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  • 251.
    Brosché, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Darfur: dimensioner och dilemman i en komplex situation2009Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utgångspunkten för rapporten är en fältstudie genomförd av författaren i Sudan under november och december 2007 uppdelad på tre veckor i den sudanesiska huvudstaden Khartoum och en vecka i Juba, södra Sudan. Författaren försökte också resa in i Darfur men tyvärr gavs inte de erfor­derliga tillstånden. Trots misslyckandet att komma till Darfur så intervjua­des en stor mångfald av darfurier och människor som arbetar med Darfur-frågan. Under tiden i Sudan intervjuades ett urval av politiker, akademiker, traditionella ledare, rebelledare från varierande fraktioner, studerande, företrädare för frivilligorganisationer, människor som arbetar för olika FN-organ, människor som arbetar för mänskliga rättigheter etc. Detta urval innefattar avsiktligt både partiska och opartiska källor för att uppnå en så bred syn som möjligt. En intention med denna rapport är att använda detta unika material i så stor utsträckning som möjligt, men det är också kom­pletterat med andrahandskällor. Syftet med denna analys är att fördjupa kunskapen om den aktuella krisen i Darfur genom att närma sig på bred front. Studien börjar med en bakgrund till krisen i Sudan och uppmanar till en mångsidig syn på landet. Efter det kort information om några väsent­liga aspekter av krisen i Darfur följd av avsnitt om fredsbevarande styrkor, förhandlingar och den internationella respons konflikten har gett upphov till. Slutligen dras några slutsatser och vägar för framtida forskning före­slås. Man hävdar att den aktuella situationen i Darfur är ett resultat av fyra parallella och sammanlänkade typer av konflikter: kollektiva konflikter, konflikter mellan olika regionala eliter, konflikter mellan periferi och cen­trum samt ett proxy-krig mellan Sudan och Tchad. Det hävdas också att ett mångsidigt närmande till Sudan behövs för att finna en varaktig lösning i Darfur och andra områden i Sudan. Vidare betonar rapporten de oerhört stora problem som både förhandlingarna och den fredsbevarande verk­samheten står inför för närvarande. Slutligen framförs en uppmaning till starkare engagemang från, och samordning av, det internationella samfun­det för att lösa konflikterna i Darfur.

  • 252.
    Brosché, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Darfur: Dimensions and Dilemmas of a Complex Situation2008Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The point of departure for this report is a field study conducted by the author in Sudan during the fall of 2007. The purpose of this analysis is to deepen knowledge about the current crisis in Darfur through a broad approach. The study includes a short background to the crisis in Darfur and examines some of the major actors, the situation on the ground, the peacekeeping process, the negotiations and the international response. It is argued that the current situation in Darfur is a result of three parallel and interlinked types of conflicts: communal conflicts, conflicts between different regional elites, and periphery-centre conflicts. It is also argued that a comprehensive approach to Sudan is needed to find a lasting solution in Darfur and other areas of Sudan. Moreover, the report stresses the vast problems that both the negotiations and the peacekeeping operation face at the moment. Finally, a call is made for a stronger commitment from, and co-ordination by, the international community to solve the conflicts in Darfur.

  • 253.
    Brosché, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Ethno-communal Conflict in Sudan and South Sudan2019In: The Palgrave Handbook of Ethnicity / [ed] Steven Ratuva, Dordrecht: Springer, 2019Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter analyses ethno-communal conflicts in Sudan and South Sudan, which gained independence in 2011. In these two countries, ethno-communal rivalries have primarily manifested in three different types of violent conflicts: communal conflicts, rebel-rebel fighting and civil wars. The study consist of three core parts. First, the chapter provides some empirical information about center-periphery relations (in both Sudan and South Sudan elites in the center enjoys outmost political and economic power while other regions are severely marginalized) and the major violent conflicts in the two countries. Second, the chapter focuses on ethno-communal conflicts in Sudan’s westernmost region, Darfur. This section illustrates that an intricate web of ethno-communal conflicts exist in Darfur. It also emphasizes the importance of land and examines the government’s role in these different conflicts. Third, the chapter studies the civil war that has devastated South Sudan since December 2013. It shows that legacies from Sudan’s North-South war (particularly the Sudanese government’s strategy of divide-and-rule) are important for how the war in South Sudan has manifested.

    The full text will be freely available from 2021-10-12 15:40
  • 254.
    Brosché, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Good Understanding enables good solutions2011Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    “I have heard that before – I think that you should solve the problem in this manner” is a common comment from a partner, student or friend when someone has started to explain a problem. Sometimes the listener understands the situation and is correct in his/her analysis of it. At other times, however, the problem is not at all what the listener thought it was. This often leaves the person telling the story in frustration, and the suggested solution is often mismatched because the real problem has not been understood. The same goes for conflicts – if you do not understand you cannot fix it – but a good understanding enables a good solution.

  • 255.
    Brosché, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Half a Century of Peace in Botswana2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Africa is the world’s most conflict-affected region, with one third of all civil and interstate conflicts since 1946 taking place on the continent. This bleak picture is not all-embracing, however. Surrounded by seven neighbours plagued by conflicts, Botswana, Malawi and Zambia constitute a ‘Zone of Peace’ spared from violent conflict since they gained independence over half a century ago. This article will describe the main characteristics of Botswana’s peace and chart some of its causes.

  • 256.
    Brosché, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Humanitär katastrof i Sydsudan (Humanitarian Catastrophe in South Sudan)2016Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sydsudan pågår en humanitär katastrof i det tysta. Sedan fullskaligt inbördeskrig utbröt i december 2013 har minst 50 000 människor dött och över två miljoner drivits på flykt. Samtidigt riskerar tre miljoner människor – en fjärdedel av befolkningen – att svälta. Trots ett fredsavtal från augusti förra året har striderna inte upphört och situationen är fortsatt osäker. Johan Brosché, konfliktforskare vid Uppsala universitet, analyserar grundorsakerna till tragedin.

