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  • 239001.
    Zhao, Wei
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics. RISE Res Inst Sweden, Div Biosci & Mat, SE-11486 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sugunan, Abhilash
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Div Biosci & Mat, SE-11486 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zhang, Zhi-Bin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Ahniyaz, Anwar
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Div Biosci & Mat, SE-11486 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Graphene and Flavin Mononucleotide Interaction in Aqueous Graphene Dispersions2019In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 123, no 43, p. 26282-26288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fundamental understanding of the interaction between graphene and a stabilizer is needed for the development of stable aqueous graphene dispersions. Here, we studied the interaction of graphene with the flavin mononucleotide (FMN) in water. The UV-vis absorption spectra revealed blue shifts of the FMN absorption bands II (374 nm) and I (445 nm) in the presence of graphene. Furthermore, Fourier transform infrared analysis showed that the graphene also upshifted the FMN vibration modes C-10a=N-1 and C-4a=N-5, which correspond to the FMN isoalloxazine binding sites N(1) and N(5), respectively. In addition, thermogravimetric analysis showed that the thermal stability of graphene was enhanced by the adsorbed FMN, which supports the strong interaction. These results confirm that FMN adsorbs on the graphene surface in parallel conformation and hinders hydrogen bonding at the FMN isoalloxazine binding sites.

  • 239002.
    Zhao, Weizhou
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular Evolution.
    Evolution of streamlined genomes in ultra-small aquatic bacteria2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the evolutionary processes of streamlined genomes from aquatic bacteria adapting to different salinities, using two groups of ultra-small aquatic bacteria (LD12 Alphaproteobacteria and acI Actinobacteria). Due to difficulties in obtaining pure cultures of these bacteria, culture-free approaches (single-cell genomics and metagenomics) were used to construct and compare genomes, and to study the mechanisms and selective forces of adaptation to freshwater, brackish, and marine ecosystems.

    A study of single-cell amplified genomes (SAGs) from freshwater LD12 Alphaproteobacteria revealed that LD12 forms a clade embedded within the globally dominant marine Alphaproteobacteria SAR11, and subclades were organized into distinct microclusters. LD12 genomes had a very low ratio of recombination to point mutations, in contrast to their marine relatives which had a very high ratio of recombination to mutation. We suggested that the transition from marine to freshwater was a bottleneck event, resulting in reduced opportunities for recombination.

    In a separate study, we analyzed complete genomes and SAGs from acI Actinobacteria abundant in freshwater ecosystems, and found overall low rates of sequence divergence with however a dramatic acceleration near genomic island 1 (GI-1). We also identified a type IV topoisomerase, the delta subunit of DNA polymerase, and an RNA polymerase sigma factor near GI-1. Based on these results, we proposed a model for the evolution and expression of novel genes in these genomes.

    We also isolated and analyzed the genomes of single cells from a marine Actinobacteria (subclass Candidatus Actinomarinidae). These were not related to acI, but to Acidimicrobiia, which suggested salinity barriers have been crossed several times by Actinobacteria.

    To further understand the transition to different salinities, we obtained acI SAGs from three different intermediate-salinity Baltic Sea locations. We took sequence reads from 21 metagenomes taken along the salinity gradient, and recruited these fragments to both the freshwater and brackish acI reference genomes. These results indicated that transitions between fresh and brackish waters have occurred multiple times in acI Actinobacteria and some of these strains are globally present in coastal waters.

    List of papers
    1. Single cell genomics reveals low recombination frequencies in freshwater bacteria of the SAR11 clade
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Single cell genomics reveals low recombination frequencies in freshwater bacteria of the SAR11 clade
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    2013 (English)In: Genome Biology, ISSN 1465-6906, E-ISSN 1474-760X, Vol. 14, no 11, article id R130Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The SAR11 group of Alphaproteobacteria is highly abundant in the oceans. It contains a recently diverged freshwater clade, which offers the opportunity to compare adaptations to salt-and freshwaters in a monophyletic bacterial group. However, there are no cultivated members of the freshwater SAR11 group and no genomes have been sequenced yet. Results: We isolated ten single SAR11 cells from three freshwater lakes and sequenced and assembled their genomes. A phylogeny based on 57 proteins indicates that the cells are organized into distinct microclusters. We show that the freshwater genomes have evolved primarily by the accumulation of nucleotide substitutions and that they have among the lowest ratio of recombination to mutation estimated for bacteria. In contrast, members of the marine SAR11 clade have one of the highest ratios. Additional metagenome reads from six lakes confirm low recombination frequencies for the genome overall and reveal lake-specific variations in microcluster abundances. We identify hypervariable regions with gene contents broadly similar to those in the hypervariable regions of the marine isolates, containing genes putatively coding for cell surface molecules. Conclusions: We conclude that recombination rates differ dramatically in phylogenetic sister groups of the SAR11 clade adapted to freshwater and marine ecosystems. The results suggest that the transition from marine to freshwater systems has purged diversity and resulted in reduced opportunities for recombination with divergent members of the clade. The low recombination frequencies of the LD12 clade resemble the low genetic divergence of host-restricted pathogens that have recently shifted to a new host.

