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  • 251.
    Hammarström, Mats
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Democracy and Early Accommodation in Interstate Ethnic Conflict1997In: Annual Meeting of the International Studies Association, Toronto, 1997Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 252.
    Hammarström, Mats
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Democratic Peace and National Identity in Eastern Europe: Early Accommodation of Interstate Ethnic Conflict1999In: XII Nordic Political Science Congress, Uppsala, 1999Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 253.
    Hammarström, Mats
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Diffusion Effects of Military Conflict in African Regions 1945-1992: A Preliminary Assessment of Network Approaches1995In: Second Pan-European Conference in Internatinal Relations, Paris, 1995Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 254.
    Hammarström, Mats
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Ethnic Disputes Between Democratizing States: Restraint and Reciprocity in Eastern Europe1998In: Third Pan-European International Relations Conference, Vienna, 1998Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 255.
    Hammarström, Mats
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Military Conflict and Mineral Supplies: Results Relevant to Wider Resource Issues1997In: Nils Petter Gleditsch et al. (eds.) Conflict and the Environment, Kluwer , 1997, 127-136 p.Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 256.
    Hammarström, Mats
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Profitable Coercion: Back on the Agenda?1996In: Mershon International Studies Review, Vol. 40, 301-303 p.Article, book review (Other scientific)
  • 257.
    Hammarström, Mats
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Theory-building in the Study of Crises: Review Essay1995In: Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 32, no 2, 233-238 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 258.
    Hammarström, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Heldt, Birger
    The Spread of Military Intervention to Neighboring States: Testing a Structural Equivalence Approach to Diffusion2000In: European Consortium of Political Research (ECPR) Joint Sessions of Workshops 2000, April 14-19 2000, Copenhagen Denmark., 2000Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 259. Hansen, Lene
    et al.
    Olsson, Louise
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Guest Editor's Introduction2004In: Security Dialogue, Vol. 35, no 4, 405-410 p.Article in journal (Other scientific)
  • 260. Hansen, Lene
    et al.
    Olsson, LouiseUppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Security Dialogue's Special Issue on Gender and Security2004Collection (editor) (Other scientific)
  • 261.
    Hansson, Ann-Sophie
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences. Socialmedicin and Center for Environmental Illness and Stress Disorders, CEOS, Uppsala Academic Hospital.
    Church Conflicts - The Psychosocial Work Environment of the Parishes.2000In: American Conference of Sociology and Religion, Washington DC, 2000, 2000Conference paper (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The Church of Sweden faces major changes in the years to come. It will be disestablished January 1, 2000. There are many signs of the Church being one of the worst employers when you consider the psychosocial work environment. There are numerous conflicts in the parishes and the reasons suggested are also numerous: poor leadership; theological disputes; the expectations of a good working life in a Christian setting and a denial of problems; The Christian belief itself.

    Diocesan officers, and officers of the Swedish labor inspectorate have been interviewed on their experiences on church conflicts, the causes, patterns and possible ways of resolving them. Approx. 200 Inspection Documents from the Swedish labor inspectorate have been explored. The results suggest that there be no one single explanation to the situation. Several factors, present at the same time, form the reasons for the situation; The leadership, the distribution of responsibilities in the parish, the lack objectives for the Parish, the expectations for a problem free working life. These and other factors vary in correlation.

  • 262.
    Hansson, Ann-Sophie
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences. Socialmedicin and Center for Environmental Illness and Stress Disorders, CEOS, Uppsala Academic Hospital.
    Psychosocial Work Environment in the Church of Sweden. An Explorative Study2007In: European Congress of Work and Organizational Psychology: Sustainable Work: Promoting Human and Organizational Vitality, 2007, 1172- p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research about work environment aspects of the Church has either focused on leadership or on the character of conflicts in the organization. This study is focused on the psychosocial environment factors in the Church. Data include both documents from the Swedish Labor Inspection and interviews with representatives from different churches. Data was compared with regard to factors assumed to be relevant for the psychosocial work environment in the organization. The result indicated unsatisfactory work conditions such as unclear management, attitudes too focused on “taking care of people,” employees with their own goals, great expectations (external, from the society and internal, from the Church itself) on good work conditions. Another result was stressful work conditions caused by, i.e., the employees’ difficulties to draw a line between their work and private lives. It was also evident that it was more common in the Church of Sweden not to handle the problems.