  • 257.
    Brosché, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Masters of War: The Role of Elites in Sudan’s Communal Conflicts2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Why do communal conflicts turn violent in some regions but not in others? Communal conflicts pose a severe threat to human security and kill thousands of people each year, but our understanding of this phenomenon is still limited. In particular, we lack knowledge about why some of these conflicts become violent while others are resolved peacefully. This study addresses this knowledge gap and has a novel approach by addressing subnational variations that are unexplained by previous research. The theoretical framework combines insights from three different perspectives focusing on the role of the state, elite interactions, and conditions for cooperation over common resources. Empirically, the research question is investigated by combining within- and between-region analyses of three Sudanese regions: Darfur, Eastern Sudan, and Greater Upper Nile. Despite sharing several similar characteristics, communal conflicts have killed thousands in Darfur and Greater Upper Nile but only a few dozen in Eastern Sudan. The empirical analysis builds on extensive material collected during fieldwork.

    This study generates several conclusions about the importance of government conduct and how state behavior contributes to the prevalence of violent communal conflicts. It finds that when governments act in a biased manner – favoring certain communities over others – interactions between central and local elites as well as among local elites are disrupted. Unconstructive elite interactions, in turn, have negative effects on three mechanisms that are crucial for communal cooperation. First, when the regime is biased, communal affiliation, rather than the severity and context of a violation, determines the sanctions that are imposed on the perpetrators. Second, government bias leads to unclear boundaries, which contribute to violent communal conflicts by creating disarray and by shifting power balances between the communities. Third, regime partiality distances rules from local conditions and restricts the influence of local actors who have an understanding of local circumstances. The study also reveals why a regime acts with partiality in some areas but not in others. The answer to this question is found in the complex interplay between the threats and opportunities that a region presents to the regime. Taken together, the findings have important implications for the prevention and management of communal conflict.

  • 258.
    Brosché, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Sharing Power - Enabling Peace?: Evaluating Sudan's Comprehensive Peace Agreement 20052009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study sets out to examine what lessons can be learned from Sudan’s Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) 2005, with particular relevance to power-sharing. The author went to on a field-trip to Khartoum, Juba and Nairobi in July 2009 to complement his previous knowledge the Sudan conflict.

     

    The report draws ten lessons learned, and these are divided into the three aspects of process, provisions and implementation. In terms of the process, the report suggests that negotiators should strive to involve both regional actors and actors from the international community, focus on the functioning of the agreement, and seek to enhance the capacity-building of the parties. In relation to the key provision, power-sharing, the report calls for mediators to be wary of including exit options in power-sharing deals. The effects of exclusion and inclusion of various actors should be scrutinized and it is important that the message of the agreement is conveyed to various constituencies. Also, it is important to bring peace dividends for the people to increase the legitimacy of the agreement. Regarding the implementation phase, three key lessons are learned. First, for a successful implementation it is essential to keep the momentum of the signing. Secondly, the signing of an agreement is the start, not the end, of building a durable peace. Finally, the research findings demonstrate the importance of maintaining the moment ripe for implementation after the agreement is signed. One way of facilitating this is by keeping the same parties involved during the implementation process as during the negotiations. 

  • 259.
    Brosché, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    The Crises Continue: Sudan’s Remaining Conflicts2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The current conflicts in Sudan consist of different conflict-types, here presented in a theoretical framework of conflict complementarities. The framework consist of four parallel and interlinked conflicts types: communal conflicts, local elite conflicts, center-periphery conflicts, and cross-border conflicts. The structure of conflict complementarities is used to describe the continuing crisis in Darfur, and the emerging crisis in South Kordofan.

    The complexities of Sudan’s conflict have often been overlooked by outsiders leading to incorrect assessments of the root causes, as well as dynamics of these conflicts. Therefore, this paper makes a call for careful conflict analysis in order to understand the conflicts in Sudan. Although taken place in different areas the root causes of Sudan’s conflicts are similar. Poverty and severe marginalization of the peripheries, in combination with bad governance at the center, are the main reasons for conflicts all over the country. Also other areas of Sudan, such as Eastern Sudan and the far North, suffer from these problems. Thus, there is a risk that Sudan’s crisis will spread to new areas. For conflicts in Sudan to decline the root causes of the problems need to be tackled.

    Decentralization that would decrease the huge differences between the center and the marginalized peripheries would be a step in the right direction. Also, the government’s propensity for using militias and divide-and-rule strategies has to stop for a brighter future for Sudan. Finally, a stronger commitment from, and co-ordination by, the international community is needed to deal with the continuing crisis in Sudan.

  • 260.
    Brosché, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    This Land is Whose Land?: A Comprehensive View of 20 years of Communal Conflicts in Darfur2008In:  , 2008, p. 1-21Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     

    Communal conflicts are an emerging research topic within the peace and conflict research field and this research has mostly focused upon ethnicity and farmers-herders conflicts. Albeit 70% of communal conflicts take place in a country that also suffers from a state-based conflict this has been an overlooked area. This paper examines how state-based and communal conflicts interact. It does so by looking into the case of Darfur, where communal conflicts have been said to be at the root of the current conflict in Darfur and it has been noted that new communal conflicts have erupted after the rebellion started in 2003. Through using new tentative data from Uppsala Conflict Data Program (UCDP) communal conflicts that have taken place in Darfur during the last 20 years are explored. The paper finds that the outbreak of the rebellion has changed the nature of communal conflicts both by making them more frequent, and by changing who is fighting who.

