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  • 251.
    Aronsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå Universitet.
    Blomquist, Sören
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    The Standard Deviation of Life-Length, Retirement Incentives, and Optimal Pension Design2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we consider how the retirement age as well as a tax financed pension system ought to respond to a change in the standard deviation of the length of life. In a first best framework, where a benevolent government exercises perfect control over the individuals’ labor supply and retirement-decisions, the results show that a decrease in the standard deviation of life-length leads to an increase in the optimal retirement age and vice versa, if the preferences for “the number of years spent in retirement” are characterized by constant or decreasing absolute risk aversion. A similar result follows in a second best setting, where the government raises revenue via a proportional tax (or pension fee) to finance a lump-sum benefit per year spent in retirement. We consider two versions of this model, one with a mandatory retirement age decided upon by the government and the other where the retirement age is a private decision-variable.

  • 252.
    Aronsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Blomquist, Sören
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Micheletto, Luca
    University of Milan, Italy.
    Where Should the Eldery Live and Who Should Pay for Their Care?2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 112, no 2, p. 289-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider a model with a population consisting of earners and retired persons; elderly care is publicly provided. There is one big city, where congestion effects and agglomeration forces are at work, and a number of small villages. We show how the externalities related to population mobility lead to an inefficient spatial distribution of earners and retirees, and we characterize the second-best solution. Decentralization of this solution in a fiscal federalism structure requires the use of taxes and subsidies proportional to the number of earners and retired persons living in the city and the villages.

  • 253. Aronsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Micheletto, Luca
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Uppsala Center for Fiscal Studies.
    Sjogren, Tomas
    A note on public goods in a decentralized fiscal union: Implications of a participation constraint2014In: Journal of Urban Economics, ISSN 0094-1190, E-ISSN 1095-9068, Vol. 84, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper re-examines the question of whether federal ex-post redistribution in terms of public funds leads to under-provision of public goods when member states may leave the economic federation. We show that federal ex-post redistribution under a binding participation constraint does not necessarily mean under-provision of local and federal public goods.

  • 254.
    Aronsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Umeå School of Business and Economics, Umeå University.
    Micheletto, Luca
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Uppsala Center for Fiscal Studies.
    Tomas, Sjögren
    Department of Economics, Umeå School of Business and Economics, Umeå University,.
    A note on public goods in a decentralized fiscal union: Implications of a participation constraint2012Report (Other academic)
  • 255. Aronsson, Tomas
    et al.
    Blomquist, Sören
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Micheletto, Luca
    Where Should the Elderly Live and Who Should Pay for their Care? A Study in Demographics and Geographical Economics2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a rich literature analyzing the problems that will arise as the share of elderly and retired in the population increases in the near future. However, the locational decisions among the elderly as well as their implications in terms of taxes/transfers and of allocation of responsibilities for elderly care between the federal and local levels have not received much attention. In this paper we aim at investigating these issues. For this purpose we explore a model where there is a big city and a set of small villages, and where congestion effects and agglomeration forces are at work at the level of the big city. We also assume that the population is divided between two groups of agents, workers and retired, which differ with respect to the degree of mobility. In the first part of the paper we study and characterize the inefficiencies that arise because of individuals’ free location choice in the context of a unitary government. In the second part of the paper we consider a fiscal federalism structure and we investigate the suitable instruments that are needed in order to decentralize the optimal allocation obtained under full centralization.

  • 256.
    Arpe, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Prisbildningen på småhus: Påverkas börskurserna och priset på småhus av samma faktorer?2002Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
  • 257.
    Arremark, Louise
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Lindblad, Susanna
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Fusioner i svensk näringsliv - motiv och konkurrensbedömning2002Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
  • 258.
    Arslanogullari, Sebastian
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Household adjustment to unemployment2000Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of three self-contained studies on labour economics.

    Is the dramatic increase in the number of social assistance (SA) recipients in Sweden during the 1990s,in part, due to an increase in the propensity to receive SA? I investigate this question in essay I andfind no evidence of a general increase in the mentioned propensity although some behaviouralchanges seem to have occurred. First, I find evidence that the recipients may be subjected to tougherjudgement criteria in 1995 compared to 1990, which could, mask a possible increase in the studiedpropensity. Second, the propensity to become a SA recipient has increased among people withuniversity education. Third, the propensity to receive SA among young people seems to be lower in1995 than in 1990 but this may be due to a tougher attitude shown by the authorities that is particularlyaffecting this group.

