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  • 240151.
    Östberg, Erland
    et al.
    Västerås & Koping Hosp, Dept Anaesthesia & Intens Care, Västerås, Sweden..
    Auner, Udo
    Vasteras Hosp, Dept Radiol, Västerås, Sweden..
    Enlund, Mats
    Clin Res Ctr, Västerås, Sweden..
    Zetterström, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Edmark, Lennart
    Västeras & Koping Hosp, Dept Anaesthesia & Intens Care, Västerås, Sweden..
    Minimizing atelectasis formation during general anaesthesia-oxygen washout is a non-essential supplement to PEEP2017In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 122, no 2, p. 92-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Following preoxygenation and induction of anaesthesia, most patients develop atelectasis. We hypothesized that an immediate restoration to a low oxygen level in the alveoli would prevent atelectasis formation and improve oxygenation during the ensuing anaesthesia. Methods: We randomly assigned 24 patients to either a control group (n=12) or an intervention group (n=12) receiving an oxygen washout procedure directly after intubation. Both groups were, depending on body mass index, ventilated with a positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 6-8 cmH(2)O during surgery. The atelectasis area was studied by computed tomography before emergence. Oxygenation levels were evaluated by measuring blood gases and calculating estimated venous admixture (EVA). Results: The atelectasis areas expressed as percentages of the total lung area were 2.0 (1.5-2.7) (median [interquartile range]) and 1.8 (1.4-3.3) in the intervention and control groups, respectively. The difference was non-significant, and also oxygenation was similar between the two groups. Compared to oxygenation before the start of anaesthesia, oxygenation at the end of surgery was improved in the intervention group, mean (SD) EVA from 7.6% (6.6%) to 3.9% (2.9%) (P=.019) and preserved in the control group, mean (SD) EVA from 5.0% (5.3%) to 5.6% (7.1%) (P=.59). .Conclusion: Although the oxygen washout restored a low pulmonary oxygen level within minutes, it did not further reduce atelectasis size. Both study groups had small atelectasis and good oxygenation. These results suggest that a moderate PEEP alone is sufficient to minimize atelectasis and maintain oxygenation in healthy patients.

  • 240152.
    Östberg, Erland
    et al.
    Västerås & Köping Hosp, Dept Anesthesia & Intens Care, Västerås, Sweden.
    Thorisson, Arnar
    Västerås & Köping Hosp, Dept Radiol, Västerås, Sweden.
    Enlund, Mats
    Clin Res Ctr, Västerås, Sweden.
    Zetterström, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Hedenstierna, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Edmark, Lennart
    Västerås & Köping Hosp, Dept Anesthesia & Intens Care, Västerås, Sweden.
    Positive End-expiratory Pressure Alone Minimizes Atelectasis Formation in Nonabdominal Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial2018In: Anesthesiology, ISSN 0003-3022, E-ISSN 1528-1175, Vol. 128, no 6, p. 1117-1124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Various methods for protective ventilation are increasingly being recommended for patients undergoing general anesthesia. However, the importance of each individual component is still unclear. In particular, the perioperative use of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) remains controversial. The authors tested the hypothesis that PEEP alone would be sufficient to limit atelectasis formation during nonabdominal surgery. Methods: This was a randomized controlled evaluator-blinded study. Twenty-four healthy patients undergoing general anesthesia were randomized to receive either mechanical ventilation with PEEP 7 or 9 cm H2O depending on body mass index (n = 12) or zero PEEP (n =12). No recruitment maneuvers were used. Hie primary outcome was atelectasis area as studied by computed tomography in a transverse scan near the diaphragm, at the end of surgery, before emergence. Oxygenation was evaluated by measuring blood gases and calculating the ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to inspired oxygen fraction (Pao(2)/Fio(2) ratio). Results: At the end of surgery, the median (range) atelectasis area, expressed as percentage of the total lung area, was 1.8 (0.3 to 9.9) in the PEEP group and 4.6 (1.0 to 10.2) in the zero PEEP group. Tire difference in medians was 2.8% (95% CI, 1.7 to 5.7%; A = 0.002). Oxygenation and carbon dioxide elimination were maintained in the PEEP group, but both deteriorated in the zero PEEP group. Conclusions: During nonabdominal surgery, adequate PEEP is sufficient to minimize atelectasis in healthy lungs and thereby maintain oxygenation. Titus, routine recruitment maneuvers seem unnecessary, and the authors suggest that they should only be utilized when clearly indicated.

  • 240153.
    Östberg, Erland
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences.
    Thorisson, Arnar
    Enlund, Mats
    Zetterström, Henrik
    Hedenstierna, Göran
    Edmark, Lennart
    Positive end-expiratory pressure and postoperative atelectasis: A randomized controlled trial2019In: Anesthesiology, ISSN 0003-3022, E-ISSN 1528-1175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) increases lung volume and protects against alveolar collapse during anesthesia. During emergence, safety preoxygenation preparatory to extubation makes the lung susceptible to gas absorption and alveolar collapse, especially in dependent regions being kept open by PEEP. We hypothesized that withdrawing PEEP before starting emergence preoxygenation would limit postoperative atelectasis formation.

    Methods

    This was a randomized controlled evaluator-blinded trial in 30 healthy patients undergoing non-abdominal surgery under general anesthesia and mechanical ventilation with PEEP 7 or 9 cm H2O depending on body mass index. A computed tomography scan at the end of surgery assessed baseline atelectasis. The study subjects were thereafter allocated to either maintained PEEP (n = 16) or zero PEEP (n = 14) during emergence preoxygenation. The primary outcome was change in atelectasis area as evaluated by a second computed tomography scan 30 min after extubation. Oxygenation was assessed by arterial blood gases.

    Results

    Baseline atelectasis was small and increased modestly during awakening, with no statistically significant difference between groups. With PEEP applied during awakening, the increase in atelectasis area was median (range) 1.6 (-1.1 to 12.3) cm2 and without PEEP 2.3 (-1.6 to 7.8) cm2. The difference was 0.7 cm2 (95% CI, -0.8 to 2.9 cm2; P = 0.400). Postoperative atelectasis for all patients was median 5.2 cm2 (95% CI, 4.3 to 5.7 cm2), corresponding to median 2.5% of the total lung area (95% CI, 2.0 to 3.0%). Postoperative oxygenation was unchanged in both groups when compared to oxygenation in the preoperative awake state.

