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  • 251.
    Holmberg, Björn
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Passing the open windows: A quantitative and qualitative approach to immediate military balance and escalation of protracted conflicts1998Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation has a dual point of departure: first, the widely known concept of window of opportunity and its application in the study of international relations (IR) and, second, the notion among modern classical realists that states maximize their power and, hence, that windows of opportunity should increase the probability of escalation to war or escalation of a war.

    The focus is primarily on the effects of rapid power shifts in dyads of non-great powers experiencing protracted conflict. The questions asked are, Do military opportunities cause escalation of protracted conflicts, and if so, under what circumstances?

    Military opportunity is derived from window of opportunity and is argued to be a more precise and analytically useful concept. It is integrated into a theoretical model that specifies possible conditions for escalation and which distance the model from the simple realist approach. These conditions are deduced from the unitary rational actor approach and from organization theory.

    In a large-N application of the model, covering the period from 1945 to 1986, there is, as expected, little support for military opportunity as an explanatory variable for escalation. The findings are contrary to the expectations of political realism. The learning propositions also receive no support. Negative and positive learning do not decrease or increase the likelihood of escalation; however, there is support for the proposition that the degree of militarization prior to the military opportunity has a positive effect on the likelihood of a new escalation. Under these conditions, as many as one out of every three dyads experiences escalation.

    In the qualitative phase, India-Pakistan (1970-1971) and Iran-Iraq (1979-1988), two important cases supporting the large-N findings, are analyzed. The deductive chain of the rational unitary actor approach seems to have more to tell than organization theory does. Furthermore, the analysis strengthens the conclusions from the large-N study.

    In sum, military opportunity is not generally associated with escalation. Only when the conflicts are militarized and, consequently, when the level of threat towards the state is high, may military opportunity lead to escalation.

  • 252.
    Holmberg, Tora
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research.
    Ideland, Malin
    Natur, miljö och samhälle, Malmö högskola.
    Dilemman med transgena djur: forskningspraktik och etik2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under senare år har vi i Sverige sett en minskning av djurförsök. Denna trend gäller dock inte transgena djur, det vill säga djur som på olika sätt förändrats i arvsmassan, något som tvärtom ökar. verksamheten skapar en rad frågeställningar. Det handlar om moraliska och andra dilemman som är en del av all djurförsökshantering. Vi människor tar oss trots allt rätten att använda andra djur för att förbättra oss själva. Men verksamheten skapar också vissa specifika och ibland svårhanterliga frågeställningar som hänger ihop med att djuren är genmodifierade, som oförutsägbara eller för djuret svåra konsekvenser av modifieringen. Transgens djur - framför allt är det möss som används - utmanar också en rad etablerade kulturella gränser; mellan olika arter, mellan vetenskap och teknologi samt mellan organism och uppfinning. I denna publikation, ett resultat från projektet Dilemman med transgena djur, undersöks hur forskare, djurförsökstekniker och ledamöter i djurförsöksetiska nämnder, hanterar dessa dilemman.

  • 253.
    Holmberg, Tora
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Schwennesen, Nete
    Webster, Andrew
    Bio-objects and the bio-objectification process2011In: Croatian Medical Journal, ISSN 0353-9504, E-ISSN 1332-8166, Vol. 52, no 6, 740-742 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of bio-object stresses the point that boundaries around “the living” are not stable and that there is what we may call a potential openness in processes of bio-objectification and bio-identification through which such boundaries are drawn. In other words, it is not given what will count as categories of life, such as human or animal, viable life or non viable life, biological or social. Where the boundaries get drawn and what meaning categories get assigned to, are crucial in terms of knowledge production, bio-political interventions and regulations, and everyday lives in a more-than-human world. When, where, how, and with what results such boundaries are made and negotiated, are interesting and politically charged questions to ask.

  • 254.
    Holmén, Janne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History.
    A small separate fatherland of our own: regional history writing and regional identity on islands in the Baltic Sea2014In: Island Studies Journal, ISSN 1715-2593, Vol. 9, no 1, 135-154 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gotland, Aland, Saaremaa, Hiiumaa and Bornholm are five islands in the Baltic Sea which constitute, or have until recently constituted, provinces or counties. Combining perspectives from the fields of island studies and history, this article investigates how regional history writing has contributed to the formation of regional identity on each island since the year 1800. The special geographic situation of the islands somewhat secluded from the mainland but also connected to important waterways has provided their inhabitants with shared historical experiences. Due to varying geographic and historical circumstances, the relationship between regional and national identity is however different on each island. While regional history writing has often aimed at integrating the island into the nation state, it has on Aland in the 20th century been used to portray its inhabitants as a separate nation.

