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  • 251.
    Adolfsson, Päivi
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Mattsson Sydner, Ylva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Fjellström, Christina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Lewin, Barbro
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Observed dietary intake in adults with intellectual disability living in the community2008In: Food & Nutrition Research, ISSN 1654-6628, Vol. 52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Knowledge is lacking about dietary habits among people with intellectual disability (ID) living in community residences under new living conditions.

    Objective: To describe the dietary habits of individuals with ID living in community residences, focusing on intake of food, energy and nutrients as well as meal patterns.

    Design: Assisted food records and physical activity records over a 3-day observation period for 32 subjects.

    Results: Great variation was observed in daily energy intake (4.9-14 MJ) dispersed across several meals, with on average 26% of the energy coming from in-between-meal consumption. Main energy sources were milk products, bread, meat products, buns and cakes. The daily intake of fruit and vegetables (320_221 g) as well as dietary fiber (21_99.6 g) was generally low. For four vitamins and two minerals, 19-34% of subjects showed an intake below average requirement (AR). The physical activity level (PAL) was low for all individuals (1.4_0.1).

    Conclusion: A regular meal pattern with a relatively high proportion of energy from in-between-meal eating occasions and a low intake of especially fruits were typical of this group of people with ID. However, the total intake of energy and other food items varied a great deal between individuals. Thus, every adult with ID has to be treated as an individual with specific needs. A need for more knowledge about food in general and particularly how fruit and vegetables could be included in cooking as well as encouraged to be eaten as inbetween-meals seems imperative in the new living conditions for adults with ID.

  • 252.
    Adolfsson, Sandra
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Lundholm, Paula
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Detaljhandelns förberedelser inför GDPR: En fallstudie om vilka förändringar företagen behöver utföra samt deras arbete kring GDPR2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det rådande EU-direktivet som behandlar dataskydd från år 1995 är idag inte lika aktuellt som när det infördes. Det är därför i hög tid att en uppdatering kommer. I maj 2018 införs den nya dataskyddsförordningen, GDPR, som är EU:s senaste förordning. Den kommer ersätta Sveriges personuppgiftslag, PuL, som idag styr över hur personuppgifter behandlas. GDPR kommer innebära strängare lagar kring informationshantering och fler rättigheter till privatpersoner. Ett exempel är att privatpersoner kommer kunna be om att få alla data kopplad till personen raderade. Många företag erbjuder medlemskap till privatpersoner och lagrar därför kunduppgifter digitalt, vilket betyder att de påverkas av GDPR i stor grad då de måste omforma sina IT-system för att leva upp till de nya kraven.

    Denna studie handlar om fyra företag och förändringarna de står inför samt hur de arbetar med de nya kraven som GDPR innebär för dem. En kravmodell skapas med en sammanställning av de nya kraven och resultatet visar sedan vilka företag som börjat arbeta med de kraven. Resultatet visar även hur långt de kommit i sitt arbete med dataskyddsförordningen och kan förhoppningsvis vägleda andra företag i hur de bör arbeta med dataskyddsförordningen samt vilka förändringar de bör genomföra för att leva upp till de nya kraven.

  • 253.
    Adolfsson, Sandra
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Sjölander, Irene
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Förväntningsgapet - förväntar sig micro, små och medelstora aktiebolag mer rådgivning av revisorn än vad denne enligt lag får ge?2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    A1213

    Problem: I hur stor utsträckning får revisorn ge råd till sina klienter utan att gå över lagens gränser? Hur tolkar revisorer analysmodellen för att kontrollera sitt oberoende? Vilka förväntningar beträffande konsulthjälp har företag och vilken sorts rådgivning efterfrågas? Hur ser förväntningsgapet ut mellan företag och revisorer?

    Syfte: Syftet med denna uppsats är att analysera data från aktiebolag och revisorer, för att kunna beskriva ett eventuellt förväntningsgap mellan de två parterna. Vi vill se om företagen har större förväntningar på revisorn vad gäller rådgivning, än vad denne har möjlighet att erbjuda. Om så är fallet vill vi se vilka anledningar som finns till det. Visar det sig att förväntningarna inte är högre är det av intresse att ta reda på varför. I revisorns uppgifter ingår att ge råd men fel konsulthjälp kan innebära ett hot mot oberoendet, detta skulle kunna leda till att revisorn granskar sitt eget arbete. Vi ska se hur revisorn kontrollerar detta med hjälp av analysmodellen och jämföra om det görs lika på en stor och en liten revisionsbyrå.

