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  • 251.
    Bennich-Björkman, Li
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Ulrika Jerre: Conflicting Logics? Implementing Capacity and EU Adaptation in a Postcommunist Context. Lund Political Studies 136. Lund 2005: Department of Political Science.2007In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 108, no 4, 411-417 p.Article, book review (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna recension sönderfaller i tre delar. I en första del sammanfattar jag i resonerande form avhandlingens huvudinnehåll och slutsatser. Den andra delen innehåller ett antal kommentarer, frågor och invändningar. I den tredje, avslutande, sektionen sammanfattar jag de positiva och negativa intrycken.

  • 252.
    Bennich-Björkman, Li
    Malmö högskola.
    Universiteten, kreativiteten och politikens aningslöshet2007In: Educare, ISSN 1653-1868, no 1, 34-52 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is concerned with what knowledge that can be gained from research on creativity in psychology, social psychology and organizational theory on the one hand and how research policies are conducted on the other. The thesis brought forward is that research on creative personalities and how organizations promoting creativity function does not inform Swedish policy makers responsible for the higher education sector. There are few traces of the insights provided by such research in the presently conducted research policies. In the article, insights from creativity research are presented and discussed, focusing on the how organizations that generate creativity in research tend to be constructed. For example, in order to be able to mobilize the mental energy and concentration needed to produce creative, that is both new and relevant, ideas and solutions inner motivation as opposed to concerns about external assessments is highly crucial. All studies on creativity confirm that. To create the best possible preconditions for such inner motivation to guide researchers, the phase when ideas are worked out is the most sensitive one to safeguard from outside expectations. However, presently we have an organization for research funding based on competition between ideas, ideas that are then scrutinized and assessed at a quite early stage. Another precondition for creative thinking is a climate of risk-taking and non-conformity. The conformity produced by the present funding system where peers are acting as gatekeepers is becoming a problem to many researchers who manoever in a strategic rather than inner-directed manner in order to receive funding.

  • 253.
    Bennich-Björkman, Li
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Är de baltiska staterna redo för ett EU-medlemsskap?2001In: Östutvidgning, majoritetsbeslut och flexibel integration / [ed] Ulf Bernitz, Sverker Gustavsson & Lars Oxelheim, Stockholm: Santérus Förlag, 2001Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 254.
    Bennich-Björkman, Li
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Ahlbäck-Öberg, Shirin
    Widmalm, Sten
    Hermansson, Jörgen
    Karlsson, Christer
    Jarstad, Anna
    Det hotade universitetet2016Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 255.
    Bennich-Björkman, Li
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Blomqvist, PaulaUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Mellan folkhem och Europa. Svensk politik i brytningstid2008Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 256.
    Bennich-Björkman, Li
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Bågenholm, Andreas
    Johansson-Heinö, Andreas
    In the absence of antagonism? Rethinking Eastern European Populism in the early 2000s2017In: Eastern European QuarterlyArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 257.
    Bennich-Björkman, Li
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Kostic, Roland
    Likic-Brboric, Branka
    Citizens at Heart? Perspectives on integration of refugees in the EU after the Yugoslavia wars of succession2016Book (Refereed)
  • 258.
    Benthe, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    The Friendly Neighbor to the East?: A Study on Russian Media’s Attempt at Influencing the Swedish NATO-Debate.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 259.
    Berg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Staten som kapitalist: Marknadsanpassningen av de affärsdrivande verken 1976-19941999Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the 1980's a transformation of the Swedish public sector took place. A term that has frequently been used to describe this chain of events is market orientation. This dissertation deals with the market orientation of a particular group of public authorities, the public enterprises. This book contains a study of the Swedish Parliament's policy during the period 1976-1994 as regards four public enterprises; The Post Office Administration, The Swedish Telecommunications Administration, The Swedish State Railways and The State Power Board.

    The thesis shows that over time the market orientation of the public enterprises has gradually become more apparent and has increasingly covered more aspects of their activities. During the 1980's market orientation was carried out within the framework of the public enterprises as such. Then, at the start of the 1990's, the public enterprise form of three of the studied enterprises was abolished in favour of the company form.

    The study also shows that the vast majority of the political parties have moved towards a more positive position vis-á-vis market orientation. It is the non-socialist parties that started the policy of market orientation but, interestingly enough, it is during the subsequent Social Democratic government that the policy of market orientation becomes particularly pronounced.