    Essay II examines the added worker effect (AWE) in the presence of unemployment benefits in theshort run. The results suggest that Swedish women, but not men, increase their earnings in response totheir spouses' unemployment. Further, the woman's response seems to be directly related to thehusband's loss of earnings from unemployment, since it increases with the duration of the husband'sunemployment and decreases with the amount of unemployment benefit that the husband receives.However, although a significant AWE can be documented, its economic significance is relativelysmall in the short run. Finally, the households' ability to smooth their earnings by other resources(such as previous savings) seems to reduce the spouses' earning response.

    In essay III, I analyse if liquid assets are used to smooth variations in consumption that results fromunemployment. My findings indicate that households do use liquid assets for this purpose. First, I findthat among working households, those facing a higher risk of becoming unemployed, on average,accumulate more assets. Second, households utilise previously accumulated assets during spells ofunemployment. Third, unemployment benefits (UB) crowd out the utilisation of assets, whichdemonstrates that assets are used as a consumption-smoothing device along with unemploymentbenefits during unemployment. Also, increases in UB generosity reduce the amount of assetsaccumulated, which implies that UB have important effects on people's saving behaviour. Finally, Ifind that both asset accumulation and asset use during unemployment are lower among couplescompared to singles and these differences increase further if the spouse is working.

  • 259.
    Arslanogullari, Sebastian
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Social Assistance in Sweden 1990-19951999Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 260.
    Arslanogullari, Sebastian
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Social Assistance in Sweden 1990-19952000Report (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite being a very hot subject in the public debate, the causes behind the increase in social assistance (SA) in the 1990s are relatively unknown. In this paper, I try to investigate if the increase is in part a result of an increase in the propensity t

  • 261.
    Arslanogullari, Sebastian
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Social assistance in Sweden 1990-19952000Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite being a very hot subject in the public debate, the causes behind the increase in social assistance (SA) in the 1990s are relatively unknown. In this paper, I try to investigate if the increase is in part a result of an increase in the propensity to receive SA. Despite what is usually argued in the public debate, I find no evidence of a general increase in the mentioned propensity in Sweden during the period 1990 to 1995. But although there is no evidence of an increased propensity to receive SA, some behavioural changes seem to have occurred. First, I find evidence that the recipients may be subjected to tougher judgement criteria in 1995 than in the 1990, something that could mask a possible increase in the studied propensity in the empirical analysis. Second, the propensity to become a SA recipient has increased among people with university education. Thirdly the propensity to receive SA among young people seems to be lower in 1995 than in 1990 but this may be due to a tougher attitude shown by the authorities that is particularly affecting this group.

  • 262.
    Arvidsson, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Mest för syns skull?: en studie av effekten på Sveriges utlandsexport av statsbesök2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta är en undersökning av Sveriges statsbesöks effekt på Sveriges export. För att mäta effekten använder jag mig av en empirisk modell, den så kallade handelsgravitationsmodellen. Jag finner att det är svårt att hitta starka och statistiskt signifikanta bevis på att Sveriges statsbesök har en positiv effekt på exporten. När man isolerar för statsbesök i Europa utanför Norden finner jag till och med tecken på att de kan ha en negativ effekt. Jag har även jämfört effekten av Sveriges statsbesök med effekten av Storbritanniens och funnit att Sverige har en generellt lägre effekt än Storbritannien, oavsett vilken modell som används.

  • 263.
    Arvidsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Toivonen, Göran
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Tillväxt och Historisk Volatilitet2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta är en empirisk undersökning av sambandet mellan tillväxt och historisk volatilitet på tillväxt. Många uppsatser har tidigare studerat sambandet mellan tillväxt och volatilitet på tillväxt, t ex Ramey och Ramey (1995), Hnatkovska och Loayza (2004), Siegler (2005). Vi menar dock att volatilitet på tillväxt inte är en tillräckligt exogen variabel. Vi har funnit att det, för alla länder, inte finns ett generellt samband mellan tillväxt och historisk volatilitet.

    Däremot kan det finnas ett samband mellan tillväxt och historiskt volatilitet för industrialiserade länder (OECD länder). Vi har även studerat om det är någon skillnad i sambandet mellan tillväxt och historisk volatilitet beroende på den historiska tillväxten, men

    funnit att så inte är fallet.