    Conclusion

    Withdrawing PEEP before emergence preoxygenation does not reduce atelectasis formation after non-abdominal surgery. Despite using 100% O2 during awakening, postoperative atelectasis is small and does not affect oxygenation, possibly conditional on an open lung during anesthesia, as achieved by intraoperative PEEP.

  • 240154.
    Östberg, Joel
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Gunningberg, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Board of directors’ relationship to environmental sustainability: Differences between insiders and outsiders: A study of inside and outside board members’ cognition and reasoning when engaging in environmental sustainability issues2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to investigate how inside and outside directors differ in their cognition and reasoning in regards to environmental sustainability issues. The theoretical background derives from a cognitive view and Stakeholder theory. The paper is further based on current research regarding insiders’ and outsiders’ relationship to environmental sustainability. In order to capture the cognition and reasoning of insiders and outsiders, a Think-aloud study was conducted, interviewing a total of 20 board members in the food industry. Results from this study showed that, when faced with environmental issues, outsiders are more likely to request, repeat, ponder as well as clarify the information given. Secondly, outsiders are more likely to consider a long-term perspective. Thirdly, outsiders are more likely to consider an environmental view. Lastly, both insiders and outsiders use analogical reasoning when contemplating around environmental issues. However, insiders are more likely to draw experience from their current position or company while outsiders are more likely to draw experience from outside their current position or company when solving environmental issues.

  • 240155.
    Östberg, Joel
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Sjögren, Emilie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Pris, varumärke och produktbetygs påverkan för hur konsumenter upplever kvalitet: Ett experiment för att undersöka till vilken grad pris, varumärke och produktbetyg påverkar hur konsumenter upplever kvaliteten av en produkt2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Konsumenter vill gärna tro att de fattar rationella beslut utifrån en produkts faktiska egenskaper. Det har däremot visat sig att konsumenter inte alltid är helt rationella utan ofta influeras av en produkts yttre stimuli, som exempelvis pris och varumärke. Vetskapen om hur yttre stimuli faktiskt påverkar konsumenters upplevda kvalitet beroende på produkt är ytterst vital och kan bistå marknadsförare med värdefull information i sitt dagliga arbete. Syftet med uppsatsen att undersöka till vilken grad yttre stimuli i form av pris, varumärke och tidigare konsumenters produktbetyg påverkar konsumentens upplevda kvalitet för en dagligvara respektive en sällanköpsvara. För att besvara syftet har fem hypoteser sammanställts utifrån vald teori. För att undersöka detta har en experimentell undersökning genomförts där respondenterna fick bedöma kvaliteten på två produkter med olika yttre stimuli närvarande. Produkterna var en dagligvara respektive en sällanköpsvara. Yttre stimuli utgjordes av olika experimentvariabler inom kategorierna pris, varumärke och tidigare konsumenters produktbetyg för att undersöka hur konsumenter upplever testprodukternas kvalitet baserat på dessa. Undersökningen indikerar att konsumenter beaktar yttre stimuli när de bedömer kvaliteten på en produkt både för undersökningens dagligvara som sällanköpsvara. Det visade sig även att olika stimuli gav olika stor effekt för hur kvaliteten upplevdes. Det yttre stimuli som visade på störst påverkan för upplevd kvalitet var produktbetyg.

  • 240156.
    Östberg, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine.
    Studies on macromolecules coded for by the major histocompatibility complex 1975Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 240157.
    Östberg, Linus J.
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Sci Life Lab, Dept Med Biochem & Biophys, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Persson, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Computational Biology and Bioinformatics. Karolinska Inst, Sci Life Lab, Dept Med Biochem & Biophys, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Höög, Jan-Olov
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Biochem & Biophys, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Computational studies of human class V alcohol dehydrogenase - the odd sibling2016In: BMC Biochemistry, ISSN 1471-2091, E-ISSN 1471-2091, Vol. 17, article id 16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: All known attempts to isolate and characterize mammalian class V alcohol dehydrogenase (class V ADH), a member of the large ADH protein family, at the protein level have failed. This indicates that the class V ADH protein is not stable in a non-cellular environment, which is in contrast to all other human ADH enzymes. In this report we present evidence, supported with results from computational analyses performed in combination with earlier in vitro studies, why this ADH behaves in an atypical way. Results: Using a combination of structural calculations and sequence analyses, we were able to identify local structural differences between human class V ADH and other human ADHs, including an elongated beta-strands and a labile a-helix at the subunit interface region of each chain that probably disturb it. Several amino acid residues are strictly conserved in class I-IV, but altered in class V ADH. This includes a for class V ADH unique and conserved Lys51, a position directly involved in the catalytic mechanism in other ADHs, and nine other class V ADH-specific residues. Conclusions: In this study we show that there are pronounced structural changes in class V ADH as compared to other ADH enzymes. Furthermore, there is an evolutionary pressure among the mammalian class V ADHs, which for most proteins indicate that they fulfill a physiological function. We assume that class V ADH is expressed, but unable to form active dimers in a non-cellular environment, and is an atypical mammalian ADH. This is compatible with previous experimental characterization and present structural modelling. It can be considered the odd sibling of the ADH protein family and so far seems to be a pseudoenzyme with another hitherto unknown physiological function.

  • 240158.
    Östberg, Margareta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    DIAGNOS - inte bara en sjukdomsbestämning: En studie av diagnosers sociala sida2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 240159.
    Östberg, Monica
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Parental stress, psychosocial problems and responsiveness in help-seeking parents with small (2-45 months old) children1998In: ACTA PAEDIATRICA, ISSN 0803-5253, Vol. 87, no 1, p. 69-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experienced parental stress in 75 mothers and 65 fathers seeking help for their young child (M = 14.5 months; SD = 9.4 months) in a Specialist Child Health Centre was examined and related to child problem load, psychosocial problems and parental problems

  • 240160.
    Östberg, Monica
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Parenting stress: Conceptual and methodological issues1999Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    High parenting stress has been connected with negative consequences for both parent and child. The aim of the present thesis was to examine factors contributing to high stress, and to develop a psychometrically sound, reliable, and valid instrument for measuring parenting stress. Self-reported parenting stress was investigated using a revised Swedish version of the Parent Domain of the American Parenting Stress Index. Dimensionality was examined in factor analyses (FA) on data from a nation-wide representative sample and cross-validated on another sample. Based on FA, new subscales, measuring different aspects of parents' perception of stress in their parenting role, were constructed. High internal consistencies, as well as a good stability over amean interval of 30 days, were found.