    The concluding section of the book is devoted to a discussion on how the decisions made to increase the market orientation of public enterprises can be explained. This discussion concludes with a section devoted to the actions of the Social Democratic Party. In conclusion, the Social Democrats may have applied what in this thesis is called a functional-capitalistic strategy.

  • 260.
    Berg, Annika
    et al.
    Nordic Centre for Gender in Military Operations (NCGM).
    Bjarnegård, Elin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Dissecting Gender Imbalance: A Horizontal Perspective on When Risk Matters for the Assignment of Women to UN Peacekeeping Missions2016In: Res Militaris, E-ISSN 2265-6294, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite efforts to improve the gender balance in UN peacekeeping missions, the overall proportion of female military peacekeepers is still low. This article focuses on the methodological challenges involved in examining gender balance in international missions. By bringing a horizontal analysis to bear on the proportion of women in UN peacekeeping missions, the study shows how different factors influence that proportion among contingent troops and military observers, respectively. Earlier research has pointed to the fact that the proportion of women is lower in high-risk missions because of the influence of military masculinities in assignments. The authors argue that when examining such a relationship, the different nature of the two groups - contingent troops and military observers, and how prone they are to combat and risk - must be considered and is best approached through a horizontally disaggregated line of analysis. The horizontal study outlined in this article confirms that such a relationship exists as regards contingent troops, but not among military observers. Its findings primarily show the relevance of a horizontally disaggregated analysis when examining factors that influence gender balance in international missions. Secondly, it suggests that other factors than the influence of military masculinities and the prevalence of mission risk also affect the proportion of women among military observers and similar groups in international missions. The authors conclude by stressing the need for future research to identify the factors that underpin assignment to different military functions, not least when it comes to servicewomen.  

  • 261.
    Berg, Elias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences.
    The historical thinking of Charles A. Beard1957Book (Other academic)
  • 262.
    Bergdahl, Becky
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Yo ban? Rape rap and limits of free speech in India: An argument analysis of the debate about banning the artist Honey Singh2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of an argument analysis of three columns published in the Indian newspaper The Indian Express in the aftermath of the gangrape and murder of a young woman in Delhi in December 2012, and the following debate about glorification of rape in Indian popular culture. One of the columnists is arguing in favour of including gender as a category in the Indian law on hate speech, thereby banning an artist called Honey Singh and his lyrics about rape. The two other columnists are arguing against new restrictions on free speech in India.

    The analysis of the columns shows that there are several relevant arguments for and against including gender in the Indian hate speech legislation. The argumentation against a new law is similar to argumentation found in Western liberal theory, and the argumentation in favour of a new law is similar to argumentation found in Western radical feminist and critical race theory.

    However, both strands of philosophy are contested by postcolonial theorists, arguing that no Western theory is applicable in a non-Western context, such as India. Indian postcolonial feminists argue in favour of a third approach to sexist speech in India; a counter-speech approach. Counter-speech theorists agree with liberals about the importance of freedom of speech, and with feminists about the harm in hate speech. According to counter-speech theory, hate speech shall thus not be outlawed, but the state shall try to counter the harmful effects of hate speech, for example by strengthening groups targeted by hate speech so that they can speak back to hatemongers.

    The conclusion of this thesis is that a counter-speech approach is the most sustainable regarding freedom of speech and gender in India. Such an approach does not only appeal to Indian postcolonial theorists, it is also a middle way in-between a liberal and a radical feminist approach.

    In the conclusion, the relevance of hate speech legislation as a whole is also questioned. Laws such as in India, that protect only racial and religious groups from being targeted by hate speech while categories such as gender, sexual orientation and disability are not included, can be deemed discriminatory. An abolishment of hate speech prohibitions and an adoption of a counter-speech approach to all forms of hate speech is discussed.