  • 264.
    Arvidsson, Martin
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    EMU:s effekt på utrikeshandeln i Europa: En empirisk paneldatstudie2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna uppsats studeras hur den Europeiska Monetära Unionen inverkat på några europeiska

    länders export till EMU-länder och icke-EMU-länder. Skattningen görs med paneldatametod

    på kvartalsobservationer mellan 1985 och 2003. Modellen som används är en dynamisk

    exportfunktion. Resultaten tyder på en signifikant effekt. Den genomsnittliga exporten för de

    europeiska nationerna till EMU-länderna ökade 1999 med 10 % och till icke-EMU-länderna

    med 14 %. För de exportländer som var medlemmar skattades en extra effekt på ungefär lika

    mycket vilket innebär att totaleffekten på exporten för medlemsländerna var cirka det dubbla

    mot icke-medlemmarna. Det uppseendeväckande med resultaten är att exporten till icke-

    EMU-länderna skattades konsekvent till att ha ökat mer än exporten till EMU. Resultaten är

    dock mycket känsliga för förändringar i specifikationen och stämmer dåligt då modellen

    skattas på varje land för sig. Slutsatsen som dras av studien är således att en effekt på

    exporten verkar finnas till följd av unionen men är något mindre än tidigare forskning visat

    och fortfarande osäker.

  • 265.
    Asheim, Geir B.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Dufwenberg, Martin
    Admissibility and common knowledge1996Report (Other scientific)
  • 266.
    Assarsson, B.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Efterfrågan på tjänster i Sverige. Beräkning av efterfrågeelasticiteter och sysselsättningseffekter.1997In: SOU 1997:17, 1997, no 2Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 267.
    Assarsson, B.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Introduction1996In: The econometrics of demand systems. With applications to food demand in the Nordic countries., Kluwer Academic Publishers , 1996, p. 3-5Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 268.
    Assarsson, B.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Sverige i och utanför EMU. Analys av chocker i en ekonometrisk modell för världsekonomin.1996In: SOU 1996:158, Vol. 6Book (Other scientific)
  • 269.
    Assarsson, B., Berg, C., Jansson, P.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Investments in Swedish manufacturing: Analysis and forecasts1999In: Working paper, no 95Report (Other scientific)
  • 270.
    Assarsson, B., Edgerton, D.L.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    A common dynamic AIDS model for the Nordic countries1996In: The econometrics of demand systems. With applications to food demand in the Nordic countries., Kluwer Academic Publishers , 1996, p. 93-140Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 271.
    Assarsson, B., Edgerton, D.L.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    The consumption of food in the Nordic countries1996In: The econometrics of demand systems. With applications to food demand in the Nordic countries., Kluwer Academic Publishers , 1996, p. 7-54Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 272.
    Assarsson, B., Gidehag.R., Zettergren, G.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Fiscal policy in Sweden: An analysis of the budget over the business cycle1999In: Indicators of structural budget deficits, Banca d'Italia , 1999Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 273.
    Assarsson, B., Jansson, P.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Unemployment persistence: The case of Sweden1998In: Applied Economic Letters, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 25-29Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 274.
    Assarsson, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Inflation and Higher Moments of Relative Price Changes in Sweden2003In: BIS Papers, Bank for International Settlements, Basel , 2003, Vol. 19, p. 383-397Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 275.
    Assarsson, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Inflation and Relative-Price Changes in the Swedish Economy2004In: Sveriges Riksbank Economic Review, Vol. 3, p. 43-61Article in journal (Other scientific)
  • 276.
    Assarsson, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Riksbank forecasts of import prices and inflation2007In: Riksbank Economic Review, no 3Article in journal (Other scientific)
  • 277.
    Assarsson, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Stabiliseringspolitiska konsekvenser av utökad tillämpning av majoritetsbeslut inom EU2001In: Europaperspektiv. Östutvidgning, majoritetsbeslut och flexibel integration., Santérus förlag , 2001Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 278.
    Assarsson, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    The almost ideal demand system in error correction form1996In: The econometrics of demand systems. With applications to food demand in the Nordic countries, Kluwer Academic Publishers , 1996, p. 195-204Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 279.
    Assarsson, Bengt
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Bask, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    En granskning av Goodharts och Rochets utvärdering av Riksbankens politik2012In: Ekonomiska samfundets tidskrift, ISSN 0013-3183, E-ISSN 2323-1378, Vol. 65, no 2, p. 63-71Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews Charles Goodhart's and Jean-Charles Rochet's evaluation of the policy of the Swedish Riksbank during 2005-2010. A merit in the evaluation is that it advocates macro and not only micro prudential policies in the preventive efforts to support a stable financial system. However, we are critical about the lack of discussion on the presently weak basis of the economic theory of prudential policies. This calls for a precautionary principle in the design and implementation of reform. When it comes to monetary policy, there should have been a careful analysis of the divergence of opinion among the members of the Board of Governors, which is almost completely disregarded by the evaluaters. It seems that the decisions in the Riksbank have been characterized by an obvious bias towards too low inflation during the evaluation period.

