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  • 246951.
    Zetterberg, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Women's Conditioned Access to Political Office in Mexico2018In: Gender and Representation in Latin America / [ed] Leslie A. Schwindt-Bayer, New York: Oxford University Press, 2018, p. 196-210Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 246952.
    Zetterberg, Pär
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Amnå, Erik
    Youth & Society, Örebro universitet.
    Bidra med vad?: Effekter av statsbidrag till kvinnors organisering och jämställdhetsprojekt2010Report (Other academic)
  • 246953.
    Zetterberg, Stina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Medias dagordningsmakt i flyktingfrågan: En kvantitativ studie om gestaltningen av flyktingfrågan i Dagens Nyheters2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 246954. Zetterberg W,
    et al.
    Marteus, H
    Johannesson, M
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Nordvall, L
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Ihre, E
    Alving, K
    Exhaled carbon monoxide is not elevated in patients with asthma and cystic fibrosis.2002In: European Resp Journal., Vol. 1, p. 92-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 246955.
    Zetterblom, Susanne
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Women as Nation Builders: Strategically invested aid in Uganda for nation-building processes2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Former colonized countries, especially in Africa, have suffered a tough political climate, often under the leadership of a dictator. The process of implementing democracy has, in many states, often been violent and terrifying.

    Under these circumstances, it has been hard to build institutions where people feel united as one nation. Poverty, corruption, old cultural and religious boarders and expressions among other circumstances are factors that you have to consider when developing a strong economic and democratic nation.

    Women often have a marginalized role within these states. In order to achieve the right to get education, or to be a part of the political arena, they have had to struggle both against men and other women.

    Most of Uganda’s income comes from the agriculture. Within this sector there are mostly women working under poor circumstances. To develop female self-employment some of the Swedish aid is given within micro-financial and cooperation projects to improve the economy for the nation and the women’s status within society.

    This study could be of importance to see if or how strategically invested aid actually improves the role of women as good recourses for building the nation Uganda. The answers and the conclusions given could also give clues, important for nation building processes in general and for women as nation builders in particular, in the continuing work in building the nation Uganda.

    The purpose for this dissertation is to interview women that are participating in two different projects that are supported by Swedish NGOs, in order to see if their own experiences of being part of the projects correspond to the project plans aims.

    This dissertation has been made possible through a Minor Field Study Scholarship, financed by SIDA, handled by The International Programme Office for Education and Training, which is a government agency that promotes academic exchanges and cooperation across national borders.

  • 246956.
    Zettergreen, Vanessa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Dahlberg Larsson, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Att lära sig, vad man redan gör?: En kvantitativ studie om två professioners perspektiv på formellt och informellt lärande under vidareutbildning2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the nurse and intended psychotherapists perspective on learning in the field between formal learning and informal learning in practice. For this purpose, the nurses that educate further to preschool teachers and intended psychotherapists is examined. The four research questions are as follows; (1) How does the nurses and the intended psychotherapists valuate and experience the relation between formal education and informal learning in practice? (2) How does the nurses and the prospective psychotherapists valuate and experience that their learning changes over time? (3) How does the nurses and the prospective psychotherapists valuate their learning in relation to different persons around them? What differences and common attribute is there between a nurse and a prospective psychotherapist? The empirical collection of the study is based on a survey and the selection covers in total 11 nurses from Stockholm university and 43 intended psychotherapists at Stockholm university and Uppsala university. The study is analyzed through Ellströms theory about cognitive- and contextual perspective on learning, adaptions- and development-minded learning and Bertells theory about learning at the first- and secondhand arena. The study process shows that there are less research made earlier about the investigated professions and their learning during further education, therefore the study is an important contribution to the field of knowledge. The data that the analyzes is founded on in the study is gathered through a web survey. Measures are executed through the software PSPP. It is clear that from the result of the study that the two professions where similar in its positions that treated the relations between formal education and informal learning in practice. It is also possible to interpret that the attitude of the respondents indicates that they are approaching or found themselves in the development-minded learning, which have been addressed in the change of learning over time. Furthermore the result of the study indicates that the respondents learning in relation to others varieties depending on profession and relation. The biggest difference between professions in the study shows when they are to assess in what extent they discuss new knowledge they have learned with their manager. Common features to be seen is that they willingly discuss the new knowledge they learned with their classmates. The study leads to conclusions in respect to semiformal relations. Where the classmates role in the respondents learning is questioned and shown in a another dimension. This with the help of a relative new theoretically point of view. 

  • 246957.
    Zettergren, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology.
    Åkerstrand, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology.
    Customization of Software for Implementation on Third Party Platforms2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An increasingly common scenario in software development, and certainly in webtechnologies, is that companies customize parts of the developed software to run on third party platforms. The purpose of this is often to increase brand recognition or to increase traffic to their websites. Quite often the target platforms are numerous and are far from homogenous while the software itself is required to have preserved functionality in its original environment. This creates numerous difficulties both within the software structure, maintenance and in development routines. This thesis considers some of those difficulties and their potential solutions. Focus is put on an online real estate search company, Booli Search Technologies AB, that would like to offer its partners parts of its platform for implementation on their websites. Booli states both general and specific demands on the customization regarding functionality,preserved performance, security and updates.

    The report begins with a survey of literature and related work within the area.Interesting solutions are then discussed and evaluated. Finally, a prototypeimplementation is done and evaluated together with Booli and some of its partners from different aspects. The results are presented together with a discussion and possible future improvements. Overall the prototype implementation satisfies the demands stated by Booli, even though some improvements are suggested.

  • 246958. Zettergren, H.
    et al.
    Reinhed, P.
    Stochkel, K.
    Schmidt, H.T.
    Cederquist, H.
    Jensen, Jens
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Ion Physics. Jonfysik.
    Fragmentation and Ionization of C70 and C60 – a comparison2005In: Presented at the 24rd International Conference on Photonic, Electronic and Atomic Collisions (ICPEAC 2005), Rosario, Argentina, 2005Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 246959. Zettergren, H.
    et al.
    Reinhed, P.
    Støchkel, K.
    Schmidt, H.T.
    Cederquist, H.
    Jensen, Jens
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Ion Physics. Jonfysik.
    Tomita, S.
    Nielsen, S.B.
    Hvelplund, P.
    Manil, B.
    Rangama, J.
    Huber, H.A.
    Fragmentation and ionization of C_70 and C_60 by slow ions of intermediate charge2006In: The European Physical Journal D, Vol. 38, p. 299-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 246960. Zettergren, H.
    et al.
    Schmidt, H. T.
    Cederquist, H.
    Jensen, Jens
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Ion Physics.
    Hvelplund, P.
    Tomita, S.
    Manil, B.
    Rangama, J.
    Huber, B.A.
    Even-odd effects in the ionization cross sections of [C60]2 and [C60C70] dimers2007In: Physical Review A. Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, ISSN 1050-2947, E-ISSN 1094-1622, Vol. 75, no 5, p. 051201-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report strong even-odd effects in multiple ionization yields of van der Waals dimers in slowXe30+ + ͓C60͔2͓͑C60C70͔͒ →  ̄ + ͓C60͔2r+͓͑C60C70͔r+͒ electron-transfer collisions as functions of r Յ 7. Thisbehavior may be due to even-odd variations in the sequences of dimer ionization energies as calculated with anelectrostatic model including an electrical fullerene-fullerene contact at the 19a0 center-center separation in͓C60͔2+. Prompt dissociations predominantly yield intact fullerenes ͓C60͔2r+ → C60r1+ + C60r2+ in the same͑r1 = r2, even r͒ or nearby ͑r1 = r2 ± 1, odd r Ͼ 1͒ charge states.