  • 263.
    Bergesen, Oskar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Peace in Space for Our Time?: United States Strategical Considerations in Outer Space Policy2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The politics of outer space has in recent years been given attention from political elites and scientist due to increasing usage and reliance on space based assets, and due to increasing numbers of actors trying to utilize the benefits of space. Concerns have been raised if the increasing military usage of space will lead to a future weaponization of space, making some political leaders and scholars claiming the inevitability of space weaponization.  In this thesis I investigate why the United States of America this far has chosen not to weaponize space based on the strategical setting of outer space politics. The research question guiding this thesis reads: What strategic considerations explain the US decision not to weaponize outer space? In order to evaluate the strategic setting and US strategical considerations I apply Game Theory and Non-Formal Rational Choice Theory to highlight what is causing the greatest space faring nation not to weaponize space. I empirically base this study on official space policy documents and one report written by an official commission to asses US national security space management.  Based on the strategic setting of outer space politics and US strategical considerations it is found that the US has not commenced a process leading to the weaponization of space since such development would not increase its national security, but rather in several ways decrease it. I conclude that a process of space weaponization is not likely to be initiated by the US in the current strategical setting.

  • 264.
    Berggren, Klara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Den hållbara (tids)resan: En tidsöverskridande studie om hållbar biståndsallokering2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 265.
    Berglund, Christofer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    At the Crossroads: Georgia Between Dominant-Power Politics, Feckless Pluralism and Democracy2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article charts the last decade of Georgian politics through theories of semi-authoritarianism and democratization. I first dissect Saakashvili’s system of "dominant-power politics", which enabled state-building reforms, yet also atrophied political competition. I then analyze the "nested two-level game" between incumbents and opposition in the run-up to the 2012 parliamentary elections. After recounting the outcome of election day, I examine the Darwinian cohabitation that next pushed Georgia in the direction of "feckless pluralism". With presidential elections and a new constitution looming, protagonists must cease using state institutions for partisan purposes in order to set Georgia on a democratic trajectory. 

  • 266.
    Berglund, Christofer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Borders and Belonging: Nation-Building in Georgia's Armenian and Azerbaijani Ethno-Regions, 2004–20122016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the fall of the Soviet Union, scholars researching ethnic politics have approached the South Caucasus as a testing ground for theories of separatism and conflict. But the 2003 Rose Revolution brought a new generation of politicians to power in Georgia. President Mikheil Saakashvili distanced himself from the ethnic nationalism of the past, which had poisoned relations between Georgians and their Armenian and Azerbaijani compatriots. The incoming authorities instead sought to foster an inclusive nationalism, wherein belonging hinged on speaking the state language and all Georgian-speakers, regardless of origin, were to be equals.

    This thesis investigates this nation-building project and its influence on the integration of Georgia's Armenian and Azerbaijani borderlands. I first examine the mode through which these peripheries were incorporated into post-Soviet Georgia. Since Armenians controlled "their own" domain to a greater extent than the Azerbaijanis, I infer that the former were absorbed along integralist and the latter along colonial lines. Moving to the time-period after the Rose Revolution, I next explore if Georgian officials and Georgian adolescents were tolerant towards Georgian-speaking minorities. With the help of elite interviews and a socio-linguistic experiment (n = 792), I reveal that officials and adolescents were open to integrated Armenians and Azerbaijanis alike. I then proceed to inspect the centre's nationalising agencies and their efforts to incentivise minorities to interact with Georgians, and to use the state language during these contacts. Last but not least, I turn to the reactions this nation-building project elicited in the borderlands. On the basis of interviews with local elites and a socio-linguistic experiment involving Armenian and Azerbaijani adolescents (n = 434; n = 483), I discovered sharp differences: Armenians reacted with defiance and Azerbaijanis with compliance.

    These findings augment our knowledge of ethno-linguistic stereotypes in the Caucasus. They also demonstrate that inclusive nation-building projects can inspire minorities to integrate – despite adverse circumstances – but hint at one condition conducive to this end. Armenians perceived the state language as a battering ram against "their own" domain, while Azerbaijanis saw it as a tool to escape their isolation. This within-country comparison suggests that similar nation-building projects can trigger different reactions in integralist and colonial borderlands.

  • 267.
    Berglund, Christofer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Demokratisering och dess gränser: etnopolitik, exit och voice i Georgiens kortslutna transition2010In: Nordisk Østforum, ISSN 0801-7220, E-ISSN 1891-1773, Vol. 24, no 1, 7-34 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to highlight and problematise the boundaries of democratisation, with Georgia's troubled transition as empirical point of reference. The argument proceeds from the established idea that democratisation requires a demos, the presence of which provides the state undergoing transition with horizontal legitimacy. However, there are no good ways to decide where or how to draw the boundaries of democratisation in ethnopolitically contested states. Transitions occurring under such circumstances tend to be short-circuited. No nation wishes to be subjugated to the will of another nation within a state owned by another nation. Whether conflicts over the boundaries of democratisation are resolved to the satisfaction of the majority or minority depends to a significant degree - but by no means exclusively - on the vertical legitimacy of the host state. Depending on whether the relationship between the majority population and the state institutions is characterised by distrust or trust, the host state will be either weak or strong, and hence have low or high ability to contain resentful minorities. The article argues that between 1991 and 2003, Georgia was characterised by low vertical legitimacy, whereas since 2004, the state has acquired higher vertical legitimacy.