    Different aspects of construct validity were examined in four samples. Mothers in a clinical sample indicated higher levels of parenting stress compared to fathers in the same families, and to mothers in a normal sample. A multidimensional model of determinants of parenting stress was tested and cross-validated using a structural equation modeling procedure. The results provided general support for the proposed model, and socialsupport was shown to have both a direct and a moderating influence on parenting stress.

    Within the examined age-range (6 months to 3 years), child gender or age did not relate to parenting stress. Older, less educated and single mothers reported more stress. A higher stress experience was also associated with more caretaking hassles, psychosocial problems, high work load and low social support. Mothers with high stressreported more depressive mood and were judged to be more unresponsive to their children; they also regarded their children as more temperamentally difficult. Clinical implications conserning the use of the scale in intervention contexts were discussed.

  • 240161.
    Östberg, Monica
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Pediatrics.
    Hagekull, Berit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Parenting stress and external stressors as predictors of maternal ratings of child adjustment2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 54, no 3, p. 213-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study sought to disentangle the effects of different kinds of stress on maternal ratings of child externalizing and internalizing problems, social inhibition, and social competence, with a primary focus on parenting stress. The relations were explored in a sample consisting of mothers of 436 children (Mage=7years) in Sweden. Half the sample had had early clinical contacts during infancy due to child regulation problems, and the rest were mothers without known such early contacts. Demographic factors, family stressors, and parenting stress were examined in stress adjustment models. Family stressors were clinical contact during infancy, current child and parent health problems, recent negative life events, and insufficient social support. Parenting stress as a mediator of the effect of other stressors on rated child adjustment was tested as was social support as a moderator of the effect of parenting stress on adjustment. The results showed that a higher parenting stress level was associated with maternal ratings of more externalizing and internalizing behaviors, more social inhibition, and lower social competence. Other family stressors and background variables were also found to be of importance, mainly for externalizing and internalizing problems and to some extent for social competence. Social inhibition had a unique relation to parenting stress only. Parenting stress mediated effects of other stressors in twelve models, whereas social support had no moderating effect on the link between parenting stress and child adjustment. Thus, parenting stress seems to be an important overarching construct. Clinical implications are proposed.

  • 240162.
    Östberg, Monica
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Hagekull, Berit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hagelin, Elisabet
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Stability and prediction of parenting stress2007In: Infant and Child Development, ISSN 1522-7227, E-ISSN 1522-7219, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 207-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study focused on stability and prediction of parenting stress experiences over a 6-year period. Mothers (N=93) who had received a clinical intervention for feeding or sleeping problems during infancy (Time 1; T 1) were followed-up when the children were 5-10 years old (Time 2; T 2). An age- and sex-of-child matched normal group was used for comparison of stress levels at T 2. Parenting stress was measured by the Swedish Parenthood Stress Questionnaire, which consists of a general parenting stress scale and sub-scales tapping different aspects of parenting stress experiences. T 1 predictors were clinical assessments of child problem load, maternal unresponsiveness, and family psychosocial problems. T 2 predictors were mother-reported concurrent child problem load and psychosocial problems. The individual stability in stress experiences was moderate. Effect sizes indicated that mothers with early clinical contacts had reduced their stress to levels close to those in the normal sample. Parenting stress at T 2 could be predicted from early and from concurrent child and family problems. The results point to the relevance of early clinical assessments and to the importance of a sub-area approach in parenting stress research, as there were differences between stress sub-areas regarding both prediction and stability.

  • 240163.
    Östberg, Monica
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hagekull, Berit
    Wettergren, Sigrid
    A measure of parental stress in mothers with small children: Dimensionality, stability and validity1997In: SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY, ISSN 0036-5564, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 199-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-reported parental stress was investigated in three samples of mothers with small children, using a Swedish version of the Parenting Stress Index (PSI). Dimensionality in experienced stress using items from six PSI Parent Domain subscales and eight n

  • 240164.
    Östberg, Monica
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Pediatrics.
    Hagelin, Elisabet
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Pediatrics.
    Feeding and sleeping problems in infancy - a follow-up at early school age2011In: Child Care Health and Development, ISSN 0305-1862, E-ISSN 1365-2214, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 11-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Feeding and sleeping problems are common during infancy. Many regulatory problems of this kind are connected to various child and family factors. This study is a follow-up of children with early feeding and/or sleeping problems, 6 years after clinical contacts. Methods:: A total of 230 families (72%) participated in the questionnaire follow-up. Children and parents were compared with 227 (71%) reference families regarding sleeping and feeding problems, health factors in parent and child, psychosocial problems, stressful life events, social support, life satisfaction, and externalizing and internalizing behaviour in the child.Results: Six years after clinical contacts the children with early feeding and/or sleeping problems still had more problems of this kind compared with the reference children. Early child health problems were more frequent within the clinical group, but recent health problems did not separate the two groups. Mothers in the clinical sample reported more health problems than mothers in the reference group and clinical parents were less content with their social support and had more psychosocial problems, including stressful life events. Children in the clinical sample had more internalizing problems than comparison children. Recent feeding and sleeping problems were connected to more externalizing and internalizing problems.Conclusions: Early regulatory problems, concerning sleeping or feeding, are less frequent when the child grows up, but nevertheless tend to remain. A clinical recommendation for child health care is to take both child and family factors into account, to individualize contacts, work with an all-inclusive perspective and have close follow-ups.

  • 240165.
    Östberg, Monica
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Pediatrics.
    Rydell, Ann-Margret
    An efficacy study of a combined parent and teacher management training programme for children with ADHD2012In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 66, no 2, p. 123-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Several parent training programmes and behavioural teacher training programmes built on learning theory have been developed for problem prevention and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and/or oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) during the last few decades. Group format has often been used for parent training but single-subject designs are more common in teacher training. More studies have focussed on pre-school children than on older children, and a minority have been conducted in public mental health settings. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate a combined parent and teacher manual-based group training programme for children with ADHD conducted by the staff at a child and adolescent psychiatric clinic in Sweden. Method: The intervention was a modified version of Barkley's programme. Children were randomized to an Intervention or a Control group. Sixty-one parents and 68 teachers answered questions about ADHD and ODD symptoms, and about behavioural problems when the study started and at a 3-month follow-up. Results: Results showed that the intervention resulted in a reduction of the number of children who met DSM-IV criteria for ADHD and/or ODD. Effects were more pronounced in the home setting than in the school setting, and were further accentuated when both parents and teachers of the same child took part in the intervention. Teachers with more problematic classroom situations benefited most from the intervention. Conclusion: The programme, "Strategies in Everyday Life", has, in a regular clinical setting, demonstrated promising effects on children's disruptive behaviour, and a clinical implication was to recommend involving both parents and teachers in the programme.