  • 261.
    Brosché, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Varför ska allmänheten tro på Lundingruppens version? (Enghlish title "Why should the general public believe the version of the Lundingroup?)2012Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Upp till bevis, Ian och Lukas Lundin! Den bild som bröderna Lundin presenterar (DN Debatt 18/3) stämmer inte överens med den bild jag skaffat mig efter att ha forskat om Sudan de senaste sju åren. De hävdar att anklagelserna mot Lundingruppen är ”ogrundade och orättvisa”. Men de framför inga bevis för detta påstående. Varför ska jag och allmänheten tro på deras version i stället för att tro på Amnesty, FN, Human Rights Watch, ICG och världsledande Sudanexperter, skriver Johan Brosché.

  • 262.
    Brosché, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Brounéus, Karen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Fjelde, Hanne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Forsberg, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Hegre, Håvard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Hultman, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Lindgren, Mathilda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Melander, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Svensson, Isak
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Wallensteen, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Nio punkter för global fred (Nine Points for Global Peace)2015Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Insatserna för global fred måste stärkas skriver tolv företrädare för institutionen för freds- och konfliktforskning apropå att världens ledare samlas i dag i New York för att anta 17 nya globala mål för en bättre värld och mer hållbar utveckling.

  • 263.
    Brosché, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Duursma, Allard
    Univ Manchester, Humanitarian & Conflict Response Inst HCRI, Manchester, Lancs, England..
    Hurdles to peace: a level-of-analysis approach to resolving Sudan's civil wars2018In: Third World Quarterly, ISSN 0143-6597, E-ISSN 1360-2241, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 560-576Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Why do some peace agreements end armed conflicts whereas others do not? Previous studies have primarily focused on the relation between warring parties and the provisions included in peace agreements. Prominent mediators, however, have emphasised the importance of stakeholders at various levels for the outcome of peace agreements. To match the experience of these negotiators we apply a level-of-analysis approach to examine the contextual circumstances under which peace agreements are concluded. While prominent within the causes of war literature, level-of-analysis approaches are surprisingly scant in research about conflict resolution. This article compares two Sudanese Peace Agreements: the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (2005) that ended the North-South war and led to the independence of South Sudan, and the Darfur Peace Agreement (2006) which failed to end fighting in Darfur. We find that factors at the local, national and international level explain the different outcomes of the two agreements. Hence, the two case studies illustrate the merit of employing a level-of-analysis approach to study the outcome of peace agreements. The main contribution of this article is that it presents a new theoretical framework to understand why some peace agreements terminate armed conflict whereas others do not.

  • 264.
    Brosché, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Elfversson, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Communal conflict, civil war, and the state: Complexities, connections, and the case of Sudan2012In: African Journal on Conflict Resolution, ISSN 1562-6997, E-ISSN 2309-737X, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 33-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses communal conflict, which we define as violent conflict between non-state groups that are organised along a shared communal identity, and how such conflicts relate to state-based violence. We argue that a deeper understanding of communal conflicts, the different types of dynamics and conflict issues, as well as of the complex connections between communal conflicts and other forms of organised violence, is necessary for improving academic research as well as for better informed policy and interventions. Our arguments are illustrated through a case study of Sudan. The article makes three main contributions: first, it shows that communal conflicts often have grave consequences, and illustrates several linkages between communal conflicts and state-based conflicts. Secondly, it demonstrates that a correct analysis is necessary before any party intervenes, in order to understand in what ways the communal conflict may be entangled with other types of organised violence. Thirdly, the article underlines that communal conflicts need to be taken into account both when signing a peace agreement and in the post-conflict situation, to avoid the risk that conflict and violence merely spills over from one type to another.

  • 265.
    Brosché, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Gelot, Linnéa
    Fröjmark, Henrik
    Carl Bildt sprider allvarliga felaktigheter (Carl Bildt spreads serious inaccuracies)2016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Ledande personer i Lundin Oil utreds kring bolagets eventuella inblandning i folkrättsbrott i Sudan. Efter det beskedet har Carl Bildt, tidigare styrelseledamot i Lundin Oil, gjort flera gravt missvisande uttalanden om bolagets agerande i Sudan i slutet på 1990-talet.

  • 266.
    Brosché, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    A ’Zone of Peace’ in Southern Africa: Exploring the Causes of Peace2017Other (Other academic)
  • 267.
    Brosché, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Crisis of governance in South Sudan: electoral politics and violence in the world's newest nation2016In: Journal of Modern African Studies, ISSN 0022-278X, E-ISSN 1469-7777, Vol. 54, no 1, p. 67-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since mid-December 2013, thousands of people have been killed in armed conflict in South Sudan. The fighting is entrenched in a power struggle between the main political contenders ahead of elections which were scheduled for 2015. This article examines the violence in South Sudan since the North-South war ended with a focus on the consequences of the introduction of electoral politics. Our research contributes to the literature on state-building and peace-building in war-torn societies, by exploring how the extreme levels of violence are linked to three groups of factors. First, the stakes involved in being part of the government are extremely high, since it is the only way to secure political and economic influence. Second, the actors involved in political life are dominated by individuals who held positions within the rebel groups, which increases the risk of political differences turning violent. Third, the institutions important for a legitimate electoral process, and which work to prevent violence, are weak or non-existent.

  • 268.
    Brosché, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Hur ska vi förstå det fredliga Malawi? (How Should We Understand Malawi’s Peace?)2016Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det malawiska samhället innehåller flera av de ingredienser som vanligtvis förknippas med väpnade konflikter: utbredd fattigdom, en historia av konialförtryck och diktatur och svaga institutioner. Ändå har landet varit förskonat från väpnad konflikt alltsedan självständigheten.