    National Category
    Microbiology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-206203 (URN)10.1186/gb-2013-14-11-r130 (DOI)000330616200009 ()24286338 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 349-2007-831 621-2008-3259 621-2011-4669-4669 2009-3784 2008-1923 2012-3892EU, European Research CouncilGöran Gustafsson Foundation for promotion of scientific research at Uppala University and Royal Institute of TechnologyKnut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, KAW-2011.0148 KAW-2012.0075Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing (SNIC), p2006019 p2009043
    Available from: 2013-09-03 Created: 2013-08-29 Last updated: 2019-09-20Bibliographically approved
    2. Rapid diversification of functional homologs in replacement genomic islands of freshwater Actinobacteria
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rapid diversification of functional homologs in replacement genomic islands of freshwater Actinobacteria
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Evolutionary Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-393357 (URN)
    Available from: 2019-09-19 Created: 2019-09-19 Last updated: 2019-09-26
    3. Evolution of subclass Candidatus Actinomarinidae inferred from single-cell amplified genomes of saltwater Actinobacteria
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evolution of subclass Candidatus Actinomarinidae inferred from single-cell amplified genomes of saltwater Actinobacteria
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Evolutionary Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-393359 (URN)
    Available from: 2019-09-19 Created: 2019-09-19 Last updated: 2019-09-23
    4. A phylometagenomic study based on single-cell amplified genomes from Actinobacteria in the brackish waters of the Baltic Sea
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A phylometagenomic study based on single-cell amplified genomes from Actinobacteria in the brackish waters of the Baltic Sea
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Evolutionary Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-393361 (URN)
    Available from: 2019-09-19 Created: 2019-09-19 Last updated: 2019-09-26
  • 239003.
    Zhao, Weizhou
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular Evolution.
    Andersson, Siv G. E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular Evolution.
    Single cell genomics of deep ocean bacteria2014In: Trends in Microbiology, ISSN 0966-842X, E-ISSN 1878-4380, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 233-234Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    SAR11 is one of the most abundant bacterioplanktons in the upper surface waters of the oceans. In a recent issue of The ISME Journal, Thrash and colleagues present the genomes of four single SAR11 cells isolated from the deep oceans that are enriched in genes for membrane biosynthetic functions.

  • 239004.
    Zhao, Weizhou
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular Evolution.
    Buck, Moritz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular Evolution.
    Garcia, Sarahi L
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Andersson, Siv G.E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular Evolution. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Rapid diversification of functional homologs in replacement genomic islands of freshwater ActinobacteriaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 239005.
    Zhao, Weizhou
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular Evolution.
    Garcia, Sarahi L
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Andersson, Siv
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular Evolution. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Evolution of subclass Candidatus Actinomarinidae inferred from single-cell amplified genomes of saltwater ActinobacteriaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 239006.
    Zhao, Weizhou
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular Evolution.
    Garcia, Sarahi L
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Grossart, Hans-Peter
    Leibniz Institute for Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries.
    Wannicke, Nicola
    Leib­niz In­sti­tu­te for Plas­ma Sci­ence and Tech­no­lo­gy.
    McMahon, Katherine D
    Departments of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin, Madison.
    Andersson, Siv
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular Evolution. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    A phylometagenomic study based on single-cell amplified genomes from Actinobacteria in the brackish waters of the Baltic SeaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 239007.
    ZHAO, WENJUN
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Analytical Chemistry.
    Analysis of most common endogenous steroids in plasma2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 239008.
    Zhao, Wenyue
    et al.
    Beihang Univ, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, Key Lab Aerosp Mat & Performance,Minist Ind & Inf, Minist Educ,Key Lab High Temp Struct Mat & Coatin, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China;Beihang Univ, Ctr Integrated Computat Mat Engn, Int Res Inst Multidisciplinary Sci, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China.
    Li, Wei
    Royal Inst Technol, Dept Mat Sci & Engn, Appl Mat Phys, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Li, Xiaoqing
    Royal Inst Technol, Dept Mat Sci & Engn, Appl Mat Phys, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gong, Shengkai
    Beihang Univ, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, Key Lab Aerosp Mat & Performance,Minist Ind & Inf, Minist Educ,Key Lab High Temp Struct Mat & Coatin, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China.
    Vitos, Levente
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory. Royal Inst Technol, Dept Mat Sci & Engn, Appl Mat Phys, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden;Wigner Res Ctr Phys, Res Inst Solid State Phys & Opt, POB 49, H-1525 Budapest, Hungary.
    Sun, Zhimei
    Beihang Univ, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, Key Lab Aerosp Mat & Performance,Minist Ind & Inf, Minist Educ,Key Lab High Temp Struct Mat & Coatin, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China;Beihang Univ, Ctr Integrated Computat Mat Engn, Int Res Inst Multidisciplinary Sci, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China.
    Thermo-mechanical properties of Ni-Mo solid solutions: A first-principles study2019In: Computational materials science, ISSN 0927-0256, E-ISSN 1879-0801, Vol. 158, p. 140-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanical strength of Ni-based single-crystal superalloys under service condition is related to the thermomechanical properties of the disordered gamma matrix. Here we use density functional theory and quasi-harmonic approximation to determine the temperature-dependent bulk moduli and generalized stacking fault energies (GSFEs) of Ni-Mo solid solutions. We show that the increasing temperatures between 1000 K and 1400 K cause evident reductions in the bulk moduli and planar fault energies of Ni-Mo alloys. Furthermore, their negative slopes versus temperature are gradually diminished with increasing Mo concentration except that of the unstable stacking fault energy. Adopting recent theoretical models for twinning based on GSFE, increasing temperature enhances the twinnability of low-Mo alloys but has limited influences in the case of high-Mo alloys. The composition-dependent thermal expansion, the thermal electronic excitation and the magnetic transition are shown to be the main factors rendering the complex variations in the elastic properties and twinning behavior of Ni-Mo solid solution with temperature.