  • 255.
    Hultman, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Keeping Peace or Spurring Violence? Unintended Effects of Peace Operations on Violence against Civilians2010In: Civil Wars, ISSN 1369-8249, Vol. 12, no 1-2, 29-46 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Are peace operations effective in managing violence against civilians in civil wars? I examine the short-term effects of peace operations on the intensity of violence against the civilian population in internal conflicts. Missions are often sent to ongoing conflicts, where the warring parties have not yet managed to settle their dispute through the use of military means. I propose three mechanisms through which the presence of a third party may increase the parties' incentives to target civilians. A quantitative assessment of all intrastate armed conflicts, 1989–2006, shows that while the presence of a peace operation does not have a clear effect on government violence, it is associated with higher levels of violence by rebel groups. Only UN peace operations with an explicit mandate to protect civilians significantly reduce violence against civilians by rebels.

  • 256.
    Hultman, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    The Power to Hurt in Civil War: The Strategic Aim of Renamo Violence2009In: Journal of Southern African Studies, ISSN 0305-7070, E-ISSN 1465-3893, Vol. 35, no 4, 821-834 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article develops a theoretical explanation for the seemingly indiscriminate violence used by Renamo during the civil war in Mozambique, a phenomenon which dominant theories on civil war violence cannot account for fully. The analysis builds on interviews with the Renamo leadership and Mozambican academics as well as secondary sources on the patterns of violence. It concludes that Renamo used mass violence to weaken the support for the government and create war fatigue. The main strategy was to cause enough damage to pressure the government into entering negotiations. The use of most violence against civilians in those areas where the population was believed to support the government, in combination with a clear objective to destabilise the government and a disciplined military organisation, support the argument that mass violence was employed to demonstrate ‘the power to hurt’.

  • 257.
    Hultman, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Targeting the Unarmed: Strategic Rebel Violence in Civil War2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Rebel attacks on civilians constitute one of the gravest threats to human security in contemporary armed conflicts. But why do rebel groups kill civilians? The dissertation approaches this question from a strategic perspective, trying to understand when and why rebel groups are likely to target civilians as a conflict strategy. It combines quantitative studies using global data on rebel group violence with a case study of the civil war in Mozambique. The overall argument is that rebel groups target civilians as a way of improving their bargaining position in the war relative to the government. The dissertation consists of an introduction, which situates the study in a wider context, and four papers that all deal with different aspects of the overall research question. Paper I introduces new data on one-sided violence against civilians, presenting trends over time and comparing types of actors and conflicts. Paper II argues that democratic governments are particularly vulnerable to rebel attacks on civilians, since they are dependent on the population. Corroborating this claim, statistical evidence shows that rebels indeed kill more civilians when fighting a democratic government. Paper III argues that rebels target civilians more when losing on the battlefield, as a method of raising the costs for the government to continue fighting. A statistical analysis employing monthly data on battle outcomes and rebel violence, supports this argument. Paper IV takes a closer look at the case of Mozambique, arguing that the rebel group Renamo used large-scale violence in areas dominated by government constituents as a means for hurting the government. Taken together, these findings suggest that violence against civilians should be understood as a strategy, rather than a consequence, of war.

    List of papers
    1. One-Sided Violence Against Civilians in War: Insights from New Fatality Data
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>One-Sided Violence Against Civilians in War: Insights from New Fatality Data
    2007 (English)In: Journal of Peace Research, ISSN 0022-3433, E-ISSN 1460-3578, Vol. 44, no 2, 233-246 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents new data on the direct and deliberate killings of civilians, called one-sided violence, in intrastate armed conflicts, 19892004. These data contribute to the present state of quantitative research on violence against civilians in three important respects: the data provide actual estimates of civilians killed, the data are collected annually and the data are provided for both governments and rebel groups. Using these data, general trends and patterns are presented, showing that the post-Cold War era is characterized by periods of fairly low-scale violence punctuated by occasional sharp increases in violence against civilians. Furthermore, rebels tend to be more violent on the whole, while governments commit relatively little violence except in those few years which see mass killings. The article then examines some factors that have been found to predict genocide and evaluates how they correlate with one-sided violence as conceptualized here. A U-shaped correlation between regime type and one-sided violence is identified: while autocratic governments undertake higher levels of one-sided violence than other regime types, rebels are more violent in democratic countries.

    National Category
    Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalization Studies)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-97268 (URN)10.1177/0022343307075124 (DOI)000245923100006 ()
    Available from: 2008-05-08 Created: 2008-05-08 Last updated: 2011-02-04Bibliographically approved
    2. Rebel Attacks on Civilians: Targeting the Achilles Heel of Democratic Governments
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rebel Attacks on Civilians: Targeting the Achilles Heel of Democratic Governments
    Article in journal (Refereed) In press
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-97269 (URN)
    Available from: 2008-05-08 Created: 2008-05-08 Last updated: 2010-01-14Bibliographically approved
    3. Battle Losses and Rebel Violence: Raising the Costs for Fighting
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Battle Losses and Rebel Violence: Raising the Costs for Fighting
    2007 (English)In: Terrorism and Political Violence, ISSN 0954-6553, Vol. 19, no 2, 205-222 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In many armed conflicts, rebel groups deliberately target civilians. This article examines whether such violence is related to the performance of the rebels on the battlefield. It is proposed that rebel groups who are losing battles target civilians in order to impose extra costs on the government. When rebels attack civilians, the government may incur both political and military costs. Violence against civilians is thus used as an alternative conflict strategy aimed at pressuring the government into concessions. The argument is evaluated by using monthly data for rebel groups involved in armed conflict from January 2002 to December 2004.