    Teori: Vi har använt oss av analysmodellen, som är en modell genom vilken revisorns oberoende kan prövas.

    Metod: För att se hur analysmodellen tolkas samt hur revisorer ser på förväntningsgapet har två intervjuer med revisorer genomfört. Vi har även gjort en enkätundersökning på aktiebolag för att ta reda på deras syn på rådgivning och vilka förväntningar de har på sin revisor.

    Resultat: Aktiebolag använder sig i stor utsträckning av rådgivningstjänster från sin revisor. Detta gäller främst medelstora företag. Majoriteten av företagen är nöjd med sin revisors insats, det vill säga att förväntningsgapet är litet. Revisorerna däremot anser att förväntningarna skiljer sig mellan revisorn och klienten.

  • 254.
    Adolfsson, Tobias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Med medierna som vapen: De strategiska narrativens nya roll i modern krigföring2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Information is power in the 21st century and strategic narratives through framing are nowadays regarded as part of the modern armoury of war. States constantly compete to create credible narratives in support of their actions on the international policy arena. After the Crimean crisis in 2014 the world was forced to open its eyes to medias new usage in modern warfare. State funded news agencies play an important role in this recent development and one of the most prominent actors is Russia. This thesis seeks to contribute to the discussion of strategic narratives and framing in the news media through a case study of the Russian news site Sputnik News. The thesis focuses on the news agency’s depiction of five empirical events in which the Swedish and Russian armed forces were involved during 2014 and 2015. A qualitative analysis of 25 news articles discussing the five events has detected proof of pro-Russian framing processes. The aim of Sputnik News seems to be a transformation of the general Swedish frame regarding Russia itself and perhaps more specifically Russia’s recent change in foreign policy.

  • 255.
    Adolfsson, Tobias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    The Rise of Resilience in EU Foreign Policy – A Shift of Paradigm or Parlance?: A comparative case study of the EU foreign policy before and after the EU Global Strategy2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master’s thesis studies the European Union’s (EU) foreign policy in the Eastern Partnership before and after the EU Global Strategy (EUGS) and investigates whether or not there has been a policy shift towards the paradigm of resilience. Previous research disagrees on the implications of the EUGS and I argue that more empirical research on the matter is needed. The purpose of this thesis is thus to empirically investigate whether or not a shift in EU foreign policy towards a paradigm of resilience has indeed taken place in practice after the launch of the EUGS. Two sources of data are used in the study: the first and principal are the annual action programmes for the Eastern Partnership used by the EU for planning and delivering of external assistance; the second is a set of semi-structured elite interviews conducted with respondents representing the Eastern Partnership and the EU respectively. The results are mixed, showing a slight trend towards resilience-building but no ground-breaking paradigm shift has occurred. I argue that the resilience-building focus and principled pragmatism approach presented by the EUGS rather should be seen as an attempt by the EU to be honest with the foreign policy it is already conducting.

  • 256.
    Adomaviciute, Inga
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Danilov, Denis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Interaction between brand communities and a brand owner: The effect on community members’ perception of a brand2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The aim of the paper is to improve the understanding of effects caused by involvement of brand community members in communication with a brand owning company.

    The research has been conducted in Moscow, Russia. It examines brand values associated with Audi by Audi Club Moscow members, and those ones perceived by non-community members, and beside this, the degree of involvement in communication with the company of both.

    Research Method Numerous in-depth interviews have been processed among brand community members, people outside the community and the Audi AG employees.

    Results Through the analysis of primary data it was found that thanks to active communication with Audi brand community members associate with the brand values, similar to the brand holder’s ones. However, people outside the community, who do not actively communicate with the company, have the tendency to perceive brand values, controversial to brand owner’s ones.

    Research limitations/implications Due to the time and resources limits only one Audi brand community was chosen to represent Russia’s market. The investigation of communication channels between a brand and brand communities could be the direction of further studies.

    Practical implications The results of the study might have value for practical implementation in business; they could be used for building up and managing communication between a company and brand communities.