  • 239009. Zhao, Xi
    et al.
    Wu, Jie
    Gong, Fang-Ling
    Cui, Jin-Mei
    Janson, Jan-Christer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Analytical Chemistry.
    Ma, Guang-Hui
    Su, Zhi-Guo
    Preparation of uniform and large sized agarose microspheres by an improved membrane emulsification technique2014In: Powder Technology, ISSN 0032-5910, E-ISSN 1873-328X, Vol. 253, p. 444-452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The SPG (Shirasu porous-glass) membrane emulsification technique has been subject to much attention for the preparation of uniform emulsions. However, so far primarily used for the production of droplets with sizes below approximately 60 mu m. A production bottleneck occurred if the desired size was further increased, especially when highly viscous dispersed phases were involved. To this end, an improved membrane emulsification technique was proposed and has been applied to the preparation of large agarose microspheres, with a size of around 90 mu m and with a narrow size distribution. The effects of important emulsification parameters, including the pore size of the SPG membrane, the operating pressure, the stirring rate of the continuous phase, the composition of the continuous oil phase, and the concentration of agarose in the dispersed water phase, have been extensively studied. Under optimum conditions, uniform-size agarose microspheres with an average diameter of 93 pm and a size distribution index of 0.65 were successfully prepared. The average particle size of the home-made agarose microspheres was almost identical to that of the commercial product Sepharose 4 Fast Flow (4FF), which is produced by mechanical stirring and an additional sieving process. However, the size distribution of the former was much narrower than that of the latter. Therefore, the improved membrane emulsification technique presented here is promising for the application of high viscosity systems such as agarose solutions, and the production scale can be further enhanced by increasing the number of membrane units attached to the experimental apparatus. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 239010.
    Zhao, Xiaomin
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression by cis-acting regulatory elements in HPV type 162004Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 239011.
    Zhao, Xiaomin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Regulation of Human Papillomavirus Type 16 mRNA Splicing and Polyadenylation2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) is the major causative agent of cervical cancer. The life cycle of this oncogenic DNA tumour virus is strictly associated with the differentiation program of the infected epithelial cells. Expression of the viral capsid genes L1 and L2 can only be detected in the terminally differentiated epithelial cells. The studies here focus on the regulation of HPV-16 late gene expression, which is under tight regulation.

    Our experimental system consisted of almost the full length HPV-16 genome driven by a strong CMV promoter. This plasmid and mutants thereof could be transfected into HeLa cells and RNA levels monitored. Using this system, we identified an hnRNP A1-dependent splicing silencer between positions 178 and 226 of the L1 gene. This silencer inhibited the use of the 3' splice site, located immediately upstream of the L1 AUG. We speculate that this splicing silencer plays an essential role in preventing late gene expression at an early stage of the viral life cycle. We subsequently identified a splicing enhancer located in the first 17 nucleotides of L1 that may be needed to counteract the multiple hnRNP A1 dependent splicing silencers in the L1 coding region. A 55kDa protein specifically bound to this splicing enhancer. We also demonstrated that binding of the cellular factors to the splicing silencer in the L1 coding region had an inhibitory effect on expression from L1 cDNA expression plasmids.

    The HPV-16 genome is divided into the early region and the late region, separated by the early poly(A) signal (pAE). pAE is used preferentially early in infection, thereby efficiently blocking late gene expression. We demonstrated that a 57 nucleotide U-rich region of the early 3’untranslated region (3’eUTR) acted as an enhancing upstream element on the usage of pAE. We demonstrated that this U-rich region specifically interacts with hFip1, CstF-64, hnRNP C1/C2 and PTB, suggesting that these factors were either enhancing or regulating polyadenylation at the HPV-16 pAE.

    In conclusion, two regulatory RNA elements that both act to prevent late gene expression at an early stage in the viral life cycle and in proliferating cells were identified: a splicing silencer in the late region and an upstream u-rich element at the pAE.

    List of papers
    1. Identification of an hnRNPA1-dependent splicing silencer in the human papillomavirus type 16 coding region that prevent expression of the late L1 gene
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Identification of an hnRNPA1-dependent splicing silencer in the human papillomavirus type 16 coding region that prevent expression of the late L1 gene
    2004 In: Journal of Virology, Vol. 78, no 20, p. 10888-10905Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93429 (URN)
    Available from: 2005-09-19 Created: 2005-09-19Bibliographically approved
    2. Multiple splicing enhancers and hnRNPA1-binding silencers control the HPV-16 late 3' splice site
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multiple splicing enhancers and hnRNPA1-binding silencers control the HPV-16 late 3' splice site
    In: Journal of VirologyArticle in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93430 (URN)
    Available from: 2005-09-19 Created: 2005-09-19Bibliographically approved
    3. Exonic splicing silencers in the HPV-16 L1 coding region inhibit gene expression in the absence of splicing
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exonic splicing silencers in the HPV-16 L1 coding region inhibit gene expression in the absence of splicing
    Manuscript (Other academic)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93431 (URN)
    Available from: 2005-09-19 Created: 2005-09-19 Last updated: 2010-01-13Bibliographically approved
    4. A 57-nucleotide upstream early polyadenylation element in human papillomavirus type 16 interacts with hFip1, CstF-64, hnRNP C1/C2, and polypyrimidine tract binding protein
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A 57-nucleotide upstream early polyadenylation element in human papillomavirus type 16 interacts with hFip1, CstF-64, hnRNP C1/C2, and polypyrimidine tract binding protein
    Show others...
    2005 (English)In: Journal of Virology, ISSN 0022-538X, E-ISSN 1098-5514, Vol. 79, no 7, p. 4270-4288Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We have investigated the role of the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) early untranslated region (3' UTR) in HPV-16 gene expression. We found that deletion of the early 3' UTR reduced the utilization of the early polyadenylation signal and, as a consequence, resulted in read-through into the late region and production of late L1 and L2 mRNAs. Deletion of the U-rich 3' half of the early 3' UTR had a similar effect, demonstrating that the 57-nucleotide U-rich region acted as an enhancing upstream element on the early polyadenylation signal. In accordance with this, the newly identified hFip1 protein, which has been shown to enhance polyadenylation through U-rich upstream elements, interacted specifically with the HPV-16 upstream element. This upstream element also interacted specifically with CstF-64, hnRNP C1/C2, and polypyrimidine tract binding protein, suggesting that these factors were either enhancing or regulating polyadenylation at the HPV-16 early polyadenylation signal. Mutational inactivation of the early polyadenylation signal also resulted in increased late mRNA production. However, the effect was reduced by the activation of upstream cryptic polyadenylation signals, demonstrating the presence of additional strong RNA elements downstream of the early polyadenylation signal that direct cleavage and polyadenylation to this region of the HPV-16 genome. In addition, we identified a 3' splice site at genomic position 742 in the early region with the potential to produce E1 and E4 mRNAs on which the E1 and E4 open reading frames are preceded only by the suboptimal E6 AUG. These mRNAs would therefore be more efficiently translated into E1 and E4 than previously described HPV-16 E1 and E4 mRNAs on which E1 and E4 are preceded by both E6 and E7 AUGs.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93537 (URN)10.1128/JVI.79.7.4270-4288.2005 (DOI)15767428 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2005-10-06 Created: 2005-10-06 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
  • 239012.
    Zhao, Xiaomin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Fay, Joanna
    Lambkin, Helen
    Schwartz, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Identification of a 17-nucleotide splicing enhancer in HPV-16 L1 that counteracts the effect of multiple hnRNP A1-binding splicing silencers2007In: Virology, ISSN 0042-6822, E-ISSN 1096-0341, Vol. 369, no 2, p. 351-363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) infections can in rare cases persist and cause lesions that may progress to cervical cancer. Cells in the lesions are not permissive for virus production, nor are cervical cancer cells. The intracellular environment is such that it prevents production of the highly immunogenic, viral structural proteins L1 and L2. One may speculate that inhibition of L1 and L2 expression is a prerequisite for persistence and cancer progression. We have therefore investigated how expression of HPV-16 L1 is regulated. We found that the only splice site in the HPV-16 late region, which is used to produce L1 mRNAs, is under control of a splicing enhancer located in the 17 nucleotides immediately downstream of the splice site. However, the function of this enhancer in cervical cancer cells is largely overshadowed by multiple splicing silencers in the late region which bind to hnRNP A1. High levels of hnRNP A1 therefore inhibit HPV-16 L1 expression. Immunohistological analysis of cervical epithelia revealed that hnRNP A1 is expressed primarily in the lower layers of the epithelium. hnRNP A1 is undetectable in terminally differentiated cells that can express HPV-16 late genes, which supports the conclusion that high levels of hnRNP A1 inhibit HPV-16 L1 expression.