    Keyword
    Battle outcome, Conflict strategy, Internal conflict, Rebel groups, Violence against civilians
    National Category
    Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalization Studies)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-97270 (URN)10.1080/09546550701246866 (DOI)000246066800003 ()
    Available from: 2008-05-08 Created: 2008-05-08 Last updated: 2011-02-02Bibliographically approved
    4. The Power to Hurt in Civil War: A Case Study of the Military Strategy of Renamo
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Power to Hurt in Civil War: A Case Study of the Military Strategy of Renamo
    Manuscript (Other academic)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-97271 (URN)
    Available from: 2008-05-08 Created: 2008-05-08 Last updated: 2010-01-13Bibliographically approved
  • 258.
    Hultman, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Civilians as Pawns in the Game of Civil War?2004Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 259.
    Hultman, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Rebel Attacks on Civilians: Targeting the Achilles Heel of Democratic Governments2007Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 260.
    Hultman, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Do Rebels Match Government Tactics in War?2006In: Peace Science Society (International) North American Meeting, 10-12 Nov, 2006Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 261.
    Hultman, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Strategic Killing of Civilians: Patterns of Violence in Intrastate Armed Conflicts2005In: Presented at the Peace Science Society North American Meeting, Iowa City, 4-6 November 2005., 2005Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the costs of killing civilians in intrastate armed conflicts, in terms of effects on domestic support and international condemnation, civilians are often the direct targets of violence by both governments and rebel groups. In this paper, I propose that one way of understanding this violence is by looking at the bargaining process of war, and how targeting of civilians may sometimes be used in addition to the fighting on the battlefield for strategic purposes. Conflict actors target civilians in order to improve their bargaining position, and there are two aspects of this argument. First, by targeting civilians that are believed to be potential supporters of the other side, conflict actors try to secure territorial control, which in turn gives them bargaining leverage. Second, actors target civilians to signal their resolve and commitment to continued conflict, regardless of their capabilities of fighting. Five factors that affect conflict actors’ propensity for targeting civilians are suggested and tested using new data on direct and deliberate killings of civilians by all actors involved in an intrastate armed conflicts from 1992 to 2004. The results show that battlefield intensity is a strong predictor of violence, but at the same time actors are less likely to target civilians when the other party is already employing such a strategy. Moreover, governments tend to be more likely to target civilians when there is an external audience in the form of a third party present in the conflict.

  • 262.
    Hultman, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Civilians as Military Targets: Violent Bargaining Strategies by Governments and Rebels2006In: Presented at the Annual ISA Convention, San Diego, 22-25 March 2006, 2006Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In many intrastate armed conflicts civilians are the direct targets of violence by both governments and rebel groups; nonetheless, no quantitative study has ever examined and compared the determinants for government and rebel violence. I explain government and rebel attacks on civilians as violent bargaining strategies aimed at improving the bargaining position, and these strategies are dependent on the intensity level of the conflict. I propose that when fighting is low governments try to avoid killing civilians unless the threat is large enough, and rebels kill civilians to signal resolve in order to gain concessions. However, as the intensity level increases control becomes more important, so both parties target civilians to establish territorial control and undermine the support of the opponent. Using new data on killings of civilians I examine all conflict actors in an internal armed conflict, 1992 to 2004. The findings suggest that rebels use violence for communicative purposes in less intense conflicts, characterized e.g. by more violence when rebels are relatively strong and early in the conflict. In more intense conflicts, on the other hand, violence is used to secure control and compensate for lack in military capacity – then the weaker groups kill more civilians, and they are likely to kill more civilians the longer the conflict. Governments kill more civilians when the rebel opposition is strong; surprisingly they kill fewer civilians the longer the conflict, and democracy is not found to have any effect on government behavior.