  • 246961.
    Zettergren, H.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Schmidt, H.T.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Reinhed, P.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Cederquist, H.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Jensen, Jens
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Ion Physics.
    Hvelplund, P.
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus.
    Tomita, S.
    Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba.
    Manil, B.
    Centre Interdisciplinaire Recherches Ions Lasers (CIRIL).
    Rangama, J.
    Centre Interdisciplinaire Recherches Ions Lasers (CIRIL).
    Huber, B.A.
    Centre Interdisciplinaire Recherches Ions Lasers (CIRIL).
    Stabilities of multiply charged dimers and clusters of fullerenes2007In: Journal of Chemical Physics, ISSN 0021-9606, E-ISSN 1089-7690, Vol. 126, no 22, p. 224303-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors find even-odd variations as functions of r (...+[C60]2(r+)([C60C70](r+)) electron-transfer collisions. This even-odd behavior is in sharp contrast to the smooth one for fullerene monomers and may be related to even-odd effects in dimer ionization energies in agreement with results from an electrostatic model. The kinetic energy releases for dimer dissociations [predominantly yielding intact fullerenes [C60]2(r+)-->C60(r1+)+C60(r2+) in the same (r1=r2) or nearby (r1=r2+/-1) charge states] are found to be low in comparison with the corresponding model results indicating that internal excitations of the separating (intact) fullerenes are important. Experimental appearance sizes for the heavier clusters of fullerenes [C60]n(r+) (n>3 and r=2-5) compare well with predictions from a new nearest-neighbor model assuming that r unit charges in [C60]n(r+) are localized to r C60 molecules such that the Coulomb energy of the system is minimized. The system is then taken to be stable if (i) two (singly) charged C60 are not nearest neighbors and (ii) the r C60(+) molecules have binding energies to their neutral nearest neighbors which are larger than the repulsive energies for the (r-1) C60(+)-C60(+) pairs. Essential ingredients in the nearest-neighbor model are cluster geometries and the present results on dimer stabilities.

  • 246962.
    Zettergren, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Två synsätt på ADHD och dess konsekvenser: En litteraturöversikt av ADHD och diagnostisering ur ett sociologiskt perspektiv2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 246963.
    Zettergren, Inger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Om lärares attityder till Svenska som andraspråk2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 246964.
    Zettergren, Linn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Responsibility failure or too high expectations?: From humanitarian crisis to legal dispute in cholera-struck Haiti2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the aftermath of the earthquake in Haiti 2010 a second disaster hit the small Caribbean country. This time in the shape of a cholera epidemic, imported by Nepalese UN soldiers. The disease outbreak culminated in a previously unpresented lawsuit against the United Nations in which their principle of absolute immunity was questioned. This study highlights the complex causal paths that preceded the legal dispute, by investigating three hypotheses on why the controversy with the UN got out of hand and could not be resolved through other means. The findings imply that the framing of the Haitian state as fragile and corrupt led to a shift in the perception of responsibilities. As the government was rendered incapable, international organizations were expected to provide health and well-being to the Haitian people. This however proved to be an expectation they could not live up to. The case of Haiti illustrates a good example of the difficulties in the delivery of large-scale humanitarian aid and how this can undermine existing institutions if implemented unwisely.

  • 246965.
    Zettergren, Liv
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Erkännande av yrkeskvalifikationer och validering av utländsk utbildning: Fri rörlighet, autonomi och rättssäkerhet2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 246966.
    Zettergren, Oscar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Erkkilä, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    "Måste vi prata om det här igen?": En undersökning om hur gymnasielärare behandlar hälsa och livsstil i undervisningen i ämnet Idrott och hälsa.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka gymnasielärares, i ämnet Idrott och hälsa, erfarenheter av undervisningen i hälsa, vilka utmaningar de ställs inför i sin hälsaundervisning samt deras värderingar kring ämnets betydelse.

    Metod

    Metodvalet för studien föll på en kvalitativ samtalsintervju, eftersom det var relevant för studien att få ta del av de intervjuades berättelser utifrån den enskilde personens perspektiv. På så sätt kunde de intervjuade ingående berätta om sina egna erfarenheter och tankar kring de olika teman som var relevanta för studien. Intervjuerna var halvstrukturerade och en ändamålsenlig intervjuguide konstruerades för att få till likvärdiga intervjuer. Urvalet var ett så kallat bekvämlighetsurval och undersökningen omfattade totalt åtta intervjuer. Majoriteten av dem genomfördes tillsammans, för att kunna utnyttja att två intervjuare har större möjlighet att ställa adekvata följdfrågor.

    Resultat

    Studiens resultat uppvisade en bild av undervisningen i Idrott och hälsa som handlade mycket om fysisk aktivitet. Lärarna menade också att undervisningen i hälsa var av stor betydelse. Det framgick att ett antal ramfaktorer påverkade hälsaundervisningen, bland annat tiden som var allokerad till ämnet och tillgång till funktionella faciliteter. Ämnets traditioner och elevernas uppfattningar om vad ämnet bör behandla upplevdes som en svårighet, eftersom fysisk aktivitet – i synnerhet bollsporter – var dominerande. Teoretiska undervisningsmoment mötte därför motsättningar från eleverna. De intervjuade lärarnas egna erfarenheter rörande hälsa var något som uppvisade betydande inverkan på hälsaundervisningens utformning. Dessa erfarenheter påverkade också vad lärarna ansåg var ämnets viktigaste uppgift, vilket handlade om ett livslångt intresse för fysiska aktiviteter och att skapa hälsosamma vanor även efter gymnasiet. Analysverktygen för studien erhölls utifrån ett pragmatiskt perspektiv. Mer specifikt handlade det om erfarenhetsbegreppet, meningsskapande och det transaktionella perspektivet inom pragmatismen.

    Diskussion

    Utifrån studiens resultat gick det att se likheter mellan det de intervjuade lärarna beskrev och den situation som beskrivs för ämnet i den forskning som studerats för föreliggande studie. Det gällde framförallt den dominans som fysisk aktivitet har i ämnet och den starka kopplingen mellan hälsa och fysisk aktivitet som de intervjuade lärarna lyfte fram. Forskning inom området visar att ämnet fortfarande är ett rörelseämne, med hälsa kopplat till kondition och träning. Olika tolkningar av hälsaundervinsingen bland lärare leder till att teoretiska och praktiska moment får olika mycket plats i undervisningen, vilket påverkar elevernas erfarenheter av hälsa och således hur relationen till hälsa ser ut i framtiden. Ämnet får i detta avseende betydelse för folkhälsan, då ämnet kan skapa intresse för hälsofrämjande vanor. 

  • 246967.
    Zettergren, Sofie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Gillenfalk, Nathalie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Uppfyllande av jämförbar fastighetsvärdering i den externa redovisningen: En studie om tillämpning av IASBs föreställningsram och IAS 402009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inledning

    Från att värdera förvaltningsfastigheter till avskrivet anskaffningsvärde öppnades 2005 möjligheten för fastighetsbolag att välja mellan att värdera fastighetsbeståndet till avskrivet anskaffningsvärde eller till verkligt värde. IASBs föreställningsram har som kvalitetskrav att redovisningen skall vara jämförbar mellan bolag. Frågan vi ställt oss är: om utformningen av IAS 40 leder till att bolag presenterar en redovisning som tillåter användare av redovisningsinformation att på ett adekvat sätt jämföra bolags fastighetsvärderingar med varandra.

    Syfte

    Syftet är att analysera huruvida företags val av redovisad information om fastighetsvärdering är jämförbar utifrån tillämpning av IASBs föreställningsram och IAS 40.

    Referensram och teoretisk utgångspunkt

    Studiens referensram består av IASBs föreställningsram och standarden IAS 40. Vi har valt att se den information som bolag redovisar i sina externredovisningar utifrån agentteorin som kan förklara varför företagsledningar kan gynnas av att inte redovisa all tillgänglig information. Kapitlet utmynnar i vår teoretiska utgångspunkt där vi tar avstamp i att företagsledningens förhållande till sitt informationsövertag har effekt på begripligheten i redovisningen och således på jämförbarheten.

    Metod

    Vi har genomfört en kvalitativ studie i två delar. I den första delen studerar vi hur fastighetsbolag redovisar fastighetsvärderingen i den externa redovisningen 2008. I den andra delen av studien har vi genomfört intervjuer med tre revisorer, en redovisningsspecialist samt personer från tre bolags företagsledningar som är ansvariga för den externa redovisningen.

    Empiri

    I empiriavsnittet presenterar vi den information om fastighetsvärderingen som vi funnit i de studerade bolagens redovisningar. Därefter presenteras en sammanställning av vad som framkom i samtliga intervjuer.

    Diskussion och slutsatser

    Utifrån vår studie av fastighetsbolags redovisningar ifrågasätter vi om kvalitetskravet begriplighet uppfylls, vilket i sin tur påverkar jämförbarheten negativt. Vi ifrågasätter begripligheten då företagen undviker definitioner och specifik information om antaganden. Utifrån intervjuer med revisorer, en redovisningsspecialist och företagsledningar samt studerande av IASBs föreställningsram har vi identifierat en möjlig problemkälla. Problemet vi uppfattat tycks härröra till IASBs föreställningsram under p.40 som beskriver att fortlevnad av IAS inklusive upplysningar om de redovisningsprinciper som tillämpas i företaget bidrar till att uppnå jämförbarhet (2008). Vi har funnit att jämförbarhet inte är någonting som automatiskt uppfylls vid användande av IAS 40.