  • 280.
    Assarsson, Bengt
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Berg, Claes
    Jansson, Per
    Investment in Swedish Manufacturing: Analysis and Forecasts2004In: Empirical Economics, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 261-280Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 281.
    Assarsson, Bengt
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Jansson, Per
    Some further evidence on hysteresis in unemployment rates: the cases of Denmark and Sweden1995Report (Other scientific)
  • 282.
    Assarsson, Johann
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Renås, Caroline
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Hälsa och ekonomisk tillväxt - en studie om hälsans effekter på ekonomin2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 283.
    Assarsson, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    The Impacts of the European Union - South Africa Free Trade Agreement2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2000 “the European Union and South Africa Free Trade Agreement” was established with

    the aim to gradually increase the amount of duty-free agricultural and industrial products to

    each market. The aim of this paper is to investigate if South Africa benefits from the EU-SA

    Free Trade Agreement and also what impacts this agreement has on South Africa’s trade with

    Southern Africa and the rest of the world. The result from the study indicates that South

    Africa benefits from the agreement in terms of improve trade. The result also shows that

    South Africa’s trade with some Southern African countries has been negative effected by the

    agreement but it is difficult to state if this is caused by the agreement or not. The rest of the

    world has not been negatively affected by the agreement.

  • 284.
    Atlason, Reynir Smari
    et al.
    SDU Life Cycle Engn, Dept Chem Engn Biotechnol & Environm Technol, Odense, Denmark.
    Stefánsson, Arnaldur
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Wietz, Miriam
    Univ Southern Denmark, Dept Technol & Innovat, SDU Innovat & Design Engn, Odense, Denmark.
    Giacalone, Davide
    Univ Southern Denmark, Dept Technol & Innovat, SDU Innovat & Design Engn, Odense, Denmark.
    A rapid Kano-based approach to identify optimal user segments2018In: Research in Engineering Design, ISSN 0934-9839, E-ISSN 1435-6066, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 459-467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Kano model of customer satisfaction provides product developers valuable information about if, and then how much a given functional requirement (FR) will impact customer satisfaction if implemented within a product, system or a service. A limitation of the Kano model is that it does not allow developers to visualize which combined sets of FRs would provide the highest satisfaction between different customer segments. In this paper, a stepwise method to address this shortcoming is presented. First, a traditional Kano analysis is conducted for the different segments of interest. Second, for each FR, relationship functions are integrated between x = 0 and x = 1. Third, integrals are inserted into a matrix crossing segments and FRs, where FRs with the highest sum across the chosen segments are identified. Finally, the functions of the chosen segments with the smallest interval, define the FRs appealing to the biggest target group. The proposed extension should assist product developers within to more effectively evaluate which FRs should be implemented when considering more than one combined customer segment. It shows which segments provide the highest possibility for high satisfaction of combined FRs. We demonstrate the approach in a case study involving customers' preference for outdoor sports equipment.