  • 263.
    Hultman, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Rebel Violence Against Civilians: a Function of Fighting?2006In: Presenterat på European Peace Science Meeting, Amsterdam, 26-28 juni, 2006Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    How is rebel violence against civilians linked to the overall fighting in internal conflicts? This paper approaches the question by arguing that the way rebels respond to fighting depends on their military capabilities relative to the government. The dynamics of violence tend to be different depending on whether parties approach parity or if there is a strong asymmetry: whereas strong groups, usually operating in militarily weak states, can use more offensive tactics, weak groups challenging a strong state have to rely much on guerrilla tactics. It is proposed that weak groups target civilians to compensate for lacking resources, and therefore the magnitude of violence against civilians increases as fighting intensifies. Strong groups, on the other hand, produce a different dynamic where civilians are often targeted with the intention of gaining territorial control, and such violence is consequently unrelated to the intensity of fighting. Using detailed data on the number of civilians killed by each rebel actor in all internal conflicts from 1992 to 2004, the argument is evaluated statistically and by a careful examination of the data. The empirics clearly show that violence by weak groups indeed is closely correlated with the intensity of fighting, whereas there is no correlation to be found for strong groups. It is concluded that by looking deeper into the interplay between various forms of violence and the complexities of relative military capabilities, we can further our understanding of contemporary warfare.

  • 264.
    Hultman, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Killing Civilians to Signal Resolve: Rebel Strategies in Intrastate Armed Conflicts2005In: Presented at the APSA Annual Meeting, Washington D.C., 1-4 September 2005, and the European Peace Science (Jan Tinbergen) Conference, Amsterdam, 27-29 June 2005., 2005Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with the question why rebels groups in intrastate conflicts choose to kill civilians, despite both domestic and international audience costs. From a bargaining perspective, I argue that rebels that are losing on the battlefield may target civilians in order to signal their resolve to the government. Since it is assumed to be a costly action, the rebels can thereby prove their determination to continue and consequently affect the overall bargaining range of the conflict. A further implication of the argument is that conflict duration should have negative effects on rebel violence against civilians, since the expected effect of violence as a signal decreases over time. The study is based on a dataset with monthly observations over rebel killings of civilians in all intrastate armed conflicts from January 2002 to December 2004. The hypotheses are tested using a zero-inflated negative binomial regression model, and the empirical results support the theoretical argument.

  • 265.
    Hunter, Dwight
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Media and Communication Studies.
    Re-Thinking Privacy for the Physical and Digital World: Reformulating Our Theoretical Foundations2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When scholars address privacy as a condition in contemporary society it can become a very difficult subject to approach on a general level. With public concerns rising surrounding matters of digital tracking and surveillance, discussions of privacy have found a new dimension in digital information. Yet defining how digital privacy should be approached, in particular regard to a general conception of privacy, remains unclear. Research spanning across the social sciences, law, economics and technical fields have all taken their own perspectives towards studying various forms of privacy. This study seeks to unify privacy- related discourses by evaluating the conceptualization of privacy throughout existing literature in order to determine what fundamentally distinguishes digital privacy from general privacy while remaining intrinsically related. To do this, I employ Michael E. Brown's 'sub- theoretical notion' (2014) to turn privacy discourses inwards, seeking the underlying logic contained within its seemingly disparate dimensions. Using a sample of 28 purposively selected texts analyzed through a structural content analysis, resulting in a refined sample of n=4,486 structural elements contained within the texts, the various relational dynamics of privacy discussions are evaluated, noting their interrelations. I arrive at information tangibility and loci of control as the two most intrinsic elements of privacy, dramatized by developments in technological mediation, which can thus both unify and distinguish the various forms of privacy research. In a discussion of implications of this exploratory study, I conclude with how the integration of privacy's sub-theoretical notion (information tangibility and loci of control) allows for current privacy-related discourses to acknowledge not only their own limitations to social life, but to move beyond the singular notion of a correct conception of privacy to see instead how each conception is interrelated via the unifying logic of the sub- theoretical. 

  • 266.
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för klinisk medicin.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Sjöström, Michael
    Changes in aerobic fitness in Swedish children and adolescents2006In: Journal of Physical Activity and Health, ISSN 1543-3080, E-ISSN 1543-5474, Vol. 3, no 1, 79-89 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Steadily declining physical activity, especially among children, and the possible adverse health outcomes such behavior could precede, is a general concern. We evaluated whether a presumed decrease in physical activity has been accompanied with a decrease in aerobic fitness of Swedish children. Methods: A maximum cycle ergometer test  was performed in 935 children age 9 and 15 y, and the results were compared with previously reported data. Results: Estimated peak oxygen uptake (mL · kg-1 · min-1) in 9-y-old subjects was 37.3 in girls and 42.8 in boys; and in 15-y-olds, 40.4 in girls and 51.5 in boys. In the 9-y-olds, aerobic fitness remained lower in the current study compared to earlier data, but in the 15-y-olds the result did not differ from the 1952 data after adjustment for methodological differences. Conclusion: Our results suggest a change towards decreased aerobic fitness in 9-y-old, but not in 15-y-old, Swedish children during a 50-y time span.