  • 246968.
    Zettergren-Wijk, Lena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Interfaculty Units, Centrum för klinisk forskning, Gävleborg.
    Forsberg, Carl-Magnus
    Linder-Aronson, Sten
    Changes in dentofacial morphology after adeno-/tonsillectomy in young children with obstructive sleep apnoea--a 5-year follow-up study.2006In: Eur J Orthod, ISSN 0141-5387, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 319-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to compare a number of dentofacial variables and airway space in children suffering from obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) syndrome with the corresponding variables in control children exhibiting a normal breathing pattern, to study the development of these variables prospectively over a 5-year-period following treatment for OSA, and to compare the recorded changes with the corresponding changes occurring in the controls. The subjects were 17 children (10 boys and 7 girls, mean age 5.6 years) diagnosed with OSA syndrome. The treatment for the OSA was adeno-/tonsillectomy. The control group comprised 17 age- and gender-matched children (mean age 5.8 years) without breathing problems. Lateral cephalograms were taken of the OSA children at baseline and then at 1, 3, and 5 years post-treatment. The control records comprised registrations at baseline and then after 1 and 5 years. In comparison with the controls, the OSA children exhibited a more posteriorly inclined mandible (P < 0.05), a more anteriorly inclined maxilla (P < 0.001), a greater lower anterior face height (P < 0.01), a shorter anterior cranial base (P < 0.01), retroclined upper and lower incisors (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively), reduced airway space (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01), and a less pronounced nose (P < 0.05). At 5 years post-treatment, there were no statistically significant differences between the groups except for the lengths of the anterior cranial base and the nose which were still shorter (P < 0.05) in the patient group. OSA in young children has an unfavourable effect on the development of several dental and facial components. However, if OSA is diagnosed and treated at an early age, an almost complete normalization of dentofacial morphology may be achieved.

  • 246969.
    zetterholm, amanda
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Sennerfeldt, Josefine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Att läsa matematik: En undersöknig av lågstadiets skriftspråk och dess meningserbjudande2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 246970. Zetterholm, Anna
    NEDLÅTANDE BEHANDLAD SOM BARNRELATION MED SÄMRE HÄLSA OCH ÖKAD VÅRDKONSUMTION SOM VUXEN2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 246971.
    Zetterholm, Sennerfeldt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    "Och så kom riddaren och hon höjde sitt svärd": F-3 lärares tankar kring genus i bänkböcker och högläsningslitteratur2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 246972.
    Zetterkvist, Victor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Analys av egenfrekvenser och laster för en vertikalaxlad, skruvad Savoniusturbin: slutsatser om möjliga materialval och geometrierför att undvika resonans2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    At the Division of Electricity at Uppsala university a project isconducted to develop a smaller wind turbine for conditions in theAntarctica. This is a part of a larger, international researchproject in the field of particle physics known as the Ariannaexperiment. The project consists of developing and installing avertical axle wind turbine of screwed Savonius type. A prototypeof this has been manufactured and installed 2016 in Antarctica forinitial testing and measurement.Wind turbines are subjected to complex and varied loads from windand rotation which gives rise to cyclical strain. The rotor bladesare particularly vulnerable, which imposes high material andconstruction requirements to avoid fatigue and failure, whichoften is caused by vibrations and oscillations. Vibrations can becharacterized in terms of the natural frequencies witch in shortmeans that the system, at specific frequencies, tend to oscillatewith increasing amplitude and at worst, resonate if these areexcited. How a complex design will behave by external periodicinterference is complicated to calculate analytically. Naturalfrequencies are therefore most often calculated using FEM-methodsand computer simulations.The aim of this thesis is to study how oscillating forces interactwith the natural frequencies and rotational loads for a specificSavonius wind turbine. How these are influenced by engineering,design and material selection. The goal is to draw conclusionsabout design and possible materials selection to avoid unnecessaryvibrations. Without this analysis, there is a risk of increasedwear and damage to the structure.The project includes such analysis of two different sizes of theSavonius turbine. A small 200x400 mm and a larger 1000x2000 mm.To understand the problem, a preliminary study of basic harmonicoscillation, strength of materials and of the existing prototypewas made. Following a requirement specification, somedelimitations were made so that the simulations would not be tooextensive. Subsequently, a minor design work was done to obtain 13different configurations of the turbine for simulation using FEM-methods.The result showed that none of the turbines rotational frequenciesis close to the turbine’s natural frequencies. However, accountmust be taken of cogging frequencies in the generator. These arewithin the range of the design's natural frequencies.All simulations of centrifugal force found that there isrelatively little tension at the selected maximum speed of 660 and132 revolutions per minute. However, as the results showed thatthe plates which are mounted between the rotor blades to providestability, creates greater stresses in the structure than thosewithout. Two proposals for the configuration of turbines have beenpresented in the report.  

  • 246973.
    Zetterlind, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Methods and Approaches for Biogenicity Determination in Geological Samples - Implications for Extraterrestrial Search for Life2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For a better understanding of how to search for an extraterrestrial life, scientists study hidden biospheres on Earth. The subseafloor crust is recognized as a vast microbial habitat and it is hypothesized that extremophilic microorganisms, occurring there, can be the first living organisms on Earth. Those extremophiles does not require oxygen due their ability to derive bioavailable energy from fluid-rock interactions, resembling conditions on Mars. Hence, in this study, geological samples from such environments are analysed.

    Overall, this report examines a concept of biogenicity and evaluates a set of methods used for the determination of biologic origin. Fossilized microbial remains were discovered in unconsolidated sediments from the volcaniclastic apron of Gran Canaria and in aragonite veins in ultramafic rocks from the North Pond at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Mentioned sediments and rocks were collected during Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 157 and 209. The fossil record from Gran Canaria is consistent with Foraminifera. The microbial remains from North Pond are consistent with Frutexites microstromatolites. Both fossilized communities have characteristic compositions associated with carbonaceous matter (CM) and different configurations of trace elements such as Si, Al, Mg, Mn, Ni, Fe, and Co. This study confirms the biologic origin of the fossilized remains and shows that the applied methods are suitable for astrobiological application.

  • 246974.
    Zetterling, Carl-Mikael
    et al.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hallen, Anders
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hedayati, Raheleh
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Kargarrazi, Saleh
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lanni, Luigia
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Malm, B. Gunnar
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Mardani, Shabnam
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Norström, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Rusu, Ana
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Suvanam, Sethu Saveda
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Tian, Ye
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ostling, Mikael
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bipolar integrated circuits in SiC for extreme environment operation2017In: Semiconductor Science and Technology, ISSN 0268-1242, E-ISSN 1361-6641, Vol. 32, no 3, article id 034002Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Silicon carbide (SiC) integrated circuits have been suggested for extreme environment operation. The challenge of a new technology is to develop process flow, circuit models and circuit designs for a wide temperature range. A bipolar technology was chosen to avoid the gate dielectric weakness and low mobility drawback of SiC MOSFETs. Higher operation temperatures and better radiation hardness have been demonstrated for bipolar integrated circuits. Both digital and analog circuits have been demonstrated in the range from room temperature to 500 degrees C. Future steps are to demonstrate some mixed signal circuits of greater complexity. There are remaining challenges in contacting, metallization, packaging and reliability.

  • 246975.
    Zetterling, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Clinical Studies in the Acute Phase of Subarachnoid Haemorrhage2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Patients admitted in similar clinical condition after spontaneous SAH can develop very different clinical courses. This could depend on the severity of the initial global ischemic brain injury at ictus. In the present study, we explored relations between clinical and radiological parameters at admission that indicate a more severe initial impact, and the following days hormone levels and brain metabolism.