  • 263.
    Hansson, Petra
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Curriculum Studies.
    Förortens färger -: natur och kultur i Johannes Anyurus Det är bara gudarna som är nya2007In: Ekokritik: naturen i litteraturen: en antologi , Uppsala: Cemus , 2007Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 264.
    Harbom, Lotta
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Högbladh, Stina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Wallensteen, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Armed Conflict and Peace Agreements2006In: Journal of Peace Research, ISSN 0022-3433, E-ISSN 1460-3578, Vol. 43, no 5, 617-631 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2005, there were 31 ongoing conflicts, down by 1 from 2004. Notable for 2005 as well as for the previous year is that, while there were no major fluctuations in the number of conflicts, there were numerous changes when it comes to the conflicts listed. While ten of the conflicts recorded for 2004 were no longer active in 2005, nine conflicts restarted, four with action taken by new rebel groups and five by previously recorded actors. A total of 231 armed conflicts have been recorded since the end of World War II and 121 after the end of the Cold War. In one-third of the conflicts recorded after the Cold War, the conflicting parties have concluded peace agreements, solving, regulating, or deciding the incompatibility. Of the 144 accords, 70% were signed in conflicts over government; many of them were part of a peace process containing more than one agreement. In conflicts over government, the most common provision for resolving the incompatibility was the holding of elections. In conflicts over territory, the agreements often established local governance over the disputed territory.

  • 265.
    Harbom, Lotta
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Sundberg, Ralph
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    States in Armed Conflict 20072008Book (Other academic)
  • 266.
    Harbom, Lotta
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Sundberg, RalphUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    States in Armed Conflict 20082009Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 267.
    Harbom, Lotta
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Wallensteen et al., Peter
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Patterns of Major Armed Conflict, 1990-20052006In: SIPRI Yearbook 2006. Armaments, Disarmament and International Security, Francis & Taylor , 2006, 15- p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 268.
    Harbom, Lotta
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Wallensteen, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Armed Conflict, 1989–20062007In: Journal of Peace Research, ISSN 0022-3433, E-ISSN 1460-3578, Vol. 44, no 5, 623-634 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2006, 32 armed conflicts were active, a figure that has remained constant for three years. The decline in armed conflict observed through most of the post-Cold War period has ceased, at least temporarily. Many of the conflicts active in 2006 have a long history which may have made them more entrenched and thus more difficult to solve. In fact, in contrast to the situation in the early 1990s, no new conflicts have erupted in the last two years. No interstate conflicts were active in 2006, but five of the intrastate conflicts were internationalized. While four of the conflicts recorded for 2005 were no longer active in 2006, four conflicts restarted, two with actions taken by new rebel groups and two by previously recorded actors.

  • 269.
    Harbom, Lotta
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Wallensteen, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Armed Conflicts, 1946-20082009In: Journal of Peace Research, ISSN 0022-3433, E-ISSN 1460-3578, Vol. 46, no 4, 577-587 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2008, the number of active armed conflicts was 36, up by one from 2007. Over the past few years, the number of active conflicts has not seen any drastic changes from one year to the next. However, the number of armed conflicts has increased by nearly one-quarter since 2003, which was the year with the lowest number of active armed conflicts since the 1970s. While the number of conflicts continued to increase, the number of wars (i.e. conflicts with over 1,000 battle-related deaths) remained at a very low level, with only five recorded for 2008. Four conflicts listed in 2007 were no longer active in 2008, but during the year, two conflicts were restarted by previously recorded actors (in Burundi and in Georgia). Furthermore, three new conflicts erupted, one of which was fought between states (Djibouti-Eritrea). Thus, the record-long four-year interlude 2004-07 with no interstate conflict was broken.

