous rate enhancement achieved by enzymes has been debated for many decades. There are, for example, several confirmed cases where the activation free energy is reduced by around 10 kcal/mol due to entropic effects, corresponding to a rate enhancement of similar to 10(7) compared to the uncatalyzed reaction. However, despite substantial efforts from both the experimental and theoretical side, no real consensus has been reached regarding the origin of such large entropic contributions to enzyme catalysis. Another remarkable instance of entropic effects is found in enzymes that are adapted by evolution to work at low temperatures, near the freezing point of water. These cold-adapted enzymes invariably show a more negative entropy and a lower enthalpy of activation than their mesophilic orthologs, which counteracts the exponential damping of reaction rates at lower temperature. The structural origin of this universal phenomenon has, however, remained elusive. The basic problem with connecting macroscopic thermodynamic quantities, such as activation entropy and enthalpy derived from Arrhenius plots, to the 3D protein structure is that the underlying detailed (microscopic) energetics is essentially inaccessible to experiment. Moreover, attempts to calculate entropy contributions by computer simulations have mostly focused only on substrate entropies, which do not provide the full picture. We have recently devised a new approach for accessing thermodynamic activation parameters of both enzyme and solution reactions from computer simulations, which turns out to be very successful. This method is analogous to the experimental Arrhenius plots and directly evaluates the temperature dependence of calculated reaction free energy profiles. Hence, by extensive molecular dynamics simulations and calculations of up to thousands of independent free energy profiles, we are able to extract activation parameters with sufficient precision for making direct comparisons to experiment. We show here that the agreement with the measured quantities, for both enzyme catalyzed and spontaneous solution reactions, is quite remarkable. Importantly, we can now address some of the most spectacular entropy effects in enzymes and clarify their detailed microscopic origin. Herein, we discuss as examples the conversion of cytidine to uridine catalyzed by cytidine deaminase and reactions taking place on the ribosome, namely, peptide bond formation and GTP hydrolysis by elongation factor Tu. It turns out that the large entropy contributions to catalysis in these cases can now be rationalized by our computational approach. Finally, we address the problem of cold adaptation of enzyme reaction rates and prove by computational experiments that the universal activation enthalpy entropy phenomenon originates from mechanical properties of the outer protein surface.

  • 238802.
    Åqvist, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Molecular Biology.
    Mowbray, Sherry L.
    Sugar Recognition by a Glucose/Galactose Receptor: Evaluation of Binding Energetics from Molecular Dynamics Simulations1995In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 270, no 17, p. 9978-9981Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new theoretical method for free energy calculations is used to compute the absolute binding constants for β-D-glucose and methyl-β-D-galactoside to the periplasmic glucose/galactose receptor from Salmonella typhimurium. The computer simulation results agree well with available experimental data and make it possible to assess the sources of both the high affinity as well as the specificity for glucose. It was found that the major contribution to the binding energy comes from electrostatic interactions and particularly hydrogen bonds of the charge-dipole type. We also predict the structure of the complex with methyl-galactoside as this has not yet been experimentally determined.

  • 238803.
    Åqvist, Lennart
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    ALCHOURRON AND BULYGIN ON DEONTIC LOGIC AND THE LOGIC OF NORM- PROPOSITIONS: AXIOMATIZATION AND REPRESENTABILITY RESULTS2008In: Logique Et Analyse, ISSN 0024-5836, no 203, p. 225-261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper deals with the problem of axiomatizing three formal systems of Deontic Logic / Normative Logic in a sense derived from Alchourron & Bulygin (1973) and Alchourron (1969). First of all we consider a version DL of their Deontic Logic (= Logic of Norms), secondly a version NL of their Normative Logic (= Logic of Norm-Propositions), to which they add a number of definitions generating certain normative operators "proper". Thirdly, we deal with a third system NOBL constructed with a view to isolating the normative fragment of NL which arises as a result of adding those definitions to NL. The main outcome of this paper is then a representability result to the effect that the set of sentences provable in NOBL is exactly the set of the sentences which are provable in NL on the basis of those definitions. The distinction Logic of Norms vs. Logic of Norm-Propositions is explained and discussed rather informally both in the introduction and in the concluding section of the present paper.

