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  • 251.
    Van den Berg, Ronald
    et al.
    Cambridge University.
    Anandalingam, Kavi
    Cambridge University.
    Zylberberg, Ariel
    Columbia University.
    Kiani, Roozbeh
    New York University.
    Shadlen, Michael
    Columbia University.
    Wolpert, Daniel
    Cambridge University.
    A common mechanism underlies changes of mind about decisions and confidence2016In: eLIFE, E-ISSN 2050-084XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decisions are accompanied by a degree of confidence that a selected option is correct. A sequential sampling framework explains the speed and accuracy of decisions and extends naturally to the confidence that the decision rendered is likely to be correct. However, discrepancies between confidence and accuracy suggest that confidence might be supported by mechanisms dissociated from the decision process. Here we show that this discrepancy can arise naturally because of simple processing delays. When participants were asked to report choice and confidence simultaneously, their confidence, reaction time and a perceptual decision about motion were explained by bounded evidence accumulation. However, we also observed revisions of the initial choice and/or confidence. These changes of mind were explained by a continuation of the mechanism that led to the initial choice. Our findings extend the sequential sampling framework to vacillation about confidence and invites caution in interpreting dissociations between confidence and accuracy.

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  • 252.
    van den Berg, Ronald
    et al.
    University of Cambridge; Baylor College of Medicine.
    Awh, Edward
    Ma, Wei Ji
    Factorial comparison of working memory models2014In: Psychological review, ISSN 0033-295X, E-ISSN 1939-1471, Vol. 121, no 1, p. 124-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three questions have been prominent in the study of visual working memory limitations: (a) What is the nature of mnemonic precision (e.g., quantized or continuous)? (b) How many items are remembered? (c) To what extent do spatial binding errors account for working memory failures? Modeling studies have typically focused on comparing possible answers to a single one of these questions, even though the result of such a comparison might depend on the assumed answers to both others. Here, we consider every possible combination of previously proposed answers to the individual questions. Each model is then a point in a 3-factor model space containing a total of 32 models, of which only 6 have been tested previously. We compare all models on data from 10 delayed-estimation experiments from 6 laboratories (for a total of 164 subjects and 131,452 trials). Consistently across experiments, we find that (a) mnemonic precision is not quantized but continuous and not equal but variable across items and trials; (b) the number of remembered items is likely to be variable across trials, with a mean of 6.4 in the best model (median across subjects); (c) spatial binding errors occur but explain only a small fraction of responses (16.5% at set size 8 in the best model). We find strong evidence against all 6 documented models. Our results demonstrate the value of factorial model comparison in working memory.

  • 253.
    Van den Berg, Ronald
    et al.
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Lab Expt Ophthalmol, Inst Math & Comp Sci, NL-9713 AW Groningen, Netherlands.
    Cornelissen, Frans W.
    Laboratory for Experimental Ophthalmology, School of Behavioral and Cognitive Neurosciences, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Roerdink, Jos B. T. M.
    Institute of Mathematics and Computing Science and School of Behavioral and Cognitive Neurosciences, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.
    A crowding model of visual clutter2009In: Journal of Vision, ISSN 1534-7362, E-ISSN 1534-7362, Vol. 9, no 4, article id 24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Visual information is difficult to search and interpret when the density of the displayed information is high or the layout is chaotic. Visual information that exhibits such properties is generally referred to as being "cluttered." Clutter should be avoided in information visualizations and interface design in general because it can severely degrade task performance. Although previous studies have identified computable correlates of clutter (such as local feature variance and edge density), understanding of why humans perceive some scenes as being more cluttered than others remains limited. Here, we explore an account of clutter that is inspired by findings from visual perception studies. Specifically, we test the hypothesis that the so-called "crowding" phenomenon is an important constituent of clutter. We constructed an algorithm to predict visual clutter in arbitrary images by estimating the perceptual impairment due to crowding. After verifying that this model can reproduce crowding data we tested whether it can also predict clutter. We found that its predictions correlate well with both subjective clutter assessments and search performance in cluttered scenes. These results suggest that crowding and clutter may indeed be closely related concepts and suggest avenues for further research.