  • 270.
    Harbom, Lotta
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Wallensteen, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Patterns of major armed conflicts, 1999-20082009In: SIPRI Yearbook 2009 / [ed] SIPRI, Oxford: Oxford University Press , 2009Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 271.
    Heldt, Birger
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Armed Conflicts over Government and Territory 1989-911993In: States in Armed Conflict 1990-91, Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University: Uppsala , 1993Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 272.
    Heldt, Birger
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Domestic Politics, Absolute Deprivation, and the Use of Armed Force inInterstate Territorial Disputes, 1950-19901999In: Journal of Conflict ResolutionArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 273.
    Heldt, Birger
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    International Relations Research and the State of Nature1999In: 1999 Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association (APSA), Atlanta Hilton and Towers and Atlanta Marriott Marquis, Atlanta USA, September 2-5, 1999Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 274.
    Heldt, Birger
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    International Relations Research and the State of Nature1999In: Annual Meeting of the Nordic Political Science Association, Uppsala, Sweden, August 19-21, 1999, 1999Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 275.
    Heldt, Birger
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Patterns of Armed Conflict 1989-19911993In: States in Armed Conflict, 1990-91, Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University: Uppsala , 1993Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 276.
    Heldt, Birger
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    The Dependent Variable of the Domestic-External Conflict Relationship: Anecdotes, Theories and Systematic Evidenc1997In: Journal of Peace ResearchArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 277.
    Heldt, Birger
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Melander, Erik.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Major Armed Conflicts, 19921993In: SIPRI Yearbook 1993: World Armaments and Disarmament, Oxford University Press: Oxford , 1993Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 278.
    Heldt, Birger
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Wallensteen, Peter
    Nordquist, Kjell-Åke.
    Major Armed Conflicts in 19911993In: SIPRI Yearbook 1992: World Armaments and Disarmaments, Oxford University Press: Oxford , 1993Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 279.
    Hellquist, Alexander
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, SWEDESD - The Swedish International Centre of Education for Sustainable Development.
    Westin, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, SWEDESD - The Swedish International Centre of Education for Sustainable Development.
    På väg mot bättre dialog i samråden på Gotland: Rapport från ett samarbete mellan Länsstyrelsen i Gotlands län och Swedesd, Uppsala universitet2017Report (Other academic)
  • 280.
    Hellström Muhli, Ulla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Biståndsmötet kärnan i omsorgsarbetet2002In: Äldre i Centrum, tidskrift för aktuell forskning, ISSN 1401-5110, no 3, 36-37 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 281. Herath, Dhammika
    et al.
    Höglund, KristineUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.Schultz, MichaelSilva, Kalinga Tudor
    Post-War Reconstruction in Sri Lanka: Prospects and Challenges2010Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 282.
    Hertting, Nils
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Vedung, Evert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Purposes and criteria in network governance evaluation: How far does standard evaluation vocabulary takes us?2012In: Evaluation, ISSN 1356-3890, E-ISSN 1461-7153, Vol. 18, no 1, 25-44 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluation and network governance are both among the top-10 trendy concepts in public policy. But how are they related? In the present article, we ask how public sector interventions guided by a network governance doctrine are to be evaluated. If evaluation means systematic judgment of organization, content, administration, outputs and effects in public policy, then evaluators need concepts and analytical tools to assess these features and communicate their analyses. In the literature, interest in network modes of governance often goes together with a call for a renewed vocabulary for evaluation and policy analysis. In the article, we do not take this to be a fact. Instead we turn it into a question: How relevant and productive are established concepts and tools of evaluation theory for evaluating network governance? More specifically, we address the issues of purposes and merit criteria in evaluation of interventions fashioned according to the network governance doctrine. Though it takes some elaboration, our overall conclusion is that at least some standard evaluation concepts and approaches are still productive in delineating, analysing and prescribing how network governance can be evaluated. There are crucial accountability issues to raise, the goal-achievement criterion is not irrelevant and the meaning of stakeholder evaluation is elucidated when confronted with the ideas of the network governance doctrine.

  • 283.
    Holmberg, Björn
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Passing the open windows: A quantitative and qualitative approach to immediate military balance and escalation of protracted conflicts1998Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation has a dual point of departure: first, the widely known concept of window of opportunity and its application in the study of international relations (IR) and, second, the notion among modern classical realists that states maximize their power and, hence, that windows of opportunity should increase the probability of escalation to war or escalation of a war.

    The focus is primarily on the effects of rapid power shifts in dyads of non-great powers experiencing protracted conflict. The questions asked are, Do military opportunities cause escalation of protracted conflicts, and if so, under what circumstances?