  • 238804.
    Åqvist, Lennart
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Branching Time in Deontic Logic: Remarks on an Example by Alchourrón and Bulygin1997In: Normative Systems in Legal and Moral Theory. Festschrift for Carlos E Alchourrón and Eugenio Bulygin, p. 9-Article in journal (Other scientific)
  • 238805.
    Åqvist, Lennart
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Causation by agents: the set-theoretical analysis of music as basis for a logic of agency1997In: Festskrift till Stig Strömholm, p. 15-Article in journal (Other scientific)
  • 238806.
    Åqvist, Lennart
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Law, Department of Law. Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Conditionality and Branching Time in Deontic Logic. In J.Horty and A.J.I. Jones (eds.)2002In: DEON, p. 323-343Article in journal (Other scientific)
  • 238807.
    Åqvist, Lennart
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Deontic Tense Logic With Historical Necessity, Frame Constants, and a Solution to the Epistemic Obligation Paradox (The "Knower")2014In: Theoria, ISSN 0040-5825, E-ISSN 1755-2567, Vol. 80, no 4, p. 319-349Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an earlier paper by the author, angstrom qvist (1999), I presented an approach to the logic of historical necessity, or inevitability, in the sense of a two-dimensional combination of tense and modal logic for worlds, or histories, with the same time order, known as T x W logic. Distinctive features of that approach were, apart from its two-dimensionality, its being based on discrete and finite time, and its use of so-called systematic frame constants in order to enable us to indicate longitudes (x-values) and latitudes (y-values) of any points in the co-ordinate systems under consideration. This led us to study and axiomatize an infinite hierarchy HTWxy of two-dimensional modal tense logics with the characteristic operators for historical necessity and possibility added to the original basic vocabulary. The main purpose of the present paper is then twofold: (A) to extend the logics HTWxy to the interesting branch of philosophical logic constituted by deontic logic as combined with tense (or temporal) logic; and (B) to deal with a curious puzzle known as the so-called epistemic obligation paradox - a well known stumbling-block in this area of research in philosophical logic. We argue for a solution to both these problems, which appeals to a new infinite hierarchy DHTWxym of extensions of the HTWxy in the sense of logics combining dyadic deontic modalities with temporal ones such as those for historical necessity and other two-dimensional modalities.

  • 238808.
    Åqvist, Lennart
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Discrete Tense Logic with Infinitary Inference Rules and Systematic Frame Constants: A Hilbert-Style Axiomatization1996In: Journal of Philosophical Logic, ISSN 0022-3611, E-ISSN 1573-0433, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 45-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper deals with the problem of axiomatizing a system τ1 of discrete tense logic, where one thinks of time as the set Z of all the integers together with the operations +1 (“immediate successor”) and -1 (“immediate predecessor”). τ1 is like the Segerberg-Sundholm system W1 in working with so-called infinitary inference rules; on the other hand, it differs from W1 with respect to (i) proof-theoretical setting, (ii) presence of past tense operators and a “now” operator, and, most importantly, with respect to (iii) the presence in τ of so-called systematic frame constants, which are meant to hold at exactly one point in a temporal structure and to enable us to express the irreflexivity of such structures. Those frame constants will be seen to play a paramount role in our axiomatization of τ1.

  • 238809.
    Åqvist, Lennart
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Equivalence of Two Approaches to the Semantics of Historical Necessity1997In: For Good Measure: Philosophical Essays Dedicated to Jan Odelstad on the Occasion of His Fiftieth Birthday, p. 15-Article in journal (Other scientific)
  • 238810.
    Åqvist, Lennart
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Grades of Probability Modality in the Law of Evidence2010In: Studia Logica: An International Journal for Symbolic Logic, ISSN 0039-3215, E-ISSN 1572-8730, Vol. 94, no 3, p. 307-330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents an infinite hierarchy PRm [m = 1, 2,...] of sound and complete axiomatic systems for modal logic with graded probabilistic modalities, which are to reflect what I have elsewhere called the Bolding-Ekelof degrees of evidential strength as applied to the establishment of matters of fact in law-courts. Our present approach is seen to differ from earlier work by the author in that it treats the logic of these graded modalities not only from a semantical or model-theoretic viewpoint but from a proof-theoretical and axiomatic stance as well. A paramount feature of the approach is its use of so-called systematic frame constants as labels of diverse grades of probability. Apart from this novel feature our approach can be seen to go back to pioneering work by Lou Goble in 1970.