  • 267.
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för klinisk medicin.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Sjöström, Michael
    Changes in aerobic fitness in Swedish children and adolescents2006In: Journal of Physical Activity and Health, ISSN 1543-3080, E-ISSN 1543-5474, Vol. 3, no 1, 79-89 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Steadily declining physical activity, especially among children, and the possible adverse health outcomes such behavior could precede, is a general concern. We evaluated whether a presumed decrease in physical activity has been accompanied with a decrease in aerobic fitness of Swedish children. Methods: A maximum cycle ergometer test  was performed in 935 children age 9 and 15 y, and the results were compared with previously reported data. Results: Estimated peak oxygen uptake (mL · kg-1 · min-1) in 9-y-old subjects was 37.3 in girls and 42.8 in boys; and in 15-y-olds, 40.4 in girls and 51.5 in boys. In the 9-y-olds, aerobic fitness remained lower in the current study compared to earlier data, but in the 15-y-olds the result did not differ from the 1952 data after adjustment for methodological differences. Conclusion: Our results suggest a change towards decreased aerobic fitness in 9-y-old, but not in 15-y-old, Swedish children during a 50-y time span.

  • 268.
    Husz, Orsi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    From wage earners to financial consumers: cheque account salaries in Sweden in the 1950s and 1960s2015In: Critique Internationale, ISSN 1290-7839, E-ISSN 1777-554X, Vol. 69, no 4, 99-118 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the late 1950s Swedish commercial banks started to offer payroll services to employers and open current accounts with chequebooks for both white- and blue-collar employees. Within a decade Swedish wage earners were turned into bank customers and the commercial banks – formerly solemn institutions serving business and the very richest – became retail companies selling a wide range of products to a broad public. The paper investigates, through the case of so-called cheque account salaries, the cultural challenges posed by the exceptionally early bancarisation (spread of the use of banking services) in Swedish society. I argue against over-emphasising the individual self-governing financial subjects depicted in Foulcauldian studies of the financialisation process. The making and control of new financial subjects in Sweden was made possible, at least during its first phase, by technologies and discourses rooted in a more directly disciplinary and hierarchical value system impregnated by class (as defined by production rather than consumption). Collective affiliations of groups of employees, building on wage earner identities, rather than on consumer identities, proved to be instrumental in the financialisation of everyday life. The new everyday consumers of financial products were created in a back and forth movement between the older subject positions and the models imagined for the new. Furthermore, my study demonstrates that the prevalent chronology of the financialisation of daily life in Europe can be traced further back in time.

  • 269.
    Håkanson, Lars
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. LUVA.
    Gyllenhammar, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. LUVA.
    Argos rekordfångst kan vara den sista2002In: Uppsala Nya Tidning, no 2002-12-31Article in journal (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 270.
    Högdal, Katarina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Energieffektivisering i flerbostadshus: En analys av ägarformens påverkan på arbetsprocessoch resultat2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden the residential and commercial sector is a major user of energy, why the Swedish government has set a specific goal to half the energy usage in buildings by 2050, compared to 1995. The Swedish Energy Agency has therefore started the campaign “Halvera Mera” to encourage demonstration projects that will show how to renovate in an energy efficient way, and in doing so prove that it is possible to reduce a building’s energy usage by half and still make a profit. These projects are intended to serve as good examples and give inspiration to residential owners to perform energy efficient renovations. To make sure that these projects serve their purpose, it is important to know what will inspire and what will impede a residential owner to invest in energy efficiency improvements. This study is focused on determining which aspects influence the residential owners in their decision-making and whether the property ownership form has any impact on the energy efficiency work.

    By performing a survey within the project “Halvera Mera”, completed with a number of interviews, the aspects that influence residential owners’ decisions could be identified. The financial resources for, and the motive for investing in, energy efficiency improvements differ between the different forms of ownership. Conclusions could therefore be drawn that the form of the ownership has some impact on the working process and outcome. However, the decision making is also influenced by other aspects, such as local housing market and the property owners’ ambition with their business.