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  • 254.
    Van den Berg, Ronald
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Cornelissen, FW
    Roerdink, JBTM
    Perceptual dependencies in information visualization assessed by complex visual search2008In: ACM Transactions on Applied Perception, ISSN 1544-3558, E-ISSN 1544-3965Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A common approach for visualizing data sets is to map them to images in which distinct data dimensions are mapped to distinct visual features, such as color, size and orientation. Here, we consider visualizations in which different data dimensions should receive equal weight and attention. Many of the end-user tasks performed on these images involve a form of visual search. Often, it is simply assumed that features can be judged independently of each other in such tasks. However, there is evidence for perceptual dependencies when simultaneously presenting multiple features. Such dependencies could potentially affect information visualizations that contain combinations of features for encoding information and, thereby, bias subjects into unequally weighting the relevance of different data dimensions. We experimentally assess (1) the presence of judgment dependencies in a visualization task (searching for a target node in a node-link diagram) and (2) how feature contrast relates to salience. From a visualization point of view, our most relevant findings are that (a) to equalize saliency (and thus bottom-up weighting) of size and color, color contrasts have to become very low. Moreover, orientation is less suitable for representing information that consists of a large range of data values, because it does not show a clear relationship between contrast and salience; (b) color and size are features that can be used independently to represent information, at least as far as the range of colors that were used in our study are concerned; (c) the concept of (static) feature salience hierarchies is wrong; how salient a feature is compared to another is not fixed, but a function of feature contrasts; (d) final decisions appear to be as good an indicator of perceptual performance as indicators based on measures obtained from individual fixations. Eye tracking, therefore, does not necessarily present a benefit for user studies that aim at evaluating performance in search tasks.

  • 255.
    Van den Berg, Ronald
    et al.
    Baylor Coll Med, Dept Neurosci, Houston, TX 77030 USA; Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Lab Expt Ophthalmol, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Johnson, Addie
    Univ Groningen, Dept Psychol, NL-9712 TS Groningen, Netherlands.
    Martinez Anton, Angela
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Lab Expt Ophthalmol, Groningen, Netherlands; Univ Groningen, Dept Psychol, NL-9712 TS Groningen, Netherlands.
    Schepers, Anne L.
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Lab Expt Ophthalmol, Groningen, Netherlands; Univ Groningen, Dept Psychol, NL-9712 TS Groningen, Netherlands.
    Cornelissen, Frans W.
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Lab Expt Ophthalmol, Groningen, Netherlands; Univ Groningen, Dept Psychol, NL-9712 TS Groningen, Netherlands.
    Comparing crowding in human and ideal observers2012In: Journal of Vision, ISSN 1534-7362, E-ISSN 1534-7362, Vol. 12, no 6, article id 13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A visual target is more difficult to recognize when it is surrounded by other, similar objects. This breakdown in object recognition is known as crowding. Despite a long history of experimental work, computational models of crowding are still sparse. Specifically, few studies have examined crowding using an ideal-observer approach. Here, we compare crowding in ideal observers with crowding in humans. We derived an ideal-observer model for target identification under conditions of position and identity uncertainty. Simulations showed that this model reproduces the hallmark of crowding, namely a critical spacing that scales with viewing eccentricity. To examine how well the model fits quantitatively to human data, we performed three experiments. In Experiments 1 and 2, we measured observers' perceptual uncertainty about stimulus positions and identities, respectively, for a target in isolation. In Experiment 3, observers identified a target that was flanked by two distractors. We found that about half of the errors in Experiment 3 could be accounted for by the perceptual uncertainty measured in Experiments 1 and 2. The remainder of the errors could be accounted for by assuming that uncertainty (i.e., the width of internal noise distribution) about stimulus positions and identities depends on flanker proximity. Our results provide a mathematical restatement of the crowding problem and support the hypothesis that crowding behavior is a sign of optimality rather than a perceptual defect.

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  • 256. van den Berg, Ronald
    et al.
    Ma, Wei Ji
    "Plateau"-related summary statistics are uninformative for comparing working memory models.2014In: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, ISSN 1943-3921, E-ISSN 1943-393X, Vol. 76, no 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Performance on visual working memory tasks decreases as more items need to be remembered. Over the past decade, a debate has unfolded between proponents of slot models and slotless models of this phenomenon (Ma, Husain, Bays (Nature Neuroscience 17, 347-356, 2014). Zhang and Luck (Nature 453, (7192), 233-235, 2008) and Anderson, Vogel, and Awh (Attention, Perception, Psychophys 74, (5), 891-910, 2011) noticed that as more items need to be remembered, "memory noise" seems to first increase and then reach a "stable plateau." They argued that three summary statistics characterizing this plateau are consistent with slot models, but not with slotless models. Here, we assess the validity of their methods. We generated synthetic data both from a leading slot model and from a recent slotless model and quantified model evidence using log Bayes factors. We found that the summary statistics provided at most 0.15 % of the expected model evidence in the raw data. In a model recovery analysis, a total of more than a million trials were required to achieve 99 % correct recovery when models were compared on the basis of summary statistics, whereas fewer than 1,000 trials were sufficient when raw data were used. Therefore, at realistic numbers of trials, plateau-related summary statistics are highly unreliable for model comparison. Applying the same analyses to subject data from Anderson et al. (Attention, Perception, Psychophys 74, (5), 891-910, 2011), we found that the evidence in the summary statistics was at most 0.12 % of the evidence in the raw data and far too weak to warrant any conclusions. The evidence in the raw data, in fact, strongly favored the slotless model. These findings call into question claims about working memory that are based on summary statistics.