  • 238811.
    Åqvist, Lennart
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Konung Oidipus på logisk form - Illustration till några centrala begrepp i Aristoteles' Poetik1997In: Vidgade perspektiv: Meditationer över diverse filosofihistoriska ämnen. Till Professor Lilli Alanen, p. 12-Article in journal (Other scientific)
  • 238812.
    Åqvist, Lennart
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Law, Department of Law. Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Old Foundations for the Logic of Agency and Action2002In: Studia Logica, Vol. 72, p. 313-338Article in journal (Other scientific)
  • 238813.
    Åqvist, Lennart
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    On Certain Extensions of von Kutschera's Preference-Based Dyadic Deontic Logic1997In: Das weite Spektrum der Analytischen Philosophie. Festschrift für Franz von KutscheraArticle in journal (Other scientific)
  • 238814.
    Åqvist, Lennart
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    On the Bearer/Counterparty Problem in Stig Kanger's Theory of Rights: A Solution in Terms of Sources-of-law1998In: Not Without Cause: Philosophical Essays Dedicatead to Paul Needham on the Occassion of His Fiftieth Birthday, p. 8-Article in journal (Other scientific)
  • 238815.
    Åqvist, Lennart
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    On the Interpretation of Plato's EUTYPHRO2001In: Omnium-gatherum: Philosophical essays dedicated to Jan Österberg on the occasion of his sixtieth birthday, Dept of Philosophy, Uppsala University , 2001, p. 15-28Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 238816.
    Åqvist, Lennart
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts.
    Revised foundations for imperative-epistemic and interrogative logic1971In: Theoria, ISSN 0040-5817, E-ISSN 1558-5816, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 33-73Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 238817.
    Åqvist, Lennart
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts.
    Semantic and Pragmatic Characterizability of Linguistic Usage1967In: Synthese, ISSN 0039-7857, E-ISSN 1573-0964, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 281-291Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 238818.
    Åqvist, Lennart
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Supererogation and Offence in Deontic Logic: An Analysis within Systems of Alethic Modal Logic with Levels of Perfection1999In: Philosophical crumbs. Essays dedicated to Ann-Mari Henschen-Dahlquist on the occasion of her 75th birthday, p. 15-Article in journal (Other scientific)
  • 238819.
    Åqvist, Lennart
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Systematic Frame Constants in Defeasible Deontic Logic: A New Form of Andersonian Reduction1997In: Defeasible Deontic Logic: Essays in Nomonotonic Normative ReasoningArticle in journal (Other scientific)
  • 238820.
    Åqvist, Lennart
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    The Logic of Historical Necessity as Founded on Two-Dimensional Modal Tense Logic1999In: Journal of Philosophical Logic, ISSN 0022-3611, E-ISSN 1573-0433, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 329-369Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider a version of so called T × W logic for historical necessity in the sense of R.H. Thomason (1984), which is somewhat special in three respects: (i) it is explicitly based on two-dimensional modal logic in the sense of Segerberg (1973); (ii) for reasons of applicability to interesting fields of philosophical logic, it conceives of time as being discrete and finite in the sense of having a beginning and an end; and (iii) it utilizes the technique of systematic frame constants in order to handle the problem of irreflexivity in tense logics, well known since Gabbay (1981). Axiomatizations are given for two infinite hierarchies of two-dimensional modal tense logics, one without and one with the characteristic operators for historical necessity and possibility. Strong and weak completeness results are obtained for both hierarchies as well as a result to the effect that two approaches to their semantics are equivalent, much in the spirit of Di Maio and Zanardo (1996) and von Kutschera (1997).

  • 238821.
    Åqvist, Lennart
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    three characterizability Problems in Deontic Logic2000In: Nordic Journal of philosophicalArticle in journal (Other scientific)
  • 238822.
    Åqvist, Lennart
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Åke Frändberg om performativer i juridiken2003Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 238823.
    Åqvist-Nordlund, Charlotta
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Fors Lundberg, Julia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Förnyelseresan: Lean i offentlig sektor2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    New Public Management (NPM) innebär att den offentliga sektorn lånar in styrningsformer från den privata sektorn. NPM har präglat den offentliga sektorns utveckling sedan 1980- talet, delvis genom implementeringen av Lean inom offentlig sektor i Sverige. Arbetsförmedlingen håller på med en omorganisation, där bakgrunden delvis är myndighetens låga förtroende. Målet är bland annat att modernisera och effektivisera verksamheten. Studiens syfte är att undersöka på vilket sätt Lean som managementidé har inspirerat Arbetsförmedlingens omorganisation och hur Lean används i praktiken. Det teoretiska ramverket utgår från NPM och Lean Service. Åtta av tio Lean Service-principer från Malmbrandt och Åhlström (2013) har använts i undersökningen. Eftersom bakgrunden till omorganisationen är myndighetens låga förtroende har även en teoretisk definition av legitimitet inkluderats i ramverket. Genom semistrukturerade intervjuer och analys av interna styrdokument har information samlats in för att besvara studiens forskningsfråga. Resultatet visar att de praktiska förändringarna som kommer ske på Arbetsförmedlingen exemplifierar hur Lean Service kan översättas i praktiken. Vidare ger studien indikationer på att en del av Lean i praktiken kan användas för att öka en organisations legitimitet. Sambandet mellan legitimitet och Lean som en del av NPM lämnas som förslag till vidare forskning.