  • 285.
    Auerbach, A., Hassett, K. and Södersten, Jan
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Taxation and Corporate Investment: The impact of the 1991 Swedish Tax Reform.1995Report (Other scientific)
  • 286.
    Auerbach, A., Hassett, K. and Södersten, Jan
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Taxation and Corporate Investment. The Impact of the 1991 Tax Reform1995In: Swedish Economic Policy Review, Vol. 2, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 287.
    Avdic, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Arbetslöshetsförsäkringen: En studie av den förväntade förändringen på arbetslösheten av reformerna inom arbetslöshetsförsäkringen i Alliansens budgetproposition för 2007.2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 288.
    Avdic, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Inferens av effektutvärdering på retrospektiva data: – baserad på en applikation om samverkan inom Resursteam i Uppsala 2004-20072008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Matchning av observationer på bakgrundsvariabler är en metod att i praktiken undvika de problem som uppstår när vi i icke-deterministiska observationsstudier vill mäta potentiella effekter av exem-pelvis projektsatsningar inom sjukvården. Problemet är att vi är begränsade i våra val till potentiella kontrollindivider eftersom dessa ofta skiljer sig från de behandlade individerna i fråga om faktorer som ofta är högt korrelerade med effektvariabeln som vi är intresserade av. Med hjälp av matchning på retrospektiva data kan vi dock ändå estimera kontrafaktiska individer som därefter kan användas som kontroller i estimationen av behandlingseffekten. Inferens av denna effektutvärderingsestimator är dock problematisk då vissa individer potentiellt kan användas flera gånger i analysen och skapa sned-vridning i variansestimatorn. Istället motiveras i denna uppsats en alternativ metod att göra inferens; via subsampling. Utgångspunkten för denna procedur är att asymptotiskt skatta den empiriska fördel-ningen för estimatorn av intresse genom resampling och därefter göra inferens via denna approxima-tion. Uppsatsens empiriska del är baserad på en applikation om Resursteam som har som övergripande mål att förkorta sjukdomsperioderna för individer som ligger i riskzonen för att drabbas av långtids-sjukskrivningar. Som jämförelse används en tidigare utvärdering av Resursteam där ett annat län an-vänds för att välja lämpliga kontroller.

  • 289.
    Avdic, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Microeconometric Analyses of Individual Behavior in Public Welfare Systems: Applications in Health and Education Economics2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of four self-contained essays.

    Essay 1: Women have more absenteeism while simultaneously live longer than men. This pattern suggests that men and women's preferences for sickness absence might differ due to e.g. distinct health behaviors. These behaviors could, in turn, arise from the traditional gender division of labor within households, in which it might be more important to invest in the woman's health. We empirically analyze these hypotheses using administrative health data and find robust evidence for gender differences in preferences for health-related absenteeism.

    Essay 2: The paper analyzes whether residential proximity from an emergency room affects health outcomes from suffering an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Previous research has suffered from empirical problems relating to health-based spatial sorting of involved agents and data limitations on out-of-hospital mortality. Using policy-induced variation in hospital distance, arising from emergency room closures, and data on all AMI deaths in Sweden over a twenty-year period, results show a clear and gradually declining probability of surviving an AMI as hospital distance increases.

    Essay 3: Although learning-by-doing is believed to be an important source of productivity, there is limited evidence that increased production volume enhances productivity. We document evidence of learning-by-doing in a high-skill activity where stakes are high; advanced cancer surgery. For this purpose, we introduce a novel instrument that exploits changes in the number of public hospitals across time and space, affecting the number of cancer surgeries performed in Swedish hospitals. Using detailed register data, our results suggest substantial positive effects of operation volume on post-surgery survival rates.

    Essay 4: The paper analyzes whether student choice of college financing affects study durations by exploiting an intervention in the Swedish student aid system. The reform provided incentives for college students to reallocate time from studies to market work. We evaluate this time reallocation hypothesis by estimating relative changes in earnings and completed academic credits attributed to the intervention for students from different socioeconomic backgrounds. Applying detailed Swedish administrative data, we find that the intervention both increased relative earnings and decreased the relative study pace for students from a lower socioeconomic background.

  • 290.
    Avdic, Daniel
    et al.
    Univ Duisburg Essen, Dept Econ, Weststadtturme Berliner Pl 6-8, D-45127 Essen, Germany;CINCH, Essen, Germany.
    Karimi, Arizo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Modern Family?: Paternity Leave and Marital Stability2018In: American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, ISSN 1945-7782, E-ISSN 1945-7790, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 283-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study how relationship stability of couples is affected by an increase in fathers' involvement in staying home from work with young children. We make use of a parental leave reform in Sweden that earmarked one month of paid leave to each parent in a regression discontinuity difference-in-differences (RD-DD) framework. Couples who were affected by the reform increased the take-up of fathers' leave but also increased their probability of separation compared to unaffected couples. We argue that the separation effect can be explained by the degree of restrictiveness of the policy in combination with role conflicts in traditional family constellations.