    Military opportunity is derived from window of opportunity and is argued to be a more precise and analytically useful concept. It is integrated into a theoretical model that specifies possible conditions for escalation and which distance the model from the simple realist approach. These conditions are deduced from the unitary rational actor approach and from organization theory.

    In a large-N application of the model, covering the period from 1945 to 1986, there is, as expected, little support for military opportunity as an explanatory variable for escalation. The findings are contrary to the expectations of political realism. The learning propositions also receive no support. Negative and positive learning do not decrease or increase the likelihood of escalation; however, there is support for the proposition that the degree of militarization prior to the military opportunity has a positive effect on the likelihood of a new escalation. Under these conditions, as many as one out of every three dyads experiences escalation.

    In the qualitative phase, India-Pakistan (1970-1971) and Iran-Iraq (1979-1988), two important cases supporting the large-N findings, are analyzed. The deductive chain of the rational unitary actor approach seems to have more to tell than organization theory does. Furthermore, the analysis strengthens the conclusions from the large-N study.

    In sum, military opportunity is not generally associated with escalation. Only when the conflicts are militarized and, consequently, when the level of threat towards the state is high, may military opportunity lead to escalation.

  • 284.
    Holmberg, Tora
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research.
    Ideland, Malin
    Natur, miljö och samhälle, Malmö högskola.
    Dilemman med transgena djur: forskningspraktik och etik2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under senare år har vi i Sverige sett en minskning av djurförsök. Denna trend gäller dock inte transgena djur, det vill säga djur som på olika sätt förändrats i arvsmassan, något som tvärtom ökar. verksamheten skapar en rad frågeställningar. Det handlar om moraliska och andra dilemman som är en del av all djurförsökshantering. Vi människor tar oss trots allt rätten att använda andra djur för att förbättra oss själva. Men verksamheten skapar också vissa specifika och ibland svårhanterliga frågeställningar som hänger ihop med att djuren är genmodifierade, som oförutsägbara eller för djuret svåra konsekvenser av modifieringen. Transgens djur - framför allt är det möss som används - utmanar också en rad etablerade kulturella gränser; mellan olika arter, mellan vetenskap och teknologi samt mellan organism och uppfinning. I denna publikation, ett resultat från projektet Dilemman med transgena djur, undersöks hur forskare, djurförsökstekniker och ledamöter i djurförsöksetiska nämnder, hanterar dessa dilemman.

  • 285.
    Holmberg, Tora
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Schwennesen, Nete
    Webster, Andrew
    Bio-objects and the bio-objectification process2011In: Croatian Medical Journal, ISSN 0353-9504, E-ISSN 1332-8166, Vol. 52, no 6, 740-742 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of bio-object stresses the point that boundaries around “the living” are not stable and that there is what we may call a potential openness in processes of bio-objectification and bio-identification through which such boundaries are drawn. In other words, it is not given what will count as categories of life, such as human or animal, viable life or non viable life, biological or social. Where the boundaries get drawn and what meaning categories get assigned to, are crucial in terms of knowledge production, bio-political interventions and regulations, and everyday lives in a more-than-human world. When, where, how, and with what results such boundaries are made and negotiated, are interesting and politically charged questions to ask.

  • 286.
    Holmén, Janne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History.
    A small separate fatherland of our own: regional history writing and regional identity on islands in the Baltic Sea2014In: Island Studies Journal, ISSN 1715-2593, Vol. 9, no 1, 135-154 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gotland, Aland, Saaremaa, Hiiumaa and Bornholm are five islands in the Baltic Sea which constitute, or have until recently constituted, provinces or counties. Combining perspectives from the fields of island studies and history, this article investigates how regional history writing has contributed to the formation of regional identity on each island since the year 1800. The special geographic situation of the islands somewhat secluded from the mainland but also connected to important waterways has provided their inhabitants with shared historical experiences. Due to varying geographic and historical circumstances, the relationship between regional and national identity is however different on each island. While regional history writing has often aimed at integrating the island into the nation state, it has on Aland in the 20th century been used to portray its inhabitants as a separate nation.