  • 268.
    Berglund, Christofer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    'Forward to David the Builder!' Armenians and Azerbaijanis under Georgia's Civic Nationalism2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Following the Rose Revolution, President Saakashvili sought to transcend the ethnic nationalism that had poisoned relations between Georgians and the country's Armenian and Azerbaijani minorities. A civic nation was to be forged by encouraging minorities to learn the state language. But for the Armenians and Azerbaijanis to see incentives in doing so, it is necessary that all Georgian-speakers be treated as equals - regardless of residual ethnic features. After examining official policies and rhetoric as well as attitudes among adolescent Georgians, this article concludes that previous scholars have underestimated the civic-ness of nationalism in Saakashvili's Georgia.

  • 269.
    Berglund, Christofer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    “Forward to David the Builder!”: Georgia's (re)turn to language-centered nationalism2016In: Nationalities Papers, ISSN 0090-5992, E-ISSN 1465-3923, Vol. 44, no 4, 522-542 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    After the Rose Revolution, President Saakashvili tried to move away from the exclusionary nationalism of the past, which had poisoned relations between Georgians and their Armenian and Azerbaijani compatriots. His government instead sought to foster an inclusionary nationalism, wherein belonging was contingent upon speaking the state language and all Georgian speakers, irrespective of origin, were to be equals. This article examines this nation-building project from a top-down and bottom-up lens. I first argue that state officials took rigorous steps to signal that Georgian-speaking minorities were part of the national fabric, but failed to abolish religious and historical barriers to their inclusion. I next utilize a large-scale, matched-guise experiment (n = 792) to explore if adolescent Georgians ostracize Georgian-speaking minorities or embrace them as their peers. I find that the upcoming generation of Georgians harbor attitudes in line with Saakashvili's language-centered nationalism, and that current Georgian nationalism therefore is more inclusionary than previous research, or Georgia's tumultuous past, would lead us to believe.

  • 270.
    Berglund, Christofer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    'Forward to David the Builder!' Armenians and Azerbaijanis under Georgia's Civic Nationalism2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 271.
    Berglund, Christofer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Georgia2013In: The Handbook of Political Change In Eastern Europe / [ed] Sten Berglund, Joakim Ekman, Kevin Deegan-Krause & Terje Knutsen, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2013, 3, 775-821 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 272.
    Berglund, Christofer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Georgia between Dominant-Power Politics, Feckless Pluralism, and Democracy2014In: Demokratizatsiya, ISSN 1074-6846, E-ISSN 1940-4603, Vol. 22, no 3, 445-470 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article charts the last decade of Georgian politics (2003-2013) through theories of semi-authoritarianism and democratization. It first dissects Saakashvili’s system of dominant-power politics, which enabled state-building reforms, yet atrophied political competition. It then analyzes the nested two-level game between incumbents and opposition in the run-up to the 2012 parliamentary elections. After detailing the verdict of Election Day, the article turns to the tense cohabitation that next pushed Georgia in the direction of feckless pluralism. The last section examines if the new ruling party is taking Georgia in the direction of democratic reforms or authoritarian closure.