  • 238824.
    Årdal, Christine
    et al.
    Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Div Infect Control & Environm Hlth, N-0403 Oslo, Norway..
    Baraldi, Enrico
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Ciabuschi, Francesco
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Business Studies, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Outterson, Kevin
    Boston Univ, Sch Law, Boston, MA 02215 USA.;CARB X, Boston, MA USA..
    Rex, John H.
    CARB X, Boston, MA USA..
    Piddock, Laura J. V.
    Univ Birmingham, Inst Microbiol & Infect, Birmingham, W Midlands, England..
    Findlay, David
    GlaxoSmithKline, London, England..
    To the G20: incentivising antibacterial research and development2017In: Lancet. Infectious diseases (Print), ISSN 1473-3099, E-ISSN 1474-4457, Vol. 17, no 8, p. 799-801Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 238825. Årdal, Christine
    et al.
    Baraldi, Enrico
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Theuretzbacher, Ursula
    Outterson, Kevin
    Plahte, Jens
    Ciabuschi, Francesco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Røttingen, John-Arne
    Insights into early stage of antibiotic development in small- and medium-sized enterprises:: a survey of targets, costs, and durations2018In: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice, Vol. 11, no 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Antibiotic innovation has dwindled to dangerously low levels in the past 30 years. Since resistance continues to evolve, this innovation deficit can have perilous consequences on patients. A number of new incentives have been suggested to stimulate greater antibacterial drug innovation. To design effective solutions, a greater understanding is needed of actual antibiotic discovery and development costs and timelines. Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) undertake most discovery and early phase development for antibiotics and other drugs. This paper attempts to gather a better understanding of SMEs’ targets, costs, and durations related to discovery and early phase development of antibacterial therapies.

    Methods

    DRIVE-AB, a project focused on developing new economic incentives to stimulate antibacterial innovation, held a European stakeholder meeting in February 2015. All SMEs invited to this meeting (n = 44) were subsequently sent a survey to gather more data regarding their areas of activity, completed and expected development costs and timelines, and business models.

    Results

    Twenty-five companies responded to the survey. Respondents were primarily small companies each focusing on developing 1 to 3 new antibiotics, focused on pathogens of public health importance. Most have not yet completed any clinical trials. They have reported ranges of discovery and development out-of-pocket costs that appear to be less expensive than other studies of general pharmaceutical research and development (R&D) costs. The duration ranges reported for completing each phase of R&D are highly variable when compared to previously published general pharmaceutical innovation average durations. However, our sample population is small and may not be fully representative of all relevant antibiotic SMEs.

    Conclusions

    The data collected by this study provide important insights and estimates about R&D in European SMEs focusing on antibiotics, which can be combined with other data to design incentives to stimulate antibacterial innovation. The variation implies that costs and durations are difficult to generalize due to the unique characteristics of each antibiotic project and depend on individual business strategies and circumstances.

  • 238826.
    Årdal, Christine
    et al.
    Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, N-0403 Oslo, Norway..
    Outterson, Kevin
    Boston Univ, Sch Law, Boston, MA 02215 USA.;Chatham House Ctr Global Hlth Secur, London, England..
    Hoffman, Steven J.
    Univ Ottawa, Global Strategy Lab, Fac Law, Ottawa, ON, Canada.;Harvard Univ, TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Global Hlth & Populat, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Ghafur, Abdul
    Apollo Hosp, Madras, Tamil Nadu, India..
    Sharland, Mike
    St Georges Univ, Pediat Infect Dis Res Grp, London, England..
    Ranganathan, Nisha
    Worldwide Antimalarial Resistance Network, Oxford, England..
    Smith, Richard
    Fac Publ Hlth & Policy, London, England..
    Zorzet, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. ReAct Act Antibiot Resistance, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Cohn, Jennifer
    Access Campaign, Med Sans Frontieres, Geneva, Switzerland.;Univ Penn, Div Infect Dis, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA..
    Pittet, Didier
    Univ Hosp Geneva, Fac Med, Geneva, Switzerland.;WHO Collaborating Ctr Patient Safety, Geneva, Switzerland..
    Daulaire, Nils
    Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, N-0403 Oslo, Norway..
    Morel, Chantal
    Univ Hosp Geneva, Fac Med, Geneva, Switzerland.;Univ London London Sch Econ & Polit Sci, LSE Hlth, London WC2A 2AE, England..
    Rizvi, Zain
    Yale Univ, Sch Law, New Haven, CT 06520 USA..
    Balasegaram, Manica
    Access Campaign, Med Sans Frontieres, Geneva, Switzerland..
    Dar, Osman A.
    Chatham House Ctr Global Hlth Secur, London, England.;Publ Hlth England, London, England..
    Heymann, David L.
    Chatham House Ctr Global Hlth Secur, London, England.;Univ London London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, London WC1E 7HT, England.;Publ Hlth England, London, England..
    Holmes, Alison H.
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Natl Inst Hlth, Res Unit Healthcare Associated Infect, Res Hlth Protect, London, England.;Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Dept Infect Dis, London, England..
    Moore, Luke S. P.
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Natl Inst Hlth, Res Unit Healthcare Associated Infect, Res Hlth Protect, London, England.;Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Dept Infect Dis, London, England..
    Laxminarayan, Ramanan
    Ctr Dis Dynam Econ & Policy, Washington, DC USA.;Princeton Environm Inst, Princeton, NJ USA.;Publ Hlth Fdn India, New Delhi, India..
    Mendelson, Marc
    Univ Cape Town, Groote Schuur Hosp, Dept Med, Div Infect Dis & HIV Med, ZA-7925 Cape Town, South Africa..
    Rottingen, John-Arne
    Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, N-0403 Oslo, Norway.;Harvard Univ, TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Global Hlth & Populat, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Univ Oslo, Fac Med, Inst Hlth & Soc, Oslo, Norway..
    International cooperation to improve access to and sustain effectiveness of antimicrobials2016In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 387, no 10015, p. 296-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Securing access to effective antimicrobials is one of the greatest challenges today. Until now, efforts to address this issue have been isolated and uncoordinated, with little focus on sustainable and international solutions. Global collective action is necessary to improve access to life-saving antimicrobials, conserving them, and ensuring continued innovation. Access, conservation, and innovation are beneficial when achieved independently, but much more effective and sustainable if implemented in concert within and across countries. WHO alone will not be able to drive these actions. It will require a multisector response (including the health, agriculture, and veterinary sectors), global coordination, and financing mechanisms with sufficient mandates, authority, resources, and power. Fortunately, securing access to effective antimicrobials has finally gained a place on the global political agenda, and we call on policy makers to develop, endorse, and finance new global institutional arrangements that can ensure robust implementation and bold collective action.