  • 287.
    Hultman, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Civilians as Military Targets: Violent Bargaining Strategies by Governments and Rebels2006In: Presented at the Annual ISA Convention, San Diego, 22-25 March 2006, 2006Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In many intrastate armed conflicts civilians are the direct targets of violence by both governments and rebel groups; nonetheless, no quantitative study has ever examined and compared the determinants for government and rebel violence. I explain government and rebel attacks on civilians as violent bargaining strategies aimed at improving the bargaining position, and these strategies are dependent on the intensity level of the conflict. I propose that when fighting is low governments try to avoid killing civilians unless the threat is large enough, and rebels kill civilians to signal resolve in order to gain concessions. However, as the intensity level increases control becomes more important, so both parties target civilians to establish territorial control and undermine the support of the opponent. Using new data on killings of civilians I examine all conflict actors in an internal armed conflict, 1992 to 2004. The findings suggest that rebels use violence for communicative purposes in less intense conflicts, characterized e.g. by more violence when rebels are relatively strong and early in the conflict. In more intense conflicts, on the other hand, violence is used to secure control and compensate for lack in military capacity – then the weaker groups kill more civilians, and they are likely to kill more civilians the longer the conflict. Governments kill more civilians when the rebel opposition is strong; surprisingly they kill fewer civilians the longer the conflict, and democracy is not found to have any effect on government behavior.

  • 288.
    Hultman, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Civilians as Pawns in the Game of Civil War?2004Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 289.
    Hultman, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Do Rebels Match Government Tactics in War?2006In: Peace Science Society (International) North American Meeting, 10-12 Nov, 2006Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 290.
    Hultman, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Keeping Peace or Spurring Violence? Unintended Effects of Peace Operations on Violence against Civilians2010In: Civil Wars, ISSN 1369-8249, E-ISSN 1743-968X, Vol. 12, no 1-2, 29-46 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Are peace operations effective in managing violence against civilians in civil wars? I examine the short-term effects of peace operations on the intensity of violence against the civilian population in internal conflicts. Missions are often sent to ongoing conflicts, where the warring parties have not yet managed to settle their dispute through the use of military means. I propose three mechanisms through which the presence of a third party may increase the parties' incentives to target civilians. A quantitative assessment of all intrastate armed conflicts, 1989–2006, shows that while the presence of a peace operation does not have a clear effect on government violence, it is associated with higher levels of violence by rebel groups. Only UN peace operations with an explicit mandate to protect civilians significantly reduce violence against civilians by rebels.

  • 291.
    Hultman, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Killing Civilians to Signal Resolve: Rebel Strategies in Intrastate Armed Conflicts2005In: Presented at the APSA Annual Meeting, Washington D.C., 1-4 September 2005, and the European Peace Science (Jan Tinbergen) Conference, Amsterdam, 27-29 June 2005., 2005Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with the question why rebels groups in intrastate conflicts choose to kill civilians, despite both domestic and international audience costs. From a bargaining perspective, I argue that rebels that are losing on the battlefield may target civilians in order to signal their resolve to the government. Since it is assumed to be a costly action, the rebels can thereby prove their determination to continue and consequently affect the overall bargaining range of the conflict. A further implication of the argument is that conflict duration should have negative effects on rebel violence against civilians, since the expected effect of violence as a signal decreases over time. The study is based on a dataset with monthly observations over rebel killings of civilians in all intrastate armed conflicts from January 2002 to December 2004. The hypotheses are tested using a zero-inflated negative binomial regression model, and the empirical results support the theoretical argument.

  • 292.
    Hultman, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Rebel Attacks on Civilians: Targeting the Achilles Heel of Democratic Governments2007Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 293.
    Hultman, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Rebel Violence Against Civilians: a Function of Fighting?2006In: Presenterat på European Peace Science Meeting, Amsterdam, 26-28 juni, 2006Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    How is rebel violence against civilians linked to the overall fighting in internal conflicts? This paper approaches the question by arguing that the way rebels respond to fighting depends on their military capabilities relative to the government. The dynamics of violence tend to be different depending on whether parties approach parity or if there is a strong asymmetry: whereas strong groups, usually operating in militarily weak states, can use more offensive tactics, weak groups challenging a strong state have to rely much on guerrilla tactics. It is proposed that weak groups target civilians to compensate for lacking resources, and therefore the magnitude of violence against civilians increases as fighting intensifies. Strong groups, on the other hand, produce a different dynamic where civilians are often targeted with the intention of gaining territorial control, and such violence is consequently unrelated to the intensity of fighting. Using detailed data on the number of civilians killed by each rebel actor in all internal conflicts from 1992 to 2004, the argument is evaluated statistically and by a careful examination of the data. The empirics clearly show that violence by weak groups indeed is closely correlated with the intensity of fighting, whereas there is no correlation to be found for strong groups. It is concluded that by looking deeper into the interplay between various forms of violence and the complexities of relative military capabilities, we can further our understanding of contemporary warfare.