  • 273.
    Berglund, Christofer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Georgia's Local Elections: Revitalizing the Rose Revolution?2010Report (Other academic)
  • 274.
    Berglund, Christofer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Georgien: demokratisering i skuggan av Sovjetunionen?2010In: Prometokrati: mellan diktatur och demokrati / [ed] Sten Widmalm & Sven Oskarsson, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2010, 127-169 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 275.
    Berglund, Christofer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Georgiens parlamentsval: demokratiskt genombrott eller semi-auktoritär regimcykel?2013In: Nordisk Østforum, ISSN 0801-7220, E-ISSN 1891-1773, Vol. 27, no 2, 115-139 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses the democratisation process in Georgia, whose citizens on 1 October 2012 succeeded in changing their government through the ballot box. Did this event mark a democratic breakthrough or the beginning of another semi-authoritarian regime cycle? I tackle this question by navigating across the last decade of Georgian politics through the lens of theories on democratisation and semi-authoritarianism. I first expose the system of «dominant-power politics» that allowed Saakashvili to implement much needed state-building reforms, yet also atrophied political competition. I thereafter analyse the tug-of-war between the ruling party and the opposition during the run-up to last year’s elections. After recounting the culmination of this struggle, I examine Georgia’s trajectory in the aftermath of Election Day. Rather than transitioning to democracy, Georgia has developed towards «feckless pluralism». This is to be expected since Prime Minister Ivanishvili and President Saakashvili have been forced into an uneasy cohabitation under a divided-executive constitution. However, if a genuine opening is to ensue, then the protagonists must «accept the existence of diversity in unity and, to that end, to institutionalize some crucial aspect of democratic procedure» (Rustow 1970: 355).

  • 276.
    Berglund, Christofer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Lost in Transition: State- and Nation-Building as Challenges to Democratisation in Georgia2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 277.
    Berglund, Christofer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Reframing Democratization: Ethnopolitics, Exit and Voice in Georgia's Troubled Transition2010In: Perspectives on State-Building and Democracy / [ed] Thomas Denk, Saarbrücken: VDM , 2010, 77-111 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has assumed that state-building is a prerequisite for democratization. This book challenges this assumption. An alternative approach is presented. State-building and democratization is regarded as two processes that may be integrated with each other. When integrated, the two processes are expected to be connected on different society level. The chapters address one or other of the following questions: How is state-building and democratization expected to be connected? How has the international community approached weakened and failing states? How do fundamental dimensions of state-building affect the probability for democracy in new states? How are conflicts over boundaries a part of state-building that affects the conditions for democratization? How does the capital city play role in state-building and democratization? How does inclusion and exclusion work? These questions are explored through comparative analysis and examination of recent cases of state-building and democracy. It is essential reading for researchers that have an interest in state-building, democratization, and formation of demos.

  • 278.
    Berglund, Christofer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    The Forging of a Demos in Georgia's Armenian Borderland?2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 279.
    Berglund, Christofer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Weber's Secret Admirer in the Caucasus: Saakashvili and the Nationalization of Georgia’s Armenian and Azerbaijani Borderlands2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    After the 2003 Rose Revolution, the Georgian government strove to integrate its disaffected Armenian and Azeri minorities, settled in southern Georgia across the border from their kin states. This article examines these untold efforts. It argues that the centre's nation-building entrepreneurs – known as the Mississippdaleulni – laboured to spur minorities in the ethnic enclaves first to interact with the heartland, and then to adapt to its language. Officials invested in infrastructure and extended the state's clout into the borderlands so as to foster inter-ethnic contacts. In tandem, the authorities promoted the Georgian language in the civil service, demoted the Russian tongue, and acculturated pupils to the state language. This nationalisation drive drew upon the same set of tools that Eugen Weber recorded French authorities as using in the opposite corner of Europe centuries ago.

  • 280.
    Berglund, Christofer
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government. Uppsala Center for Russian and Eurasian Studies.
    Berglund, Sten
    Örebro universitet.
    Feckless Pluralism2017In: The SAGE Encyclopedia of Political Behavior / [ed] Fathali Moghaddam, Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 2017, 295-296 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Feckless pluralism refers to political systems that fall short of democratic standards, but contain contested elections and alternation of power between different political groups. It is a form of government that is neither democratic nor autocratic. Hybrid regimes of this sort caught the attention of political scientists in the wake of the third wave of democratisation, as a number of countries in Eurasia, Africa and Latin America seemingly got stuck along the road towards democracy. Some political regimes in the grey zone between democracy and autocracy are referred to as dominant power politics systems. This entry introduces Thomas Carothers’ concept of feckless pluralism and its relation to the wider notion of hybrid regimes. 