  • 238827.
    Årebäck, H
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Andersson, U.B.
    Low-pressure granulite-facies contact metamorphism around the Hakefjorden Complex, SW Sweden: petrography and mineral chemistry2002In: Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift, Vol. 82, p. 29-44Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 238828. Århammar, C.
    et al.
    Endrino, J. L.
    Ramzan, Muhammad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Horwat, D.
    Blomqvist, Andreas
    Rubensson, Jan-Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Andersson, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Ahuja, Rajeev
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory. Applied Materials Physics, Department of Materials and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH).
    Probing temperature-induced ordering in supersaturated Ti-1 (-) xAlxN coatings by electronic structure2014In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 242, p. 207-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ordering of supersaturated cubic titanium aluminum nitride (c-Ti0.35Al0.65N) coatings is probed from room temperature up to and above the point of spinodal decomposition, using Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine-structure (NEXAFS) and first principles calculations. The measured and calculated nitrogen (N) K spectra suggest that unoccupied N p states hybridize with Ti d states. When temperature is raised the N p-Ti d overlap decreases, whereas hybridization between N p and Al p tends to increase. The observed spectral changes with temperature together with calculations of defect heat of formation suggest a depletion of N in the surroundings of Ti in c-Ai(1) (-) xAlxN and/or in the formed c-TiN.

  • 238829.
    Århammar, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Araujo, C. Moyses
    Rao, K. V.
    Norgren, Susanne
    Johansson, Börje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Ahuja, Rajeev
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Energetics and magnetic properties of V-doped MgO bulk and (001) surface: A GGA, GGA plus U, and hybrid density functional study2010In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 82, no 13, p. 134406-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, a first-principles study of the energetic and magnetic properties of V-doped MgO is presented, where both the bulk and (001) surface were investigated. It is found that V assumes a high-spin state with a local moment of about 3 mu(B). In the bulk, the interaction between these local moments is very short ranged and the antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordering is energetically more favorable. The formation of V-V-Mg-V defect clusters is found to weaken the antiferromagnetic coupling in bulk MgO, degenerating the AFM and ferro-magnetic state. However, these clusters are high in energy and will not form at equilibrium conditions. By employing the GGA+U approach, with U=5 eV, the V 3d states on the (001) surface are shifted below the Fermi level, and a reasonable surface geometry was achieved. A calculation with the hybrid HSE03 functional, contradicts the GGA+U results, indicating that the V-MgO surface should be metallic at this concentration. From the energetics it is concluded that, at the modeled concentration, VxOy phases will limit the solubility of V in MgO at equilibrium conditions, which is in agreement with previous experimental findings. In order to achieve higher concentrations of V, an off-equilibrium synthesis method is needed. Finally, we find that the formation energy of V at the surface is considerably higher than in the bulk and V is thus expected to diffuse from the surface into the bulk of MgO.