  • 240166.
    Östberg, Niklas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Intimitetens misslyckande: En idelogikritisk studie av sex och relationsfrågespalter i svenska kvällstidningar2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 240167.
    Östberg, Nils
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Bergström, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    To be or not to be – showing up on the first result page: Search engine marketing’s potential effect on brand awareness2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to examine whether search engine marketing may influence consumers’ brand awareness in terms of brand recall and brand recognition. The theoretical background derives from the definition and rationale of brand awareness. The study is further based on a theoretical outline of search engine marketing and its components. Furthermore, the Hierarchy of Effects Model is used in order to describe the steps a company may influence consumers in their purchase process. In order to capture consumers’ reasoning and behaviour in the search engine context, a two-way study approach was conducted. Firstly, by letting ten participants conduct a log related to their search engine behaviour, spanning for a period of ten days. Secondly, by conducting semi-structured interviews, using their logs as a base for further discussions. Results from this study show that search engine marketing can have an effect on consumers’ brand awareness by creating initial awareness or by building upon existing awareness. Secondly, in the context of unknown brands, the results show that it had a particular strong effect on brand recognition among the participants. Thirdly, it appeared that SEM can work as a gateway for brands and an enabler for building a brand attitude amongst its potential customers. Lastly, the website experience is a crucial step for brands in order to positively influence consumers in their purchase process. 

  • 240168.
    Östberg, Per
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Div Speech Language Pathol, Dept Clin Sci Intervent & Technol CLINTEC, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Speech Language Pathol, SE-14186 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Backlund, Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Lindström, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Convergent and diagnostic validity of STAVUX, a word and pseudoword spelling test for adults2016In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 124-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Few comprehensive spelling tests are available in Swedish, and none have been validated in adults with reading and writing disorders. The recently developed STAVUX test includes word and pseudoword spelling subtests with high internal consistency and adult norms stratified by education. This study evaluated the convergent and diagnostic validity of STAVUX in adults with dyslexia. Forty-six adults, 23 with dyslexia and 23 controls, took STAVUX together with a standard word-decoding test and a self-rated measure of spelling skills. STAVUX subtest scores showed moderate to strong correlations with word-decoding scores and predicted self-rated spelling skills. Word and pseudoword subtest scores both predicted dyslexia status. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed excellent diagnostic discriminability. Sensitivity was 91% and specificity 96%. In conclusion, the results of this study support the convergent and diagnostic validity of STAVUX.

  • 240169.
    Östberg, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Logopedi.
    Bogdanovic, Nenad
    Semantic dementia with lower motor neuron disease showing FTLD-TDP type 3 pathology (sensu Mackenzie)2011In: Neuropathology (Kyoto. 1993), ISSN 0919-6544, E-ISSN 1440-1789, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 271-279Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe a case of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with semantic dementia and lower motor neuron disease. A 63-year-old man presented with the full clinical picture of semantic dementia, including semantic anomia, surface alexia, lexical agraphia, associative agnosia, prosopagnosia and phonagnosia. Flaccid dysarthria, bulbar dysphagia and fasciculations developed 7 years after onset, followed by death within a year. The neuropathological examination showed heavy neuronal loss in the anterior temporal lobe cortex, dorsal vagal and hypoglossal nuclei and anterior horns of the spinal cord. Ubiquitin- and TDP-43-positive cytoplasmic inclusions were abundant in layer II of affected cortices and in granular cells of the hippocampal dentate gyrus, whereas dystrophic neurites were sparse and intranuclear inclusions absent. It is concluded that FTLD-TDP type 3 can be associated with semantic dementia and lower motor neuron disease in combination.

  • 240170.
    Östberg, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Logopedi.
    Bogdanovic, Nenad
    Karolinska institutet.
    Wahlund, Lars-Olof
    Karolinska institutet.
    Articulatory agility in cognitive decline2009In: Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica, ISSN 1021-7762, E-ISSN 1421-9972, Vol. 61, no 5, p. 269-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Motor speech disorders are believed to be uncommon in early Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, data from maximum performance tests of motor speech function in AD and related disorders are virtually nonexistent. The aim of this study was to make such data available. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sequential speech motion rate was analyzed in 236 memory clinic patients with different levels of cognitive functioning. RESULTS: Sequential speech motion rate was moderately but significantly decreased in mild dementia in AD. About 10% of AD and mild cognitive impairment cases had markedly decreased rates. Rates were strongly reduced in progressive nonfluent aphasia, whereas semantic dementia did not differ from subjective cognitive impairment. Frontotemporal dementia had lower rates than AD. CONCLUSIONS: A proportion of patients with cognitive decline has markedly reduced articulatory agility. The cause of this reduction in some patients with mild cognitive impairment and mild AD is unknown. Semantic dementia is not associated with impaired articulatory agility.

  • 240171.
    Östberg, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Logopedi.
    Crinelli, Raffaella
    Danielsson, Rimma
    Wahlund, Lars-Olof
    Bogdanovic, Nenad
    Fernaeus, Sven-Erik
    A temporal lobe factor in verb fluency2007In: Cortex, ISSN 0010-9452, E-ISSN 1973-8102, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 607-615Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Verb fluency requires self-sustained verb retrieval. The brain correlates of this task are virtually unknown. We investigated the relations between verb and noun (semantic) fluency and regional brain perfusion in subjects with varying degrees of cognitive decline, ranging from very mild subjective impairment to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Data consisted of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) data and temporally resolved verb and noun fluency scores from 93 participants. Impaired verb fluency was predicted by a temporal lobe hypoperfusion factor and low education, whereas high age and low perfusion in the parietotemporal-occipital region predicted impaired noun fluency. Analysis of perfusion within the temporal region indicated primary involvement of the temporal pole and medial temporal lobe in AD. This might reflect pathology of the anterior parahippocampal region, which appears early in neurodegenerative disease. Although temporal lobe structures have not usually been implicated in verb processing, early temporal pathology thus appears to contribute to impaired verb fluency in cognitive decline.