    Originality/value This study supplies the contribution to the existing literature and companies’ managers disclosing a field not analyzed before

  • 257.
    Adriansson, Nils
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Is There a Housing Bubble in Stockholm?: A Simple Error Correction Approach2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study an error correction model is estimated using monthly panel data from Stockholm covering the time period January 2005 to December 2012. In the long-run equation the fundamental variables real disposable income, real mortgage rate, real construction costs and population growth are shown to be significant. The exploration of the short-run dynamics reveals a significant error correction term suggesting a movement towards long-run equilibrium of 11.2 percent per month. The fitted values from the long-run equation are plotted against the actual real prices suggesting a slight inflation in prices in late 2012. Autocorrelation is present in the model, indicating a backward-looking pattern in real housing prices. These findings are consistent with speculative behavior but the price fluctuations are in large parts explained by the fundamental variables and as the cause of price discrepancies is unknown, an irrational price bubble cannot be concluded to exist.

  • 258.
    Adriansson, Nils
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Mattsson, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Forecasting GDP Growth, or How Can Random Forests Improve Predictions in Economics?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    GDP is used to measure the economic state of a country and accurate forecasts of it is therefore important. Using the Economic Tendency Survey we investigate forecasting quarterly GDP growth using the data mining technique Random Forest. Comparisons are made with a benchmark AR(1) and an ad hoc linear model built on the most important variables suggested by the Random Forest. Evaluation by forecasting shows that the Random Forest makes the most accurate forecast supporting the theory that there are benefits to using Random Forests on economic time series. 

  • 259.
    Aery, Sahil
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    And, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Marketing and Effectuation: A Study of Marketing Practices Among Swedish Microbreweries2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aims to analyse the marketing strategies of Swedish microbreweries and relate them to the entrepreneurial principles of effectuation and causation. The authors investigated eight microbreweries in Mälardalsregionen of Sweden, conducting interviews with members of the founding team or the management team at the microbreweries. The results of the study show that most breweries used effectual principles to describe their marketing efforts. Two effectual principles in particular, bird-in-hand and affordable loss, were shown to be present throughout the sample. Furthermore, most microbrewery founders did not give a lot of importance to marketing and considered it to be a part of everyday activities of the brewery rather than a separate organisational function. There was a direct correlation between the size of the microbrewery and its debts, and the marketing efforts of the microbrewery. Based on these results, the authors propose: (1) Microbrewery founders use effectual logics more than causational logics in their marketing efforts; and (2) Microbrewery founders with unawareness or lack of knowledge of the causational methods are more likely to go about their marketing activities using effectual logic.

  • 260.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sammanfattning av resultaten från projektet Sparsam körning: longitudinella effekter av utbildning och information via displayenhet.2004Report (Other academic)
  • 261.
    af Ekenstam, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Cereal Couture Meets Social Networks: A case study on me&goji using Social Networks as a marketing tool to communicate their Value Proposition2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The cereal couture company, [me] & goji, is the dream of three young entrepreneurs. They were the first online company ever to provide the U.S market with customized cereal mix. This case study finds that online companies with an innovative product such as [me] & goji may benefit from using Social Networks as a marketing channel to communicate their Value Proposition. Supported by Roger's Adoption theory, selected theories on, Value Proposition, Social Networks, and qualitative data gathered from, interviews and surveys several findings were made. The conclusion is that despite offering a relatively non complex product, with a high relative advantage the market may have difficulties with recognizing the value of the product. This is mainly due to the fact that products sold online cannot be tried by the customer until after purchase. This may be perceived as an uncertainty factor for some customers. The main benefit with viral marketing tools such as Social Networks is that they may increase the rate of the market adopting new products.

  • 262.
    af Ekenstam, Fabian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Vestin, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Hjältedyrkan hos svenska ledare: - en studie av skillnader mellan könen2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 263.
    Af Geijerstam, Anette
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Matintag hos patienter vid akutkirurgisk vårdavdelning2012Student paper other, 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 264.
    af Klint, Rasmus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Adam, Lindeberg
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Asymmetrisk information: Institutionella investerares förhandsinformation om inställda utdelningar2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The paper examines if institutional investors are net sellers prior to dividend omission announcements and if this is due to asymmetric information. By studying companies listed on Nasdaq OMX Stockholm’s main list during the period 2004-2018, we find that institutional investors are net sellers during two quarters prior to dividend omission announcements and that this is likely due to asymmetric information. The study also shows that the market value of the observed companies decreases prior to dividend omission announcements.