  • 257.
    Van den Berg, Ronald
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ma, Wei Ji
    Robust averaging during perceptual judgment is not optimal.2012In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 109, no 13Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 258.
    Van den Berg, Ronald
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ma, WJ
    "Plateau"-related summary statistics are uninformative for comparing working memory models.2014In: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, ISSN 1943-3921, E-ISSN 1943-393XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Performance on visual working memory tasks decreases as more items need to be remembered. Over the past decade, a debate has unfolded between proponents of slot models and slotless models of this phenomenon (Ma, Husain, Bays (Nature Neuroscience 17, 347-356, 2014). Zhang and Luck (Nature 453, (7192), 233-235, 2008) and Anderson, Vogel, and Awh (Attention, Perception, Psychophys 74, (5), 891-910, 2011) noticed that as more items need to be remembered, "memory noise" seems to first increase and then reach a "stable plateau." They argued that three summary statistics characterizing this plateau are consistent with slot models, but not with slotless models. Here, we assess the validity of their methods. We generated synthetic data both from a leading slot model and from a recent slotless model and quantified model evidence using log Bayes factors. We found that the summary statistics provided at most 0.15 % of the expected model evidence in the raw data. In a model recovery analysis, a total of more than a million trials were required to achieve 99 % correct recovery when models were compared on the basis of summary statistics, whereas fewer than 1,000 trials were sufficient when raw data were used. Therefore, at realistic numbers of trials, plateau-related summary statistics are highly unreliable for model comparison. Applying the same analyses to subject data from Anderson et al. (Attention, Perception, Psychophys 74, (5), 891-910, 2011), we found that the evidence in the summary statistics was at most 0.12 % of the evidence in the raw data and far too weak to warrant any conclusions. The evidence in the raw data, in fact, strongly favored the slotless model. These findings call into question claims about working memory that are based on summary statistics.

  • 259.
    Van den Berg, Ronald
    et al.
    Univ Groningen, Inst Math & Comp Sci, Groningen, Netherlands; Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Lab Expt Ophthalmol, Groningen, Netherlands; Univ Groningen, Sch Behav & Cognit Neurosci, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Roerdink, Jos B. T. M.
    Univ Groningen, Inst Math & Comp Sci, Groningen, Netherlands; .
    Cornelissen, Frans W.
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Lab Expt Ophthalmol, Groningen, Netherlands; Univ Groningen, Sch Behav & Cognit Neurosci, Groningen, Netherlands.
    A neurophysiologically plausible population code model for feature integration explains visual crowding2010In: PloS Computational Biology, ISSN 1553-734X, E-ISSN 1553-7358, Vol. 6, no 1, article id e1000646Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An object in the peripheral visual field is more difficult to recognize when surrounded by other objects. This phenomenon is called "crowding". Crowding places a fundamental constraint on human vision that limits performance on numerous tasks. It has been suggested that crowding results from spatial feature integration necessary for object recognition. However, in the absence of convincing models, this theory has remained controversial. Here, we present a quantitative and physiologically plausible model for spatial integration of orientation signals, based on the principles of population coding. Using simulations, we demonstrate that this model coherently accounts for fundamental properties of crowding, including critical spacing, "compulsory averaging", and a foveal-peripheral anisotropy. Moreover, we show that the model predicts increased responses to correlated visual stimuli. Altogether, these results suggest that crowding has little immediate bearing on object recognition but is a by-product of a general, elementary integration mechanism in early vision aimed at improving signal quality.