  • 281.
    Berglund, Christofer
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Blauvelt, Timothy
    Ilia State University.
    Redefining the Nation: From Ethnic Fragmentation to Civic Integration?2016In: 25 Years of Independent Georgia: Achievements and Unfinished Projects / [ed] Ghia Nodia, Tbilisi: Konrad Adenauer Stiftung & Ilia State University Press , 2016, 11-55 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 282.
    Berglund, Christofer
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Engvall, Johan
    Utrikespolitiska Institutet.
    How Georgia Stamped Out Corruption on Campus2015Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 283.
    Berglund, Christofer
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Jonsson, Michael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government. Institute for Security and Development Policy, Stockholm.
    Larson, Christian Nils
    AML/CFT.
    Götz, Elias
    Aarhus University.
    Combating Money Laundering in Eurasia: Lessons from Kyrgyzstan and Georgia2009In: Combating Money Laundering: Transnational Perspectives / [ed] A Sabitha, Hyderabad: Icfai University Press, 2009, 190-217 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 284.
    Berglund, Christofer
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Jonsson, Michael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Larson, Christian Nils
    AML/CFT.
    Götz, Elias
    Aarhus universitet, Institut for Statskundskab.
    Combating Money Laundering in Eurasia: Lessons from Kyrgyzstan and Georgia2008In: China and Eurasia Forum Quarterly, ISSN 1653-4212, Vol. 6, no 3, 21-44 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anti-money laundering (AML) policies are instrumental both in combating organized crime and political corruption and in promoting financial transparency and economic growth. This article provides an overview of AML efforts in Eurasia, with a particular focus on Central Asia and the South Caucasus. De facto achievements in the fight against money laundering often lag behind legal frameworks and AML regulations are sometimes misused as political tools. Within their respective regions, Kyrgyzstan and Georgia stand out as the most successful countries. Kyrgyzstan has adopted AML regulations but has not taken many steps towards enforcing them. Individual banks, however, may implement AML regulations more quickly than national regulators to gain a competitive advantage. Following the Rose Revolution, Georgia adopted and began to actively enforce AML regulations. Tbilisi’s AML progress is linked to political will stemming from a unique set of domestic and foreign policy considerations.

  • 285. Berglund, Sten
    et al.
    Ekman, Joakim
    Linde, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of East European Studies.
    An Assessment of Support for Democracy in the New EU Member States2004In: Central Europe Beyond Double Enlargement, Lithuanian Political Science Association & Vilnius University, Vilnius , 2004, 268- p.Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 286.
    Bergqvist, Christina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences.
    Mäns makt och kvinnors intressen1994Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 287.
    Bergqvist, Christina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    The Nordic Countries2011In: Women in Executive Power: A global overview / [ed] Gretchen Bauer and Manon Tremblay, Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge , 2011, 1, 157-170 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 288.
    Bergqvist, Christina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Bjarnegård, Elin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Zetterberg, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Analyzing Failure, Understanding Success: A Research Strategy for Explaining Gender Equality Policy Adoption2013In: NORA: Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research, ISSN 0803-8740, E-ISSN 1502-394X, Vol. 21, no 4, 280-295 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the major challenges within feminist research is to understand the conditions under which gender equality policies are adopted. This article addresses the issue from a methodological point of view: it suggests that previous research on gender equality policy adoption has mostly focused on “successful” cases, and it presents a research strategy for systematically analysing opposition and “failed” attempts at gender equality policy adoption, that is, reform attempts that have not become laws or regulations. A closer analysis of failure is important for understanding success: we cannot be sure that the factors identified as conducive to gender equality reform are really missing in unsuccessful reform attempts unless we pay explicit attention to such attempts. The research strategy suggests three issues that should be addressed: (1) specify and select “unsuccessful” cases, (2) focus explicitly on resistance to the reform proposal, and (3) conduct a dynamic analysis of the strategies of proponents and opponents. We illustrate the research strategy by making use of a failed attempt at reform in the Swedish labour market: the individualization of the parental leave system.

  • 289.
    Bergqvist, Christina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Bjarnegård, Elin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Zetterberg, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    The Gendered Leeway: Male Privilege, Internal and External Mandates, and Gender Equality Policy Change2017In: Politics, Groups, and Identities, ISSN 2156-5503, 1-17 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses the question of why male politicians continue to be relatively unlikely to act in favor of gender-equality policy change, despite the advances in gender equality in recent decades. Drawing together literature on men and masculinities, feminist institutionalism and women’s substantive representation, we present a theoretical argument in which we distinguish between an internal and an external mandate to push for genderequality policy change. We argue that both these mandates apply to female politicians but not to their male colleagues. As a consequence, a gendered leeway exists: men have more leeway than women in political maneuvering. We illustrate this argument by analyzing high-ranked party representatives within the selflabelled feminist Swedish Social Democratic Party. This article contributes theoretically to the launching of a research agenda on the role of men in processes of gender-equality policy adoption.