  • 265.
    Af Petersens, Jennifer
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Clason, Alicja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Äldres rapporterade tilltro till egen handlingsförmåga, avsikt och handlingsplanering för att äta enligt Livsmedelsverkets kostråd för frukt och grönsaker samt fisk2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Sverige har ett växande antal äldre medborgare vars medellivslängd ökar. Det blir allt viktigare att förebygga ohälsosamma matvanor hos äldre för att de ska kunna leva inte bara längre, utan också friskare liv så långt det är möjligt.

    Syfte: Syftet var att undersöka äldres kännedom om och följsamhet till Livsmedelsverkets kostråd för frukt och grönsaker samt fisk. Vidare var syftet att undersöka den rapporterade tilltron till egen handlingsförmåga, avsikt och handlingsplanering hos äldre i ordinärt boende att äta enligt dessa kostråd samt om det finns samband mellan samtliga ovan nämnda faktorer.

    Metod: Kvantitativ pappers och webbenkät delades ut efter ett bekvämlighetsurval. Tre ovannämnda faktorer av beteendeförändringsmodellen Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) undersöktes.

    Resultat: Enkäten besvarades av 210 personer. En stark majoritet (82,5%) hade kännedom om varför rekommendationer finns för frukt och grönt samt för fisk (87%). Endast ett fåtal (6%) rapporterade att de följde Livsmedelsverkets rekommendation om 5 portioner frukt och grönt per dag. Samtidigt rapporterade över hälften (52%) att de följde den rekommenderade mängden 2-3 portioner fisk i veckan. En majoritet av respondenterna angav att de hade en avsikt och även tilltro till egen handlingsförmåga att äta både frukt och grönt och fisk enligt rekommendationerna. Av respondenterna angav 43 % att de planerar för att äta frukt och grönt enligt rekommendationen om 5 portioner per dag och 50 % angav att de planerar för att äta fisk enligt rekommendationen om 2-3 portioner per vecka. Sambanden var svaga och positiva. Sex av dessa var statistiskt signifikanta (p<0,001).

    Slutsats: Majoriteten av de äldre rapporterade att de hade kännedom om kostråden samtidigt var det färre som rapporterade att de följde dessa. Majoriteten av de äldre har en hög rapporterad tilltro till egen handlingsförmåga och en hög rapporterad avsikt att äta enligt kostråden för både frukt och grönt samt fisk, men det var färre äldre som rapporterade att de handlingsplanerade för det. De svaga och positiva sambanden visar att det i princip inte fanns någon korrelation mellan faktorerna. En mera omfattande studie behövs för att undersöka om stärkande av respondenternas handlingsplanering skulle få flera att följa kostråden.

  • 266.
    af Trolle, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Vision om en blandad stad: En komperativ studie av den sociala blandningspolitiken i Stockholm och Uppsala2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Genom empirisk insamling av material från kommunala styrdokument och intervjuer ämnar denna uppsats att undersöka vilka visioner som genomsyrar den kommunala planeringen i Stockholm och Uppsala för att motverka boendesegregation. Uppsatsen studerar om idén att skapa variation i upplåtelseformer i bostadsområden finns i Stockholm stad och Uppsala kommun för att skapa blandning och därmed motverka segregation. Fokus läggs också på vilka medel och åtgärder de båda kommunerna har för att uppnå sina visioner, samt vilken geografisk nivå kommunerna tänker att en blandning ska ske. Genom att undersöka två kommuners blandningsambitioner kan skillnader och likheter studeras för att få en mer övergripande bild av hur segregationsproblemet hanteras. Resultaten av studien visar att det finns en vision att variera upplåtelseformerna i bostadsområdena i båda kommunerna för att motverka segregationen. Ambitionen i både Stockholm stad och Uppsala kommun är att ett blandat boende ska skapas i hela staden. Dock finns många hinder som står i vägen som riskerar att motverka kommunernas blandningsambitioner.  

  • 267.
    af Ugglas, Adam
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Sjögren, Lina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Kunskapsöverföring inom en ideell förening2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien är skriven vid företagsekonomiska institutionen vid Uppsala universitet och behandlar

    kunskapsöverföring inom ideella föreningar. Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur

    erfarenheter och kunskap uppstår samt förvaltas för att sedan överföras i en organisation.