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  • 260.
    Van den Berg, Ronald
    et al.
    Department of Mathematics and Computing Science and School of Behavioral and Cognitive Neurosciences, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands..
    Roerdink, Jos B. T. M.
    Department of Mathematics and Computing Science and School of Behavioral and Cognitive Neurosciences, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands..
    Cornelissen, Frans W.
    Department of Mathematics and Computing Science and School of Behavioral and Cognitive Neurosciences, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands..
    On the generality of crowding: visual crowding in size, saturation, and hue compared to orientation2007In: Journal of Vision, ISSN 1534-7362, E-ISSN 1534-7362, Vol. 7, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perception of peripherally viewed shapes is impaired when surrounded by similar shapes. This phenomenon is commonly referred to as "crowding". Although studied extensively for perception of characters (mainly letters) and, to a lesser extent, for orientation, little is known about whether and how crowding affects perception of other features. Nevertheless, current crowding models suggest that the effect should be rather general and thus not restricted to letters and orientation. Here, we report on a series of experiments investigating crowding in the following elementary feature dimensions: size, hue, and saturation. Crowding effects in these dimensions were benchmarked against those in the orientation domain. Our primary finding is that all features studied show clear signs of crowding. First, identification thresholds increase with decreasing mask spacing. Second, for all tested features, critical spacing appears to be roughly half the viewing eccentricity and independent of stimulus size, a property previously proposed as the hallmark of crowding. Interestingly, although critical spacings are highly comparable, crowding magnitude differs across features: Size crowding is almost as strong as orientation crowding, whereas the effect is much weaker for saturation and hue. We suggest that future theories and models of crowding should be able to accommodate these differences in crowding effects.

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  • 261.
    Van den Berg, Ronald
    et al.
    Baylor Coll Med, Dept Neurosci, Houston, TX 77030 USA.
    Shin, Hongsup
    Baylor Coll Med, Dept Neurosci, Houston, TX 77030 USA.
    Chou, Wen-Chuang
    Baylor Coll Med, Dept Neurosci, Houston, TX 77030 USA.
    George, Ryan
    Baylor Coll Med, Dept Neurosci, Houston, TX 77030 USA; Rice Univ, Dept Computat & Appl Math, Houston, TX 77005 USA.
    Ma, Wei Ji
    Baylor Coll Med, Dept Neurosci, Houston, TX 77030 USA.
    Variability in encoding precision accounts for visual short-term memory limitations2012In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 109, no 22, p. 8780-8785Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is commonly believed that visual short-term memory (VSTM) consists of a fixed number of "slots" in which items can be stored. An alternative theory in which memory resource is a continuous quantity distributed over all items seems to be refuted by the appearance of guessing in human responses. Here, we introduce a model in which resource is not only continuous but also variable across items and trials, causing random fluctuations in encoding precision. We tested this model against previous models using two VSTM paradigms and two feature dimensions. Our model accurately accounts for all aspects of the data, including apparent guessing, and outperforms slot models in formal model comparison. At the neural level, variability in precision might correspond to variability in neural population gain and doubly stochastic stimulus representation. Our results suggest that VSTM resource is continuous and variable rather than discrete and fixed and might explain why subjective experience of VSTM is not all or none.

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  • 262.
    Van den Berg, Ronald
    et al.
    Baylor Coll Med, Dept Neurosci, Houston, TX 77030 USA.
    Vogel, Michael
    Univ Houston, Dept Math, Houston, TX 77204 USA.
    Josic, Kresimir
    Univ Houston, Dept Math, Houston, TX 77204 USA; Univ Houston, Dept Biol & Biochem, Houston, TX 77204 USA.
    Ma, Wei Ji
    Baylor Coll Med, Dept Neurosci, Houston, TX 77030 USA.
    Optimal inference of sameness2012In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 109, no 8, p. 3178-3183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deciding whether a set of objects are the same or different is a cornerstone of perception and cognition. Surprisingly, no principled quantitative model of sameness judgment exists. We tested whether human sameness judgment under sensory noise can be modeled as a form of probabilistically optimal inference. An optimal observer would compare the reliability-weighted variance of the sensory measurements with a set size-dependent criterion. We conducted two experiments, in which we varied set size and individual stimulus reliabilities. We found that the optimal-observer model accurately describes human behavior, outperforms plausible alternatives in a rigorous model comparison, and accounts for three key findings in the animal cognition literature. Our results provide a normative footing for the study of sameness judgment and indicate that the notion of perception as near-optimal inference extends to abstract relations.