  • 271.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Violence - Catalys or Obstacle to Conflict Resolution? Seven Propositions Concerning the Effect of Violence on Peace Negotiations2001In: Uppsala Peace Research Paper, no 3, 21 p.Report (Other scientific)
  • 272.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Violencia y negociaciones de paz: Hacia una comprension de las crisis inducidas por la violencia en Guatemala, Irlanda del Norte, Sudafrica y Sri Lanka2005In: Papel Politico, ISSN 0122440-9, no 17/Julio, 11-32 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 273.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Violence and the Peace Process in Sri Lanka2005In: Civil Wars, Vol. 7, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 274.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Priset för demokrati får inte bli våldsamma val2011In: Tvärsnitt: Humanistisk och samhällsvetenskaplig forskning, ISSN 0348-7997, no 3-4, 32-35 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 275.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Tactics in Negotiations between States and Extremists: The Role of Cease-Fires and Counterterrorist Measures2011In: Engaging Extremists: Trade-Offs, Timing and Diplomacy / [ed] I. William Zartman and Guy Olivier Faure, Washington D.C.: United States Institute of Peace Press , 2011, 221-244 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 276.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Managing Violent Crisis: Swedish Peacekeeping and the 2004 Ethnic Violence in Kosovo2007In: International Peacekeeping, Vol. 14, no 3, 403-417 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 277.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Peace Negotiations in the Shadow of Violence2008Book (Refereed)
  • 278.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Violence in War-to-Democracy Transitions2008In: War-to-Democracy Transitions:: Dilemmas of Peacebuilding, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge , 2008Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 279.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Obstacles to Monitoring: Perceptions of the Sri Lanka Monitoring Mission and the Dual Role of Norway2011In: International Peacekeeping, ISSN 1353-3312, E-ISSN 1743-906X, Vol. 18, no 2, 210-225 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses the ways in which linking a civilian monitoring mission with a mediator influences the work of that mission. It analyses how the Sri Lanka Monitoring Mission (SLMM) – deployed in order to oversee the results of the 2002 ceasefire agreement (CFA) – was influenced by Norway's dual role as a monitor and mediator. Did the dual role conflict with or strengthen the SLMM's work? This question is explored from the point of view of the monitors who served in the SLMM, based on new and unique empirical material from a survey and in-depth interviews with SLMM personnel. It highlights the confusion of roles between the monitors and the facilitators, which impeded the fulfilment of the monitors' task. The article also suggests avenues for future research relating to the development of third-party media strategies as well as considerations about the organizational arrangements both within and between third parties.

  • 280.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Comparative Field Research in War-Torn Societies2011In: Understanding Peace Research: Methods and Challenges / [ed] Kristine Höglund and Magnus Öberg, London: Routledge , 2011, 114-129 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 281.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Violence in the Midst of Peace Negotiations: Cases from Guatemala, Northern Ireland, South Africa and Sri Lanka2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Why do peace talks fall apart as a result of violence? The present study addresses the question of why and how violence sometimes changes the dynamics of peace negotiation processes. Incidents of violence may produce friction between and within parties. As a result, violence can make parties reluctant to continue peace negotiations if it increases the risk and fears of reaching a peace agreement with the enemy. Twelve high-profile incidents of violence, including political assassinations, massacres, and bomb explosions, are analysed with the aim of probing the causal patterns that emerge in the aftermath of violence. Cases are selected from four intra-state negotiation processes: Guatemala, Northern Ireland, South Africa, and Sri Lanka. The patterns of actions and responses, indicate that violence often symbolises a breach of faith between the parties. This is a main reason why violence is sometimes followed by a crisis. In addition, low intra-party cohesion regarding the peace negotiations, constrains the efforts of the decision makers to pursue peace. The study underlines the relationship between the parties, within each party, and the interaction between the two levels of analysis. The research further suggests that the destructive effect of violence can be counteracted by mutual certainty about where the negotiation process is heading, by confidence-building measures by the parties themselves, and through actions by third party mediators and monitors. Peace negotiations are also driven forward by the fears the parties have about continued armed conflict, a fear that commonly is exacerbated by the continued existence of violence.

  • 282.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Elections and Violence in Sri Lanka: Understanding Variation across Three Parliamentary Elections2009In: The Democratization Project: Opportunities and Challenges, London: Anthem Press , 2009, 135-152 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 283.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Konfliktanalys2012In: Om krig och fred: En introduktion till freds- och konfliktstudier / [ed] Karin Aggestam & Kristine Höglund, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2012, 47-63 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 284.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Sverige och krishantering: Erfarenheter från marsupploppen i Kosovo 20042007In: Internationalla studier, no 1Article in journal (Other scientific)
  • 285.
    Höglund, Kristine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Jarstad, Anna K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Strategies to Prevent and Manage Electoral Violence: Considerations for Policy2010Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 286.
    Höglund, Kristine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Jarstad, Anna K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    The Predicament of Elections in War-Torn Societies2009In: Democratization, ISSN 1351-0347, E-ISSN 1743-890X, Vol. 16, no 3, 530-557 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Why do elections held in the shadow of civil wars sometimes generate more violence in already war-torn societies, while in other circumstances they do not? This article develops a conceptual framework based on three clusters of factors to analyse the conflict-generating aspects of elections in war-torn societies: the key actors in the electoral processes; the institutions of elections; and the stakes of the elections. Two types of war-related elections are distinguished: elections held during an ongoing civil war, and elections held in the post-war period when peace is to be implemented. While different in many respects, the two contexts share critical characteristics through their association with the legacy of warfare. Several important implications emerge from the analysis. First, relating to militant and violent actors, incentive structures need to be altered by addressing both the opportunities and means of violence. Second, to prevent inducements for violent behaviour, institutional arrangements - including electoral commissions have to be crafted with consideration given to local conflict dynamics and the history of violent conflict. Finally, the stakes of elections in war-shattered societies can be reduced through, for instance, constitutional pact-making and the oversight of external actors in electoral processes.