    Undersökningen ämnar även identifiera förbättringsåtgärder med hjälp av det resultat som

    genereras. Studien bygger på en fallstudie, där Stockholms nation i Uppsala har undersöks

    utifrån hur organisationen hanterar den kunskap som uppstår och finns bland de engagerade.

    Ett kvalitativt arbetssätt har använts, där intervjuer har gjorts med engagerade på nationen.

    Informationen har analyserats med hjälp av en teoretisk referensram innehållande teorier om

    upplärning, olika typer av kunskap, samt förvaltningen av den. I studien framgår det tydligt

    att den enskilde individens kunskap bygger på learning-by-doing, samt att erfarenheter från

    tidigare ämbeten på nationen är någonting som används i senare ämbeten. Tre olika typer av

    överlämningar har identifierats och dessa används beroende på vilket typ av ämbete det är

    som ska överlåtas. Det ligger dock i ämbetsmannens intresse att bestämma hur omfattande

    överlämningen blir. Vidare visar det sig att den enskilde individens vilja att vara med och

    utveckla nationen är en avgörande faktor för hur väl kunskapsöverföringen i organisationen

    fungerar.

  • 268. af Wahlberg, A. E.
    et al.
    Poom, Leo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    An Empirical Test of Nonresponse Bias in Internet Surveys2015In: Basic and Applied Social Psychology, ISSN 0197-3533, E-ISSN 1532-4834, Vol. 37, no 6, p. 336-347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In surveys, nonresponse is considered a source of possible bias, which increases with the size of the nonresponding group. Nonresponse bias was investigated in 3 samples of offending drivers who were required to respond to an online questionnaire before taking a driver improvement course, creating an initial 100% response rate. The next 2 questionnaire waves were voluntary, and response rates were much lower. Results (means, internal consistency, correlations, etc.) in the first wave were compared between those who responded twice or thrice and those who responded only to the first wave. No substantial differences were found. Compared to common method variance, the effects of nonresponse are very small.

  • 269.
    af Wåhlberg, A. E.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Att mäta effekter av utbildning i sparsam körning2002In: Transportforum 2002, Väg- och transportforskningsinstitutet , 2002Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 270.
    af, Wåhlberg. A. E.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fuel efficient driving training - state of the art and quantification of effects2002In: Proceedings of Soric'02, Center for Transport and Road Studies, University of Bahrain, Kingdom of Bahrain , 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 271.
    af Wåhlberg, A. E.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    On the validity of self-reported traffic accident data2002In: E140 Proceedings of Soric'02, Center for Transport and Road Studies, University of Bahrain, Kingdom of Bahrain , 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 272.
    af Wåhlberg, A.E.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    How managers can influence professional drivers' accident rate2007Other (Other scientific)
  • 273.
    af Wåhlberg, A.E.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Making bad look good: The scientific claims of Interactive Driving Systems2007Other (Other scientific)
  • 274.
    af Wåhlberg, AE
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Trafiksäkerhetseffekter av ökad storlek på lastbilar.2007Report (Other scientific)
  • 275.
    af Wåhlberg, A.E.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Göthe, Johan
    Fuel wasting behaviors of truck drivers2007In: Industrial Psychology Research Trends, New York: Nova Science Publishers , 2007, p. 73-87Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 276.
    af Wåhlberg, A.E.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Melin, Lennart
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Driver celeration behavior in training and regular driving2008In: Driver Behaviour and Training, Volume III:  Third International Conference on Driver Behaviour and Training. Dublin 12-13 November, 2007., Aldershot: Ashgate , 2008, p. 189-199Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 277.
    af Wåhlberg, AE
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Melin, Lennart
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Driver celeration behavior in training and regular driving.2007In: Driver Behaviour and Training, Volume III, 2007Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 278.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Changes in Driver Celeration Behavior over Time: do Drivers Learn from Collisions?2012In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 15, no 5, p. 471-479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although it is well known that drivers’ accident risk changes with experience, it has never been specified exactly how this comes about in terms of changes of behaviour, or what features of their experiences are important for this change. One possibility is that drivers learn from their collision involvement, and change their behaviour after such events, as some studies indicate. However, relative accident involvement tends to be very stable over time, which indicates the opposite. Repeated measurements of celeration (speed change) behaviour of bus drivers were compared between two groups; drivers without accidents within the measurement period (about 3 years), and drivers with at least one crash. For the crash group, there was a steady decline in their celeration values over time, but this was not related to their crashes. A similar reduction was also present for the non-crash sample. The results would seem to be in agreement with the theory of accident proneness; there exist stability in driver behaviour over time, despite accident involvement. However, this stability is relative within the sample, and not absolute. The reduction in celeration values for both groups over time would seem to indicate that drivers learn from their experiences in general, but not specifically from accidents. The present study seems to indicate that daily experience of driving situations is the strongest factor for changes in driving behaviour.