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  • 263.
    Van den Berg, Ronald
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Zylberberg, Ariel
    Department of Neuroscience, Zuckerman Mind Brain Behavior Institute, Kavli Institute of Brain Science, and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA.
    Kiani, Roozbeh
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA.
    Shadlen, Michael N.
    Department of Neuroscience, Zuckerman Mind Brain Behavior Institute, Kavli Institute of Brain Science, and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA.
    Wolpert, Daniel M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Confidence Is the Bridge between Multi-stage Decisions2016In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Demanding tasks often require a series of decisions to reach a goal. Recent progress in perceptual decision-making has served to unite decision accuracy, speed, and confidence in a common framework of bounded evidence accumulation, furnishing a platform for the study of such multi-stage decisions. In many instances, the strategy applied to each decision, such as the speed-accuracy trade-off, ought to depend on the accuracy of the previous decisions. However, as the accuracy of each decision is often unknown to the decision maker, we hypothesized that subjects may carry forward a level of confidence in previous decisions to affect subsequent decisions. Subjects made two perceptual decisions sequentially and were rewarded only if they made both correctly. The speed and accuracy of individual decisions were explained by noisy evidence accumulation to a terminating bound. We found that subjects adjusted their speed-accuracy setting by elevating the termination bound on the second decision in proportion to their confidence in the first. The findings reveal a novel role for confidence and a degree of flexibility, hitherto unknown, in the brain’s ability to rapidly and precisely modify the mechanisms that control the termination of a decision.

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  • 264.
    Volgsten, Helena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Obstetrics and Reproductive Health Research. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Jansson, Caroline
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Reproductive biology.
    Skoog Svanberg, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Reproductive Health.
    Darj, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Maternal and Reproductive Health and Migration. Department of Public Health and Nursing, NTNU, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, St Olav’s Hospital, Trondheim, Norway.
    Stavreus-Evers, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Reproductive biology.
    Longitudinal study of emotional experiences, grief and depressive symptoms in women and men after miscarriage2018In: Midwifery, ISSN 0266-6138, E-ISSN 1532-3099, Vol. 64, p. 23-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Although miscarriage is common and affects up to 20 % of pregnant women, little is known about these couples’ short term and long term experiences after miscarriage.The aim of the present study was to study emotional experience, grief and depressive symptoms in women and men,one week and four months after miscarriage. Research design /setting:Women, (n=103), and their male partner (n=78), were recruited at the gynecological clinic after miscarriage. Control women were recruitedfrom the general population.Three validated questionnaires concerning psychological wellbeing and mental health, RIMS, PGS and MADRS-S were answered by the participants one week and four months after the miscarriage. Findings: It was shown that for women, the emotional experiences of miscarriage, grief and depressive symptoms were more pronounced than for their male partners. Grief and depressive symptoms were reduced with time, which was not the case for the emotional experiences of miscarriage. Previous children was favorable for emotional experience while previous miscarriage or infertility treatment made the emotional experience worse. Conclusion: Grief and depressive symptoms is reducedover time while emotional experiences such as isolation, loss of baby and a devastating event persist for longer time than four months. Lack of previous children, previous miscarriageand infertility diagnosis could increase negative emotional experiencesafter miscarriage, this was especially pronounced for grief reaction.The questionnaires could be used both clinically and in research to understand the emotional experiences after miscarriage.

  • 265.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rosander, Kerstin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Development of Sensorimotor Intelligence in Infants2018In: Studying The Perception-Action System As A Model System For Understanding Development / [ed] Plumert, J M, Elsevier, 2018, p. 73-106Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Infancy is the most dynamic part of human development. During this period, all basic sensorimotor and cognitive abilities are established. In this chapter, we will trace some of the important achievements of this development with a focus on how infants achieve predictive control of actions, i.e., how they come to coordinate their behavior with the ongoing events in the world without lagging behind. With the maturation of the brain, new possibilities that have profound effects on cognition open up. Some of them are core abilities, i.e., they function at birth or very early in development. Important examples are the structured perception of objects and surfaces and the control of arm movements. Closely after birth, infants move their arms to the vicinity of objects in front of them demonstrating that they have some control of their arms and indicating that they perceive objects as such. Another example is the rapid onset of smooth-pursuit eye movements during the second month of life and the emerging ability to predict when and where an occluded moving object will reappear. At 4 months of age, out of sight is no longer of mind. The child's sensorimotor system is especially designed to facilitate the extraction of knowledge about the world including other people. In addition, the infant is endowed with motives that ensure that the innate predispositions are transformed into a system of knowledge for guiding actions predictively. By perceiving and acting on the world, infants develop their cognition and through developmental studies; we can learn more about these processes.