  • 239013.
    Zhao, Xiaomin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Rush, Margaret
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Carlsson, Anette
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Schwartz, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    The presence of inhibitory RNA elements in the late 3'-untranslated region is a conserved property of human papillomaviruses2007In: Virus Research, ISSN 0168-1702, E-ISSN 1872-7492, Vol. 125, no 2, p. 135-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we have tested the inhibitory activity of the late untranslated region (UTR) of nine different human papillomavirus (HPV) types representing three different genera and six different species. These HPVs include both low-risk and high-risk types. We found that the late UTR of the various HPVs all displayed inhibitory activity, although they inhibited gene expression to various extent. The late UTR from the two distantly related HPV types 1 and 16, which are two different species that belong to different genera, each interacted with a 55 kDa protein. This protein cross-linked specifically to both HPV-1 and HPV-16 late UTR, although it bound more strongly to HPV-16 than to HPV-1, which correlated with the higher inhibitory activity of the HPV-16 late UTR. Mutagenesis experiments revealed that inactivation of two UGUUUGU motifs in the HPV-16 late UTR or two UAUUUAU motifs in the HPV-1 late UTR resulted in loss of binding of p55. In summary, these results demonstrate that the presence inhibitory elements encoding PuU3–5Pu-motifs in the HPV late UTR is a conserved property of different HPV types, species and genera, and suggest that these elements play an important role in the viral life cycle.

  • 239014.
    Zhao, Xiaomin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Rush, Margaret
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Schwartz, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Identification of an hnRNP A1-dependent splicing silencer in the human papillomavirus type 16 L1 coding region that prevents premature expression of the late L1 gene.2004In: J Virol, ISSN 0022-538X, Vol. 78, no 20, p. 10888-905Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 239015.
    Zhao, Xiaomin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Rush, Margaret
    Schwartz, Stefan
    Identification of an hnRNPA1-dependent splicing silencer in the human papillomavirus type 16 coding region that prevent expression of the late L1 gene2004In: Journal of Virology, Vol. 78, no 20, p. 10888-10905Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 239016.
    Zhao, Xiaomin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Schwartz, Stefan
    Exonic splicing silencers in the HPV-16 L1 coding region inhibit gene expression in the absence of splicingManuscript (Other academic)
  • 239017.
    Zhao, Xiaomin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Schwartz, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Inhibition of HPV-16 L1 expression from L1 cDNAs correlates with the presence of hnRNP A1 binding sites in the L1 coding region2008In: Virus genes, ISSN 0920-8569, E-ISSN 1572-994X, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 45-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) L1 capsid protein is very poorly expressed from cDNA expression plasmids transiently transfected into mammalian cells. The results described herein demonstrate that inhibition of HPV-16 L1 expression from L1 cDNAs correlates with the presence of splicing regulatory sequences in the L1 coding region. This inhibitory effect correlates with the binding of hnRNP A1 to the RNA elements. Similar to unutilised splice sites that may retain mRNAs in the nucleus, regulatory splicing RNA elements may also inhibit gene expression in the absence of splicing. The results presented here explain the inefficient expression of HPV-16 L1 protein from the wild type L1 cDNA expression plasmids in mammalian cells. These results may be of general interest since alteration of RNA sequences to prevent unwanted RNA-protein interactions may increase expression of many different genes in transient transfections or after plasmid uptake in DNA vaccination approaches.

