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  • 251. Morrow, EH
    et al.
    Fricke, Claudia
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi. Zooekologi.
    Sexual selection and the risk of extinction in mammals2004Inngår i: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London series B-Biological Sciences, Vol. 271, s. 2395-2401Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 252.
    Morrow, EH
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för evolutionsbiologi. Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi. Zooekologi.
    Pitcher, TE
    Sexual selection and the risk of extinction in birds2003Inngår i: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Vol. B270, s. 1793-1799Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 253.
    Morrow, EH
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för evolutionsbiologi. Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi. Zooekologi.
    Pitcher, TE
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för evolutionsbiologi. Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi. Zooekologi.
    No evidence that sexual selection is an 'engine of speciation' in birds2003Inngår i: Ecology Letters, Vol. 6, s. 1038-1038Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 254. Nicolaus, Marion
    et al.
    Both, Christiaan
    Ubels, Richard
    Edelaar, Pim
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Tinbergen, Joost M.
    No experimental evidence for local competition in the nestling phase as a driving force for density-dependent avian clutch size2009Inngår i: Journal of Animal Ecology, ISSN 0021-8790, E-ISSN 1365-2656, Vol. 78, nr 4, s. 828-838Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In birds, local competition for food between pairs during the nestling phase may affect nestling growth and survival. A decrease in clutch size with an increase in breeding density could be an adaptive response to this competition. To investigate whether breeding density causally affected the clutch size of great tits (Parus major), we manipulated breeding density in three out of eight study plots by increasing nest-box densities. We expected clutch size in these plots to be reduced compared to that in control plots. We analysed both the effects of variation in annual mean density (between-year comparisons) and experimental density (within-year comparison between plots) on clutch size variation, the occurrence of second broods and nestling growth. We examined within-female variation in clutch size to determine whether individual responses explain the variation over years. Over the 11 years, population breeding density increased (from 0.33 to 0.50 pairs ha(-1)) while clutch size and the occurrence of second broods decreased (respectively from 10.0 to 8.5 eggs and from 0.39 to 0.05), consistent with a negative density-dependent effect for the whole population. Nestling growth showed a declining but nonsignificant trend over years. The decline in population clutch size over years was primarily explained by changes occurring within individuals rather than selective disappearance of individuals laying large clutches. Within years, breeding density differed significantly between manipulated plots (0.16 pairs ha(-1) vs. 0.77 pairs ha(-1)) but clutch size, occurrence of second broods and nestling growth were not affected by the experimental treatment, resulting in a discrepancy between the effects of experimental and annual variation in density on reproduction. We discuss two hypotheses that could explain this discrepancy: (i) the decline in breeding performance over time was not due to density, but resulted from other, unknown factors. (ii) Density did cause the decline in breeding performance, but this was not due to local competition in the nestling phase. Instead, we suggest that competition acting in a different phase (e.g. before egg laying or after fledgling) was responsible for the density effect on clutch size among years.

  • 255. Nilsson, T
    et al.
    Fricke, Claudia
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för evolutionsbiologi. Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi. Zooekologi.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för evolutionsbiologi. Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi. Zooekologi.
    The effects of amle and female genotype on variance in male fertilization success in the red flour beetle2003Inngår i: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, Vol. 53, s. 227-233Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 256.
    Nordling, Dag
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi. zooekologi.
    Andersson, Måns Sverker
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi. zooekologi.
    Zohari, Siamak
    Fjäderfäavdelningen SVA.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi. zooekologi.
    Reproductive effort reduces specific immune response and parasite resistance1998Inngår i: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London: Biological sciences, nr 265, s. 1291-1298Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: If a trade-off exists between reproductive effort and immune function, life-history decisions may have important implications for parasite resistance. Here, we report effects of experimental manipulation of reproductive effort on subsequent specific immune function and parasite resistance in the collared flycatcher,, Ficedula albicollis. Our results show that increased reproductive effort of females immunized with Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine negatively affected the ability to respond with NDV-specific antibodies. We further show that increased reproductive effort increased the intensity of Haemoproteus infections and that such infections are associated with higher mortality. Our results thus provide support for the hypothesis that immune suppression caused by reproductive effort may be an important mechanism mediating the life-history cost of reproduction.