  • 266.
    Wallin, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Parling, Thomas
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Cty Council, Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Stockholm, Sweden; Ctr Psychotherapy Educ & Res, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Weineland, Sandra
    Res & Dev Ctr, Primary Hlth Care, Region Vastra Gotaland, Sweden; Univ Gothenburg, Dept Psychol, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Dahl, JoAnne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Acceptance and Commitment Therapy to Promote Value Attainment Among Individuals with Overweight: a Multiple Baseline Evaluation2018In: Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, ISSN 2212-1447, Vol. 10, p. 41-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although overweight is typically associated with lower quality of life, weight loss in itself does not necessarily improve quality of life. Therefore, there is an increase of studies investigating the effect of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) to promote values-based behavior among people with overweight. However, few have evaluated the use of brief self-help interventions with minimal therapist support. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact with regard to value attainment related to health and weight related experiential avoidance as well as the acceptability of a self-help intervention based on ACT with therapist support via telephone. A single subject multiple baseline design with temporal staggering and randomization of treatment onset was used. Participants with overweight or obesity (n = 13, 100% women) with a mean age of 42 (SD = 13.79) were recruited through social media. The intervention consisted of a workbook and weekly telephone support during a 3-week treatment period. Primary and secondary outcome measures were collected daily and before, after and at 3-months follow up. Results indicate that the intervention improved daily ratings of value attainment related to health among seven participants and reduced experiential avoidance among five of the participants. Effect sizes for those who improved were medium to large. Remaining participants did not improve with regard to the primary outcomes. Moreover, results indicate that the intervention was associated with acceptable adherence and treatment satisfaction. Future studies are needed in order to understand more about for what types of clients a brief self-help ACT intervention may be helpful to improve values based behavior.

  • 267.
    West, Keon
    et al.
    Univ Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, W Yorkshire, England.
    Holmes, Emily A.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Psychiat, Oxford OX1 2JD, England.
    Hewstone, Miles
    Enhancing imagined contact to reduce prejudice against people with schizophrenia2011In: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, ISSN 1368-4302, E-ISSN 1461-7188, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 407-428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Four studies investigated the effect of imagining intergroup contact on prejudice against people with schizophrenia. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that a neutral imagined contact task can have negative effects, compared to a control condition, even when paired with incidental positive information (Experiment 2). Experiments 3 and 4 demonstrated, however, that an integrated positive imagined contact scenario does result in less intergroup anxiety and more positive attitudes, even toward this challenging group. Analyses of participants' descriptions of the imagined interactions in and across the first three studies confirm that positive and high quality imagined contact is important for reducing prejudice, but failing to ensure that imagined contact is positive may have deleterious consequences. We emphasize the importance of investigating the quality of the imagined contact experience, and discuss the implications for using imagined contact as a prejudice-reducing intervention.

  • 268.
    Wheeler, Amanda
    et al.
    Griffith Univ, Griffith Hlth Inst, Brisbane, Qld 4111, Australia.;Univ Auckland, Fac Med Hlth Sci, Auckland 1, New Zealand..
    McKenna, Brian
    Australian Catholic Univ, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;North Western Mental Hlth, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Madell, Dominic
    Univ Auckland, Sch Nursing, Mental Hlth Res Ctr, Auckland 1, New Zealand..
    Harrison, Jeff
    Univ Auckland, Sch Pharm, Auckland 1, New Zealand..
    Prebble, Kate
    Univ Auckland, Sch Nursing, Mental Hlth Res Ctr, Auckland 1, New Zealand..
    Larsson, Elin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Dunbar, Lucy
    Waitemata Dist Hlth Board, Clin Res & Resource Ctr, Auckland, New Zealand..
    Nakarada-Kordic, Ivana
    Univ Auckland, Sch Nursing, Mental Hlth Res Ctr, Auckland 1, New Zealand..
    Self-reported health-related quality of life of mental health service users with serious mental illness in New Zealand2015In: JOURNAL OF PRIMARY HEALTH CARE, ISSN 1172-6164, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 117-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Although people with serious mental illness (SMI) have a high prevalence of physical illness, health-related quality of life (HQoL) has not been sufficiently explored. AIM: To explore the self-reported HQoL of mental health service users in New Zealand. METHODS: Responses on the Medical Outcomes Study 36 Item Short Form (SF-36) measure of HQoL from 404 adult mental health service users in a metropolitan district health board area in New Zealand were analysed and compared to a representative sample of the general population. RESULTS: Mental health service users scored significantly lower on all eight domains of the SF-36 than the general population, the largest difference being in the role limitation-emotional domain. DISCUSSION: Being female, younger than 25, obese or overweight, or of New Zealand European/Other ethnicity were associated with poorer functioning on multiple HQoL domains. Future studies should seek to understand the factors contributing to perceptions of HQoL of mental health service users in New Zealand.