  • 239018.
    Zhao, Xiaomin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Schwartz, Stefan
    Multiple splicing enhancers and hnRNPA1-binding silencers control the HPV-16 late 3' splice siteIn: Journal of VirologyArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 239019.
    Zhao, Xiaomin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Öberg, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Rush, Margaret
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Fay, Joanna
    Lambkin, Helen
    Schwartz, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    A 57-nucleotide upstream early polyadenylation element in human papillomavirus type 16 interacts with hFip1, CstF-64, hnRNP C1/C2, and polypyrimidine tract binding protein2005In: Journal of Virology, ISSN 0022-538X, E-ISSN 1098-5514, Vol. 79, no 7, p. 4270-4288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have investigated the role of the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) early untranslated region (3' UTR) in HPV-16 gene expression. We found that deletion of the early 3' UTR reduced the utilization of the early polyadenylation signal and, as a consequence, resulted in read-through into the late region and production of late L1 and L2 mRNAs. Deletion of the U-rich 3' half of the early 3' UTR had a similar effect, demonstrating that the 57-nucleotide U-rich region acted as an enhancing upstream element on the early polyadenylation signal. In accordance with this, the newly identified hFip1 protein, which has been shown to enhance polyadenylation through U-rich upstream elements, interacted specifically with the HPV-16 upstream element. This upstream element also interacted specifically with CstF-64, hnRNP C1/C2, and polypyrimidine tract binding protein, suggesting that these factors were either enhancing or regulating polyadenylation at the HPV-16 early polyadenylation signal. Mutational inactivation of the early polyadenylation signal also resulted in increased late mRNA production. However, the effect was reduced by the activation of upstream cryptic polyadenylation signals, demonstrating the presence of additional strong RNA elements downstream of the early polyadenylation signal that direct cleavage and polyadenylation to this region of the HPV-16 genome. In addition, we identified a 3' splice site at genomic position 742 in the early region with the potential to produce E1 and E4 mRNAs on which the E1 and E4 open reading frames are preceded only by the suboptimal E6 AUG. These mRNAs would therefore be more efficiently translated into E1 and E4 than previously described HPV-16 E1 and E4 mRNAs on which E1 and E4 are preceded by both E6 and E7 AUGs.

  • 239020.
    Zhao, Xin
    et al.
    Nanyang Technol Univ, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, 50 Nanyang Ave, Singapore 639798, Singapore.
    Hu, Jun
    Nanyang Technol Univ, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, 50 Nanyang Ave, Singapore 639798, Singapore;Northwest Univ, Sch Chem Engn, Xian 710069, Shaanxi, Peoples R China.
    Wu, Bo
    Nanyang Technol Univ, Sch Phys & Math Sci, Singapore 637371, Singapore.
    Banerjee, Amitava
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Chakraborty, Sudip
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Feng, Jianyong
    Nanyang Technol Univ, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, 50 Nanyang Ave, Singapore 639798, Singapore.
    Zhao, Zongyan
    Kunming Univ Sci & Technol, Fac Mat Sci & Engn, Kunming 650093, Yunnan, Peoples R China.
    Chen, Shi
    Nanyang Technol Univ, Sch Phys & Math Sci, Singapore 637371, Singapore.
    Ahuja, Rajeev
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Sum, Tze Chien
    Nanyang Technol Univ, Sch Phys & Math Sci, Singapore 637371, Singapore.
    Chen, Zhong
    Nanyang Technol Univ, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, 50 Nanyang Ave, Singapore 639798, Singapore.
    Simultaneous enhancement in charge separation and onset potential for water oxidation in a BiVO4 photoanode by W-Ti codoping2018In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 6, no 35, p. 16965-16974Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficient charge separation of photo-generated electrons and holes is critical to achieve high solar to hydrogen conversion efficiency in photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting. N-type doping is generally used to improve the conductivity by increasing the majority carrier density and enhance the charge separation in the photoanode. However, minority carrier transport is also very important in the process of charge separation, especially in materials that possess inadequate minority carrier mobility. Herein, we take a BiVO4 PEC water splitting cell as an example to demonstrate how to analyze the limiting factor and to formulate the corresponding solutions to improve the hole mobility. The benefits and problems caused by n-type doping (W-doping here) of BiVO4 are analyzed. Codoping with Ti further enhances the charge separation by improving the hole transport and leads to a cathodic shift of the photocurrent onset potential. A high charge separation efficiency (79% at 1.23 V-RHE) in a compact BiVO4 photoanode has been achieved without any nanostructure formation. Theoretical results show that W-Ti codoping has decreased the hole polaron hopping activation energy by 11.5% compared with mono-W doping, and this has resulted in a hole mobility increase by 29%. The calculated adsorption energy and reaction Gibbs free energies indicate that the Ti site is energetically more favorable for water splitting. Moreover, the Ti site possesses a lower overpotential in the W-Ti codoped sample compared with the mono-W doped sample. The current study indicates that in order to improve the solar energy conversion efficiency, there should be a balanced charge transport of both majority and minority charge carriers. This can be achieved by simply choosing appropriate codoping elements.

  • 239021.
    Zhao, Xinran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    The Effects of Mast Cell Proteases on Human Lung Cells Population2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Asthma is a devastating disease characterized by airway obstruction, inflammation, and bronchial hyperreactivity. Previous studies have implicated mast cells in the pathology of asthma, yet the role and function of mast cells in the early stage of human asthma development cannot be investigated in vivo for ethical reasons. In the present study, we investigated the mast cell proteases actions on primary cell populations, including primary human lung fibroblast (HLF) and primary human small airway epithelial cells (HSAEC). Mast cell chymase caused significant morphological effects on primary HLF by degrading extracellular matrix (ECM), such as fibronectin and collagen I, and activation of pro-MMP2. Chymase also regulated the cytokine synthesis and gene expression in primary HLF after 24 h treatment. Both tryptase and chymase stimulated primary HSAEC proliferation. These results indicate that mast cell proteases can have a profound impact during asthmatic airway responses.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-06-30 12:00
  • 239022.
    Zhao, Xuan-lie
    et al.
    Dalian Univ Technol, State Key Lab Coastal & Offshore Engn, Dalian 116023, Peoples R China.
    Ning, De-zhi
    Dalian Univ Technol, State Key Lab Coastal & Offshore Engn, Dalian 116023, Peoples R China.; Hohai Univ, State Key Lab Hydrol Water Resources & Hydraul En, Nanjing 210098, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Göteman, Malin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Kang, Hai-gui
    Dalian Univ Technol, State Key Lab Coastal & Offshore Engn, Dalian 116023, Peoples R China.
    Effect of the PTO damping force on the wave pressures on a 2-D wave energy converter2017In: Journal of Hydrodynamics, ISSN 1001-6058, E-ISSN 1000-4874, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 863-870Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The information of the wave loads on a wave energy device in operational waves is required for designing an efficient wave energy system with high survivability. It is also required as a reference for numerical modeling. In this paper, a novel system, which integrates an oscillating wave energy converter with a pile-restrained floating breakwater, is experimentally investigated in a 2-D wave flume. The measurements of the wave pressure on the wet-surface of the device are made as the function of the power take-off (PTO) damping force. It is shown that the wave pressure is significantly affected by the PTO system, in particular, at the edges, and the wave pressure varies under different wave conditions. From the results, conclusions can be drawn on how the PTO damping force and wave conditions affect the loads on the device, which is of engineering concern for constructing safe and reliable devices.