  • 240172.
    Östberg, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Logopedi.
    Fernaeus, Sven-Erik
    Bogdanovic, Nenad
    Wahlund, Lars-Olof
    Word sequence production in cognitive decline: forward ever, backward never2008In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 126-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Backward recall of automatic word sequences involves declarative and working memory abilities known to be impaired in the early stages of cognitive decline. Yet its utility in the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment and mild dementia has not been studied in detail. We analysed word sequence production in 234 participants drawn from three categories: subjective cognitive impairment, mild cognitive impairment, and mild dementia in Alzheimer's disease. The names of the months were used as a diagnostic target for investigating forward versus backward sequence production. Forward production remained normal across categories. In contrast, backward speed was significantly decreased in mild cognitive impairment. In dementia both speed and accuracy were impaired. Backward production had significant diagnostic classificatory power. We conclude that word sequence production yields data relevant to the diagnosis of dementia with a minimum of time and expense.

  • 240173.
    Östberg, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Logopedi.
    Fernaeus, Sven-Erik
    Hellström, Åke
    Bogdanovic, Nenad
    Wahlund, Lars-Olof
    Impaired verb fluency: a sign of mild cognitive impairment2005In: Brain and Language, ISSN 0093-934X, E-ISSN 1090-2155, Vol. 95, no 2, p. 273-279Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We assessed verb fluency vs. noun and letter-based fluency in 199 subjects referred for cognitive complaints including Subjective Cognitive Impairment, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer's disease. ANCOVAs and factor analyses identified verb, noun, and letter-based fluency as distinct tasks. Verb fluency performance in Mild Cognitive Impairment differed significantly from Subjective Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Reduced verb fluency thus appears to be a linguistic marker for incipient dementia. One possibility is that the verb fluency deficit in Mild Cognitive Impairment results from degenerative processes known to occur in the parahippocampal region.

  • 240174.
    Östberg, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Logopedi.
    Hansson, Viktoria
    Häägg, Sofia
    Adult norms and test-retest reliability for the Months Backward test: Durational and response accuracy measures2012In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 11-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to present adult norms and to estimate the test-retest reliability for durational and response accuracy measures on the word sequence production test, Months Backward. A total of 216 neurologically intact adults (aged 18-88) stratified by sex, age, and education took the test at maximum speed. Errors and speech duration were recorded. A retest was conducted with 40 participants after 3 weeks. Altogether 94% of the participants completed the test without error. Errors were associated with slow performance. Duration was predicted by years of education (beta = -0.39) and self-reported dyslexia (beta = 0.19). The test-retest reliability was 0.82 for duration and 0.97 for errors. A regression formula for adjustment of logarithmically transformed duration scores is provided.

  • 240175. Östberg, Per-Olov
    et al.
    Hellander, Andreas
    Drawert, Brian
    Elmroth, Erik
    Holmgren, Sverker
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Scientific Computing. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computational Science.
    Petzold, Linda
    Abstractions for scaling eScience applications to distributed computing environments: A StratUm integration case study in molecular systems biology2012In: Proc. 3rd International Conference on Bioinformatics Models, Methods and Algorithms, Setúbal, Portugal: SciTePress , 2012, p. 290-294Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 240176. Östberg, Per-Olov
    et al.
    Hellander, Andreas
    Drawert, Brian
    Elmroth, Erik
    Holmgren, Sverker
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Scientific Computing. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computational Science.
    Petzold, Linda
    Reducing complexity in management of eScience computations2012In: Proc. 12th International Symposium on Cluster, Cloud and Grid Computing, Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society, 2012, p. 845-852Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 240177.
    Östberg, Sara
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Functional Characterization of the Evolutionarily Conserved Adenoviral Proteins L4-22K and L4-33K2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Regulation of adenoviral gene expression is a complex process directed by viral proteins controlling a multitude of different activities at distinct phases of the virus life cycle. This thesis discusses adenoviral regulation of transcription and splicing by two proteins expressed at the late phase: L4-22K and L4-33K. These are closely related with a common N-terminus but unique C-terminal domains. The L4-33K protein is an alternative RNA splicing factor inducing L1-IIIa mRNA splicing, while L4-22K is stimulating transcription from the major late promoter (MLP). The L4-33K protein contains a tiny RS-repeat in its unique C-terminal end that is essential for the splicing enhancer function of the protein. Here we demonstrate that the tiny RS-repeat is required for localization of the protein to the nucleus and viral replication centers. Further, we describe an auto-regulatory loop where L4-33K enhances splicing of its own intron. The preliminary characterization of the responsive RNA-element suggests that it differs from the previously defined L4-33K-responsive element activating L1-IIIa mRNA splicing.

    L4-22K lacks the ability to enhance L1-IIIa splicing in vivo, and here we show that the protein is defective in L1-IIIa or other late pre-mRNA splicing reactions in vitro. Interestingly, we found a novel function for the L4-22K and L4-33K proteins as regulators of E1A alternative splicing. Both proteins selectively upregulated E1A-10S mRNA accumulation in transfection experiments, by a mechanism independent of the tiny RS-repeat.

    Although L4-22K is reported to be an MLP transcriptional enhancer protein, here we show that L4-22K also functions as a repressor of MLP transcription. This novel activity depends on the integrity of the major late first leader 5’ splice site. The model suggests that at low concentrations L4-22K activates MLP transcription while at high concentrations L4-22K represses transcription.

    So far, characterizations of the L4-22K and L4-33K proteins have been limited to human adenoviruses 2 or 5 (HAdV-2/5). We expanded our experiments to include HAdV-3, HAdV-4, HAdV-9, HAdV-11 and HAdV-41. The results demonstrated that the transcription- or splicing-enhancing properties of L4-22K and L4-33K, respectively, are evolutionarily conserved and non-overlapping. Thus, the sequence-based conservation is mirrored by the functions, as expected for functionally important proteins.