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  • 269.
    Williams, Carolyn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    “What did you expect?” Refugee Definitions of Integration: Perceptions Shaping Satisfaction2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to examine the relationship between perceptions, expectations and satisfaction among a refugee population and to redefine integration from the refugee perspective. Specifically, with a peace & conflict lens, how refugees view integration and how perceptions of its meaning impact their satisfaction in life will be assessed. The thesis theorizes that, while integration does not determine satisfaction in life, distance between perceptions of integration can lead to expectation dissonance which negatively impacts general life satisfaction. The hypothesis of this study is that, the greater the distance in perceptions, the lower satisfaction in life will be. To test this claim, interviews and surveys are conducted via a qualitative case study approach. Individual refugees report how they define and understand integration, what their expectations are in the country of asylum and how satisfied they are with life in general. With statistical support between the 90%-99% confidence level, findings indicate that a distance in perceptions of integration leads to expectation dissonance which results in low life satisfaction. Results further suggest that refugees believe social aspects of integration are equally or more important than economic aspects, which is contrary to many country of asylum government policies and programming. 

  • 270.
    Williams, Kathryn J. H.
    et al.
    Univ Melbourne, Sch Ecosyst & Forest Sci, Baldwin Spencer Bldg, Parkville, Vic 3010, Australia.
    Lee, Kate E.
    Univ Melbourne, Sch Ecosyst & Forest Sci, Baldwin Spencer Bldg, Parkville, Vic 3010, Australia.
    Hartig, Terry
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Sargent, Leisa D.
    UNSW, UNSW Business Sch, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Williams, Nicholas S. G.
    Univ Melbourne, Sch Ecosyst & Forest Sci, Baldwin Spencer Bldg, Parkville, Vic 3010, Australia.
    Johnson, Katherine A.
    Univ Melbourne, Melbourne Sch Psychol Sci, Parkville, Vic, Australia.
    Conceptualising creativity benefits of nature experience: Attention restoration and mind wandering as complementary processes2018In: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 59, p. 36-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accumulating evidence indicates that time spent in natural environments promotes creativity, but few researchers have considered how this occurs. We evaluate two candidate mechanisms, attention restoration and mind wandering. We compare the accounts in terms of attentional focus, brain network activation, cognitive effects, and the temporal progression of these processes across the stages of creativity. Based on this analysis, we propose that (1) gentle shifts between externally oriented soft fascination and internally oriented mind wandering can occur during nature experience; (2) this provides the basis for mutually reinforcing pathways that enhance attention control following nature experience; and (3) mind wandering might support additional benefits for creativity, including flexibility and new associations of ideas. We propose research to test the proposed pathways, including the conditions under which environments influence creativity, the ebb and flow of attention orientation during environmental experience, and the links between attentional focus, brain network activation and creativity.

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  • 271. Woolfenden, Susan
    et al.
    Eapen, Valsamma
    Jalaludin, Bin
    Hayen, Andrew
    Kemp, Lynn
    Dissanyake, Cheryl
    Hendry, Alexandra
    Axelsson, Emma
    Overs, Bronwyn
    Eastwood, John
    \vCrnčec, Rudi
    McKenzie, Anne
    Beasley, Deborah
    Murphy, Elisabeth
    Williams, Katrina
    Prevalence and factors associated with parental concerns about development detected by the Parents’ Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS) at 6-month, 12-month and 18-month well-child checks in a birth cohort2016In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Early identification of developmental vulnerability is vital. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of moderate or high developmental risk on the Parents’ Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS) at 6-month, 12-month and 18-month well-child checks; identify associated risk factors; and examine documentation of the PEDS at well-child checks. Design, participants: A prospective birth cohort of 2025 children with 50% of those approached agreeing to participate. Demographic data were obtained via questionnaires and linked electronic medical records. Telephone interviews were conducted with parents to collect PEDS data. Primary and secondary outcomes: Multiple logistic regression analyses identified risk factors for moderate or high developmental risk on the PEDS. A Cumulative Risk Index examined the impact of multiple risk factors on developmental risk and documentation of the PEDS at the well-child checks. Results: Of the original cohort, 792 (39%) had 6-month, 649 (32%) had 12-month and 565 (28%) had 18-month PEDS data. Parental concerns indicating moderate or high developmental risk on the PEDS were 27% (95% CI 24 to 30) at 6 months, 27% (95% CI 24 to 30) at 12 months and 33% (95% CI 29 to 37) at 18 months. Factors associated with moderate or high developmental risk were perinatal risk (OR 12 months: 1.7 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.7)); maternal Middle Eastern or Asian nationality (OR 6 months: 1.6 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.4)), (OR 12 months: 1.7 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.7)); and household disadvantage (OR 6 months: 1.5 (95% CI 1.0 to 2.2). As the number of risk factors increased the odds increased for high or moderate developmental risk and no documentation of the PEDS at well-child checks. Conclusions: Children with multiple risk factors are more likely to have parental concerns indicating developmental vulnerability using the PEDS and for these concerns to not be documented.