  • 269.
    Brosché, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Riek Machar: Warlord-Doctor in South Sudan2017In: Warlord Democrats in Africa: Ex-Military Leaders and Electoral Politic / [ed] Anders Themnér, London: Zed Books, 2017, p. 199-221Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 270.
    Brosché, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    The diversity of peace and war in Africa2015In: SIPRI Yearbook 2015, Oxford University Press, 2015, p. 110-121Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 271.
    Brosché, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Calissendorff, Love
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Zambia eroding: Four ongoing trends to be worried about2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The release of Zambia’s main opposition leader in August was greeted by some observers as a sign that the country’s democratic spirit lives on. Zambia has long been considered a model of stability in a tumultuous region, and Hakainde Hichilema’s four-month detention could be seen as an anomaly that has now been dealt with.

    But the reality is that it is too early to draw a sigh of relief.

  • 272.
    Brosché, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    van Baalen, Sebastian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Jasaffären i Botswana strider mot Sveriges mål (Selling JAS to Botswana goes against Sweden’s Foreign Policy Goals)2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Som fredsforskare stöder vi starkt en svensk utrikespolitik med fokus på mänskliga rättigheter, fred och fattigdomsbekämpning. En Jasaffär med Botswana skulle stå i direkt strid med Sveriges utrikesmål.

  • 273.
    Brosché, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Kreutz, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    A responsibility to talk: mediation and violence against civilians2018In: International Mediation in a Fragile World / [ed] David Carment and Evan Hoffman, New York: Routledge, 2018Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 274.
    Brosché, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Kreutz, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Saving face or saving lives?: The Effect of Third Party Measures on one-sided violence in Intrastate Low-level Armed Conflicts, 1993-20042008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 275.
    Brosché, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Kreutz, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Where do they go: Factors that Influence in Which Conflicts Third Parties Engage2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     

    The literature about where third-parties go is an emerging research area. Various conflict-specific and country-specific factors have been suggested as explaining why different mediators go to particular cases. We argue that also humanitarian concern could be a reason for third party action. This paper tests various proposed factors on a new datasets on third party action. The results of our analysis find support that humanitarian concerns are important indicators for determining which conflicts the third parties choose to engage in. There seems, in particular, that deliberate attacks on civilians increases the likelihood of third party involvement.

  • 276.
    Brosché, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Kreutz, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Kulturarv i skottgluggen2016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    ANALYS Den Islamiska staten attacker mot Palmyra och andra kulturarv i Syrien och Irak har fått stor uppmärksamhet i internationella medier. Men attacker mot kulturarv i väpnade konflikter är inte unikt för IS, och dessa attacker kan ha en rad olika syften. Det skriver Johan Brosché, Joakim Kreutz och Mattias Legner utifrån ett nytt tvärvetenskapligt forskningsprojekt.

  • 277.
    Brosché, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History.
    Kreutz, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research. Department of Political Science, Stockholm university, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ijla, Akram
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Heritage under Attack: motives for targeting cultural property during armed conflict2017In: International Journal of Heritage Studies (IJHS), ISSN 1352-7258, E-ISSN 1470-3610, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 248-260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although attacks on cultural property have caused international outcry,our understanding of this phenomenon is still limited. In particular, littleresearch has been directed towards exploring the motivations for suchattacks. Therefore, we ask: What are the motives for attacking sites, buildingsor objects representing cultural heritage? By combining insights from peaceand conflict research with findings from heritage studies we present atypology of motivations for attacking cultural property. We identify four,not mutually exclusive, broad groups of motives: (i) attacks related to conflictgoals, in which cultural property is targeted because it is connected to theissue the warring parties are fighting over (ii), military-strategic attacks, inwhich the main motivation is to win tactical advantages in the conflict (iii),signalling attacks, in which cultural property is targeted as a low-risk targetthat signals the commitment of the aggressor, and (iv) economic incentiveswhere cultural property provides funding for warring parties. Our typologyoffers a theoretical structure for research about why, when, and by whom,cultural property is targeted. This is not only likely to provide academicbenefits, but also to contribute to the development of more effective toolsfor the protection of cultural property during armed conflict.

  • 278.
    Brosché, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Nilsson, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research. Uppsala University.
    Zambian Refugee Policy: Security, Repatriation and Local Integration2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Why has Zambia, in contrast to most of its neighbours in Southern Africa, not experienced war since independence? This study is an attempt to shed light on the relationship between Zambia’s peaceful history, in a region plagued by conflict and refugee-flows, and the country’s generous refugee policy. The Zambian refugee policy is examined in this study, using a multidimensional security perspective as a theoretical tool, developed by Barry Buzan in the book People, States and Fear. The study focuses on Angolan refugees and describes two processes in the refugee policy, on one hand a process of local integration of refugees (the Zambian Initiative), on the other, a process of helping the refugees return to their country of origin (the repatriation project). With the help of interviews with officials from the government of Zambia, UN-agencies, NGO´s and the University, and with interviews at a grassroots level, some important conclusions have been made about the Zambian refugee policy. The demobilisation of refugees, the location of the camps, preventing the refugees from being politically active, the availability of land and the ethnical structure in the country are all essential factors that have contributed to the fact that the refugee issue has not yet become a source of conflict. In sum we see the Zambian refugee policy as a mostly constructive one with the Zambian Initiative as an admirable project that beneficially could be transmitted to other countries.   