  • 279.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Characteristics of low speed accidents with buses in public transport. Part II.2004In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 36, p. 63-71Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 280.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Differential accident involvement of bus drivers2005In: Driver Behaviour and Training: Volume II / [ed] Lisa Dorn, Aldershot: Ashgate , 2005, p. 383-391Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The relations between 552 bus drivers' low-speed traffic incidents (without consideration of culpability) and their age, exposure (hours of work) and experience (years as a bus driver) were calculated using bus company data from the Swedish city of Uppsala for the years 1999-2003. It was found that risk decreases with age and experience, with experience as the strongest factor, carrying the effect. Exposure (hours worked) had a curvilinear association to accidents. Also, the use of accidents per work hour yielded more easily interpreted results than the absolute number, indicating the importance of taking exposure into account when predicting accidents. These results are mainly in agreement with previous studies on other road user groups. However, two different ways of calculating age effects (individual and group level) gave somewhat different results, indicating that a fairly popular method of calculating risk indexes may be faulty. Furthermore, time for holding a car driver's license did not influence bus accident liability, despite being strongly correlated with age, indicating that bus driving is separate from car driving experience. Also, the extremely small amount of variance accounted for by experience and age point to the importance of other factors, although there seem to be a strong effect during the first years of driving, which thereafter levels off.

  • 281.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Driver Behaviour and Accident Research Methodology: Unresolved Problems2009Book (Other academic)
  • 282.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Driver celeration behavior and accidents - an analysis2008In: Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, ISSN 1463-922X, E-ISSN 1464-536X, Vol. 9, p. 383-403Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 283.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Driver celeration behavior and the prediction of traffic accidents2006In: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 281-296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study was undertaken to investigate whether driver celeration (overall mean speed change) behavior can predict traffic accident involvement. Also, to test whether acceleration, deceleration or the combined celeration measure was the better predictor. Bus driver celeration behavior was measured repeatedly in real traffic, driving en route, and correlated with accidents for which the drivers were deemed at least partly responsible. Correlations around. 20 were found in several samples between celeration behavior and culpable accidents for a 2-year period. The results show that although celeration behavior is only semi-stable over time, it predicts with some accuracy individual accident involvement over 2 years. The predictive power of acceleration and deceleration was slightly lower than the combined measure, in accordance with theory. The correlations found were strong enough to warrant the use of celeration behavior as a predictive variable for transportation companies in their safety work.

  • 284.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Driver research myths2010In: Fourth International Conference on Driver Behaviour and Training / [ed] Lisa Dorn, Aldershot: Ashgate , 2010, p. 3-6Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 285.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fuel-efficient driving research: an area in need of exploration2007In: Industrial Psychology Research Trends, New York: Nova Science Publishers , 2007, p. 5-8Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 286.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hourly changes in accident risk for bus drivers2009In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 187-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic accident risk has in some studies been found to change with the time of day, after controlling for exposure, probably due to diurnal changes in the human body, which changes alertness. However, exposure data are not always of good quality, and culpability for accidents is not always taken into account. The change in culpable accident risk over the day for bus drivers was therefore investigated, with single accidents analysed separately, using induced exposure (non-culpable bus accidents) as well as general traffic density and number of buses on the road as controlling factors. It was found that the risk distribution was fairly similar to some previous results before controlling for exposure, but dissimilar to other, probably indicating that bus drivers have a somewhat different risk profile, but also that previous studies may not have controlled for exposure in a reliable way. When exposure was held constant, the risk distribution was different from all other studies. The three different exposure measures correlated strongly between themselves, and each would seem to be adequate for a basic control. However, although general traffic density was most strongly correlated with culpable bus accidents, the induced exposure parameter added some explained variance. Single accidents had a very different risk distribution as compared to other culpable accidents when exposure had been held constant. A number of unexpected effects were also noted, mainly that single accidents were associated most strongly with general traffic density.