  • 257. Olsen, KH
    et al.
    Petersson, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi. Zooekologi.
    Ragnarsson, B
    Lundqvist, H
    Järvi, T
    Downstream migration in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolt sibling groups2004Inngår i: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Vol. 61, s. 328-331Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 258.
    Palm, S
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för evolutionsbiologi. Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Populationsbiologi. Zooekologi.
    Dannewitz, J
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för evolutionsbiologi. Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Populationsbiologi. Zooekologi. populationsbiologi.
    Järvi, T
    Petersson, E
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för evolutionsbiologi. Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Populationsbiologi. Zooekologi. Zooekologi.
    Prestegaard, T
    Ryman, N
    Lack of molecular genetic divergence between sea-ranched and wild trout (Salmo trutta)2003Inngår i: Molecular Ecology, Vol. 12, s. 2057-2071Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 259. Partridge, Charlyn
    et al.
    Ahnesjö, Ingrid
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Kvarnemo, Charlotta
    Mobley, B
    Berglund, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Jones, G
    The effect of perceived female parasite load on post-copulatory male choice in a sex-role-reversed pipefish2009Inngår i: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, ISSN 0340-5443, E-ISSN 1432-0762, Vol. 63, nr 3, s. 345-354Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The last several decades of research in behavioral ecology have resulted in a deeper appreciation of post-mating processes and sexual conflict in sexual selection. One of the most controversial aspects of sexual selection is cryptic mate choice. Here, we take advantage of male pregnancy in a sex-role-reversed pipefish (Syngnathus typhle) to quantify cryptic choice based on perceived parasite load and other sources of variance in female fitness. Studies have shown that S. typhle males preferentially mate with females with lower parasite loads and that a male's perception of female parasite load can be altered by tattooing females. We manipulated the apparent parasite load of females in controlled mating experiments to test the hypothesis that post-copulatory sexual selection is dependent on a male's perception of female parasite load in pipefish. Our results provided no evidence for cryptic male choice based on perceived female parasite load. However, we found evidence that eggs from larger females were more likely to result in viable offspring than eggs from smaller females and that the first female to mate with a male transferred more eggs per copulation on average. Overall, our results show that potential for post-copulatory sexual selection does exist in pipefish, but the male's perception of female parasite load does not play a major role in this process.

  • 260.
    Petersson, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Järvi, T.
    Characteristics of brown trout males influence growth and survival of their offspring2007Inngår i: Journal of Fish Biology, ISSN 0022-1112, E-ISSN 1095-8649, Vol. 71, nr 2, s. 493-509Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Half-sib groups of juvenile brown trout Salmo trutta (0+ years) having fathers with different characteristics were compared in several respects. Two kinds of experiments were performed, aquarium observations in the laboratory and stocking in a semi-natural stream. It was found in the aquarium experiments that the offspring of fathers with larger adipose fins were more active and were probably better at defending territories. Offspring of males chosen by females had higher growth rate. The feeding rate was higher in juveniles having a less aggressive father or a father that was chosen by the mother. The stream experiments showed that offspring of dominant males had higher growth rates, and that offspring of less aggressive fathers had higher survival. Thus, characteristics of the males (fathers) influences the quality of the offspring, and there seem to be benefits for the females both to choose among potential mates and to spawn with the most dominant male. As these male characteristics are never regarded during the process of artificial breeding in hatcheries, the results indicate a basis for divergence between hatchery and wild populations.