    Early global cerebral oedema (GCE) on computed tomography occurred in 57 % of SAH patients and was associated with a more severe clinical condition. The brain’s glucose metabolism, measured with intracerebral microdialysis (MD), changed the first days. MD-glucose was initially high and MD-pyruvate low. MD-glucose gradually decreased and MD-pyruvate and MD-lactate increased, suggesting a transition to a hyperglycolytic state. This was more pronounced in patients with GCE. Similar patterns were seen for interstitial non-transmitter amino acids. From initial low concentrations, they gradually increased in parallel with MD-pyruvate. The amino acid concentrations were higher for patients admitted in better clinical condition. Insulin lowered MD-glucose and MD-pyruvate even when plasma glucose values remained high. P-ACTH and S-cortisol were elevated early after SAH. GCE was associated with higher S-cortisol acutely. Urine cortisol excretion, indicating levels of free cortisol, were higher in patients in a better clinical condition. Suppressed P-ACTH occurred in periods of brain ischemia.

    We suggest that GCE on the first CT scan is a warning sign indicating increased vulnerability if the patient is exposed to compromised energy supply or increased energy demand. Reduction of blood glucose after SAH should be done with caution. The temporal change of the glucose metabolism and the amino acid concentrations probably reflect activated repair mechanisms. This should be considered in the intensive care treatment of SAH patients. Finally, our results support earlier observations that the response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system is important in critical care.

    List of papers
    1. Brain energy metabolism in patients with spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage and global cerebral edema
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Brain energy metabolism in patients with spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage and global cerebral edema
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    2010 (English)In: Neurosurgery, ISSN 0148-396X, E-ISSN 1524-4040, Vol. 66, no 6, p. 1102-1110Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) have shown that global cerebral edema on the first computed tomography scan is associated with a more severe initial injury and is an independent predictor of poor outcome. Effects of secondary ischemic events also influence outcome after SAH. OBJECTIVE: This study demonstrates that early global edema is related to markers of an increased cerebral energy metabolism as measured with intracerebral microdialysis, which could increase vulnerability to adverse events. METHODS: Fifty-two patients with microdialysis monitoring after spontaneous SAH were stratified according to the occurrence of global cerebral edema on the first computed tomography scan taken a median of 2 hours after the initial bleed. Microdialysis levels of glucose, lactate, and pyruvate were compared between the global edema (n = 31) and no global edema (n = 21) groups. Clinical outcome was assessed with the Glasgow Outcome Scale score at >/= 6 months. RESULTS: Patients with global edema showed significantly elevated lactate and pyruvate levels 70 to 79 hours after SAH and marginally significantly higher levels of lactate 60 to 69 hours and 80 to 89 hours after SAH. There was a trend toward worse outcome in the edema group. CONCLUSION: Patients with global cerebral edema have higher interstitial levels of lactate and pyruvate. The edema group may have developed a cerebral hypermetabolism to meet the increased energy demand in the recovery phase after SAH. This stress would make the brain more vulnerable to secondary insults, increasing the likelihood of energy failure.

    Keywords
    Cerebral edema, Energy metabolism, Microdialysis, SAH
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Research subject
    Neurosurgery
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-128973 (URN)10.1227/01.NEU.0000370893.04586.73 (DOI)000278006200030 ()20495425 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2010-08-05 Created: 2010-08-05 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
    2. Early global brain oedema in relation to clinical admission parameters and outcome in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Early global brain oedema in relation to clinical admission parameters and outcome in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage
    2010 (English)In: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 152, no 9, p. 1527-1533Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies on spontaneous aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) treatment have found the presence of global cerebral oedema on the first CT scan to be a predictor of poor outcome. We have reviewed our own experience with SAH in order to evaluate the relation of global cerebral oedema to clinical parameters at admission and to functional outcome. METHODS: One hundred ninety patients with spontaneous aneurysmal SAH were included in the study. The first CT scan for each patient was evaluated for signs of global cerebral oedema. Clinical status on admission was assessed according to the Hunt & Hess score and the World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) grade and functional outcome using the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS). Clinical condition at admission was dichotomised as 'better' (Hunt & Hess 1-2, WFNS 1-2) or 'worse' (Hunt & Hess 3-5, WFNS 3-5) and outcome as 'favourable' (GOS 4-5) or 'poor' (GOS 1-3). The amount of blood on the CT scan was assessed using the Fisher scale. Comparisons were made between patients with and without global cerebral oedema on the first CT regarding clinical condition, age, gender, mode of aneurysm treatment, outcome, 6-month mortality, amount of blood on the CT scan and time lag to the first CT scan. RESULTS: Global cerebral oedema was observed in 57% of patients admitted with aneurysmal SAH, which is a much higher frequency than has been reported previously. Patients with oedema were admitted in a worse clinical status, but there was no difference between patients with and without oedema regarding other clinical parameters or outcome. The median time between the haemorrhage and the first CT scan was short compared to earlier studies, 2.5 h for those with oedema and 3.4 for those without. This difference was significant, suggesting that global cerebral oedema can be a very early phenomenon after SAH, and may be missed in later CT scans. Early global brain oedema, occurring within a few hours of bleeding, may be more common than previously thought. In aneurysmal SAH patients, the presence of global cerebral oedema was associated with a worse clinical condition at admission which in turn could indicate a more severe initial injury. The clinical significance of early oedema may differ from that of late oedema, which may explain the lack of an association between global oedema and poor outcome in this study. However, the nature of the oedema as well as its relation to the clinical course has to be further studied in separate studies.

    Keywords
    Subarachnoidal haemorrhage, Aneurysm, CT scan, Global brain oedema, Outcome
    National Category
    Surgery
    Research subject
    Neurosurgery
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-128972 (URN)10.1007/s00701-010-0684-8 (DOI)000281246500011 ()20495834 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2010-08-05 Created: 2010-08-05 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
    3. Cortisol and ACTH dynamics in the acute phase of subarachnoid haemorrhage
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cortisol and ACTH dynamics in the acute phase of subarachnoid haemorrhage
    Show others...
    (English)In: British Journal of Neurosurgery, ISSN 0268-8697, E-ISSN 1360-046XArticle in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: An adequate response of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is important for survival and recovery after a severe disease. The hypothalamus and the pituitary glands are at risk of damage after subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). A better understanding of the hormonal changes would be valuable for optimizing care in the acute phase of SAH.

    Patients: 55 patients with spontaneous SAH were evaluated regarding morning levels of S-Cortisol and P-ACTH seven days after the bleeding. In a subgroup of 20 patients the diurnal changes of S-Cortisol and P-ACTH levels were studied and U-Cortisol measured. The relations of hormone levels to clinical and radiological parameters and to outcome were assessed.

    Results: S-Cortisol and P-ACTH were elevated the day of SAH. S-Cortisol levels below reference range were uncommon. Early global cerebral oedema was associated with higher S-Cortisol concentrations at admission and a worse WFNS and RLS85 grade. Patients in better WFNS grade had higher U-Cortisol levels. All patients showed diurnal variations of S-Cortisol and P-ACTH. A reversed diurnal variation of S-Cortisol was more frequently seen in mechanically ventilated patients. Periods of suppressed P-ACTH associated with S-Cortisol peaks occurred especially in periods of secondary brain ischemia.

    Conclusion: There is a HPA response acutely after SAH with an increase of P-ACTH and S-Cortisol levels. Higher U-Cortisol levels in patients in a better clinical grade may indicate a more robust response of the HPA system. Global cerebral oedema was associated with higher S-Cortisol levels at admission and may be the result of the stress response initiated by the brain injury. Periods of suppressed P-ACTH occurred particularly in periods of brain ischemia, indicating a possibly connection between brain ischemia and ACTH suppression. These two novel findings should be evaluated in further studies.

    Keywords
    Subarachnoid haemorrhage, Cortisol, ACTH, Diurnal variation, Cerebral oedema
    National Category
    Surgery
    Research subject
    Neurosurgery
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-128968 (URN)
    Available from: 2010-08-04 Created: 2010-08-04 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
    4. Temporal patterns of interstitial pyruvate and amino acids after subarachnoid haemorrhage are related to the level of consciousness: a clinical microdialysis study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Temporal patterns of interstitial pyruvate and amino acids after subarachnoid haemorrhage are related to the level of consciousness: a clinical microdialysis study
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    2009 (English)In: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 151, no 7, p. 771-780Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Temporal patterns of brain interstitial amino acids after subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) were studied in relation to energy metabolite levels and to the severity of the initial global ischaemia as reflected by the level of consciousness at admission. METHOD: Intracerebral microdialysis was used to measure brain interstitial amino acids and the energy metabolites glucose, lactate, and pyruvate during five days in 19 patients. Patients who were conscious (n = 11) were compared to those who were unconscious on admission (n = 8). FINDINGS: Eight non-transmitter amino acids (alanine, asparagine, glutamine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, serine and tyrosine), as well as glycine and pyruvate showed a pattern of increasing concentrations starting at 60-70 h after the onset of SAH. The conscious patients showed more pronounced elevations of non-transmitter amino acids, glycine, taurine and pyruvate compared to the unconscious patient group. Pyruvate levels were initially critically low for all patients, then normalised in the conscious patients but remained low in the unconscious group. CONCLUSIONS: There was an increase of the cerebral interstitial levels of non-transmitter amino acids and glycine which correlated temporally to pyruvate levels, more pronounced in patients conscious on admission. Pyruvate levels in these patients normalised, but remained reduced in the unconscious patients. The increase of the non-transmitter amino acids and glycine could reflect an increased amino acid turnover in an attempt at repairing the injured brain, which could have been hampered by the lower pyruvate levels. Interstitial pyruvate may be a useful marker of the energy metabolic situation in the acutely injured brain.