  • 291.
    Avdic, Daniel
    et al.
    Univ Duisburg Essen, Duisburg, Germany;CINCH Essen, Essen, Germany.
    Lundborg, Petter
    Lund Univ, Dept Econ, Lund, Sweden;IZA Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
    Vikström, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Estimating returns to hospital volume: Evidence from advanced cancer surgery2019In: Journal of Health Economics, ISSN 0167-6296, E-ISSN 1879-1646, Vol. 63, p. 81-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-volume hospitals typically perform better than low-volume hospitals. In this paper, we study whether such patterns reflect a causal effect of case volume on patient outcomes. To this end, we exploit closures and openings of entire cancer clinics in Swedish hospitals which provides sharp and arguably exogenous variation in case volumes. Using detailed register data on more than 100,000 treatment episodes of advanced cancer surgery, our results suggest substantial positive effects of operation volume on survival. Complementary analyses point to learning-by-doing as an important explanation. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 292.
    Axbard, Sebastian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Crime, Corruption and Development2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Essay I: Prosecuting and convicting corrupt officials is a common strategy to combat corruption. Despite this, little is known about the effectiveness of such anti-corruption policies. Theoretically it has been argued that convictions might not achieve much in a highly corrupt environment, since incentives are likely to favor persistence of corrupt behavior. This study investigates the causal effect of convicting corrupt local officials by exploiting exogenous variation in the probability of conviction caused by the random assignment of cases to differently strict justices in the Philippines. Results show that convictions affect both who the local leaders are and the policy choices they make. In particular, families lose their monopoly power over the local government and spending is re-directed from general administrative items (e.g. mayoral office) towards public goods provision. In the long run, this leads to fewer corruption cases and a suggestive improvement of governance. An investigation of the mechanism proposes that the information provided by convictions is important in the political process. This illustrates the complimentary role that political and judiciary institutions can have in the fight against corruption.

    Essay II (with Jonas Poulsen and Anja Tolonen): The role of extractive industries for development is highly debated. A large literature focusing on poor countries with weak institutions has shown that such industries can spur conflict and war by providing appropriable resources. This study investigates whether this relationship persists later in the development process. More specifically, we examine whether the extensive mining industry in South Africa affects local property and violent crime. To estimate the causal effect, our empirical strategy exploits local production changes caused by fluctuations in international mineral prices. In contrast to earlier studies, we find that an increase in mining activity lowers the local crime rate. Several tests suggest that this effect is driven by better income opportunities, affecting the opportunity cost of engaging in criminal activity. In order for this effect to materialize, local institutional quality needs to be sufficiently high. If such conditions are met, the appropriation channel emphasized in the earlier literature is dominated by the change in opportunity costs of crime. 

    Essay III: The effect of climatic variation on conflict and crime is well established, but less is known about the mechanism through which this effect operates. This study contributes to the literature by exploiting a new source of exogenous variation in climate to study the effect of fishermen's income opportunities on sea piracy. Using satellite data to construct a monthly measure of local fishing conditions it is found that better income opportunities reduce piracy. A wide range of approaches are employed to ensure that these effects are driven by income opportunities rather than other mechanisms through which climate could affect piracy.

  • 293.
    Axbard, Sebastian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    "Income Opportunities and Sea Piracy in Indonesia" and "Extractive Industries, Production Shocks and Criminality"2015Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 294.
    Axbard, Sebastian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Income Opportunities and Sea Piracy in Indonesia: Evidence from Satellite Data2016In: American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, ISSN 1945-7782, E-ISSN 1945-7790, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 154-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of climatic variation on conflict and crime is well established, but less is known about the mechanism through which this effect operates. This study contributes to the literature by exploiting a new source of exogenous variation in climate to study the effect of fishermen's income opportunities on sea piracy. Using satellite data to construct a monthly measure of local fishing conditions it is found that better income opportunities reduce piracy. A wide range of approaches are employed to ensure that these effects are driven by income opportunities rather than other mechanisms through which climate could affect piracy.

  • 295.
    Axelsson, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Kunskap är makt: Hur ökad informationstillgång påverkar konkurrensen på den svenska bolånemarknaden2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Svensk bolånemarknad har under många år präglats av informationsasymmetri där bankerna påstås göra stora vinster på bekostnad av bolånetagarna. Den 1 juni 2015 införde Finansinspektionen ett krav på bankerna att redovisa vilken genomsnittlig ränta som deras kunder betalar. Detta för att förbättra kundernas förhandlingsläge och gynna konkurrensen mellan bankerna. Uppsatsens syfte har varit att undersöka om ränteinformationen har fått förväntad effekt på marknaden. I ett läge där konkurrensen gynnas kommer både räntorna och bankernas vinster att sjunka enligt de teorier som uppsatsen utgår ifrån. Undersökningen visar att bankernas snitträntor har hållit en relativt konstant räntenivå. Vad gäller räntans effekt på räntenettot (vinsten) återger regressionerna inga statistiskt signifikanta resultat. På grund av detta är det svårt att, utifrån de valda teorierna, dra några slutsatser kring vilken effekt den ökade informationen har haft på den svenska bolånemarknaden. Ränteutvecklingen ger dock indikationer på att konkurrensen eventuellt inte har gynnats. 