  • 261.
    Petersson, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för evolutionsbiologi. Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi. Zooekologi.
    Järvi, T
    Growth and social interactions of wild and sea-ranched brown trout and their hybrids2003Inngår i: Journal of Fish Biology, Vol. 63, s. 673-686Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 262.
    Petersson, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för evolutionsbiologi. Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi. Zooekologi.
    Sivinski, J
    Mating status and choice of group size in the phoretic fly Norrbomia frigipennis (Spuler)(Diptera: Sphaeroceridae)2003Inngår i: Journal of Insect Behavior, Vol. 16, s. 411-423Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 263. Pitala, Natalia
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Sendecka, Joanna
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Brommer, Jon E .
    Nestling immune response to phytohaemagglutinin is not heritable in collared flycatchers2007Inngår i: Biology Letters, ISSN 1744-9561, E-ISSN 1744-957X, Vol. 3, nr 4, s. 418-421Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The response to intradermally injected phytohaemagglutinin (PHA-response) is a commonly used quantification of avian immunocompetence (the ability to resist pathogens). Parasite-mediated sexual selection requires heritable immunocompetence, but evidence for heritability of PHA-response in birds largely stems from full-sib comparisons. Using an animal model approach, we quantified the narrow-sense heritability of PHA-response in 1626 collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis) nestlings from 332 families, most of which were cross-fostered. Nestling PHA-response was not significantly heritable (h2=0.06±0.10), but was subject to non-heritable nest-of-origin effects (10% of variation). Our findings illustrate that full-sib comparisons of immunological measures may lead to an inflated estimate of heritability and also reveal a limited role of nestling PHA-response for sexual selection in this population.

  • 264. Pitala, Natalia
    et al.
    Ruuskanen, Suvi
    Laaksonen, Toni
    Doligez, Blandine
    Tschirren, Barbara
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    The effects of experimentally manipulated yolk androgens on growth and immune function of male and female nestling collared flycatchers Ficedula albicollis2009Inngår i: Journal of Avian Biology, ISSN 0908-8857, E-ISSN 1600-048X, Vol. 40, nr 2, s. 225-230Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Hormone-mediated maternal effects may be an important mechanism for adjusting offspring phenotype to particular requirements of the environment. We manipulated the levels of testosterone and androstenedione in the yolk of collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis eggs to investigate the effects of pre-natal exposure to androgens on growth and immune function. Androgen treatment tended to reduce the growth of males, and enhance the growth of females, as indicated by significant interaction between sex and androgen treatment. Cellular immune function was not affected by androgen treatment or sex. Survival of nestlings until fledging was not related to androgen treatment. Our results indicate that in the collared flycatcher yolk androgens do not involve clear overall benefits during the nestling stage, and that growth-enhancing effects of increased yolk androgen levels on female nestlings are counterbalanced by detrimental effects on male nestlings.

  • 265. Pitala, Natalia
    et al.
    Siitari, Heli
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Brommer, Jon E.
    Ectoparasites help to maintain variation in cell-mediated immunity in the blue tit-hen flea system2009Inngår i: Evolutionary Ecology Research, ISSN 1522-0613, E-ISSN 1937-3791, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 79-94Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Hypothesis: Host-parasite interactions have the potential to maintain genetic variation, especially in traits related to defence against parasites. Organism: Blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) nestlings. Methods: Rear nestlings in artificially created conditions of low and high abundance of ectoparasitic hen fleas (Ceratophyllus gallinae). Cross-foster siblings between these environments to estimate parasite-induced genotype-environment interactions. Measure components of phenotypic variance in morphology (tarsus length and body mass) and in immune defence (plasma immunoglobulins and cell-mediated immunocompetence). Results: Hen flea infestation lowered growth, cell-mediated immunocompetence, and haematocrit. Genotype-environment interactions were observed in cell-mediated immunocompetence, body mass, and haematocrit, with significant crossing reaction norms for cell-mediated immunocompetence and haematocrit. Immunoglobulin concentrations were unaffected by fleas. Thus, host-parasite interactions constrain the expression and evolvability of some traits, but also create genotype-environment interactions with the potential to maintain genetic variation in immune defence.