  • 279.
    Brosché, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Rothbart, Daniel
    Violent conflict and peacebuilding: The continuing crisis in Darfur2013Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book examines the continuing devastation in the Darfur region of Sudan, focusing on its causes and consequences from the perspective of the complementarity of distinct conflicts.

    The crisis reached its peak in 2003–2004, when certain Arab militias joined forces with the Sudan armed forces against insurgent resistance movements. Engulfed in the tumult, many Darfurians have experienced systematic slaughter, sexual violence, and internal displacement on a massive scale. Although the violence has waned in recent years, the fighting continues to this day. The authors cast this crisis as a complex web of four distinct, yet interlacing, conflict types:

    • long-standing disputes between farmers and herders and between different herder communities
    • political struggles between the local elite leaders of the resistance movements, and those between traditional leaders (elders) and younger aspiring leaders
    • long-standing grievances of marginalized groups against those at the national centre of power
    • cross-border conflicts, primarily the proxy war waged between Chad and Sudan
    • the crisis in South Sudan is also examined through the lens of conflict complementarity.

    This book will be of interest to students of African politics, genocide, political violence, ethnic conflict, war and conflict studies, peacebuilding and IR.

  • 280.
    Brosché, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Rothbart, Daniel
    School of Conflict Analysis and Resolution (S-CAR), George Mason University.
    Yousif, Adeeb
    School of Conflict Analysis and Resolution (S-CAR), George Mason University.
    Darfur: The Crisis Continues2012Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since it gained independence in 1956, Sudan has been ravaged by war. Its people have been devastated by both the North-South conflict that embroiled the country for the last two decades of the twentieth century and the war in Darfur, the country's western-most region. Since the early 2000s, Darfurians have been the continued victims of ethnic cleansing, large-scale killings, genocidal violence, and horrific displacement. Though the violence has waned from its level during the peak years of 2002 and 2003, the fighting continues to the present day. This report provides an up-to-date mapping of the current crisis in Darfur, giving special attention to its complexity, dynamics, and multiplicity of causes. The analysis that underpins this report is extensively examined in Violent Conflict and Peacebuilding: The Continuing Crisis in Darfur (Brosché and Rothbart 2013).

  • 281.
    Brosché, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Sundberg, Ralph
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Katastrof i Sydsudan måste förhindras (Catastrophe in South Sudan has to be prevented)2013Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Konflikten i Sydsudan är ett farligt maktspel där politiker hänsynslöst spelar ut ”det etniska kortet”. Stark diplomatisk press måste nu sättas på de olika aktörerna. Sverige kan spela en viktig roll, skriver freds- och konfliktforskarna Johan Brosché och Ralph Sundberg.

  • 282.
    Brosché, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Sundberg, Ralph
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    This Land is Whose Land?: ‘Sons of the Soil’ Conflicts in Darfur2018In: People Changing Places: New Perspectives on Demography, Migration, Conflict, and the State / [ed] Isabelle Côté; Matthew I. Mitchell; Monica Duffy Toft, New York: Routledge, 2018, 1, p. 59-81Chapter in book (Refereed)
    The full text will be freely available from 2019-12-27 09:53
  • 283.
    Brosché, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Taub, Samuel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Syriens kris liknar den i Darfur (”The Crisis in Syria Resembles the Crisis in Darfur”)2013Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Konflikterna i Syrien och Darfur har många likheter. Den förra riskerar att bli lika utdragen som den senare. Samtidigt kan man undvika att göra om misstagen med oinitierade fredsavtal som i stället allvarligt förvärrar krisen.

  • 284.
    Brounéus, Karen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Analyzing Reconciliation: A Structured Method for Measuring National Reconciliation Initiatives2008In: Peace and Conflict: The Journal of Peace Psychology, ISSN 1078-1919, E-ISSN 1532-7949, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 291-313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reconciliation efforts have become an almost routine element of postconflict peacebuilding. From a scientific point of view, we need tools to enable systematic studies of reconciliation. In this article a structured method for studying national reconciliation initiatives is suggested, focusing on public statements and behaviors of those in power. The aim is to contribute to the development of systematic research in the field, by designing a structured method to measure if, when and what kind of reconciliation initiatives promote durable peace and if and when they instead might be an obstacle to peacebuilding. Two widely used sources in peace and conflict research were used for coding: the Regional Survey of the World (RSW) and the Africa Research Bulletin (ARB). The analytical framework, built on Galtung’s well-known conflict triangle and applied to Rwanda and Mozambique, proves to be useful for structuring the analysis of reconciliation at this level. In addition, three hypotheses on reconciliation are generated which would benefit from further research.

  • 285.
    Brounéus, Karen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Healing or Retraumatizing?: Women Genocide Survivors and the Gacaca Courts in Rwanda2006Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper I present unique material from in-depth interviews with 16 women in Rwanda who have made testimonies in the gacaca, the village tribunals initiated to enhance reconciliation after the 1994 genocide. The aim of the interviews was to learn more of how testifying in such a public event as the gacaca affects psychological health: do the women find this experience as healing or retraumatizing or are there other effects? This article contains the first results of a project on the gacaca, psychological health, and reconciliation in Rwanda where field work was carried out during February to May 2006.

    There has been an assumption that testifying in truth and reconciliation commissions will be a healing experience for survivors. Healing has been a central concept in the general reconciliation literature and in political rhetoric around truth commissions. However, the findings of this study are alarming. Traumatization, ill-health, isolation, and insecurity dominate the lives of the testifying women. They are threatened and harassed before, during, and after giving testimony in the gacaca. It is a picture of a reconciliation process we seldom see.