  • 296.
    Axelsson, Isabelle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    The Effect of Subsidizing Oral Contraceptives on the Sexual Risk Behavior of Women in Sweden2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Subsidies of oral contraceptives reduce one of the major costs of sexual activity; unwanted pregnancies. Such subsidies are predicted to generate sexual risk behavior by increasing unprotected sexual activity, and therefore sexually transmitted diseases (STD). Using the theory of ex-ante moral hazard together with an instrumental variables regression, this paper evaluates the hypothesis that an increase in the use of subsidized oral contraceptives leads to an increase in sexually transmitted diseases, primarily chlamydia, among 20-24 year old women in all Swedish counties between 2000-2015. Sexually transmitted diseases is used as a proxy for sexual risk behavior. I find no statistically significant evidence of enhanced sexual risk behavior among 20-24 year old women in result of using oral contraceptives. Statistically significant and positive impacts are nonetheless found for the 20-29-age group. This could be due to an increased variation in the sample. Since 20-24 year old women are eligible for the subsidies, analysis on this age group is preferable. Therefore, this study is unable to find evidence of ex-ante moral hazard in response to a welfare reform aiming at reducing abortions and increasing the availability of contraceptive methods.

  • 297.
    Axelsson, Isabelle
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Granström, Sofia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Delad föräldraförsäkring: Ökad jämställdhet eller ekonomisk bestraffning?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to, from a theoretical perspective, analyze the possible effects of a shared parental leave reform on women’s labor market participation and the income equality between men and women. The theory of Household Allocation, the Identity Model and the Signaling Theory are used to evaluate the theoretical base behind such a reform. The result shows that in case of a decrease of the social cost for fathers to use their parental leave, such a reform would induce both women’s labor force participation and the income equality. If the social cost is not reduced, such a reform would probably result in a higher labor force participation of women but the income inequality would remain.

  • 298.
    Axelsson Malmqvist, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Heldemar, Carolina
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Utländska direktinvesteringar i Shenzhen2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
  • 299.
    Backman, Malin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Blir du lönsam lille vän?: En empirisk studie av utbildningens lönsamhet för kvinnor i Sverige2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Trots att kvinnor sedan början av 2000-talet gått om männen i termer av högre utbildning återstår en markant löneskillnad mellan manliga och kvinnliga akademiker. Frågan är då om män och kvinnor har olika avkastning på sin utbildning och hur det påverkar utbildningens lönsamhet för kvinnor i Sverige.

    Efter att flertalet yrkes- och/eller lönerelaterade variabler kontrolleras för i en multivariat regressionsanalys uppgår det oförklarade könslönegapet till 5,3%. Inkluderandet av interaktionstermer mellan kön och utbildningsnivå generar inga signifikanta resultat. Det tyder på att kvinnor och män inte har signifikant åtskild avkastning på samma utbildningsnivå. Lönegapet beror då främst på andravariabler såsom befattning och yrke.

    Nuvärdet av en utbildning beräknas genom att summera och diskontera genomsnittlig yrkeslivslön och subtrahera alternativkostnaden av att inte jobba och kostnader för studiemedel för  respektive kön, utbildningsinriktning och utbildningsnivå. Nuvärdet är som högst för de med 180-240 högskolepoäng och längre utbildningar lönar sig därmed inte. Kvinnor har ett lägre nuvärde än män för samtliga utbildningsnivåer.

  • 300.
    Backman, Malin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Is the feeling mutual?: The effect of same-sex teachers: Disentangling teacher bias from role model effects2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the effect of same-sex teachers on students attending Economics A at Uppsala University from 2013 to 2018. Having a female teacher has no significant effect on female students’ exam performance but a significant and positive effect on the likelihood of attending the subsequent course in Economics. Certain types of female teachers have negative effects on male students’ exam performance in certain specifications and no effect on the likelihood of them attending the subsequent course. It was not possible to identify the underlying mechanism behind these results.

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