    Keywords
    amino acids, microdialysis, pyruvate, subarachnoid haemorrhage
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-107570 (URN)10.1007/s00701-009-0384-4 (DOI)000267388600007 ()19430719 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2009-08-17 Created: 2009-08-17 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    5. Relation between brain interstitial and systemic glucose levels after subarachnoid hemorrhage
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Relation between brain interstitial and systemic glucose levels after subarachnoid hemorrhage
    Show others...
    (English)In: Journal of Neurosurgery, ISSN 0022-3085, E-ISSN 1933-0693Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    Abstract [en]

    Objects: The optimal blood glucose level after acute brain injury is not known. The aim of the present investigation was to study the relation between brain interstitial and systemic blood glucose levels during the acute phase after SAH. We also studied the effects of insulin administration on local brain energy metabolism.

    Methods: 19 patients with spontaneous SAH were monitored with intracerebral microdialysis (MD). The relation between plasma (P)-glucose and interstitial MD-glucose levels and the temporal pattern of MD-metabolites was studied seven days after SAH. With a target P-glucose of 5-10 mmol/L, the effect of insulin injection on brain energy metabolites (MD-glucose, lactate, pyruvate) and glutamate was evaluated.

    Results: The mean correlation coefficient between P-glucose and MD-glucose was 0.27 ± 0.27, (p=0.0005) with a high degree of individual variation. MD-glucose, MD/P-glucose ratio and MD-glutamate levels decreased in parallel with a gradual increase in MD-pyruvate and MD-lactate levels. There were no significant changes of MD-L/P ratio or MD-glycerol. Insulin administration induced a statistically significant decrease in MD-glucose and MD-pyruvate.

    Conclusion: After SAH, there was a positive correlation between P-glucose and MD-glucose levels with a high degree of individual variation. A gradual decline of MD-glucose and MD/P-glucose ratio and an increase of MD-pyruvate and MD-lactate levels during the first week after SAH could suggest a transition to a hyperglycolytic state with increased cerebral glucose consumption. Administration of insulin was related to lowering of MD-glucose and MD-pyruvate, often to critically low levels even though plasma glucose values remained above 6 mmol/L. Thus, P-glucose should not be low in the acute phase after SAH and administration of insulin should be done with caution, even more crucial when the cerebral glucose metabolism has recovered and an increased energy demand is developing in the injured, repairing brain.

    Keywords
    Brain glucose, Blood glucose, Insulin, Microdialysis, Subarachnoid hemorrhage
    National Category
    Surgery
    Research subject
    Neurosurgery
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-128970 (URN)
    Available from: 2010-08-04 Created: 2010-08-04 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
  • 246976.
    Zetterling, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Regarding "Somatotropic and thyroid hormones in the acute phase of subarachnoid hemorrhage"2014In: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 156, no 5, p. 977-977Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 246977.
    Zetterling, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Berhane, Luwam
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurology.
    Alafuzoff, Irina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical and experimental pathology.
    Jakola, Asgeir S
    Smits, Anja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurology. Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Prognostic markers for survival in patients with oligodendroglial tumors; a single-institution review of 214 cases2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 11, article id e0188419Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In the 2016 WHO classification, the diagnosis of oligodendroglioma has been restricted to IDH mutated, 1p19q codeleted tumors (IDHmut-codel). IDHmut oligoastrocytoma is now classified either as oligodendroglioma or astrocytoma based on presence of 1p19q codeletion. There is growing evidence that this molecular classification more closely reflects patient outcome. Due to the strong association between IDHmut-codel with oligodendroglial morphology, the additional impact of these markers on prognostic accuracy is largely unknown. Our aim was to assess the prognostic impact of IDHmut-codel in an unselected cohort of morphologically classified oligodendroglial tumors.

    METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of oligodendroglial tumors (WHO grade II and III) operated since 1983. A total of 214 tumors were included, and molecular information was available for 96 tumors. The prognostic impact of IDHmut-codel together with clinical parameters was analyzed by multivariate Cox regression.

    RESULTS: IDHmut-codel was registered in 64 tumors while for 150 tumors the molecular profile was negative for IDHmut-codel, unknown or incomplete. Comparison between the two groups showed that patients with IDHmut-codel tumors were younger (42 vs. 48 years), had more frequent frontal tumor location (48 vs. 33%) and presented more often with seizures (72 vs. 51%) and no signs of neurological impairment (14 vs. 30%) than patients harboring tumors with unknown or incomplete molecular profile. Multivariate survival analysis identified young age (HR 1.78 ≥ 40 years), the absence of neurological deficits or personality changes (HR 0.57), frontal tumor location (HR 0.64) and the presence of IDHmut-codel (HR 0.50) as independent predictors for longer survival, whereas tumor grade was not.

    CONCLUSION: In this unselected single-institution cohort, the presence of IDHmut-codel was associated with more beneficial clinical parameters and was identified as an independent prognostic factor. We conclude that the classical oligodendroglioma genotype provides additional prognostic data beyond clinical characteristics, morphology and tumor grade.

  • 246978.
    Zetterling, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Edén Engström, Britt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Internal Medicine.
    Hallberg, Lena
    Department of Radiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge.
    Hillered, Lars
    Uppsala University. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Enblad, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Karlsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Ronne Engström, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Cortisol and ACTH dynamics in the acute phase of subarachnoid haemorrhageIn: British Journal of Neurosurgery, ISSN 0268-8697, E-ISSN 1360-046XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: An adequate response of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is important for survival and recovery after a severe disease. The hypothalamus and the pituitary glands are at risk of damage after subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). A better understanding of the hormonal changes would be valuable for optimizing care in the acute phase of SAH.

    Patients: 55 patients with spontaneous SAH were evaluated regarding morning levels of S-Cortisol and P-ACTH seven days after the bleeding. In a subgroup of 20 patients the diurnal changes of S-Cortisol and P-ACTH levels were studied and U-Cortisol measured. The relations of hormone levels to clinical and radiological parameters and to outcome were assessed.

    Results: S-Cortisol and P-ACTH were elevated the day of SAH. S-Cortisol levels below reference range were uncommon. Early global cerebral oedema was associated with higher S-Cortisol concentrations at admission and a worse WFNS and RLS85 grade. Patients in better WFNS grade had higher U-Cortisol levels. All patients showed diurnal variations of S-Cortisol and P-ACTH. A reversed diurnal variation of S-Cortisol was more frequently seen in mechanically ventilated patients. Periods of suppressed P-ACTH associated with S-Cortisol peaks occurred especially in periods of secondary brain ischemia.

    Conclusion: There is a HPA response acutely after SAH with an increase of P-ACTH and S-Cortisol levels. Higher U-Cortisol levels in patients in a better clinical grade may indicate a more robust response of the HPA system. Global cerebral oedema was associated with higher S-Cortisol levels at admission and may be the result of the stress response initiated by the brain injury. Periods of suppressed P-ACTH occurred particularly in periods of brain ischemia, indicating a possibly connection between brain ischemia and ACTH suppression. These two novel findings should be evaluated in further studies.