  • 238830.
    Århammar, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Grahn, Alexander
    Vall, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Strömme, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Boman, Mats
    Functionalization of amorphous magnesium carbonate by Atomic Layer Deposition of (3-Aminopropyl)trietoxysilane (APTES) and (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane (APTMS)2016In: 43rd ICMCTF International conference on Coatings and Thin Films, 2016, Vol. B2-2-8, p. 8-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 238831.
    Århammar, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Pietzsch, Annette
    MAX-lab, Lunds universitet, Lund.
    Bock, Nicolas
    Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, USA.
    Holmström, Erik
    Instituto di Fisica, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile.
    Araujo, Carlos Moyses
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Gråsjö, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Zhao, Shuxi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Green, Sara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Peery, T
    Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, USA.
    Hennies, Franz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Soft X-Ray Physics.
    Amerioun, Shahrad
    Sandvik Tooling, R and D, Stockholm.
    Foehlisch, Alexander
    Insitute for Methods and Instrumentation in Synchrotron Radiation Research G-12, Helmhotz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Berlin, Tyskland.
    Schlappa, Justine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Schmitt, Thorsten
    Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, Schweiz.
    Strocov, Vladimir N
    Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, Schweiz.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Wallace, Duane C
    Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, USA.
    Rubensson, Jan-Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Soft X-Ray Physics.
    Johansson, Börje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Ahuja, Rajeev
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Unveiling the complex electronic structure of amorphous metal oxides2011In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 108, no 16, p. 6355-6360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Amorphous materials represent a large and important emerging area of material's science. Amorphous oxides are key technological oxides in applications such as a gate dielectric in Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor devices and in Silicon-Oxide-Nitride-Oxide-Silicon and TANOS (TaN-Al2O3-Si3N4-SiO2-Silicon) flash memories. These technologies are required for the high packing density of today's integrated circuits. Therefore the investigation of defect states in these structures is crucial. In this work we present X-ray synchrotron measurements, with an energy resolution which is about 5-10 times higher than is attainable with standard spectrometers, of amorphous alumina. We demonstrate that our experimental results are in agreement with calculated spectra of amorphous alumina which we have generated by stochastic quenching. This first principles method, which we have recently developed, is found to be superior to molecular dynamics in simulating the rapid gas to solid transition that takes place as this material is deposited for thin film applications. We detect and analyze in detail states in the band gap that originate from oxygen pairs. Similar states were previously found in amorphous alumina by other spectroscopic methods and were assigned to oxygen vacancies claimed to act mutually as electron and hole traps. The oxygen pairs which we probe in this work act as hole traps only and will influence the information retention in electronic devices. In amorphous silica oxygen pairs have already been found, thus they may be a feature which is characteristic also of other amorphous metal oxides.

  • 238832.
    Århem, Kaj
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts.
    Makuna social organization: a study in descent, alliance and the formation of corporate groups in the north-western Amazon1981Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 238833.
    Århem, Nikolas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Cultural Anthropology and Ethnology.
    Dangerous and powerful animals in Katu cosmology2008In: Vietnamese Studies, ISSN 1859-0985, no 1+2 (167-168), p. 73-98Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 238834.
    Århem, Nikolas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Cultural Anthropology and Ethnology.
    Forests, Spirits and High Modernist Development: A Study of Cosmology and Change among the Katuic Peoples in the Uplands of Laos and Vietnam2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores how Katuic-speaking indigenous groups in the Central Annamitic Cordillera of Vietnam and Laos understand their environment – hills, streams and forest. Katuic eco-cosmology assumes that the natural landscape is imbued with spirit agents, with whom people must continuously communicate lest misfortune will strike and their livelihoods fail. The thesis posits the hypothesis that these spirit beliefs, and a variety of taboo notions accompanying them, can be interpreted as expressions of a complex socio-environmental adaptation. Today, the indigenous groups in the study region are confronted with a massive development- and modernisation push on two fronts – that of the global development industry on the one hand, and the implementation of national development policies and programs as part of the high-modernist state project in communist Vietnam and Laos, on the other.

    A second objective of the thesis, then, is to examine the effects of this multi-layered and multi-scaled confrontation on indigenous cosmology, livelihood and landscape. It is argued, this confrontation at the development frontier can be conceived of as an interface between different ontologies or reality posits – one animist, articulated in a relational stance towards the landscape; the other, a naturalist or rationalist ontology, expressed as an objectivist stance towards nature and embodied in the high-modernist development schemes and programs unfolding in the region with the aim of re-engineering its indigenous societies and exploiting its natural resources.     

    Large parts of the Central Annamites were severely impacted by the Vietnam War; uncounted numbers of minority people were killed, or had their villages destroyed or relocated while defoliants, bombs, and forest fires ravaged the landscape. In the decades that followed the war, the entire social and natural landscape has been reshaped by national development policies and the modernist visions that underpin them. The thesis attempts to understand this physical and cultural transformation of the landscape, focusing particularly on the gradual breakdown of the complex indigenous socio-religious institutions that appear to have played an important functional role in maintaining the pre-war structure of the landscape.