  • 239023.
    Zhao, Xuanlie
    et al.
    State Key of Coastal and Offshore Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, China.
    Ning, Dezhi
    State Key of Coastal and Offshore Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, China.
    Kang, Haigui
    State Key of Coastal and Offshore Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, China.
    Göteman, Malin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Effect of PTO on the dynamics of a WEC-type floating breakwater2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 239024. Zhao, Y
    et al.
    Niu, AM
    Xu, GF
    Garrett, MJ
    Greiner, T
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Early infant feeding practices in Jinan City, Shandong Province, China.2003In: Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, Vol. 12, p. 104-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 239025.
    Zhao, Yanan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Wahlström, Rikard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Are unsustainable dividend-payers punished by the market? Evidence from Swedish firms2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the phenomenon of firms that distribute dividends in excess of reported earnings, that is, 'unsustainable dividend-payers' in the Swedish market. Our hypothesis is that these firms will experience lower abnormal returns compared to their counterparts in both short and long term. With a dataset of 2061 observations from Nasdaq Stockholm and Nordic Growth Market during the period 1999-2017, we find that the abnormal returns are higher for unsustainable dividend-payers in the short term, while in the long run the result is on the opposite. Moreover, we find that the larger the difference between dividends paid and reported earnings, the higher the short-run abnormal returns but the lower the long-run abnormal returns to shareholders. Our results are robust to controlling for influences of other events on announcement dates and alternative measurement for model parameter, though not unambiguous. This study contributes to broadening the area of unsustainable dividends, which is perceived as a hot topic. It may be of interest to both individuals and institutions, who often have a longer-term perspective on their investments.

  • 239026.
    Zhao, Yani
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology.
    Systemic RNAi Relies on the Endomembrane System in Caenorhabditis elegans2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The membrane system of a eukaryotic cell is a large and complex system handling the transport, exchange and degradation of many kinds of material. Recent research shows that double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) mediated gene silencing (RNA interference) is a membrane related process. After long dsRNA is processed to small interfering RNA (siRNA) by Dicer, the guide strand and passenger strand are separated in the RNA induced silencing complex (RISC) by Argonaute. The process of loading siRNA into RISC has been suggested to occur at the rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (rER).The components of RISC also associate with late endosomes/multivesicular bodies (MVBs). Furthermore, disturbing the balance between late endosomes/MVBs and lysosomes has been shown to affect the efficiency of silencing.

    We use the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as our model organism to study two questions: how does membrane transport affect RNAi and spreading of RNAi from the recipient cells to other tissues (systemic RNAi); and how does RNA transport contribute to the multigenerational silencing induced by dsRNA (RNAi inheritance)? Using SID-5, a protein required for efficient systemic RNAi, as bait in a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screen, we got 32 SID-5 interacting candidate proteins. Two of these are the SNARE protein SEC-22 and the putative RNA binding protein C12D8.1. In two additional Y2H screens, we found that SID-5 interacts with multiple syntaxin SNAREs, including SYX-6, whereas SEC-22 only interacts with SYX-6. SNAREs usually function in vesicle fusion processes. We found the two SNARE proteins SEC-22 and SYX-6 to be negative regulators of RNAi and to localize to late endosomes/MVBs. In addition, loss of sid-5 leads to an endosome maturation defect. Finally, we found that the putative RNA binding protein C12D8.1 negatively regulates RNAi inheritance and that C12D8.1 mutant animals show impaired RNAi upon targeting a new gene. Taken together, the results presented in this thesis provide us with more evidence for the connection of the membrane transport system and RNAi. The identification of a putative negative regulator of RNAi inheritance further enriches this research field.

    List of papers
    1. The conserved SNARE SEC-22 localizes to late endosomes and negatively regulates RNA interference in Caenorhabditis elegans
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The conserved SNARE SEC-22 localizes to late endosomes and negatively regulates RNA interference in Caenorhabditis elegans
    2017 (English)In: RNA, ISSN 1355-8382, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 297-307Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    National Category
    Biological Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-321388 (URN)10.1261/rna.058438.116 (DOI)
    Available from: 2017-05-04 Created: 2017-05-04 Last updated: 2017-10-13
    2. RNA Transport Protein SID-5 Interacts with Multiple SNAREs and Affects Membrane Trafficking in C. elegans Intestinal Cells
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>RNA Transport Protein SID-5 Interacts with Multiple SNAREs and Affects Membrane Trafficking in C. elegans Intestinal Cells
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Biological Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-320894 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-04-26 Created: 2017-04-26 Last updated: 2017-10-13
    3. Putative RNA-Binding Protein C12D8.1 Negatively Regulates Inheritance of RNAi in Caenorhabditis elegans
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Putative RNA-Binding Protein C12D8.1 Negatively Regulates Inheritance of RNAi in Caenorhabditis elegans
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Biological Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-320895 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-04-26 Created: 2017-04-26 Last updated: 2017-10-13
  • 239027.
    Zhao, Yani
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology.
    Holmgren, Benjamin T.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology.
    Hinas, Andrea
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology.
    The conserved SNARE SEC-22 localizes to late endosomes and negatively regulates RNA interference in Caenorhabditis elegans2017In: RNA: A publication of the RNA Society, ISSN 1355-8382, E-ISSN 1469-9001, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 297-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small RNA pathways, including RNA interference (RNAi), play crucial roles in regulation of gene expression. Initially considered to be cytoplasmic, these processes have later been demonstrated to associate with membranes. For example, maturation of late endosomes/multivesicular bodies (MVBs) is required for efficient RNAi, whereas fusion of MVBs to lysosomes appears to reduce silencing efficiency. SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors) mediate membrane fusion and are thus at the core of membrane trafficking. In spite of this, no SNARE has previously been reported to affect RNAi. Here, we demonstrate that in Caenorhabditis elegans, loss of the conserved SNARE SEC-22 results in enhanced RNAi upon ingestion of double-stranded RNA. Furthermore, SEC-22 overexpression inhibits RNAi in wild-type animals. We find that overexpression of SEC-22 in the target tissue (body wall muscle) strongly suppresses the sec-22(-) enhanced RNAi phenotype, supporting a primary role for SEC-22 in import of RNAi silencing signals or cell autonomous RNAi. A functional mCherry:: SEC-22 protein localizes primarily to late endosomes/MVBs and these compartments are enlarged in animals lacking sec-22. SEC-22 interacts with late endosome-associated RNA transport protein SID-5 in a yeast two-hybrid assay and functions in a sid-5-dependent manner. Taken together, our data indicate that SEC-22 reduces RNAi efficiency by affecting late endosome/MVB function, for example, by promoting fusion between late endosomes/MVBs and lysosomes. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a SNARE with a function in small RNA-mediated gene silencing.