  • 246979.
    Zetterling, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Edén Engström, Britt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Hallberg, Lena
    Hillered, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Enblad, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Karlsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Ronne-Engström, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone dynamics in the acute phase of subarachnoid haemorrhage2011In: British Journal of Neurosurgery, ISSN 0268-8697, E-ISSN 1360-046X, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 684-692Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. An adequate response of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is important for survival and recovery after a severe disease. The hypothalamus and the pituitary glands are at risk of damage after subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). A better understanding of the hormonal changes would be valuable for optimising care in the acute phase of SAH. Patients. Fifty-five patients with spontaneous SAH were evaluated regarding morning concentrations of serum (S)-cortisol and P-adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) 7 days after the bleeding. In a subgroup of 20 patients, the diurnal changes of S-cortisol and P-ACTH were studied and urine (U)-cortisol was measured. The relationships of hormone concentrations to clinical and radiological parameters and to outcome were assessed. Results. S-cortisol and P-ACTH were elevated the day of SAH. S-cortisol concentrations below reference range were uncommon. Early global cerebral oedema was associated with higher S-cortisol concentrations at admission and a worse World Federation of Neurological Surgeons (WFNS) and Reaction Level Scale 85 grade. Global cerebral oedema was shown to be a predictor of S-cortisol at admittance. Patients in better WFNS grade displayed higher U-cortisol. All patients showed diurnal variations of S-cortisol and P-ACTH. A reversed diurnal variation of S-cortisol was more frequently found in mechanically ventilated patients. Periods of suppressed P-ACTH associated with S-cortisol peaks occurred especially in periods of secondary brain ischaemia. Conclusion. There was an HPA response acutely after SAH with an increase in P-ACTH and S-cortisol. Higher U-cortisol in patients in a better clinical grade may indicate a more robust response of the HPA system. Global cerebral oedema was associated with higher S-cortisol at admission and was a predictor of S-cortisol concentrations. Global cerebral oedema may be the result of the stress response initiated by the brain injury. Periods of suppressed P-ACTH occurred particularly in periods of brain ischaemia, indicating a possible connection between brain ischaemia and ACTH suppression.

  • 246980.
    Zetterling, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Engström, Britt Edén
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Arnardottir, Steinunn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Ronne-Engström, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Somatotropic and thyroid hormones in the acute phase of subarachnoid haemorrhage2013In: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 155, no 11, p. 2053-2062Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Somatotropic and thyroid hormones are probably important for the recovery after acute brain injury. Still, the dynamics of these hormones after spontaneous subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is not well described. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between somatotropic and thyroid hormones and clinical factors after SAH. Twenty patients with spontaneous SAH were included prospectively. Serum concentrations of TSH, fT4, T3, IGF-1 and GH were measured once a day for 7 days after SAH. Hormone patterns and serum concentrations were compared to the severity of SAH, neurological condition at admission, clinical course and outcome of the patients. During the first week after SAH, all patients showed increased GH and IGF-1 concentrations. In the whole group, concentrations of TSH increased, whereas T3 and fT4 decreased. There were no relations of serum concentrations of IGF-1 or GH to clinical condition at admission, clinical course or outcome of the patients. Half of the patients showed low T3 serum concentrations. A complicated course was associated with a deeper fall in TSH and T3 concentrations. There were negative correlations for mean concentrations of TSH and T3 versus WFNS grade and a positive correlation for T3 versus GOS after 6 months, indicating that low concentrations of TSH and T3 were connected to worse SAH grade and poor outcome. All patients showed increased GH and IGF-1 concentrations irrespective of the grade of SAH or clinical course. Patients with a complicated clinical course showed a more pronounced fall in TSH and T3 concentrations and low serum T3 concentrations were related to a more serious SAH and poor patient outcome. These results need to be studied further and they may contribute to the accumulated knowledge needed to understand the complex mechanisms influencing the unpredictable clinical course after SAH.

  • 246981.
    Zetterling, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Hallberg, Lena
    Department of Radiology Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge.
    Hillered, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Karlsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Enblad, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Ronne-Engström, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Brain energy metabolism in patients with spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage and global cerebral edema2010In: Neurosurgery, ISSN 0148-396X, E-ISSN 1524-4040, Vol. 66, no 6, p. 1102-1110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) have shown that global cerebral edema on the first computed tomography scan is associated with a more severe initial injury and is an independent predictor of poor outcome. Effects of secondary ischemic events also influence outcome after SAH. OBJECTIVE: This study demonstrates that early global edema is related to markers of an increased cerebral energy metabolism as measured with intracerebral microdialysis, which could increase vulnerability to adverse events. METHODS: Fifty-two patients with microdialysis monitoring after spontaneous SAH were stratified according to the occurrence of global cerebral edema on the first computed tomography scan taken a median of 2 hours after the initial bleed. Microdialysis levels of glucose, lactate, and pyruvate were compared between the global edema (n = 31) and no global edema (n = 21) groups. Clinical outcome was assessed with the Glasgow Outcome Scale score at >/= 6 months. RESULTS: Patients with global edema showed significantly elevated lactate and pyruvate levels 70 to 79 hours after SAH and marginally significantly higher levels of lactate 60 to 69 hours and 80 to 89 hours after SAH. There was a trend toward worse outcome in the edema group. CONCLUSION: Patients with global cerebral edema have higher interstitial levels of lactate and pyruvate. The edema group may have developed a cerebral hypermetabolism to meet the increased energy demand in the recovery phase after SAH. This stress would make the brain more vulnerable to secondary insults, increasing the likelihood of energy failure.

  • 246982.
    Zetterling, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Hallberg, Lena
    Department of Radiology Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge.
    Ronne-Engström, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Early global brain oedema in relation to clinical admission parameters and outcome in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage2010In: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 152, no 9, p. 1527-1533Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies on spontaneous aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) treatment have found the presence of global cerebral oedema on the first CT scan to be a predictor of poor outcome. We have reviewed our own experience with SAH in order to evaluate the relation of global cerebral oedema to clinical parameters at admission and to functional outcome. METHODS: One hundred ninety patients with spontaneous aneurysmal SAH were included in the study. The first CT scan for each patient was evaluated for signs of global cerebral oedema. Clinical status on admission was assessed according to the Hunt & Hess score and the World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) grade and functional outcome using the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS). Clinical condition at admission was dichotomised as 'better' (Hunt & Hess 1-2, WFNS 1-2) or 'worse' (Hunt & Hess 3-5, WFNS 3-5) and outcome as 'favourable' (GOS 4-5) or 'poor' (GOS 1-3). The amount of blood on the CT scan was assessed using the Fisher scale. Comparisons were made between patients with and without global cerebral oedema on the first CT regarding clinical condition, age, gender, mode of aneurysm treatment, outcome, 6-month mortality, amount of blood on the CT scan and time lag to the first CT scan. RESULTS: Global cerebral oedema was observed in 57% of patients admitted with aneurysmal SAH, which is a much higher frequency than has been reported previously. Patients with oedema were admitted in a worse clinical status, but there was no difference between patients with and without oedema regarding other clinical parameters or outcome. The median time between the haemorrhage and the first CT scan was short compared to earlier studies, 2.5 h for those with oedema and 3.4 for those without. This difference was significant, suggesting that global cerebral oedema can be a very early phenomenon after SAH, and may be missed in later CT scans. Early global brain oedema, occurring within a few hours of bleeding, may be more common than previously thought. In aneurysmal SAH patients, the presence of global cerebral oedema was associated with a worse clinical condition at admission which in turn could indicate a more severe initial injury. The clinical significance of early oedema may differ from that of late oedema, which may explain the lack of an association between global oedema and poor outcome in this study. However, the nature of the oedema as well as its relation to the clinical course has to be further studied in separate studies.

  • 246983.
    Zetterling, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Hillered, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Enblad, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Karlsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Ronne Engström, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Relation between brain interstitial and systemic glucose levels after subarachnoid hemorrhageIn: Journal of Neurosurgery, ISSN 0022-3085, E-ISSN 1933-0693Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objects: The optimal blood glucose level after acute brain injury is not known. The aim of the present investigation was to study the relation between brain interstitial and systemic blood glucose levels during the acute phase after SAH. We also studied the effects of insulin administration on local brain energy metabolism.

    Methods: 19 patients with spontaneous SAH were monitored with intracerebral microdialysis (MD). The relation between plasma (P)-glucose and interstitial MD-glucose levels and the temporal pattern of MD-metabolites was studied seven days after SAH. With a target P-glucose of 5-10 mmol/L, the effect of insulin injection on brain energy metabolites (MD-glucose, lactate, pyruvate) and glutamate was evaluated.

    Results: The mean correlation coefficient between P-glucose and MD-glucose was 0.27 ± 0.27, (p=0.0005) with a high degree of individual variation. MD-glucose, MD/P-glucose ratio and MD-glutamate levels decreased in parallel with a gradual increase in MD-pyruvate and MD-lactate levels. There were no significant changes of MD-L/P ratio or MD-glycerol. Insulin administration induced a statistically significant decrease in MD-glucose and MD-pyruvate.