  • 266. Poulet, Nicolas
    et al.
    Balaresque, Patricia
    Aho, Teija
    Björklund, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Genetic structure and dynamics of a small introduced population: the pikeperch, Sander lucioperca, in the Rhone delta2009Inngår i: Genetica, ISSN 0016-6707, E-ISSN 1573-6857, Vol. 135, nr 1, s. 77-86Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Genetic data on introduced populations may help us to understand how these species succeed in colonising new territories. The pikeperch is a predatory fish widely introduced in Europe and has at times been considered as an invasive species. However, little is known about the genetics of both native and introduced populations. In the present study, we surveyed an introduced pikeperch population from the Rhone River delta, a habitat that has been highly modified for agricultural purposes. Using six microsatellites, we genotyped 93 individuals distributed among four hydraulically connected water bodies: the Rhone River, an irrigation canal, a drainage canal and a brackish lagoon. Population isolation were revealed by significant genetic distances and bottleneck highlighted by population monitoring. However, values of allelic richness and unbiased expected heterozygosity observed in these populations were similar, or even higher, compare to 18 native populations from the Baltic Sea drainage. It may be explained by multiple introductions in the Rhonee drainage but also by demographic strategy that would have facilitated population persistence in this fragmented habitat. Similarly, heterozygote deficits (revealed by F-IS values) have been detected, but were also found in native populations suggesting that mating among relatives could also result from a mating behavior of the species, maybe reinforce here by the reduced carrying capacity of the artificial canals and their respective isolation. Despite harsh environmental conditions and suspected inbreeding, the pikeperch has successfully maintained viable populations in the Rhone delta. Our study suggests that one of the factors in this invasive success, apart from its ecology, could be the maintenance of a good level of genetic diversity in introduced pikeperch populations. This genetic diversity probably stem from both its popularity as game fish and food resource which led to numerous stocking and an increasing propagule pressure and the reproductive strategy of the species.

  • 267. Price, TD
    et al.
    Qvarnström, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för evolutionsbiologi. Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi. Zooekologi.
    Irwin, DE
    The role of phenotypic plasticity in driving genetic evolution2003Inngår i: Proceedings of the Royal Society Biological Sciences, Vol. 270, s. 1433-1440Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 268. Pärt, T
    et al.
    Doligez, B
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för evolutionsbiologi. Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi. Zooekologi.
    Gathering public information for habitat selection: prospecting birds cue on parental activity2003Inngår i: Proceedings of the Royal Society Biological Sciences B, Vol. 270, s. 1809-1813Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 269.
    Qvarnstrom, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Haavie, Jon
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för evolution, genomik och systematik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Saether, S. A.
    Eriksson, D.
    Part, T.
    Song similarity predicts hybridization in flycatchers2006Inngår i: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 19, nr 4, s. 1202-1209Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Given that population divergence in sexual signals is an important prerequisite for reproductive isolation, a key prediction is that cases of signal convergence should lead to hybridization. However, empirical studies that quantitatively demonstrate links between phenotypic characters of individuals and their likelihood to hybridize are rare. Here we show that song convergence between sympatric pied (Ficedula hypoleuca) and collared flycatchers (F. albicollis) influence social and sexual interactions between the two species. In sympatry, the majority of male pied flycatchers (65%) include various parts of collared flycatcher song in their song repertoire (but not vice versa). Playback experiments on male interactions demonstrate that male collared flycatchers respond similarly to this 'mixed' song as to conspecific song. Long-term data on pairing patterns show that males singing a converged song attract females of the other species: female collared flycatchers only pair with male pied flycatchers if the males sing the mixed song type. From the perspective of a male pied flycatcher, singing a mixed song type is associated with 30% likelihood of hybridization. This result, combined with our estimates of the frequency of mixed singers, accurately predicts the observed occurrence of hybridization among male pied flycatchers in our study populations (20.45% of 484 pairs; predicted 19.5%). Our results support the suggestion that song functions as the most important prezygotic isolation mechanism in many birds.