  • 239028. Zhao, Yaofeng
    et al.
    Cui, Huiting
    Whittington, Camilla M.
    Wei, Zhiguo
    Zhang, Xiaofeng
    Zhang, Ziding
    Yu, Li
    Ren, Liming
    Hu, Xiaoxiang
    Zhang, Yaping
    Hellman, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Belov, Katherine
    Li, Ning
    Hammarström, Lennart
    Ornithorhynchus anatinus (Platypus) Links the Evolution of Immunoglobulin Genes in Eutherian Mammals and Nonmammalian Tetrapods2009In: Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0022-1767, E-ISSN 1550-6606, Vol. 183, no 5, p. 3285-3293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The evolutionary origins of mammalian immunoglobulin H chain isotypes (IgM, IgD, IgG, IgE, and IgA) are still incompletely understood as these isotypes differ considerably in structure and number from their counterparts in nonmammalian tetrapods. We report in this study that the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) Ig H chain constant region gene locus contains eight Ig encoding genes, which are arranged in an mu-delta-o-gamma 2-gamma 1-alpha 1-epsilon-alpha 2 order, spanning a total of similar to 200 kb DNA, encoding six distinct isotypes. The o (o for Ornithorhynchus) gene encodes a novel Ig H chain isotype that consists of four constant region domains and a hinge, and is structurally different from any of the five known mammalian Ig classes. This gene is phylogenetically related to nu (epsilon) and gamma, and thus appears to be a structural intermediate between these two genes. The platypus delta gene encodes ten heavy chain constant region domains, lacks a hinge region and is similar to IgD in amphibians and fish, but strikingly different from that in eutherian mammals. The platypus Ig H chain isotype repertoire thus shows a unique combination of genes that share similarity both to those of nonmammallian tetrapods and eutherian animals and demonstrates how phylogenetically informative species can be used to reconstruct the evolutionary history of functionally important genes.

  • 239029.
    Zhao, Yue
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Individual Business Initiation Process and Business Dynamics2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many relationship-based studies focus on how businesses are maintained and developed. However, little attention focused on individuals as business initiators and the consequent processes. This study will bridge this gap. A theoretical model with two cases will answer two questions 

     

    -How individuals initiate business through personal network?

    -What is the consequent process?

     

    The studies demonstrate that individual do play a very important role when initiating a new business and they set in motion relationship-building processes that change the network structure.

     

    The contribution for research and management is clear. The netentrepruer is a new ‘actor’ and can be useful in future studies of business networks. Management can usefully become conscious of the possibilities they have in studying their network contacts before initiating new businesses. Managers should utilize managing individual’s networks as new competition strategies. This will modify the view of management strategy and also contribute to theory building.

  • 239030.
    Zhao, Yufang
    et al.
    Harbin Inst Technol, Bio X Ctr, Sch Life Sci & Technol, Harbin 150080, Peoples R China..
    Yan, Hongji
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Polymer Chemistry. Harbin Inst Technol, Bio X Ctr, Sch Life Sci & Technol, Harbin 150080, Peoples R China..
    Qiao, Shupei
    Harbin Inst Technol, Bio X Ctr, Sch Life Sci & Technol, Harbin 150080, Peoples R China..
    Zhang, Long
    Harbin Inst Technol, Bio X Ctr, Sch Life Sci & Technol, Harbin 150080, Peoples R China..
    Wang, Tianran
    Harbin Inst Technol, Bio X Ctr, Sch Life Sci & Technol, Harbin 150080, Peoples R China..
    Meng, Qingyuan
    Chinese Acad Sci, State Key Lab Mol Dev Biol, Inst Genet & Dev Biol, Beijing 100190, Peoples R China..
    Chen, Xiongbiao
    Univ Saskatchewan, Dept Mech Engn, Saskatoon, SK, Canada..
    Lin, Feng-Huei
    Natl Hlth Res Inst, Div Biomed Engn & Nanomed Res, Miaoli, Taiwan.;Natl Taiwan Univ, Inst Biomed Engn, Coll Med, Taipei, Taiwan.;Natl Taiwan Univ, Coll Engn, Taipei, Taiwan..
    Guo, Kai
    Harbin Inst Technol, Bio X Ctr, Sch Life Sci & Technol, Harbin 150080, Peoples R China..
    Li, Chunfeng
    Harbin Inst Technol, Bio X Ctr, Sch Life Sci & Technol, Harbin 150080, Peoples R China..
    Tian, Weiming
    Harbin Inst Technol, Bio X Ctr, Sch Life Sci & Technol, Harbin 150080, Peoples R China.;Harbin Inst Technol, Room 302,Bldg 2E,Sci Pk,2 Yikuang St, Harbin 150080, Heilongjiang, Peoples R China..
    Hydrogels bearing bioengineered mimetic embryonic microenvironments for tumor reversion2016In: Journal of materials chemistry. B, ISSN 2050-750X, E-ISSN 2050-7518, Vol. 4, no 37, p. 6183-6191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Embryonic microenvironments can reverse the metastatic phenotype of aggressive tumors by inhibiting the Nodal signaling pathway. Here, we hypothesize that embryonic microenvironments can be transplanted for the purpose of oncotherapy. We report the development of an injectable bioactive hydrogel system containing the key antagonists of Nodal signaling-Cripto-1 receptor antibodies (2B11)-for the creation of embryonic microenvironments and the examination of their effect on tumor reversion treatment using a mouse model. Our in vitro results show that the hydrogel system can reduce the mitochondrial membrane potential of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7, promote cell apoptosis, and reduce the invasive ability of cells. Our in vivo results illustrate that the hydrogel system can significantly inhibit tumor growth in both breast cancer and melanoma tumor-bearing mouse models, as well as transform the cell morphology of melanoma B16 cells to melanin-like cells. Furthermore, the results of the up-regulation of tumor suppressor genes and the down-regulation of oncogenes by high-throughput sequencing confirm that the developed system can also selectively turn on some tumor suppressor genes and turn off certain oncogenes so as to prompt the benign reversion of the tumor phenotype. Taken together, our results demonstrate the injectable biomaterial system is able to create an effective microenvironment for melanoma and breast tumor therapy.