  • 286.
    Brounéus, Karen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    On Return from Peacekeeping: A review of current research on psychological well-being in military personnel returning from operational deployment2014In: Journal of military and veterans health, ISSN 1835-1271, E-ISSN 1839-2733, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 24-29Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 287.
    Brounéus, Karen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Reconciliation - Theory and Practice for Development Cooperation. A Report for the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency.2003Report (Other academic)
  • 288.
    Brounéus, Karen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Reconciliation and Development2009In: Building a Future on Peace and Justice: studies on transitional justice, peace and development : the Nuremberg Declaration on Peace and Justice, Berlin Heidelberg: Springer , 2009, p. 203-216Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Reconciliation has become an important part of postconflict peacebuilding rhetoric and practice in recent years. As nearly all conflicts today are intrastate, former enemies, perpetrators and victims, must continue living side by side after the war. Yet, attitudes and behaviors do not change at the moment of a declaration of peace. Since coexistence is necessary, the need for reconciliation is profound.

    The aim of this chapter is to give a shared point of departure for discussion on the critical issues of reconciliation and development after war. Reconciliation is defined and seen from a pragmatic and societal perspective; it does not mean avoiding accountability for the sake of truth, neither does it entail collective amnesia to avoid the risks of truth telling, nor interpersonal forgiveness. Reconciliation means finding a way to balance issues such as truth and justice so that the slow changing of behaviors, attitudes and emotions between former enemies can take place. It is the pragmatic work of building relationships and confidence that will hold for the pressures on peace.

    In order to structure the analysis, reconciliation is suggested to be examined from three societal levels: top-level, middle-range, and grassroots. An overview is provided of some key concerns regarding reconciliation in relation to justice, security, and politics respectively, and their respective policy implications discussed. Regarding justice, recent research on truth commissions provides a basis for new development challenges. In close connection emerges the issue of security. Security risks have not been included in the theoretical literature on truth telling and reconciliation. However, recent research indicates that if security is not provided, the process of reconciliation may risk to backlash in increased violence or in suppression of truth. Political initiatives for reconciliation through for example legislation are crucial. However, the post-conflict state is often quite weak thus tensions may easily arise between reconciliation needs, development ambitions, and politics. Finally, truth telling being one of the major components in reconciliation processes around the world today, the concerns of truth telling with regard to trauma, reparation, and culture are briefly highlighted.

    The chapter concludes that there is no magic formula for reconciliation; each reconciliation process needs to be designed according to the specific context. We urgently need empirical research to learn of general trends regarding the promises and pitfalls for processes of reconciliation.

  • 289.
    Brounéus, Karen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Reconciliation: Theory and Practice for Development CooperationChapter in book (Other academic)
  • 290.
    Brounéus, Karen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Rethinking Reconciliation: Concepts, Methods, and an Empirical Study of Truth Telling and Psychological Health in Rwanda2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation combines psychology with peace and conflict research in a cross-disciplinary approach to reconciliation processes after intrastate armed conflict. Two overarching contributions are made to the field of reconciliation research. The first is conceptual and methodological. The vague concept of reconciliation is defined and operationalized (Paper I), and a method is proposed for how reconciliation may be studied systematically at the national level (Paper II). By discussing what reconciliation is and how we should measure it, comparative research on reconciliation is facilitated which is imperative if we wish to learn of its promises and pitfalls in post-conflict peacebuilding. The second contribution is empirical. There has been an assumption that truth telling is healing and thereby will lead to reconciliation; healing is the assumed link between truth and reconciliation. This assumption was investigated in two studies in Rwanda in 2006. A multistage, stratified cluster random survey of 1,200 adults was conducted to assess whether witnessing in the gacaca, the Rwandan village tribunals for truth and reconciliation, was beneficial for psychological health; thereby investigating the claim that truth telling is healing (Paper III). The results of the survey are disconcerting. Witnesses in the gacaca suffered from significantly higher levels of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder than non-witnesses also when controlling for important predictors for psychological ill-health such as gender or trauma exposure. To acquire a more comprehensive understanding of the experience of witnessing in the gacaca, in-depth interviews were conducted with 16 women genocide survivors who had witnessed in the gacaca (Paper IV). The results of this study challenge the claim that truth telling is healing, suggesting instead that there are risks for the individuals on whom truth-telling processes depend. Traumatization, ill-health, isolation, and insecurity dominate the lives of the testifying women. Insecurity as a result of the truth-telling process emerged as one of the most crucial issues at stake. This dissertation presents a novel understanding of the complexity of reconciliation in post-conflict peacebuilding, demonstrating that truth and reconciliation processes may entail more risks than were previously known. The results of this dissertation can be used to improve the study and the design of truth and reconciliation processes after civil war and genocide.

    List of papers
    1. Reconciliation: Theory and Practice for Development Cooperation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reconciliation: Theory and Practice for Development Cooperation
    Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-96850 (URN)
    Available from: 2008-03-28 Created: 2008-03-28 Last updated: 2017-05-03Bibliographically approved
    2. Analyzing Reconciliation: A Structured Method for Measuring National Reconciliation Initiatives
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analyzing Reconciliation: A Structured Method for Measuring National Reconciliation Initiatives
    2008 (English)In: Peace and Conflict: The Journal of Peace Psychology, ISSN 1078-1919, E-ISSN 1532-7949, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 291-313Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Reconciliation efforts have become an almost routine element of postconflict peacebuilding. From a scientific point of view, we need tools to enable systematic studies of reconciliation. In this article a structured method for studying national reconciliation initiatives is suggested, focusing on public statements and behaviors of those in power. The aim is to contribute to the development of systematic research in the field, by designing a structured method to measure if, when and what kind of reconciliation initiatives promote durable peace and if and when they instead might be an obstacle to peacebuilding. Two widely used sources in peace and conflict research were used for coding: the Regional Survey of the World (RSW) and the Africa Research Bulletin (ARB). The analytical framework, built on Galtung’s well-known conflict triangle and applied to Rwanda and Mozambique, proves to be useful for structuring the analysis of reconciliation at this level. In addition, three hypotheses on reconciliation are generated which would benefit from further research.