    Conclusion: After SAH, there was a positive correlation between P-glucose and MD-glucose levels with a high degree of individual variation. A gradual decline of MD-glucose and MD/P-glucose ratio and an increase of MD-pyruvate and MD-lactate levels during the first week after SAH could suggest a transition to a hyperglycolytic state with increased cerebral glucose consumption. Administration of insulin was related to lowering of MD-glucose and MD-pyruvate, often to critically low levels even though plasma glucose values remained above 6 mmol/L. Thus, P-glucose should not be low in the acute phase after SAH and administration of insulin should be done with caution, even more crucial when the cerebral glucose metabolism has recovered and an increased energy demand is developing in the injured, repairing brain.

  • 246984.
    Zetterling, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Hillered, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Enblad, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Karlsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Ronne-Engström, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Relation between brain interstitial and systemic glucose concentrations after subarachnoid hemorrhage2011In: Journal of Neurosurgery, ISSN 0022-3085, E-ISSN 1933-0693, Vol. 115, no 1, p. 66-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Object. The aim in the present investigation was to study the relation between brain interstitial and systemic blood glucose concentrations during the acute phase after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The authors also evaluated the effects of insulin administration on local brain energy metabolism. Methods. Nineteen patients with spontaneous SAH were prospectively monitored with intracerebral microdialysis (MD). The relation between plasma glucose and MD-measured interstitial brain glucose concentrations as well as the temporal pattern of MD glucose, lactate, pyruvate, glutamate, and glycerol was studied for 7 days after SAH. Using a target plasma glucose concentration of 5-10 mmol/L, the effect of insulin injection was also evaluated. Results. The mean (+/- SD) correlation coefficient between plasma glucose and MD glucose was 0.27 +/- 0.27 (p = 0.0005), with a high degree of individual variation. Microdialysis glucose, the MD/plasma glucose ratio, and MD glutamate concentrations decreased in parallel with a gradual increase in MD pyruvate and MD lactate concentrations. There were no significant changes in the MD L/P ratio or MD glycerol levels. Insulin administration induced a decrease in MD glucose and MD pyruvate. Conclusions. After SAH, there was a positive correlation between plasma and MD glucose concentrations with a high degree of individual variation. A gradual decline in MD glucose and the MD/plasma glucose ratio and an increase in MD pyruvate and MD lactate concentrations during the 1st week after SAH suggest a transition to a hyperglycolytic state with increased cerebral glucose consumption. The administration of insulin was related to a lowering of MD glucose and MD pyruvate, often to low levels even though plasma glucose values remained above 6 mmol/L. After SAH, the administration of insulin could impede the glucose supply of the brain.

  • 246985.
    Zetterling, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Hillered, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Samuelsson, Carolina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Karlsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences.
    Enblad, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Ronne-Engström, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Temporal patterns of interstitial pyruvate and amino acids after subarachnoid haemorrhage are related to the level of consciousness: a clinical microdialysis study2009In: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 151, no 7, p. 771-780Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Temporal patterns of brain interstitial amino acids after subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) were studied in relation to energy metabolite levels and to the severity of the initial global ischaemia as reflected by the level of consciousness at admission. METHOD: Intracerebral microdialysis was used to measure brain interstitial amino acids and the energy metabolites glucose, lactate, and pyruvate during five days in 19 patients. Patients who were conscious (n = 11) were compared to those who were unconscious on admission (n = 8). FINDINGS: Eight non-transmitter amino acids (alanine, asparagine, glutamine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, serine and tyrosine), as well as glycine and pyruvate showed a pattern of increasing concentrations starting at 60-70 h after the onset of SAH. The conscious patients showed more pronounced elevations of non-transmitter amino acids, glycine, taurine and pyruvate compared to the unconscious patient group. Pyruvate levels were initially critically low for all patients, then normalised in the conscious patients but remained low in the unconscious group. CONCLUSIONS: There was an increase of the cerebral interstitial levels of non-transmitter amino acids and glycine which correlated temporally to pyruvate levels, more pronounced in patients conscious on admission. Pyruvate levels in these patients normalised, but remained reduced in the unconscious patients. The increase of the non-transmitter amino acids and glycine could reflect an increased amino acid turnover in an attempt at repairing the injured brain, which could have been hampered by the lower pyruvate levels. Interstitial pyruvate may be a useful marker of the energy metabolic situation in the acutely injured brain.

  • 246986.
    Zetterling, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience. Neurokirurgi.
    Ronne-Engström, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience. Neurokirurgi.
    High intraoperative blood loss may be a risk factor for postoperative hematoma2004In: J Neurosurg Anesthesiol, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 151-155Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 246987.
    Zetterling, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Ronne-Engström, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    High intraoperative blood loss may be a risk factor for postoperative hematoma.2004In: J Neurosurg Anesthesiol, Vol. 16, p. 151-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 246988.
    Zetterling, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Roodakker, Kenney Roy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurology.
    Berntsson, Shala Ghaderi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurology.
    Edqvist, Per-Henrik D
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Experimental and Clinical Oncology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Latini, Francesco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Landtblom, Anne-Marie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurology. Linköping Univ, Ctr Med Image Sci & Visualizat, Linköping, Sweden.
    Pontén, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical and experimental pathology.
    Alafuzoff, Irina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical and experimental pathology.
    Larsson, Elna-Marie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Smits, Anja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurology. Danish Epilepsy Ctr, Dianalund, Denmark.
    Extension of diffuse low-grade gliomas beyond radiological borders as shown by the coregistration of histopathological and magnetic resonance imaging data2016In: Journal of Neurosurgery, ISSN 0022-3085, E-ISSN 1933-0693, Vol. 125, no 5, p. 1155-1166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Magnetic resonance imaging tends to underestimate the extent of diffuse low-grade gliomas (DLGGs). With the aim of studying the presence of tumor cells outside the radiological border, the authors developed a method of correlating MRI findings with histological data in patients with suspected DLGGs in whom en bloc resections were performed.

    Methods: Five patients with suspected DLGG suitable for en bloc resection were recruited from an ongoing prospective study. Sections of the entire tumor were immunostained with antibodies against mutated IDH1 protein (IDH1-R132H). Magnetic resonance images were coregistered with corresponding IDH1 images. The growth pattern of tumor cells in white and gray matter was assessed in comparison with signal changes on corresponding MRI slices.

    Results: Neuropathological assessment revealed DLGG in 4 patients and progression to WHO Grade III glioma in 1 patient. The tumor core consisted of a high density of IDH1-R132H–positive tumor cells and was located in both gray and white matter. Tumor cells infiltrated along the peripheral fibers of the white matter tracts. In all cases, tumor cells were found outside the radiological tumor border delineated on T2-FLAIR MRI sequences.

    Conclusions: The authors present a new method for the coregistration of histological and radiological characteristics of en bloc–removed infiltrative brain tumors that discloses tumor invasion at the radiological tumor borders. This technique can be applied to evaluate the sensitivity of alternative imaging methods to detect scattered tumor cells at tumor borders. Accurate methods for detection of infiltrative tumor cells will improve the possibility of performing radical tumor resection. In future studies, the method could also be used for in vivo studies of tumor invasion.

  • 246989.
    Zetterlund, Ann-Charlott
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Skolsammanslagning och sen då?: förändringsprocessen från två skolor till en skola - en longitudinell studie2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 246990.
    Zetterlund, Christina
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History.
    Design i informationsåldern: Om strategisk design, historia och praktik2003Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation concerns the change in design where companies came to regard it as a strategic asset. A background to the change was the emerging Information age with a global competition, flexible production and saturated markets. Consumption became more symbolic and less material. In this situation the companies had to find ways to differentiate themselves and their products. A way to do this was to formulate a distinctive Brand identity. In this formulation design became an important factor. This strategic way of perceiving design is, in the thesis, being examined under the title "The strategic design discourse". The thesis is restricted to the Swedish situation and the strategic design discourse is studied from the companies’ perspective. In the first chapter the strategic design discourse is being examined. A main theme is the Brand identity that becomes a platform for the design work within the company. In the second chapter the history of the Strategic Design discourse is being examined. This study begins in the 1930´s when the trademark gets its general breakthrough in Sweden. In this historical chapter both the dominant design discourse and the marketing discourse are being investigated. From being divergent they come, on a bumpy road, closer. In the 1980s theories about a meta-product are formulated and design management becomes a theme on the design agenda. This chapter ends in the 1990s were examples of the strategic design discourse is shown. The significant difference between the 1990s and earlier is the search for a unique identity, a company specific story, that is being sold and consumed. Chapter one and two constitutes what I call the ideal situation.