    The thesis is based primarily on fieldwork carried out between 2004 and 2009 in the provinces of Quảng Nam and Thừa Thiên–Huế in Vietnam and Sekong in Laos. 

  • 238835.
    Århem, Nikolas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Cultural Anthropology and Ethnology.
    In the Sacred Forest: landscape, livelihood and spirit beliefs among the Katu of Vietnam2009Book (Other academic)
  • 238836.
    Århem, Nikolas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Cultural Anthropology and Ethnology.
    Supernatural Gamekeepers among the Katu of Vietnam2020In: Supernatural Gamekeepers and Animal Masters: A Cross-Cultural Perspective (forthcoming 2020) / [ed] Chacon, Richard, New York: Springer-Verlag New York, 2020Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 238837.
    Århem, Nikolas
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Arts, Department of Cultural Anthropology and Ethnology, Cultural Anthropology.
    The end of the cattle trail: environment, livestock and the politics of the Bush among the Fulbe of Sanguié, Burkina Faso2000Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
  • 238838.
    Århem, Nikolas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Cultural Anthropology and Ethnology.
    Wild and dangerous animals in Katu cosmology2008In: Vietnamese Studies, Vol. JuneArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 238839.
    Århem, Nikolas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Cultural Anthropology and Ethnology.
    Wrestling with sprits, escaping the state: Animist ecology and settlement policy in the Annamite Mountain2016In: Animism in Southeast Asia / [ed] Arhem, Kaj, Sprenger, Guido, London: Routledge, 2016Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 238840.
    Århem, Nikolas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Cultural Anthropology and Ethnology, Cultural Anthropology.
    Nguyen Thi Thanh, Binh
    The Road to Progress?: A study of the socio-cultural impact of theHo Chi Minh Highway on indigenous peoples inthe Central Truong Son region (Vietnam)2007Report (Other academic)
  • 238841.
    Årling, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Musicology.
    Fler krav är lägre krav?: En analys av läroplansskiftets förändringar i musikämnets kursplan2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med min uppsats är att uppmärksamma de skillnader i betyg inom musikämnet som inträffat sedan läroplansskiftet från Läroplan för det obligatoriska läroverket 1994 (Lpo94) till Läroplan för grundskolan, förskoleklassen och fritidshemmet 2011 (Lgr11). Läroplanerna med tillhörande kursplaner är de dokument som lärare i Sverige använder till sin planering av undervisning samt till bedömning av elevers prestationer. Statistik från Skolverket visar att fler elever klarar av att få ett betyg i musikämnet med den nya läroplanen, den visar också att medelvärdet av betygspoängen har ökat. Med uppsatsen vill jag svara på hur elevens förutsättningar för ett godkänt betyg har förändrats samt vilka skillnader i läroplanerna som kan ha förbättrat statistiken kring musikämnet.

    I jämförelsen av kursplanerna finner jag att ordvalen som förklarar hur bra en elev ska ha utvecklat en färdighet kan motivera varför fler får ett godkänt betyg med Lgr11. Lpo94 använder "Kunna" till stor del där Lgr11 använder "viss" eller "till viss del". Lgr11 har ett centralt innehåll som definierar begrepp och instrument vilket ökat tydligheten i vad som ska undervisas. Kursplanen bygger vidare på tidigare kunskaper samt prioriterar de olika kunskaperna lika vid bedömning, det gör att elever kan få en bättre utbildning långsiktigt.

  • 238842.
    Årling, Oscar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Construction, programming and testing of measurement equipment for microbe culturing in space: Contribution to the MOREBAC experiment, part of the MIST-project2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many different bacteria have essential roles in the process ofrecycling organic waste, making them useful tools when it comes toestablishing artificial ecosystems, a key technology to master inthe expansion of human space travel.In order to further investigate bacteria growth conditions duringspace travel, the MOREBAC experiment was formulated. The objectivewas to design an experimental setup and develop measurementequipment with the capability of confirming successfulresuscitation of freeze-dried bacteria in space by measuringbacteria growth, on-board the student-built MIST-satellite.The experimental setup prototype consisted of an acrylic chipwherein the bacteria would be placed during experiments and anoptical measurements configuration using a photosensor with thepurpose of detecting bacteria cell growth. For experimentalenvironment monitoring, a temperature sensor and a pressure sensorwere calibrated.An Arduino Nano microcontroller was programmed to control allelectrical components during measurements. During the opticaldensity measurements blue dyed water and E.coli bacteria innutrition media were used as test samples.Provided varying blue dye or bacteria cell concentrations, in theform of dilution series and growth-over-time-series, the equipmentproved capable of producing measurements that indicate the opticaldensity of the test sample.Furthermore, a prototype experiment protocol simulating eventsthat will occur in the final experiment design, was implementedand was able to produce real-time monitoring graphs of optical,temperature and pressure measurements, as well as documentation ofall events and measurement data.