  • 239031.
    Zhao, Yufeng
    et al.
    Dept of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, Kina.
    Wang, Wei
    Dept of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, Kina.
    Xiong, Ding-Bang
    Dept of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Tokyo, Japan.
    Shao, Guangjie
    Dept of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, Kina.
    Xia, Wei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Yu, Shengxue
    Dept of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, Kina.
    Gao, Faming
    Dept of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, Kina.
    Titanium carbide derived nanoporous carbon for supercapacitor applications2012In: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 37, no 24, p. 19395-19400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbide derived carbons (CDCs) are porous carbons produced by extraction metals from metal carbides. In this paper, nanoporous carbon with large surface area of above 1000 m2/g has been prepared by thermo-chemical etching of titanium carbide (TiC) in chlorine atmosphere. An improved design of accurate control on the reaction time with high yield percentage above 98% is reported. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed the existence of ordered graphite phase in this mostly amorphous titanium carbide derived carbon (TiC-CDC), and the degree of ordering increased with chlorination temperature. Raman spectra study demonstrated that the TiC-CDC consisted of both D-band and G band of graphitic carbon, and the ratio of the integrated intensities ID/IG decreased with chlorination temperature. T-plot nitrogen sorption measurements proved the co-existence of micropores (<2 nm) and mesopores (2–50 nm), while the highest specific surface area was achieved from sample synthesized at 400 °C. Cyclic voltammetry measurements on the TiC-CDC did not show any major Faradic reactions within the experimental voltage range. A specific capacitance of 138.3 F/g was achieved from sample synthesized at 400 °C. The specific capacitance increased with increasing the amount of microporous area.

  • 239032.
    Zhao, Yuwei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Cost Connected to Master Data2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 239033.
    Zhao, Z
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Zhang, X
    Liu, R
    Norback, D
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Prenatal and early life home environment exposure in relation to preschool childrens asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema in Taiyuan, China.2013In: Chinese Science Bulletin, ISSN 1001-6538, E-ISSN 1861-9541, Vol. 58, no 34, p. 4245-4251Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 239034.
    Zhao, Z
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Zhang, Z
    Yuan, J
    Norbäck, Dan
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Wieslander, G
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Purification and Characterization of a Protease Inhibitor from Fagopyrum tartaricum Gaertn Seeds and Its Effectiveness Against Insects.2006In: Purification and Characterization of a Protease Inhibitor from Fagopyrum tartaricum Gaertn Seeds and Its Effectiveness Against Insects., Vol. 22, no 12, p. 960-965Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 239035.
    Zhao, Zhen
    et al.
    Univ So Calif, Keck Sch Med, Dept Physiol & Biophys, Los Angeles, CA 90089 USA.;Univ So Calif, Keck Sch Med, Zilkha Neurogenet Inst, Los Angeles, CA 90089 USA..
    Nelson, Amy R.
    Univ So Calif, Keck Sch Med, Dept Physiol & Biophys, Los Angeles, CA 90089 USA.;Univ So Calif, Keck Sch Med, Zilkha Neurogenet Inst, Los Angeles, CA 90089 USA..
    Betsholtz, Christer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Vascular Biology.
    Zlokovic, Berislav V.
    Univ So Calif, Keck Sch Med, Dept Physiol & Biophys, Los Angeles, CA 90089 USA.;Univ So Calif, Keck Sch Med, Zilkha Neurogenet Inst, Los Angeles, CA 90089 USA..
    Establishment and Dysfunction of the Blood-Brain Barrier2015In: Cell, ISSN 0092-8674, E-ISSN 1097-4172, Vol. 163, no 5, p. 1064-1078Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Structural and functional brain connectivity, synaptic activity, and information processing require highly coordinated signal transduction between different cell types within the neurovascular unit and intact blood-brain barrier (BBB) functions. Here, we examine the mechanisms regulating the formation and maintenance of the BBB and functions of BBB-associated cell types. Furthermore, we discuss the growing evidence associating BBB breakdown with the pathogenesis of inherited monogenic neurological disorders and complex multifactorial diseases, including Alzheimer's disease.

  • 239036.
    Zhao, Zhihu
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Animal Development and Genetics.
    Tavoosidana, Gholamreza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Animal Development and Genetics.
    Sjölinder, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Animal Development and Genetics.
    Göndör, Anita
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Animal Development and Genetics.
    Mariano, Piero
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Animal Development and Genetics.
    Wang, Sha <