  • 270.
    Qvarnström, A
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi. Zooekologi.
    Brommer, JE
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Gustafsson, L
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi. Zooekologi.
    Testing the genetics underlying the co-evolution of mate choice and ornament in the wild2006Inngår i: Nature, Vol. 441, s. 84-86Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 271.
    Qvarnström, A
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi. Zooekologi.
    Haavie, J
    Saether, SA
    Eriksson, D
    Pärt, T
    Song similarity predicts hybridization in flycatchers2006Inngår i: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, Vol. 19, s. 1202-1209Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 272.
    Qvarnström, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi. Zooekologi.
    Blomgren, V
    Wiley, Chris
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi. Zooekologi.
    Svedin, Nina
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi. Zooekologi.
    Female collared flycatchers learn to prefer maöes with an artificial npvel ornament2004Inngår i: Behavioral Ecology, Vol. 15, s. 543-548Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 273.
    Qvarnström, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för evolutionsbiologi. Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi. Zooekologi.
    Sheldon, BC
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för evolutionsbiologi. Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi. Zooekologi.
    Pärt, T
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för evolutionsbiologi. Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi. Zooekologi.
    Male ornamentation, timing of breeding, and cost of polygyny in the collared flycatcher2003Inngår i: Behavioral Ecology, Vol. 14, s. 68-73Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 274. Qvarnström, Anna
    et al.
    Svedin, Nina
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Wiley, Chris
    Veen, Thor
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Cross-fostering reveals seasonal changes in the relative fitness of two competing species of flycatchers2004Inngår i: Biology Letters, Vol. 1, s. 68-71Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 275.
    Qvarnström, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi. Zooekologi.
    Svedin, Nina
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi. Zooekologi.
    Wiley, Chris
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi. Zooekologi.
    Veen, Tor
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi. Zooekologi.
    Corss-fostering reveals seasonal changes in the relative fitness of two competring species of flycatchers2005Inngår i: Biology Letters, Vol. 1, s. 68-71Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 276.
    Qvarnström, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Vogel Kehlenbeck, Jenny
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Wiley, Chris
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Svedin, Nina
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Saether, Stein Are
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Populationsbiologi.
    Species divergence in offspring begging intensity: Difference in need or manipulation of parents?2007Inngår i: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 274, nr 1612, s. 1003-1008Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Conflicts over the delivery and sharing of food among family members are expected to lead to evolution of exaggerated offspring begging for food. Coevolution between offspring begging intensity and parent response depends on the genetic architecture of the traits involved. Given a genetic correlation between offspring begging intensity and parental response, there may be fast and arbitrary divergence in these behaviours between populations. However, there is limited knowledge about the genetic basis of offspring solicitation and parental response and whether these traits are genetically correlated. In this study, we performed a partial cross-fostering experiment of young between pied and collared flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca and Ficedula albicollis) and recorded the behaviour of individual offspring and their (foster)parents. We found that nestling collared flycatchers reached a higher phenotypic quality, estimated both as mass at fledging and as intensity of their T-lymphocyte-mediated immune response when raised by heterospecific foster parents. However, although collared flycatchers begged relatively more intensively, we found no evidence of corresponding higher resistance (i.e. lower feeding rate) of adult collared flycatchers than of adult pied flycatchers. Thus, the difference in offspring begging intensity between the two species seems not to be a result of a difference in escalation of the parent–offspring conflict. Instead, the species' divergence in exaggeration of offspring begging intensity ‘honestly’ matches a difference between the species in offspring need. This interpretation is strengthened by the fact that the difference in begging intensity between the two species increased as the season progressed, coinciding with the higher sensitivity of nestling collared flycatchers to the seasonal decline in food availability. Thus, the behavioural differentiation appears to be a direct consequence of a life-history differentiation (offspring growth patterns).

  • 277.
    Qvarnström, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Wiley, Chris
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Svedin, Nina
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Vallin, Niclas
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Life-history divergence facilitates regional coexistence of competing Ficedula flycatchers2009Inngår i: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 90, nr 7, s. 1948-1957Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Regional coexistence of ecologically similar species is facilitated when fluctuations in environmental conditions favor different species at different times or places. However, why species with similar ecology should vary in their response to environmental change is unclear. In this study, we explore the role of a life-history divergence in causing changes in relative fitness across environmental conditions experienced by populations of two closely related Ficedula flycatchers on the Baltic island of Oland, Sweden. We compared patterns of nestling survival between Pied (Ficedula hypoleuca) and Collared (F. albicollis) Flycatchers in relation to two factors known to influence the environment experienced by nestlings: natural variation in their parents' onset of breeding and artificial manipulation of the brood size. Possible differences in the location of the nests (i.e., microhabitat differences) or in habitat use (i.e., feeding patterns) by the adult birds were controlled for by partial cross-fostering of young between the two species. We found that nestling mortality was relatively higher among Collared Flycatchers and that this difference increased with later breeding. Mass gain, which predicted survival probability, of nestling Collared Flycatchers did not respond to the seasonal decline in environmental conditions when they were raised in nests with reduced brood size (i.e., where sibling competition was experimentally reduced). This latter result suggests that the smaller clutch size of Collared Flycatchers reflects an adaptive adjustment to their offspring's higher sensitivity to environmental change. We discuss the possibility that the divergence in life-history traits between the two species represents adaptation to different environments experienced during their recent evolutionary history. We conclude that the survival of nestling Collared Flycatchers is more sensitive to harsh environment and that this is likely to limit where and when the more aggressive Collared Flycatchers are able to displace Pied Flycatchers. Our results provide support for models of species coexistence that emphasize the importance of spatial or temporal heterogeneity in relative fitness or life-history divergence. More precisely, our results demonstrate that variation in life-history adaptations may result in changes in relative fitness of species across environments despite their use of similar resources.