  • 238843.
    Årman, Carl Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Philosophy.
    Specimen academicum, commoda ex objectionibus adversariorum religioni allata, sistens, quod cons. ampliss. ord. phil. Ups. exhibent mag. Carolus P. Årman ... et Christophorus Berg, Sudermanni. In Audit. Gust. maj. d. XXII Maji MDCCXCIII. H. A. M. S.1793Dissertation (older thesis) (Other academic)
  • 238844.
    Årmarker, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences.
    Kihlström, Britta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences.
    Processförbättring inom Scanias reservdelsavdelning: en studie om kommunikationen och arbetsflödet inom POR-processen2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study has been carried out at the spare parts department at Scania AB. The department works with a process called Phase Out Request (POR). The company works according to Lean and in the POR process many bottlenecks arise and production stops when products are phased out. The purpose of the study is to improve the POR process for spare parts at the spare parts department, Scania AB. To achieve the purpose, the following problem formulations have been identified: How can the communication in the POR process be improved? How can the workflow be improved? The theory used is based on workflow and communication, and deals with, among other things, visual control, quality and organizational development and the communication components and problems. Qualitative method has been used to carry out the study and the letter method and in-depth interview have been carried out to collect data. There are visual improvement possibilities within the process and the study contributes to the process being improved with visual clarity such as process map and flow diagram. In addition, concrete improvement proposals have also been developed that can be implemented by the organization in the short term. The proposed solutions can be used in other processes, as organizations should strive for a flow in their operations and improve their communication. Flow in the business and communication are parts that are everywhere and that everyone can benefit from improving.

  • 238845.
    Årnevall, Sandra
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Beskattning av sparande i realkapital2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Jag har med hjälp av King-Fullerton modellen jämfört den effektiva marginalskatten på sparande och investeringar i realkapital. Jag har jämfört sparande i företagssektorn, där jag tittat på investeringar i aktiebolag, och bostadssektorn, där jag tittat på investeringar i egen villa, bostadsrättsfastighet och hyresfastighet från år 1985 till 2008. Resultaten visar att det nya och mer balanserade skattesystemet som infördes år 1991 innebar en sänkning av den effektiva marginalskatten för nästan samtliga sektorer i studien. Efter fastighetsskattens avskaffande år 2008 kommer incitamenten att spara i bostadssektorn öka kraftigt jämfört med investeringar i företagssektorn och det kommer att bli en tydlig snedvridning i skattesystemet.

  • 238846.
    Årre, Christopher Mauritz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Philosophy.
    Commentariolum in vaticinia prophetæ Haggæi quod venia ampl. facult. philos. Upsal., p. p. Mag. Christophorus Mauritz. Årre ... et Edvardus Bergström stip. Reg. Uplandus[.] In audit. Gust. die XI Jun. MDCCCXXVIII., P. II1828Dissertation (older thesis) (Other academic)
  • 238847.
    Årre, Christopher Mauritz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Philosophy.
    Commentariolum in vaticinia prophetæ Haggæi quod venia ampl. facult. philos. Upsal. p. p. Mag. Christophorus Mauritz. Årre ... et Fridericus Guilielmus Segerquist Uplandus In audit. Gust. die XVI Jun. MDCCCXXVIII., P. IV1828Dissertation (older thesis) (Other academic)
  • 238848.
    Årre, Christopher Mauritz
    Uppsala University.
    Commentariolum in vaticinia prophetæ Haggæi quod venia ampl. facult. philos. Upsal. p. p. Mag. Christophorus Mauritz. Årre ... et Laurentius Petrus Laurell Uplando-Roslagi. In Audit. Gustav. die XXVII Martii MDCCCXXX. H. P. M. S., P. V1830Dissertation (older thesis) (Other academic)
  • 238849.
    Årre, Christopher Mauritz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Philosophy.
    Commentariolum in vaticinia prophetæ Haggæi quod venia ampl. facult. philos. Upsal. p. p. Mag. Christophorus Mauritz. Årre ... et Philippus Gustavus Anjou stip. Possieth. Roslagi. In Audit. Gust. die XI Jun. MDCCCXXVIII. H. P. M. S., P. III1828Dissertation (older thesis) (Other academic)
  • 238850.
    Ås, Joel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cancer Pharmacology and Computational Medicine.
    Active dose selection and dose-response modeling for quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS)2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis studies the potential benefit of iterative selection of the concentrations

    evaluated when building mathematical dose-response curves (and response surfaces when

    there are two drugs) using experimental measurements. The reference alternative is to use

    a standard two-fold dilution series or ten-fold dilution series measured in replicates. The

    standard 4-parameter Hill dose-response model is used as a reference and for simulations.

    Models to screen for synergy between two different substances are also developed in this thesis.

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