    The full text will be freely available from 2018-06-02 08:00
  • 290.
    Bergqvist, Christina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Bjarnegård, Elin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Zetterberg, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    The Impact of Gender Quotas on Political Party Recruitment: The Limited Reform Potential of Reserved Seats2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 291. Bergstrand, Mats
    et al.
    Björck, Anders
    Lewin, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    När verkligheten sparkar bakut2006Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Mycket har skrivits om samhällsvetenskaplig teori och mycket om den faktiska utvecklingen, däremot föga om varför det uppstår en skillnad mellan avsikter och utfall. Den här boken behandlar just den frågan. Författarna menar att mycket av det som går fel i samhället inte beror på illvilja och egenintresse hos politikerna, utan mer på att på att man förbisett tänkbara bieffekter av olika beslut.

    Samhället demokratiserades för hundra år sedan men samtidigt undanröjdes, lika tanklöst som paradoxalt, möjligheterna till majoritetsstyre. Kommunerna skulle göras ekonomiskt bärkraftiga men man skapade ett demokratiskt underskott. Statsministerns makt lämnades utan motvikt. Politikerna står valhänta, när arbetskraftsinvandringen efterträtts av en flyktinginvandring. Makten har flyttat från riksdagen till medier och presskonferenser. Vi har kommit med i EU men utan entusiasm. Vi hyllar offentlighetsprincipen men sätter för säkerhets skull allt mindre på papper.

    Det är politikernas uppgift att förändra det som anses vara vrångt och orättfärdigt, men passionen för målen måste balanseras av en kylig analys av medlen. Annars sparkar verkligheten bakut.

  • 292.
    Berisha, Visar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Collective Identity and Economic Development: A Case Study of How People’s Perception of the Collective Identity Affects The Economic Development in Kosovo2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to show how identity can be of importance to issues relating to development. More specifically, it deals with how the Kosovar Albanians perception of their collective identity have affected Kosovo’s economic development. The study draws primarily from the theories of Identity Economics and Orientalism and presents a hypothesis which is then tested empirically through the analysis of the in-depth interviews and participant observation carried out in Kosovo. The results show that Kosovar Albanians have, to a degree, internalized the Orientalist discourse, which often portrayed them in racist terms as the ’other’, in their view of their collective identity and that this has had a negative effect on how they perceive their potential in the global economic system, which in turn has undermined the country’s economic development. Thus, identity seems to be of significance when it comes to issues relating to development.

  • 293.
    Bernerstedt, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Afrodescendenter i den andinska regionen: En studie om befolkningsandelar och rättigheter utifrån Mills Method of Difference2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 294.
    Bernhardsson, Jesper
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Sponsoring Entrepreneurship: A qualitative study on the effectiveness of government financing programs in sponsoring SME entrepreneurship in Botswana2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The value of entrepreneurship in catalysing economic and social development in developing economies is well-documented. Government SME financing programs in Botswana have helped increase access to capital for entrepreneurs, but high default rates on loans have held down overall performance. By interviewing decision-makers at government agencies providing SME financing programs, a qualitative assessment of the mechanisms used to regulate the screening and monitoring of loan-takers is rendered from an agency theory perspective. It is found that there are methods of raising effectiveness in government financing programs by introducing mechanisms to mitigate the adverse effects of agency costs found in the relationship between lender and borrower. These results provide new areas of research in the study of SME financing programs and help decision-makers recognize some of the available policy options to contribute economic and social improvement.