  • 287.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Memory effects in self-reports of crashes2012In: Driver Behaviour and Training, Volume V / [ed] L. Dorn, 2012, Vol. V, p. 283-288Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 288.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Re-education of young driving offenders: Effects on recorded offences and self-reported collisions2011In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 291-299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New ways of educating offending drivers are being introduced, notably e-learning. This type of education has rarely been tested for its safety effects before. An e-learning course for offending young drivers was therefore evaluated as to its effects upon offence and self-reported collision rates. Significant reductions in number of offences and penalty points were found for an e-learning group, while this was not the case for drivers who had been fined only, or had taken a more traditional solely class-room based educational scheme. The e-learners also reported a larger reduction in collision involvement than a random control group, although a regression to the mean effect could not be ruled out. The results seem to indicate a positive effect of the e-learning course for young driving offenders. This conclusion, however, is to be interpreted in relation to the weak association between penalty points and collisions, and the low validity of self-reported collision involvement data. The present results lend further support to the use of e-learning driver improvement courses, although the most important type of data, recorded collisions, is still missing.

  • 289.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Short-term effects of training in economical driving; passenger comfort and driver acceleration behavior2006In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Vol. 36, p. 151-163Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 290.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Social desirability effects in driver behavior inventories2010In: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 99-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Problem: The use of lie scales to control for common method variance in driver behavior inventories has been very limited. Given that such questionnaires often use self-reported safety variables as criteria, and have social implications, the risk of artefactual associations is high. Method: A questionnaire containing scales from several well known driver inventories that have been claimed to predict traffic accident involvement was distributed three times to a group of young drivers in a driver education program, as well as a random group twice. The Driver Impression Management scale (DIM) was used to control for socially desirable responding. Results: For all behavior scales, the correlation with the DIM scale was substantial. If a scale correlated with self-reported crashes, the amount of predictive power was more than halved when social desirability was controlled for. Results were similar for both samples and all waves. The predictive power of the behavior scales was not increased when values were averaged over questionnaire waves, as should have been the case if the measurement and predictive power were valid. Results were similar for self-reported penalty points. The present results indicate that even the most well-known and accepted psychometric scales used in driver research are susceptible to social desirability bias. Discussion: As social desirability is only one of a number of common method variance mechanisms that can create artefactual associations, and the great popularity of the self-report methodology, the problem for traffic research is grave. Impact on industry: Organizations that fund traffic safety research need to re-evaluate their policies regarding what methods are acceptable. The use of self-reported independent and dependent variables can lead to directly misleading results, with negative effects on traffic safety.

  • 291.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Some methodological deficiencies in studies on traffic accident predictors2003In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 35, p. 473-486Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 292.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Speed choice versus celeration behavior as traffic accident predictor.2006In: Journal of Safety Research, Vol. 37, p. 43-51Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 293.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stability and correlates of driver acceleration behaviour2003In: Driver Behaviour and Training. First International Conference on Driver Behaviour and Training. Stratford-upon-Avon 11-12 November, 2003., 2003, p. 45-54Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 294.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Prediction of Traffic Accident Involvement from Driving Behavior2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the studies was to predict individual traffic accident involvement by the quantification of driving style in terms of speed changes, using bus drivers as subjects. An accident database was constructed from the archives of the bus company whose drivers were used as subjects. The dependent variable was also discussed regarding whether responsibility for crashes should be included, and what time period to use for optimal prediction. A new theory was constructed about how accidents are caused by driver behavior, more specifically the control movements of the driver, i.e. all actions taken which influence the relative motion of the vehicle in a level plane when v>0. This theory states that all traffic safety related behavior can be measured as celerations (change of speed of the vehicle in any direction of a level plane) and summed. This theoretical total sum is a measure of a person's liability to cause accidents over the same time period within a homogenous traffic environment and a similarly homogenous driving population. Empirically, the theory predicts a positive correlation between mean driver celeration behavior and accident record. The theory was tested in three empirical studies. The first tested equipment and methods, the second studied the question whether driver celeration behavior is stable over time. Celeration behavior turned out to be rather variable between days, and repeated measurements were therefore needed to stabilize the measure. In the third study, a much larger amount of data brought out correlations of sizes sufficient to lend some credibility to the theory. However, the predictive power did not extend beyond two years of time. The reported results would seem to imply that the celeration variable can predict accident involvement (at least for bus drivers), and is practical to use, as it is easily and objectively measured and semi-stable over time.