  • 294.
    Hultman, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Strategic Killing of Civilians: Patterns of Violence in Intrastate Armed Conflicts2005In: Presented at the Peace Science Society North American Meeting, Iowa City, 4-6 November 2005., 2005Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the costs of killing civilians in intrastate armed conflicts, in terms of effects on domestic support and international condemnation, civilians are often the direct targets of violence by both governments and rebel groups. In this paper, I propose that one way of understanding this violence is by looking at the bargaining process of war, and how targeting of civilians may sometimes be used in addition to the fighting on the battlefield for strategic purposes. Conflict actors target civilians in order to improve their bargaining position, and there are two aspects of this argument. First, by targeting civilians that are believed to be potential supporters of the other side, conflict actors try to secure territorial control, which in turn gives them bargaining leverage. Second, actors target civilians to signal their resolve and commitment to continued conflict, regardless of their capabilities of fighting. Five factors that affect conflict actors’ propensity for targeting civilians are suggested and tested using new data on direct and deliberate killings of civilians by all actors involved in an intrastate armed conflicts from 1992 to 2004. The results show that battlefield intensity is a strong predictor of violence, but at the same time actors are less likely to target civilians when the other party is already employing such a strategy. Moreover, governments tend to be more likely to target civilians when there is an external audience in the form of a third party present in the conflict.

  • 295.
    Hultman, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Targeting the Unarmed: Strategic Rebel Violence in Civil War2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Rebel attacks on civilians constitute one of the gravest threats to human security in contemporary armed conflicts. But why do rebel groups kill civilians? The dissertation approaches this question from a strategic perspective, trying to understand when and why rebel groups are likely to target civilians as a conflict strategy. It combines quantitative studies using global data on rebel group violence with a case study of the civil war in Mozambique. The overall argument is that rebel groups target civilians as a way of improving their bargaining position in the war relative to the government. The dissertation consists of an introduction, which situates the study in a wider context, and four papers that all deal with different aspects of the overall research question. Paper I introduces new data on one-sided violence against civilians, presenting trends over time and comparing types of actors and conflicts. Paper II argues that democratic governments are particularly vulnerable to rebel attacks on civilians, since they are dependent on the population. Corroborating this claim, statistical evidence shows that rebels indeed kill more civilians when fighting a democratic government. Paper III argues that rebels target civilians more when losing on the battlefield, as a method of raising the costs for the government to continue fighting. A statistical analysis employing monthly data on battle outcomes and rebel violence, supports this argument. Paper IV takes a closer look at the case of Mozambique, arguing that the rebel group Renamo used large-scale violence in areas dominated by government constituents as a means for hurting the government. Taken together, these findings suggest that violence against civilians should be understood as a strategy, rather than a consequence, of war.

    List of papers
    1. One-Sided Violence Against Civilians in War: Insights from New Fatality Data
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>One-Sided Violence Against Civilians in War: Insights from New Fatality Data
    2007 (English)In: Journal of Peace Research, ISSN 0022-3433, E-ISSN 1460-3578, Vol. 44, no 2, 233-246 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents new data on the direct and deliberate killings of civilians, called one-sided violence, in intrastate armed conflicts, 19892004. These data contribute to the present state of quantitative research on violence against civilians in three important respects: the data provide actual estimates of civilians killed, the data are collected annually and the data are provided for both governments and rebel groups. Using these data, general trends and patterns are presented, showing that the post-Cold War era is characterized by periods of fairly low-scale violence punctuated by occasional sharp increases in violence against civilians. Furthermore, rebels tend to be more violent on the whole, while governments commit relatively little violence except in those few years which see mass killings. The article then examines some factors that have been found to predict genocide and evaluates how they correlate with one-sided violence as conceptualized here. A U-shaped correlation between regime type and one-sided violence is identified: while autocratic governments undertake higher levels of one-sided violence than other regime types, rebels are more violent in democratic countries.