  • 295. Bernitz, Ulf
    et al.
    Gustavsson, Sverker
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Oxelheim, Lars
    Europaperspektiv. Årsbok för Europaforskning inom ekonomi, juridik och statskunskap1998Book (Refereed)
  • 296. Bernitz, Ulf
    et al.
    Gustavsson, Sverker
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Oxelheim, Lars
    Europaperspektiv. Årsbok för Europaforskning inom ekonomi, juridik och statskunskap1999Book (Other academic)
  • 297. Bernitz, Ulf
    et al.
    Gustavsson, Sverker
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Oxelsheim, Lars
    Europaperspektiv. Årsbok för Europaforskning inom ekonomi, juridik och statskunskap2000Book (Other academic)
  • 298.
    Bernitz, Ulf
    et al.
    Juridiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Oxelheim, LarsInstitutet för Ekonomisk Forskning, Lunds universitet.Persson, ThomasUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Överlever EMU utan fiskal union?: Europaperspektiv 20112011Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 299.
    Berry, Tom
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    ”¡Sí se Puede!”: En kvalitativ studie av Ernesto Laclaus idémässiga influenser på Podemos politiska diskurs och organisation2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här uppsatsen studerar vilka likheter som finns mellan det spanska partiet Podemos och Ernesto Laclaus teorier om populism. De specifika aspekter av Podemos jag prövar Laclaus teorier emot är partiets politiska diskurs och deras organisation. Bakgrunden till undersökningsämnet är att tidigare forskning visat att Podemos är influerade av Laclau idémässigt, både gällande deras diskurs och organisation. Uppsatsens materialinsamling har utgått från en dimensionsanalys. Denna analysteknik bygger på att idéer som representeras av Laclau har placerats i ena änden av en dimension. På den andra sidan av dimensionen återfinns det som jag definierat som motsatsen till hans idéer. Materialet som studerats är Podemos partiprogram, deras representanters uttalanden och längre reportage och böcker skrivna om partiet. Resultatet i min undersökning visar att det finns tydliga likheter mellan Laclaus idéer om populism och Podemos, men att de också skiljer sig åt. När det gäller Podemos politiska diskurs råder en hög grad av överensstämmelse med Laclaus teorier. Resultatet visar emellertid också att Podemos delvis avviker från Laclaus idéer om hur den politiska diskursen ska formeras. Den delen av min undersökning som är riktad mot partiets organisation visar en svagare grad av överrensstämmelse med Laclaus idéer, men innehåller också likheter med hans tankar.

  • 300.
    Bertrand, Gilles
    et al.
    European Commission.
    Michalski, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Pench, Lucio
    European Commission.
    Europe 2010: Cinq scénarios1999In: Futuribles, ISSN 0337-307X, no 246, 5-23 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [fr]

    La Cellule de prospective de la Commission européenne, créée en 1989 et placée sous la responsabilité directe du président de la Commission, a élaboré cinq scénarios contrastés ayant pour objet de décrire autant de futurs possibles pour l'Europe (entendue au sens large) à l'horizon 2010. Les principaux artisans de ces scénarios nous les présentent ici brièvement non sans avoir, au préalable, rappelé les vertus et les limites d'un tel exercice. Son objet ne saurait être en effet de décrire (pré-dire) ce que sera l'Europe en 2010. Il vise davantage à illustrer, à l'aide de cinq images cohérentes, synthétiques et plausibles, le spectre des possibles, les facteurs et acteurs dont le rôle peut être déterminant. À chaque scénario correspond une image finale qui est ici brièvement résumée : - Le scénario 1 "Le triomphe des marchés", se caractérise, comme son nom l'indique, par le règne absolu du libéralisme économique et du libre-échange. L'Europe - quel qu'en soit le périmètre - ne se distingue guère du reste du monde ne formant plus qu'un unique marché planétaire. - Le scénario 2 "Les Cent Fleurs", est marqué au contraire par la paralysie croissante (et la corruption) des grandes institutions tant publiques que privées, le repli des Européens sur le microlocal et l'économie informelle, la multiplication des initiatives sans aucune logique d'ensemble. - Le scénario 3 "Responsabilités partagées", repose sur l'hypothèse d'une métamorphose du secteur public qui, dans une conjoncture économique favorable, orchestre une politique sociale et industrielle renouvelée. - Le scénario 4 "Les sociétés de création", se caractérise aussi par une transformation profonde de nos systèmes économiques et politiques sous le sceau, cette fois, de valeurs privilégiant la protection de l'environnement et le développement humain. Il incarne un nouvel humanisme sur fond de développement durable, ouvre la voie à "une renaissance immatérielle planétaire". - Le scénario 5 "Voisinages turbulents", décrit une Europe allégée en proie à un environnement géopolitique immédiat perturbé, à l'est comme au sud, par le développement de tensions et de conflits qui entraîne la création d'un Conseil européen de sécurité tout entier absorbé par des préoccupations de sécurité et de défense. Nous le voyons: les raisons de craindre et d'espérer sont nombreuses. L'invitation adressée aux Européens de prendre en main leur avenir ne peut guère être plus claire.

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