    List of papers
    1. Driver celeration behavior and accidents - an analysis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Driver celeration behavior and accidents - an analysis
    2008 (English)In: Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, ISSN 1463-922X, E-ISSN 1464-536X, Vol. 9, p. 383-403Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93939 (URN)10.1080/14639220701596722 (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-01-30 Created: 2006-01-30 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    2. The relation of acceleration force to traffic accident frequency: A pilot study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The relation of acceleration force to traffic accident frequency: A pilot study
    2000 (English)In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, Vol. 3, p. 29-38Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    National Category
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93940 (URN)
    Available from: 2006-01-30 Created: 2006-01-30 Last updated: 2009-03-05Bibliographically approved
    3. The stability of driver acceleration behavior, and a replication of its relation to bus accidents
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The stability of driver acceleration behavior, and a replication of its relation to bus accidents
    2004 In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 36, p. 83-92Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93941 (URN)
    Available from: 2006-01-30 Created: 2006-01-30Bibliographically approved
    4. Driver celeration behavior and the prediction of traffic accidents
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Driver celeration behavior and the prediction of traffic accidents
    2006 (English)In: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 281-296Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A study was undertaken to investigate whether driver celeration (overall mean speed change) behavior can predict traffic accident involvement. Also, to test whether acceleration, deceleration or the combined celeration measure was the better predictor. Bus driver celeration behavior was measured repeatedly in real traffic, driving en route, and correlated with accidents for which the drivers were deemed at least partly responsible. Correlations around. 20 were found in several samples between celeration behavior and culpable accidents for a 2-year period. The results show that although celeration behavior is only semi-stable over time, it predicts with some accuracy individual accident involvement over 2 years. The predictive power of acceleration and deceleration was slightly lower than the combined measure, in accordance with theory. The correlations found were strong enough to warrant the use of celeration behavior as a predictive variable for transportation companies in their safety work.

    Keywords
    bus driver, traffic accident, crash, acceleration, celeration, driver behavior
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93942 (URN)000240701400006 ()16984787 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2006-01-30 Created: 2006-01-30 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
  • 295.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The relation of acceleration force to traffic accident frequency: A pilot study2000In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, Vol. 3, p. 29-38Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 296.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The relation of non-culpable traffic incidents to bus drivers' celeration behavior2008In: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 41-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Problem: The driver celeration behavior theory predicts that celerations are associated with incidents for which the driver has some responsibility in causing, but not other incidents. Method: The hypothesis was tested in 25 samples of repeated measurements of bus drivers' celeration behavior against their incidents for two years. Results: The results confirmed the prediction; in 18 samples, the correlation for culpable incidents only was higher than for all incidents, despite the higher means of the latter. Non-culpable incidents had correlations close to zero with celeration. Discussion: It was pointed out that most individual crash prediction studies have not made this differentiation, and thus probably yielded underestimates of the associations sought, although the effect is not strong, due to non-culpable accident involvements being few (less than a third of the total). The methods for correct identification of culpable incident involvements were discussed.

  • 297.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The stability of driver acceleration behavior, and a replication of its relation to bus accidents2004In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 36, p. 83-92Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 298.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The stability of driver acceleration behavior, and a replication of its relation to bus accidents2004In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 36, p. 83-92Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 299.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Trafiksäkerhetseffekter av ökad storlek på lastbilar2007Report (Other academic)
  • 300.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Long-term effects of training in economical driving: Fuel consumption, accidents, driver acceleration behavior and technical feedback2007In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 333-343Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of training in fuel-efficient driving for bus drivers in a city environment were evaluated. Three dependent variables, hypothetically associated with such training, were used; fuel and accident data from the bus company, and driver acceleration behavior from five buses, over time periods of several years. Effects of temperature and number of passengers on fuel consumption were held constant. Fuelling and acceleration data yielded fairly similar results. It was found that, although the effects on these variables during training were very strong (as found in a previous study), these did not transfer well into the drivers' working situation. Overall, the effect was about two percent fuel consumption reduction as a mean over 12 months after training. No effect was found for accidents, although a two percent reduction would not have been detectable. In a second phase of the study, 28 buses were equipped with Econen feedback equipment, which give an indication on how much fuel is used concurrently, resulting in a further reduction of consumption of about two percent.

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