    List of papers
    1. Serine 192 in the tiny RS repeat of the adenoviral L4-33K splicing enhancer protein is essential for function and reorganization of the protein to the periphery of viral replication centers
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Serine 192 in the tiny RS repeat of the adenoviral L4-33K splicing enhancer protein is essential for function and reorganization of the protein to the periphery of viral replication centers
    2012 (English)In: Virology, ISSN 0042-6822, E-ISSN 1096-0341, Vol. 433, no 2, p. 273-281Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The adenovirus L4-33K protein is a key regulator involved in the temporal shift from early to late pattern of mRNA expression from the adenovirus major late transcription unit. L4-33K is a virus-encoded alternative splicing factor, which enhances processing of 3’ splice sites with a weak sequence context. Here we show that L4-33K expressed from a transfected plasmid has a diffuse nuclear localization with strong enrichment in the nuclear membrane. We further show that the highly conserved part of the carboxy-terminal end of L4-33K, which functions as the splicing enhancer domain, is sufficient for nuclear localization of the protein. Interestingly, infection of the transfected cells caused a redistribution of L4-33K from the nuclear membrane into discrete ring-like structures corresponding to the viral transcription sites. We also show that serine 192 in the tiny RS repeat, which is critical for the splicing enhancer function of L4-33K, is necessary for the nuclear localization and redistribution of L4-33K protein into viral transcription sites. Collectively, our results show a good correlation between the activity of L4-33K as a splicing enhancer protein and its localization to viral transcription sites.

    Keywords
    L4-33K, L4-22K, splicing, localization, adenovirus, replication centers, transcription sites, peripheral replicative zone
    National Category
    Microbiology in the medical area
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-159614 (URN)10.1016/j.virol.2012.08.021 (DOI)000310095700001 ()22944109 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2011-10-05 Created: 2011-10-05 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
    2. A suppressive effect of the first leader 5’ splice site on L4-­22K-­mediated activation of major late transcription
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A suppressive effect of the first leader 5’ splice site on L4-­22K-­mediated activation of major late transcription
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-238486 (URN)
    Available from: 2014-12-12 Created: 2014-12-12 Last updated: 2015-03-09
    3. RNA elements involved in adenovirus L4-33K regulation of alternative splicing
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>RNA elements involved in adenovirus L4-33K regulation of alternative splicing
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-237965 (URN)
    Available from: 2014-12-12 Created: 2014-12-08 Last updated: 2015-03-09
    4. Conservation of the transcriptional and post-­transcriptional activities of serotype-­specific adenovirus L4 proteins
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conservation of the transcriptional and post-­transcriptional activities of serotype-­specific adenovirus L4 proteins
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-238482 (URN)
    Available from: 2014-12-12 Created: 2014-12-12 Last updated: 2015-03-09
  • 240178.
    Östberg, Sara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Backström Winquist, Ellenor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Akusjärvi, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    RNA elements involved in adenovirus L4-33K regulation of alternative splicingManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 240179.
    Östberg, Sara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Biasiotto, Roberta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Akusjärvi, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Conservation of the transcriptional and post-­transcriptional activities of serotype-­specific adenovirus L4 proteinsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 240180.
    Östberg, Sara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Törmänen Persson, Heidi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Akusjärvi, Göran
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Serine 192 in the tiny RS repeat of the adenoviral L4-33K splicing enhancer protein is essential for function and reorganization of the protein to the periphery of viral replication centers2012In: Virology, ISSN 0042-6822, E-ISSN 1096-0341, Vol. 433, no 2, p. 273-281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The adenovirus L4-33K protein is a key regulator involved in the temporal shift from early to late pattern of mRNA expression from the adenovirus major late transcription unit. L4-33K is a virus-encoded alternative splicing factor, which enhances processing of 3’ splice sites with a weak sequence context. Here we show that L4-33K expressed from a transfected plasmid has a diffuse nuclear localization with strong enrichment in the nuclear membrane. We further show that the highly conserved part of the carboxy-terminal end of L4-33K, which functions as the splicing enhancer domain, is sufficient for nuclear localization of the protein. Interestingly, infection of the transfected cells caused a redistribution of L4-33K from the nuclear membrane into discrete ring-like structures corresponding to the viral transcription sites. We also show that serine 192 in the tiny RS repeat, which is critical for the splicing enhancer function of L4-33K, is necessary for the nuclear localization and redistribution of L4-33K protein into viral transcription sites. Collectively, our results show a good correlation between the activity of L4-33K as a splicing enhancer protein and its localization to viral transcription sites.

  • 240181.
    Östberg, Sara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Åsbrink, Tilda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Välkomna till verkligheten: En studie om Försvarsmaktens möjligheter att minska soldaters benägenhet till att sluta2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ijuli2010gickSverigefrånallmänvärnplikttillfrivilligmilitärutbildningochyrketsoldatblevenstatliganställningsform.Försvarsmaktenharidagsommålattsoldaternaskastannaimellansextillåttaår.Organisationenuppleverdockinulägetproblemmedenhögpersonalomsättningavsoldatersomväljerattslutaiförtid.SyftetmeddennastudieärattskapaendjupareförståelseförhurchefersomarbetarpåstrategisknivåinomFörsvarsmaktenuppleverproblematikenmeddenhögapersonalomsättningsområderidag,samtvilkamöjligheterdeharattminskasoldaternasbenägenhettillattsluta.StudienäravkvalitativkaraktärochgrundaspåfyrakvalitativaintervjuermedfyraolikachefersomarbetarpåstrategisknivåinomolikaavdelningarpåFörsvarsmakten.Istudienkommerviframtillattchefernaharbegränsademöjlighetertillattminskasoldaternasbenägenhettillattsluta.Dettaberorblandannatpåbegränsademöjligheteratterbjudasoldaternakarriär-­‐ochutvecklingsmöjligheter,skapaettvärdeianställningen,erbjudavarierandearbetsuppgifter,skickasoldaternapåutlandstjänstsamtbegränsademöjligheteriattlevaupptillsoldaternasförväntningarsomdefåttgenomdebilderavFörsvarsmaktensommålasuppimedia.

  • 240182.
    Östblom, Desirée
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiotherapy.
    Sjölander, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiotherapy.
    Kartläggning av och skillnader i postoperativa restriktioner vid primär total höftplastik utfört med direktlateralt snitt hos utförande sjukhus i Sverige2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is commonly performed on patients with hip osteoarthritis when conservative treatment no longer reliefs pain sufficiently. Movement restrictions are applied to prevent hip dislocations, although those have recently been questioned since studies have shown that a liberal regimen does not increase the risk of hip dislocation.