    Keywords
    reconciliation, national level peacebuilding, method and hypotheses development
    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Research subject
    Peace and Conflict Research
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-96851 (URN)10.1080/10781910802017354 (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-03-28 Created: 2008-03-28 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
    3. The Trauma of Truth Telling: Effects of Witnessing in the Rwandan Gacaca Courts on Psychological Health
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Trauma of Truth Telling: Effects of Witnessing in the Rwandan Gacaca Courts on Psychological Health
    2010 (English)In: Journal of Conflict Resolution, ISSN 0022-0027, E-ISSN 1552-8766, Vol. 54, no 3, p. 408-437Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Truth telling has come to play a pivotal role in postconflict reconciliation processes around the world. A common claim is that truth telling is healing and will lead to reconciliation. The present study applies recent psychological research to this issue by examining whether witnessing in the gacaca, the Rwandan village tribunals for truth and reconciliation after the 1994 genocide, was beneficial for psychological health. The results from the multistage, stratified cluster random survey of 1,200 Rwandans demonstrate that gacaca witnesses suffer from higher levels of depression and PTSD than do nonwitnesses, also when controlling for important predictors of psychological ill health. Furthermore, longer exposure to truth telling has not lowered the levels of psychological ill health, nor has the prevalence of depression and PTSD decreased over time. This study strongly challenges the claim that truth telling is healing and presents a novel understanding of the complexity of truth-telling processes in postconflict peace building.

    Keywords
    truth commissions, truth telling, reconciliation, witnessing, PTSD, depression, Rwanda
    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-96852 (URN)10.1177/0022002709360322 (DOI)000278482400002 ()
    Available from: 2008-03-28 Created: 2008-03-28 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
    4. Truth Telling as Talking Cure?: Insecurity and Retraumatization in the Rwandan Gacaca Courts
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Truth Telling as Talking Cure?: Insecurity and Retraumatization in the Rwandan Gacaca Courts
    2008 (English)In: Security Dialogue, ISSN 0967-0106, E-ISSN 1460-3640, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 55-76Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents unique material from in-depth interviews with 16 women in Rwanda who have testified in the gacaca, the village tribunals initiated to enhance reconciliation after the 1994 genocide. The aim of the interviews was to learn more of how testifying in such a public event as the gacaca affects psychological health. Do the women find the experience healing or retraumatizing? Are there other effects involved? There has been an assumption that testifying in truth and reconciliation commissions is a healing experience for survivors, and healing has been a central concept in the general reconciliation literature and in political rhetoric around truth commissions. However, the findings of this study are alarming. Traumatization, ill-health, isolation, and insecurity dominate the lives of these testifying women. They are threatened and harassed before, during, and after giving testimony in the gacaca. The article provides a picture of the reconciliation process that we seldom see.

    Keywords
    truth and reconciliation commissions, healing, security, psychological health, Rwanda
    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Research subject
    Peace and Conflict Research
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-96853 (URN)10.1177/0967010607086823 (DOI)000253378000003 ()
    Available from: 2008-03-28 Created: 2008-03-28 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
  • 291.
    Brounéus, Karen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    The Trauma of Truth Telling: Effects of Witnessing in the Rwandan Gacaca Courts on Psychological Health2010In: Journal of Conflict Resolution, ISSN 0022-0027, E-ISSN 1552-8766, Vol. 54, no 3, p. 408-437Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Truth telling has come to play a pivotal role in postconflict reconciliation processes around the world. A common claim is that truth telling is healing and will lead to reconciliation. The present study applies recent psychological research to this issue by examining whether witnessing in the gacaca, the Rwandan village tribunals for truth and reconciliation after the 1994 genocide, was beneficial for psychological health. The results from the multistage, stratified cluster random survey of 1,200 Rwandans demonstrate that gacaca witnesses suffer from higher levels of depression and PTSD than do nonwitnesses, also when controlling for important predictors of psychological ill health. Furthermore, longer exposure to truth telling has not lowered the levels of psychological ill health, nor has the prevalence of depression and PTSD decreased over time. This study strongly challenges the claim that truth telling is healing and presents a novel understanding of the complexity of truth-telling processes in postconflict peace building.

  • 292.
    Brounéus, Karen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    The Women and Peace Hypothesis in Peacebuilding Settings: Attitudes of Women in the Wake of the Rwandan Genocide2014In: Signs (Chicago, Ill.), ISSN 0097-9740, E-ISSN 1545-6943, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 125-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At the microlevel, the “women and peace” hypothesis suggests that women hold more pacific or compromising attitudes than men. Previous empirical studies of this hypothesis have focused on war-waging settings; this article is the first to bring the women and peace hypothesis to the peacebuilding phase. When studying the hypothesis after war, this article argues that the postconflict context, and especially war-related trauma, must be taken into account. Given that war affects women and men differently, there may be important gender differences in attitudes related to peacebuilding. To test this argument, data from a multistage, stratified cluster random survey of 1,200 Rwandans was analyzed, focusing on the connection between war-related psychological ill health and attitudes toward three issues of relevance for peacebuilding: trust, coexistence, and the gacaca (the Rwandan peacebuilding process). The results demonstrate that women reported significantly more negative attitudes than men toward all three issues. The article also suggests that this surprising finding may result from the different types and levels of trauma women and men experience in war: more men are killed, and more women are subjected to sexual violence. As more women are left to survive the atrocities of war, they may carry a heavier burden of war-related memories in their bodies and minds, leading to greater challenges in the peacebuilding and, often, truth-telling phase. In addition, higher levels of abuse against women in the postconflict phase may require continuing vigilance and anxiety. The article concludes by sketching out areas for future research investigating the important yet counterintuitive findings presented here.