    National Category
    Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalization Studies)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-97268 (URN)10.1177/0022343307075124 (DOI)000245923100006 ()
    Available from: 2008-05-08 Created: 2008-05-08 Last updated: 2011-02-04Bibliographically approved
    2. Rebel Attacks on Civilians: Targeting the Achilles Heel of Democratic Governments
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rebel Attacks on Civilians: Targeting the Achilles Heel of Democratic Governments
    Article in journal (Refereed) In press
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-97269 (URN)
    Available from: 2008-05-08 Created: 2008-05-08 Last updated: 2010-01-14Bibliographically approved
    3. Battle Losses and Rebel Violence: Raising the Costs for Fighting
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Battle Losses and Rebel Violence: Raising the Costs for Fighting
    2007 (English)In: Terrorism and Political Violence, ISSN 0954-6553, E-ISSN 1556-1836, Vol. 19, no 2, 205-222 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In many armed conflicts, rebel groups deliberately target civilians. This article examines whether such violence is related to the performance of the rebels on the battlefield. It is proposed that rebel groups who are losing battles target civilians in order to impose extra costs on the government. When rebels attack civilians, the government may incur both political and military costs. Violence against civilians is thus used as an alternative conflict strategy aimed at pressuring the government into concessions. The argument is evaluated by using monthly data for rebel groups involved in armed conflict from January 2002 to December 2004.

    Keyword
    Battle outcome, Conflict strategy, Internal conflict, Rebel groups, Violence against civilians
    National Category
    Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalization Studies)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-97270 (URN)10.1080/09546550701246866 (DOI)000246066800003 ()
    Available from: 2008-05-08 Created: 2008-05-08 Last updated: 2017-10-31
    4. The Power to Hurt in Civil War: A Case Study of the Military Strategy of Renamo
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Power to Hurt in Civil War: A Case Study of the Military Strategy of Renamo
    Manuscript (Other academic)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-97271 (URN)
    Available from: 2008-05-08 Created: 2008-05-08 Last updated: 2010-01-13Bibliographically approved
  • 296.
    Hultman, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    The Power to Hurt in Civil War: The Strategic Aim of Renamo Violence2009In: Journal of Southern African Studies, ISSN 0305-7070, E-ISSN 1465-3893, Vol. 35, no 4, 821-834 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article develops a theoretical explanation for the seemingly indiscriminate violence used by Renamo during the civil war in Mozambique, a phenomenon which dominant theories on civil war violence cannot account for fully. The analysis builds on interviews with the Renamo leadership and Mozambican academics as well as secondary sources on the patterns of violence. It concludes that Renamo used mass violence to weaken the support for the government and create war fatigue. The main strategy was to cause enough damage to pressure the government into entering negotiations. The use of most violence against civilians in those areas where the population was believed to support the government, in combination with a clear objective to destabilise the government and a disciplined military organisation, support the argument that mass violence was employed to demonstrate ‘the power to hurt’.

  • 297.
    Hunter, Dwight
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Media and Communication Studies.
    Re-Thinking Privacy for the Physical and Digital World: Reformulating Our Theoretical Foundations2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When scholars address privacy as a condition in contemporary society it can become a very difficult subject to approach on a general level. With public concerns rising surrounding matters of digital tracking and surveillance, discussions of privacy have found a new dimension in digital information. Yet defining how digital privacy should be approached, in particular regard to a general conception of privacy, remains unclear. Research spanning across the social sciences, law, economics and technical fields have all taken their own perspectives towards studying various forms of privacy. This study seeks to unify privacy- related discourses by evaluating the conceptualization of privacy throughout existing literature in order to determine what fundamentally distinguishes digital privacy from general privacy while remaining intrinsically related. To do this, I employ Michael E. Brown's 'sub- theoretical notion' (2014) to turn privacy discourses inwards, seeking the underlying logic contained within its seemingly disparate dimensions. Using a sample of 28 purposively selected texts analyzed through a structural content analysis, resulting in a refined sample of n=4,486 structural elements contained within the texts, the various relational dynamics of privacy discussions are evaluated, noting their interrelations. I arrive at information tangibility and loci of control as the two most intrinsic elements of privacy, dramatized by developments in technological mediation, which can thus both unify and distinguish the various forms of privacy research. In a discussion of implications of this exploratory study, I conclude with how the integration of privacy's sub-theoretical notion (information tangibility and loci of control) allows for current privacy-related discourses to acknowledge not only their own limitations to social life, but to move beyond the singular notion of a correct conception of privacy to see instead how each conception is interrelated via the unifying logic of the sub- theoretical. 