  • 272.
    Ågren, Thomas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Millroth, Philip
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Andersson, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ridzén, Måns
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Björkstrand, Johannes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Rigshosp, Neurobiol Res Unit, Copenhagen, Denmark; Lund Univ, Dept Psychol, Lund, Sweden.
    Detailed analysis of skin conductance responses during a gambling task: Decision, anticipation, and outcomes2019In: Psychophysiology, ISSN 0048-5772, E-ISSN 1469-8986, Vol. 56, no 6, article id e13338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Physiological arousal is considered a key factor of gambling behavior. Hence, to understand gambling behavior it is important to study the arousal responses during gambling. Moreover, crucial mechanisms of action could be uncovered by detailing the situations that produce an arousal response. A gamble, or bet, can be partitioned into three distinct phases: (a) decision phase, during which the information concerning the gamble is presented, outcomes are appraised, and a decision is made on how to gamble; (b) anticipation phase, during which the result of the gamble is awaited; (c) outcome phase, during which the outcome of the gamble is presented. Previous research on arousal responses to gambling have mostly measured tonic changes in arousal, and when phasic responses have been measured, analyses have generally concentrated on one of the gamble phases. The aim of the present study was to map the arousal responses during gambling in more detail by measuring skin conductance responses (SCRs) during all three gamble phases of a simple card game. The anticipation phase was found to produce the largest arousal response, suggesting anticipation to be a major contributor to arousal during gambling behavior. Risk behavior during the gambling task was mirrored in self-reported risk taking in everyday life, and risk-takers displayed smaller SCRs compared to nonrisk-takers during decision making, suggesting this as a possible biomarker for risk-taking individuals.

  • 273.
    Åhlén, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Uppsala Univ, Dept Psychol, POB 1225, SE-75142 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Ghaderi, Ata
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Evaluation of the Children's Depression Inventory-Short Version (CDI-S)2017In: Psychological Assessment, ISSN 1040-3590, E-ISSN 1939-134X, Vol. 29, no 9, p. 1157-1166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Children's Depression Inventory-Short Version (CDI-S), an abbreviated version of the widely used Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), has been regularly used in recent research. In comparison to the original CDI, the CDI-S has not been rigorously evaluated for its psychometrics. The present study examined the dimensionality, convergent and discriminant validity, and gender differences of the CDI-S in a school-based sample of 809 children 8-12 years of age. All children completed the CDI-S. One subsample additionally completed another measure of depression, 1 subsample completed a measure of anxiety, and 1 subsample completed the CDI-S at a second occasion, after 2 weeks. Information regarding parents' education and household income were available for 476 children. We evaluated the dimensionality of the CDI-S in a series of exploratory factor analyses. Despite some evidence of multidimensionality, a bifactor model revealed that the variation of scores was primarily explained by variations of the general factor. Consequently, the CDI-S is most adequately interpreted as a univocal measure. The CDI-S showed high correlation to another measure of depression and a moderately high correlation to a measure of anxiety, with nonoverlapping confidence intervals. We also found that girls reported higher levels of depressive symptoms than did boys, and we found a negative correlation between depressive symptoms and socioeconomic factors for boys only. Future studies should preferably include a broader age range, to acquire a more comprehensive understanding of the validity of the CDI-S.

  • 274.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Larsson, Maria
    Bäckman, Lars
    Differential sex effects in olfactory functioning: The role of verbal processing2002In: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, ISSN 1355-6177, E-ISSN 1469-7661, Vol. 8, p. 691-698Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 275.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Larsson, Maria
    Bäckman, Lars
    Odor Identification in Old Age: Demographic, Sensory, and Cognitive Correlates2005In: Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition, ISSN 1382-5585, E-ISSN 1744-4128, Vol. 12, p. 231-244Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 276.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Larsson, Maria
    Bäckman, Lars
    Recollective experience in odor recognition: influences of adult age and familiarity2006In: Psychological Research, ISSN 0340-0727, E-ISSN 1430-2772, Vol. 70, p. 68-75Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 277.
    Öberg-Blåvarg, Christina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bad Odors Stick Better Than Good Ones: Olfactory Qualities and Odor Recognition2009In: Experimental Psychology, ISSN ISSN-L 1618-3169, ISSN-Print 1618-3169, ISSN-Online 2190-5142, Vol. 56, no 6, p. 375-380Article in journal (Refereed)
3456 251 - 277 of 277
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