    Purpose: To chart movement restrictions following THA performed with a direct lateral approach at Swedish hospitals and analyzes differences in those between university hospital, county hospitals, district hospitals and private hospitals. This study also aimed to chart non- standardized movement restrictions.

    Method: A cross-sectional study with a descriptive and comparative design. Data was collected from a self-made web survey, which was answered by 42 hospitals.

    Results: The appliance of restrictions regarding flexion beyond 90°, external rotation beyond 45°, internal rotation beyond 45°, adduction beyond centerline and flexion of 90° or beyond combined with adduction and rotation varied among the participating hospitals. There were no significant differences between participating hospital groups regarding mentioned movements. Non-standardized restrictions were influenced by the individual factors of the patient as well as the prosthesis type. Patients were also recommended to not perform any extreme movements.

    Conclusion: There is a variation regarding appliance of postoperative restrictions during the first six weeks postoperatively. In the light of the results of this study, together with recent evidence postoperative, restrictions should be further discussed. 

  • 240183.
    Östblom, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Nationell rätt anses vara överordnad internationell rätt: avseende dubbelbeskattningsavtalet mellan Sverige och Kina2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 240184.
    Östblom, Kristin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Kvinnlighet frihet eller förtryck?: En kvalitativ intervjustudie om ideal bland unga tjejer2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 240185.
    Östbom, Gunilla
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Domestic Sciences. Textil.
    Svennerstedt, Bengt
    Fibre quality of hemp grown on the Swedish island Gotland2005In: Textiles for Sustainable Developments: The FAO/Escorena International Conferens, 2005, p. 632-Conference paper (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Title Hemp fibre, a textile fibre from the Swedish island Gotland in the Baltic Sea

    Keywords Hemp, Cannabis Sativa, Textile, Strength, Fineness

    Author (s) Gunilla Östbom1) & Bengt Svennerstedt2)

    Address 1) Department of Domestic Science, Trädgårdsgatan 14, Uppsala University,SE-753 09 UPPSALA, Sweden (corresponding author)2) Biofibre Technology Research Group, Department of JBT, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 86, SE-230 53 ALNARP, Sweden

    Telephone 1) +46 18 471 23 13 (corresponding author)

    Fax 1) +46 18 471 23 21 (corresponding author)

    Mobile 1) +46 70 362 39 71 (corresponding author)

    E-mail 1) Gunilla.Ostbom@ihv.uu.se (corresponding author)2) Bengt.Svennerstedt@jbt.slu.se

    Abstract ID no.(to be assigned by conference organisers)

    Abstract:

    Hemp, Cannabis sativa L has been grown for its fibres for thousands of years. In Sweden it has been prohibited to cultivate hemp for about 40 years, but now it is possible for farmers to grow it again. Before the ban, Gotland, a limestone island in the centre of the Baltic Sea, was the last major growing area in Sweden. At that time the main crop was used for production of rope. During later years, hemp has received increased interest as a sustainable crop and for a multitude of possible uses. To use hemp as a textile fibre, knowledge of the properties of varieties and under different growing conditions is of interest. Fabric made of hemp fibres for clothing coming from China and Rumania can now be seen, but is the quality of hemp cultivated on Gotland also good enough for clothing textiles?

    To be suitable for textile purposes, a fibre should have enough strength, enough fineness, enough length and some friction on the surface of the fibres. These four aspects interact and if one factor is lacking, one or more of the others have to compensate. To be suitable for clothing and not only for coarser textiles, the fibre has to be finer than 0,04 mm and down to 0.01mm in diameter. It also has to have enough strength. There is no doubt that the friction and the length of a hemp fibre, grown almost everywhere, are enough to create a textile product. More interesting is the strength of hemp, since the stronger it is, the finer it can be, and the softer the fabric can be made. Cottonizing of hemp can make the fibres suitable for high quality fabrics.

    This paper focuses on the strength and fineness of hemp fibres from six different varieties, grown on Gotland, on different locations and handled different during the process from seed to fibre. The varieties were Beniko, Futura 75, Fedora 17, Felina 32, USO 31 and Finola. Those varieties are available on the market and not specialized for the soils and climate on Gotland. Therefore it is important to investigate the quality of the fibres. Samples from the varieties were tested according to strength and fineness. The strength varied between 247-570 MPa. Variation was also noted in fibres from different parts of the stem. “Normally” fertilized and not retted, only dried and mechanically decorticated, Futura 75 had the best value in samples from the middle of its stem. The fineness varies also a lot and it is planned to perform tests before this summer.

  • 240186.
    Östbom, Lykke
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences.
    Börjeson, Sanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences.
    Balance the Swedish Transmission System by Using Data Centers: A Study Whether UPS-systems Can Operate as Frequency Regulators2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The energy market is facing a switch-over where future energy systems will rely more on renewable energy sources. These intermittent energy sources will increase the demand for new regulation methods to maintain the power balance in the grid. The purpose of this report is to investigate the ability of data centers to balance the power supply and demand in the Swedish transmission system by using data centers’ UPS-systems. UPS (Uninterruptable Power Supply) systems are intended to ensure stable and reliable power at all times. The data centers are evaluated by calculating the capacity of the UPS-systems. Furthermore, the report examines the challenges and opportunities that concerned actors will come across if this new regulation method is implemented. The incentives regarding future financial revenues for data centers and business opportunities for manufacturers are also examined. 

     

    Linear regression is chosen as the method of determining the capacity. The results show that the total aggregated capacity is 82.46 MW. The revenue that data centers would earn by operating as regulators is 143 000 SEK/MW per year if they regulate a quarter per hour. Furthermore, the results inspire to a discussion whether frequency regulation is suitable for data centers. To use UPS-systems for something other than their main purpose of ensuring stable power should be well motivated and be completely risk-free. The results show that it is uncertain whether the UPS-systems are able to provide the required power without risking complete discharge, which could lead to a financial disaster if a power failure occurs. 