  • 293.
    Brounéus, Karen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Truth and Reconciliation Commission Processes: Learning from the Solomon Islands2019Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    After war, does truth telling lead to more peaceful attitudes between former enemies? This book is the first to study the over-time effect of a Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) process on people’s attitudes towards peace. Focusing on the Solomon Islands TRC process, one of the least known or studied TRC processes in the world, and using surveys, focus groups and in depth interviews, the book reveals some critical issues for peacebuilding. For example, while support of the TRC was consistently quite strong over the two years of the study, there was a sharp decline in trust in the process as well as a significant increase in distrust and suspicion towards ex-combatants over the two-year period. The book shows that the ex-combatants did not feel safe to tell the truth in the TRC and had therefore decided beforehand what to say in the hearings. A systematic telling of untruths thereby took place, severely undermining relationships and peacebuilding in the country. The book weaves the findings from the Solomon Islands with experiences of other post-conflict truth telling process around the world, and suggests practical guidelines for future TRC processes after war.

  • 294.
    Brounéus, Karen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research. National Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies University of Otago, New Zealand.
    Truth for peace?: Exploring the links between the Solomon Islands' TRC process and people's attitudes towards peace2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents results from a research project that studied the links between the Solomon Islands Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC)and the country’s peace building process.The aim of the research was to study the effects of the TRC process on people’s attitudes towards issues that are important for peace, for example trust, coexistence, the TRC, and ex-combatants. A total of around 1,900 Solomon Islanders participated in the research, insurveys, focus groups and in-depth interviews in 2011 and 2013. The project was conducted with support from the Solomon Islands TRC, Ministry of Education and Human Resource Development, and Ministry of Peace, Unity and Reconciliation. The New Zealand Tearfund and the Royal Society of New Zealand’s Marsden Fund funded the project. The fieldwork was conducted in collaboration with Pasifiki Ltd, Honiara. In this report, the main results of the study are summarised. Hopefully, the findings may be of use to Solomon Islands Ministries, Churches, NGOs and others working with peace building in the Solomon Islands.

  • 295.
    Brounéus, Karen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Truth Telling as Talking Cure?: Insecurity and Retraumatization in the Rwandan Gacaca Courts2008In: Security Dialogue, ISSN 0967-0106, E-ISSN 1460-3640, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 55-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents unique material from in-depth interviews with 16 women in Rwanda who have testified in the gacaca, the village tribunals initiated to enhance reconciliation after the 1994 genocide. The aim of the interviews was to learn more of how testifying in such a public event as the gacaca affects psychological health. Do the women find the experience healing or retraumatizing? Are there other effects involved? There has been an assumption that testifying in truth and reconciliation commissions is a healing experience for survivors, and healing has been a central concept in the general reconciliation literature and in political rhetoric around truth commissions. However, the findings of this study are alarming. Traumatization, ill-health, isolation, and insecurity dominate the lives of these testifying women. They are threatened and harassed before, during, and after giving testimony in the gacaca. The article provides a picture of the reconciliation process that we seldom see.

  • 296.
    Brounéus, Karen
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Forsberg, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Dyrstad, Karin
    Malmin Binningsbø, Helga
    The Gendered Links between War-Related Trauma and Attitudes to Peace: Exploring Survey Data from Guatemala, Nepal, and Northern Ireland2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    While some studies suggest that women hold more peaceful attitudes than man, few studies have explored this question in the context of post-conflict countries. We argue that women, in this context, may in fact hold more negative views regarding attitudes of relevance for peacebuilding, for three reasons. First, the ways in which women are negatively affected by armed conflict are generally not sufficiently prioritized in the post-conflict period. Second, women and men are often subjected to different types of violence during armed conflict and the types of violence affecting women may to a larger extent carry stigma. Third, women are more likely to develop PTSD after traumatic events. These three factors all lead us to expect women to hold more negative towards peacebuilding. We explore these interconnections using data from a survey fielded in three post-conflict countries: Guatemala, Nepal, and Northern Ireland. Our preliminary analysis indicates support for our proposition, as women, for instance, are less positive than men towards truth-telling initiatives, less willing to allow refugees and ex-combatants return to their homes, and less likely to support amnesties.

  • 297.
    Brounéus, Karen
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Wray, Mariane
    Green, Peter
    Underestimating the burden for peacekeepers?: Difficulty in determining psychological well-being following operational deployment with low response rates from NZDF personnel.2015In: Journal of military and veterans health, ISSN 1835-1271, E-ISSN 1839-2733, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 7-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Since 2010, the New Zealand Defence Force (NZDF) have used post-deployment psychological screens with personnel returning from operational deployments to predict and support psychological ill-health in returning peacekeepers.

    Aim: The objective of this article is to discuss the critical implications of low return rates in follow-up psychological health data in returning peacekeepers. Due to low response rates at the 4-6 month follow up screen, longitudinal analysis of mental health could not be conducted.

    Methods: Two sets of responses were analysed using logistic regression from NZDF Post-Deployment screens with personnel who had served in Timor Leste and Afghanistan over the period 2010–2011. The total sample consisted of 695 cases.

    Results: This study demonstrates that peacekeeping personnel with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) scores above the cut-off at the initial screen returned the follow-up (FUP) screen to a significantly lower degree than their peers.

    Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that among those who did not complete the FUP screen, there may be an o