  • 298.
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för klinisk medicin.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Sjöström, Michael
    Changes in aerobic fitness in Swedish children and adolescents2006In: Journal of Physical Activity and Health, ISSN 1543-3080, E-ISSN 1543-5474, Vol. 3, no 1, 79-89 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Steadily declining physical activity, especially among children, and the possible adverse health outcomes such behavior could precede, is a general concern. We evaluated whether a presumed decrease in physical activity has been accompanied with a decrease in aerobic fitness of Swedish children. Methods: A maximum cycle ergometer test  was performed in 935 children age 9 and 15 y, and the results were compared with previously reported data. Results: Estimated peak oxygen uptake (mL · kg-1 · min-1) in 9-y-old subjects was 37.3 in girls and 42.8 in boys; and in 15-y-olds, 40.4 in girls and 51.5 in boys. In the 9-y-olds, aerobic fitness remained lower in the current study compared to earlier data, but in the 15-y-olds the result did not differ from the 1952 data after adjustment for methodological differences. Conclusion: Our results suggest a change towards decreased aerobic fitness in 9-y-old, but not in 15-y-old, Swedish children during a 50-y time span.

  • 299.
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för klinisk medicin.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Sjöström, Michael
    Changes in aerobic fitness in Swedish children and adolescents2006In: Journal of Physical Activity and Health, ISSN 1543-3080, E-ISSN 1543-5474, Vol. 3, no 1, 79-89 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Steadily declining physical activity, especially among children, and the possible adverse health outcomes such behavior could precede, is a general concern. We evaluated whether a presumed decrease in physical activity has been accompanied with a decrease in aerobic fitness of Swedish children. Methods: A maximum cycle ergometer test  was performed in 935 children age 9 and 15 y, and the results were compared with previously reported data. Results: Estimated peak oxygen uptake (mL · kg-1 · min-1) in 9-y-old subjects was 37.3 in girls and 42.8 in boys; and in 15-y-olds, 40.4 in girls and 51.5 in boys. In the 9-y-olds, aerobic fitness remained lower in the current study compared to earlier data, but in the 15-y-olds the result did not differ from the 1952 data after adjustment for methodological differences. Conclusion: Our results suggest a change towards decreased aerobic fitness in 9-y-old, but not in 15-y-old, Swedish children during a 50-y time span.

  • 300.
    Husz, Orsi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    From wage earners to financial consumers: cheque account salaries in Sweden in the 1950s and 1960s2015In: Critique Internationale, ISSN 1290-7839, E-ISSN 1777-554X, Vol. 69, no 4, 99-118 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the late 1950s Swedish commercial banks started to offer payroll services to employers and open current accounts with chequebooks for both white- and blue-collar employees. Within a decade Swedish wage earners were turned into bank customers and the commercial banks – formerly solemn institutions serving business and the very richest – became retail companies selling a wide range of products to a broad public. The paper investigates, through the case of so-called cheque account salaries, the cultural challenges posed by the exceptionally early bancarisation (spread of the use of banking services) in Swedish society. I argue against over-emphasising the individual self-governing financial subjects depicted in Foulcauldian studies of the financialisation process. The making and control of new financial subjects in Sweden was made possible, at least during its first phase, by technologies and discourses rooted in a more directly disciplinary and hierarchical value system impregnated by class (as defined by production rather than consumption). Collective affiliations of groups of employees, building on wage earner identities, rather than on consumer identities, proved to be instrumental in the financialisation of everyday life. The new everyday consumers of financial products were created in a back and forth movement between the older subject positions and the models imagined for the new. Furthermore, my study demonstrates that the prevalent chronology of the financialisation of daily life in Europe can be traced further back in time.

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