    The interpretation of the strategic design discourse in the furniture- and the bicycle industry are being examined in the third and fourth chapter both from a contemporary and from a historical perspective. Two in depth studies are being made in the furniture company Lammhults möbler and the bicycle maker Albert Samuelsson & Co (Skeppshultcykeln). Both companies have a strong brand identity and use design as a strategic asset.

    In the last chapter the ideal situation is being compared to the result of the practice studies. It is evident that they diverge. The strategic design discourse is not valid in all companies. In most companies design is reduced to styling. The conditions of the information age are not general even though all companies are struggling at the same saturated markets. In the last chapter some reflections over the communication of brand is being made from a art theoretical stand point using theories formulated by Mieke Bal and Norman Bryson.

  • 246991.
    Zetterlund, Hanna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Pugh, Rhiannon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Mathisen, Tina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Larsson, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Hinchcliffe Voglio, Gabriela
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Living a Feminist Life, by Sara Ahmed, 2017, Durham, Duke University Press, 312 pp., $99.95 hardback ($26.95 paperback), ISBN 978-0-8223-6390-4 (978-0-8223-6304-0)2019In: Gender, Place and Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography, ISSN 0966-369X, E-ISSN 1360-0524, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 602-606Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 246992.
    Zetterlund, Joel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Lärarlönelyftet i Sveriges kommuner: En kvantitativ studie över kommunstyrets påverkan på fördelningen av lärarlönelyftet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2016 the former gorvernment decided to increase the wage for specificly skilled teachers in order to deal with decreasing results and to strengthen the attractivety of the profession. This paper examines the relation between the political ruling in municipalitys in sweden and the ways these implemented the reform, called teachers pay rise. Some local governments chosed differentiated model while others provided a unitary amount to all teacher who fulfilled the criteria. The results from regressionanalysis show that the relation between the variables are more noticable in local governments who rules with a majority than others. both liberal and socialistic goverments was guided by their political ideology. Furthermore the results indicate that local politicians are influenced by their ideology when implementing the reform. Liberal governed municipalities more frequently provided larger variation in wage rise than socialistic municipalities. The implications of the results are interessting since the status of the Swedish model can be questioned and if school policies should be a political arena for local politicians. 

  • 246993.
    Zetterlund, Joel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Svensklärares skriftliga kommentarer på elevtexter: En studie om svensklärares kommentarer för elevers stöttning2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 246994.
    Zetterlund, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hälsofrämjande fysisk aktivitet hos personer under adjuvant cancerbehandling relaterad till fatigue, livskvalitet samt self-efficacy2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) and low quality of life are prevalent among people undergoing adjuvant cancer treatment. Health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA) protects from these negative consequences. HEPA in turn, is influenced by exercise-related self-efficacy.

    Aim

    To describe levels of HEPA among people undergoing adjuvant cancer treatment at diagnosis and after six months, and to determine if those with a stable a HEPA had lower CRF, higher quality of life and exercise-related self-efficacy compared to those without a stable HEPA.

    Method

    Cohort study with a comparative, prospective design. Baseline and six-months data (n=45) were collected from a larger longitudinal study, by accelerometer (SWA) and three questionnaires (FACIT-F, EORTC QLQ C30, EBSS). Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and independent t-test (P <0.10).

    Result

    Among the 45 included, 26 (48%) had a stable HEPA. This group was significantly different at six months compared to the group without a stable HEPA in CRF: (M=41, SD=10.3) to (M=33, SD=10.6), t(43)=7.3, p=0.027, general quality of life (M=72, SD=19.7) to (M=60, SD=19.4), t(43)=11.4, p=0.010, perceived function: (M=87, SD=13.3) to (M=76, SD=16.5), t (43)=11.0, p=0.014 and perceived symptoms: (M=14, SD=10.0) to (M=23, SD=18.1), t(43)= - 9.4, p=0.031. No difference was found between the groups regarding exercise-related self-efficacy.

    Conclusion

    The results indicated that a large proportion of people undergoing adjuvant cancer treatment have a stable HEPA and these people report better health such as lower CRF and higher quality of life compared to those without a stable HEPA. Larger studies are needed to allow firm conclusions.

  • 246995.
    Zetterman, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History.
    Lingering spirit of the dead, rise up!: Bruket av den transatlantiska slavhandelns historia i spelfilm2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores how the history of the Atlantic slave trade has been conveyed in cinema. Eight films and two mini series have so far been made on the subject, and one of the films is not publicly available. The remaining works have been analysed using Klas-Göran Karlsson's typology of seven different uses of history. The analysis has also been influenced by works from post-colonial thinkers such as Edward Said and Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak.

    The material consists of two American TV series (Roots, released in 1977, and its remake from 2016) and seven films: Tamango (directed by John Berry, released in 1958), Ceddo (Ousmane Sembene, 1977), Cobra Verde (Werner Herzog, 1987), Sankofa (Haile Gerima, 1993), Amistad (Steven Spielberg, 1997), and Adanggaman (Roger Gnoan M'Bala, 2000). 

    The analysis shows that those films that are directed by Africans (CeddoSankofa, and Adanggaman) primarily use history to depict and discuss memories and memory processes, unlike their Western counterparts. Moving on, there are three works (TamangoSankofa and the remake of Roots) that make clear attempts to draw parallells between the past and the present. All three works are at least partially produced in the United States and were made at times when the relationship between blacks and whites in America was unusually turbulent. A final reflection is that out of the three American high budget productions in the study (Amistad and both versions of Roots), the two older works focus disproportionately on their white characters and clearly try to avoid or cover up controversial themes. The new version of Roots, however, explicitly avoids this.

  • 246996.
    Zetterman, Katrin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Generation Y i arbetslivet: En svensk/amerikansk medieanalys2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 246997.
    Zetterman, Katrin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Ledarskap och EQ: En diskursteoretisk analys av emotionell intelligens i dagens populära ledarskapslitteratur2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 246998.
    Zetterman, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Det handlar om mig: En utvärdering av Uppsala kommuns kontaktpersonsinsats Perrongen2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim with the present study was to do an evaluation of Perrongen, a program containing qualified mentors regarding youths being in the danger zone of getting addicted to alcohol and drugs or having problems in their social life, and do a follow-up on the youths taking part in the program. 8 youths took part in the qualitative study, and was interviewed for about an hour each about their background, the time of, and life after, the program with my premise being the family and network of the youths. The results were mainly positive, and all of the participating youths are today living a, on different levels, much healthier life then by the time of the program.

  • 246999.
    Zetterman, Monica
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Studies in Education, Culture and Media.
    Att förena kvalitativa data och samhällsvetenskapliga analysmetoder– exempel på tillämpningar av innehållsdesign2008In: Metode & Data, ISSN 1902-1569, no 98, p. 10-22Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 247000.
    Zetterman, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Fundament för kompaktkran: En universell lösning2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes the universalization, improvement and further development of a

    compact crane support frame for flatbed trucks. The work has been conducted at El

    och Fordonsteknik AB (henceforth EFAB) in Uppsala.

    The aim of the work has been to shorten the assembly time of the product. By doing

    so, the product can be kept on shelf, which in turn results in shorter lead time. This

    has been done by universalizing the support frame to be compatible with most of the

    chassis EFAB works with. Additionally, the entire construction has been made lighter,

    which will make it a more attractive choice for customers.

    A pre-study was conducted and information was gathered internally, as well as

    externally, in order to ascertain that no limitation or possibility was overlooked

    during the course of the project.

    One such limitation has been the geometry of the truck bed that the support frame

    shall be compatible with. This has set the focus of the project more towards further

    developing and improving the already existing product rather than developing a brand

    new one. The project has resulted in a compact crane support frame that fits eight

    different chassis and is 22 kg lighter than its predecessor. The assembly time has been

    approximated to 60 % of that of the original product.

    No prototype test has been conducted due to the lack of a suitable vehicle and time.

    However, theoretical comparisons done through the use of 3D CAD and FEA suggest

    that the new support frame is a worthy replacement for the previous one.

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