  • 287.
    Höglund, Kristine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Orjuela, Camilla
    Göteborg University.
    Winning the peace: Conflict prevention after a victor's peace in Sri Lanka2011In: Contemporary Social Science, ISSN 2158-2041, Vol. 6, no 1, 19-37 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How can a relapse into violent conflict be prevented in Sri Lanka? This article examines how the caseof Sri Lanka effectively exposes the limitations of the international discourse and practice of conflictprevention. Conflict prevention in Sri Lanka has to take place within a global and domestic contextwhich is largely unaccounted for in the conflict-prevention literature and policy discourse. Changesin the international power balance over the last decade have decreased the room of manoeuvre foractors such as the United States and European Union while giving Asian powers such as China—with a different approach to conflict prevention—more influence over domestic policies in countrieslike Sri Lanka. Moreover, the conflict prevention discourse and ‘tools’ tend to assume a negotiatedpeace agreement where the conflict parties have an interest in preventing conflicts rather thanmerely suppressing them. The significant power asymmetry between the winning and the losingsides in the Sri Lankan conflict, coupled with the lack of power or interest of international actorsto influence Sri Lanka’s domestic affairs—have rendered ‘conflict prevention’ a tool for continueddomination and containment of conflicts. The article further highlights the risks that conflictpreventionmeasures may exacerbate conflict or undermine other conflict-prevention measures. Anumber of challenges for conflict prevention—in the areas of (1) demilitarisation/militarisation,(2) political power sharing, (3) justice and reconciliation, and (4) post-war reconstruction andeconomic development—are addressed.

  • 288.
    Höglund, Kristine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Piyarathne, Anton
    Open University in Sri Lanka.
    Paying the Price for Patronage: Electoral Violence in Sri Lanka2009In: Commonwealth and Comparative Politics, ISSN 1466-2043, E-ISSN 1743-9094, Vol. 47, no 4, 287-307 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 289.
    Höglund, Kristine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Sundberg, Ralph
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Reconciliation through sports? The case of South Africa2008In: Third World Quarterly, ISSN 0143-6597, E-ISSN 1360-2241, Vol. 29, no 4, 805-818 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Can sports - and if so how - serve as a vehicle for reconciliation and increased social cohesion in countries wrecked by civil conflict? This article analyses the case of South Africa and its experiences in the sports sector since the fall of apartheid, in an effort to explore the processes necessary to understand the potential sports may hold for peace building. By identifying initiatives in South Africa employed at the national, community and individual level of analysis, the article outlines the possible effects of sports on reconciliation in divided states. Through linking experiences from state policies, ngo activities and donor projects with social identity and reconciliation theory, the article outlines the possible positive and negative aspects of sports. Finally, important avenues for further research to uncover how to turn sports into effective political tools for post-conflict peace building are suggested.

  • 290.
    Höglund, Kristine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Svensson, Isak
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Mediating between tigers and lions: Norwegian peace diplomacy in Sri Lanka's civil war2009In: Contemporary South Asia, ISSN 0958-4935, E-ISSN 1469-364X, Vol. 17, no 2, 175-191 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 291.
    Höglund, Kristine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Svensson, Isak
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    "Sticking one's neck out": Reducing mistrust in Sri Lanka's peace negotiations2006In: Negotiation journal, ISSN 0748-4526, E-ISSN 1571-9979, Vol. 22, no 4, 367-387 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lack of trust has been widely used as an explanation for the failure of peace negotiations. However, we know little about how mistrust can be reduced between belligerents involved in negotiating peace. Why are some confidence-building strategies more successful than others? For theory-building purposes, this article explores how a party can send conciliatory signals to the other party that increase trust by exposing itself to three different kinds of political risks. More specifically, it compares the variables that reduced mistrust - or failed to reduce mistrust - during two peace negotiations in Sri Lanka: in 1994-1995 and in 2002. Using a theoretical framework that combines social psychology and rational choice approaches, this article examines the communicative signaling process between the parties.

    In addition, by drawing out the implications from this argument, we offer some insight into why the peace process in Sri Lanka became politically stalemated in 2003. We also use our comparison of Sri Lanka's peace processes to develop general propositions about the dynamics that can reduce mistrust. The main proposition that remains to be tested empirically is whether obstacles to peace can be transformed into important catalysts for the reduction of mistrust.