  • 240187.
    Östborn, Johannes
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Den konkurrensreglerade marknaden: om vägtransportsektorns etableringskontroll och institutionella förhållanden.1997Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 240188.
    Östborn, Johannes
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Fredga, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Handelns första arbetsdomstol? Hall- och manufakturrätten i Stockholm under 1800-talets förra hälft.1994Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
  • 240189.
    Östby, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Tvättbjörnen (Procyon lotor) som invasiv art i Europa2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Invasiva arter är organismer som med människans hjälp spridit sig till nya områden och sedan sprider sig bortom all kontroll på bekostnad av sitt nya habitat, ekosystem eller andra arter. Detta är ett globalt problem, och kan få konsekvenser både i ekonomiska, sociala och ekologiska aspekter. Människan har ända sedan antiken fört in främmande arter i Europa, men problemet har ökat på senare år. En av de värsta invasiva arter vi har idag är tvättbjörnen, vilken normalt sätt hör hemma i Nordamerika. Den tillhör familjen halvbjörnar och utmärker sig genom sina fingerfärdiga framtassar, sin nyfikenhet och goda anpassningsförmåga. Till Europa har den kommit genom att ha rymt samt släppts ut från pälsfarmer och djurparker. Populationen är som störst i Tyskland, framförallt i städerna, och den sprider sig nu genom Europa i en alarmerande takt. Man fruktar att den kan bära på sjukdomar och parasiter samt hota delar av Europas ekosystem. Dessutom kan arten komma att ställa till med ekonomiska problem i byggnader och på odlingar på samma sätt som i Japan där den också introducerats. I Tyskland har man länge bedrivit jakt på arten, men det tycks inte stoppa tvättbjörnen då den ändå har ökat exponentiellt i antal. Det enda som verkar kunna sätta stopp för artens expansion i Europa är geografiska barriärer som till exempel hav, samt kalla vintrar eftersom tvättbjörnen begränsas av hur mycket energireserver den kan bygga upp under hösten för att klara övervintringen. I och med människans aktiviteter och klimatförändringarna är det dock möjligt för tvättbjörnen att övervinna även dessa hinder. Det ser ut som att större delen av Europa kommer tvingas att acceptera tvättbjörnen som en naturlig del av faunan, och det är därför viktigt att bedriva mer forskning kring dess ekologi i Europa för att kunna anpassa samhället och naturvården för att minimera dess negativa påverkan.

  • 240190. Östenson, C-G
    et al.
    Abdel-Halim, S M
    Andersson, A
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Efendic, S
    Studies on the pathogenesis of NIDDM in the GK (Goto-Kakizaki) rat1996In: Lessons from Animal Diabetes IV, 1996, Vol. 17, p. 299-Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 240191.
    Östenson, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine.
    Regulation of glucagon biosynthesis and secretion in isolated mammalian pancreatic islets 1979Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 240192.
    Östensson, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Arts, Department of Cultural Anthropology and Ethnology, Cultural Anthropology.
    Transsexualism i Sverige: I könsdikotomins ingenmansland2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 240193.
    Östensson, Jörgen
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Yafaev, Dimitri
    A trace formula for differential operators of arbitrary order2012In: Operator Theory: Advances and Applications, ISSN 1004-4469, E-ISSN 2334-2536, Vol. 218, p. 541-570Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 240194.
    Öster, Caisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Return to Work and Health-related Quality of Life after Severe Burn2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A major burn is one of the most severe traumas a person can experience, and recovery can be a protracted process. The principal aim was to increase the knowledge base regarding factors related to return to work and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) after burns. Patients treated at the Uppsala Burn Center between 2000 and 2007 were included on a consecutive basis. Assessments were made at hospitalization, and thereafter and included a home visit 2 to 7 years after injury.

    The psychometric properties of the generic HRQoL instrument EQ-5D were investigated. The results support the use of EQ-5D as an adjunct to burn-specific assessments of HRQoL. Most former patients exhibited a good HRQoL at 2 to 7 years postburn. Not working at the time of injury and having PTSD at 12 months, as well as having low scores on the EQ VAS at 12 months, were related to a worse EQ VAS score at 2 to 7 years after injury.

    The majority of former patients had returned to work 2 to 7 years postburn. Time to return to work was predicted by length of hospital stay and a personality disorder diagnosis. Predictors for not returning to work were length of stay and having any anxiety or substance use disorder prior to injury. Those who were not back at work reported lower generic and burn-specific health, and exhibited more psychiatric morbidity at follow-up than those who were working. The latter group exhibited HRQoL that was comparable to that of the general population. Participants emphasized their own psychological resources and capabilities as facilitators in the process of returning to active work.

    The findings suggest that an early and systematic approach for assessing recognized risk factors enhances the possibility of discovering patients at risk of developing problems during postburn adaptation.

    List of papers
    1. Validation of the EQ-5D questionnaire in burn injured adults
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Validation of the EQ-5D questionnaire in burn injured adults
    Show others...
    2009 (English)In: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, E-ISSN 1879-1409, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 723-732Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is an important aspect of adaptation after burn. The EQ-5D is a standardized generic instrument for assessing HRQoL. Its psychometric properties in a group of burn injured individuals are, however, not known.

    METHODS: Seventy-eight consecutive patients admitted to a burn unit were included in a prospective longitudinal study. The participants completed the EQ-5D during acute care, and at 3, 6, and 12 months after the burn. At 6 and 12 months after the burn they also completed the Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) and the Burn Specific Health Scale-Brief (BSHS-B).

    RESULTS: High feasibility of the EQ-5D was demonstrated through a high response rate and a low proportion of missing or invalid answers. The floor and ceiling effects were small. Construct validity was demonstrated through good differentiation between health states and good discrimination of health states over time. The EQ-5D was associated with burn severity and discriminated between clinical subgroups in an expected manner. Criterion validity was demonstrated through significant correlations between the EQ-5D and subscales of the SF-36 and the BSHS-B.

    CONCLUSIONS: The EQ-5D has good psychometric properties, it is short and easy to administer and thus useful in assessment of HRQoL after burn.

    Keywords
    Psychometrics, EQ-5D, Health-related quality of life, Burn injury, Outcome assessment
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-122802 (URN)10.1016/j.burns.2008.11.007 (DOI)000268065200016 ()19297100 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2010-04-20 Created: 2010-04-20 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
    2. Health-related quality of life 2 years to 7 years after a severe burn
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Health-related quality of life 2 years to 7 years after a severe burn
    2011 (English)In: Journal of Trauma, ISSN 0022-5282, E-ISSN 1529-8809, Vol. 71, no 5, p. 1435-1441Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Knowledge concerning the trajectory andpredictors of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) years after burninjury is fragmentary and t