  • 292.
    Höglund, Kristine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Svensson, Isak
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Should I Stay or Should I Go?: Termination as a Tactic and Norwegian Mediation in Sri Lanka2011In: Negotiation and Conflict Management Research, ISSN 1750-4708, E-ISSN 1750-4716, Vol. 4, no 1, 12-32 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What explains a mediator’s choice of tactic when faced with a situation of crisis? This article focuses on mediation in internal armed conflicts and on one particular mediation tactic: the use of the exit option as a means to pressure the parties to enter into negotiations and make concessions to end the war. We examine the conditions under which the exit option—here referred to as the termination tactic—is likely to be used. Utilizing a cost–benefit approach, we develop a theoretical framework for understanding when mediators will employ the termination tactic. The framework is applied to four crises in the Sri Lankan peace process (2000–2006), during which Norway acted as a mediator. The analysis indicates that the termination tactic is employed when mediators (a) expect few rewards from involvement in the process, (b) deem other tactics as being ineffective, and (c) perceive that the parties have incentives for mediation.

  • 293.
    Höglund, Kristine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Svensson, Isak
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Fallacies of the Peace Ownership Approach: Exploring Norwegian Mediation in Sri Lanka2011In: Liberal Peace in Question: Politics of State and Market Reform in Sri Lanka / [ed] Kristian Stokke, Jayadeva Uyangoda, New York: Anthem Press, 2011, 63-76 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 294.
    Höglund, Kristine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Svensson, Isak
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Mediating between Tigers and Lions: Norwegian Peace Diplomacy in Sri Lanka's Civil War2009In: War and Peace in Transition: Changing Roles of External Actors, Lund: Nordic Academic Press , 2009, 147-169 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 295.
    Höglund, Kristine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Beyond the Absence of War: The Diversity of Peace in Post-Settlement Societies2010In: Review of International Studies, ISSN 0260-2105, E-ISSN 1469-9044, Vol. 36, no 2, 367-390 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article introduces a novel way of conceptualising variations of peace in post-war societies. The most common way of defining peace in the academic literature on war termination is to differentiate between those cases where there is a continuation or resumption of large-scale violence and those cases where violence has been terminated and peace, defined by the absence of war, has been established. Yet, a closer look at a number of countries where a peace agreement has been signed and peace is considered to prevail reveals a much more diverse picture. Beyond the absence of war, there are striking differences in terms of the character of peace that has followed. This article revisits the classical debates on peace and the notion of the Conflict Triangle as a useful theoretical construction for the study of armed conflicts. We develop a classification captured in a Peace Triangle, where post-settlement societies are categorised on the basis of three key dimensions: issues, behaviour, and attitudes. On the basis of such a differentiation, we illustrate the great diversity of peace beyond the absence of war in a number of post-settlement societies. Finally, we discuss the relationship between the different elements of the Peace Triangle, and the challenges they pose for establishing a sustainable peace, as well as the implications of this study for policy makers concerned with peacebuilding efforts.

  • 296.
    Höglund, Kristine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Wennerström, Marcus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    When the Going Gets Tough… Monitoring Missions and a Changing Conflict Environment in Sri Lanka, 2002–20082015In: Small Wars & Insurgencies, ISSN 0959-2318, E-ISSN 1743-9558, Vol. 26, no 5, 836-860 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes how the conflict environment in which a civilian monitoring mission is deployed influences the monitors' assessment of the operation. It draws on unique empirical material from the experience of the Sri Lanka Monitoring Mission (SLMM), deployed to oversee a ceasefire agreement in Sri Lanka 2002–2008. With material from a survey and in-depth interviews, experiences of the monitors are analyzed and changes over time are traced in relation to the monitors' assessment of the mandate and organizational set-up of the mission. The study points to the difficulty of monitoring missions to address escalation during an ongoing peace process. Its function is dependent on the goodwill of the parties. In essence, monitoring missions have the potential to strengthen peace when there is momentum in favor of progress, but when relations between the parties turn sour and the conflict escalates a civilian monitoring mission basically loses its potential. During the final stages of the war, which saw a very large number of civilian casualties, the war-torn areas were closed to international observers. Moreover, international pressure for a short-term ceasefire to alleviate the humanitarian situation was dismissed by the Sri Lankan government, which also saw the backing of several important actors, not the least China.

  • 297.
    Höglund, Kristine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Zartman, I William
    Violence by the State: Official Spoilers and Their Allies2006In: Violence and Reconstruction / [ed] Darby, John, Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press, 2006, 11-32 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 298.
    Höglund, Kristine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Öberg, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Improving Information Gathering and Evaluation2011In: Understanding Peace Research: Methods and Challenges / [ed] Kristine Höglund and Magnus Öberg, London: Routledge , 2011, 185-198 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 299.
    Höglund, Kristine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Öberg, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Doing Empirical Peace Research2011In: Understanding Peace Research: Methods and Challenges / [ed] Kristine Höglund and Magnus Öberg, London and New York: Routledge , 2011, 3-13 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 300.
    Höglund, Kristine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Öberg, Magnus
    Understanding Peace Research: Methods and Challenges2011Collection (editor) (Refereed)
3456789 251 - 300 of 809
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