  • 278. Ranta, Esa
    et al.
    Bach, Lars A.
    Kaitala, Veijo
    Björklund, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Lundberg, Per
    Competition enhances spatial genetic differentiation2009Inngår i: Evolutionary Ecology Research, ISSN 1522-0613, E-ISSN 1937-3791, Vol. 11, nr 8, s. 1251-1258Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Questions: How does the number of species in a community affect the level of genetic diversity of its constituent species? What is the relation between competitive interactions and the spatial distribution of genetic variation? When spatially structured, how is the genetic differentiation among subpopulations affected by competition and size of the community? Model features and key assumptions: A model combining one-locus two-allele genetics with density-dependent regulation in population renewal (Ricker function) and demographic stochasticity is extended to incorporate S-species Lotka-Volterra competition. The system is embedded into a spatial context where 1000 populations are connected with stepping-stone dispersal. Beginning from random genotype composition, the system is simulated and the resulting community composition and genetic diversity across space are recorded. Conclusions: Genetic differentiation in the ensemble increases with the number of competing species in the community (0.30 +/- 0.13, normalized coefficient with 95% confidence limit) and with the intensity of pair-wise competition (0.20 +/- 0.05) but most strongly with their interaction (0.62 +/- 0.22). Although the system-wide differentiation increases, one finds that the process leads to local paucity of genotypes and hence a negative correlation between species diversity and local genetic diversity.

  • 279. Ranta, Esa
    et al.
    Kaitala, Veijo
    Björklund, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Lundberg, Per
    Bach, Lars A.
    Stenseth, Nils Chr.
    Environmental forcing and genetic differentiation in subdivided populations2008Inngår i: Evolutionary Ecology Research, ISSN 1522-0613, E-ISSN 1937-3791, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 1-9Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Questions: How will genetic differentiation and genetic drift in spatially structured populations be affected by different classes of autocorrelated environmental noise? How does dispersal interact with fluctuations generated from the demographic and environmental forcing in shaping the neutral genetic patterns? Model and key assumptions: Populations are regulated locally by density-dependent feedback including demographic stochasticity but they are also here forced by environmental noise (white, red, and blue noise corresponding to random, positive, and negative autocorrelation respectively). Spatial structure consists of a looped string of populations connected by dispersal and each with a predefined carrying capacity (one-dimensional stepping stone structure). Method: Simulations initialized by randomly distributing individuals, and thus genotypes, in space (no fitness differences, no mutation, no recombination, no selection). Conclusions: In an unpredictable way, red noise reinforces the genetic differentiation among populations more than white or blue noise. Dispersal appears unable to dilute the differentiation effect of positively autocorrelated forcing. In modelling the effect of environmental stochasticity, details about the type of environmental noise are of paramount importance for the results and their biological and management implications.

  • 280.
    Rattiste, Kalev
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Life History of the Common Gull (Larus canus): A Long-Term Individual-Based Study2006Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    An individual’s life history is a sequence of events which eventually determine its contribution to the next generation, or fitness. These events are affected by environmental factors, genetic make-up and decisions made by an individual and its breeding partner. Recognition of these determinants helps to understand both short-term ecological changes and long-term evolutionary dynamics in a population. In this thesis long-term individual-based data on common gull (Larus canus) is used to study age-dependent reproductive success, survival, pair retention and breeding time. Collected pedigree data enabled to study genetic variation of traits and the selection on them.

    The reproductive success of common gulls increased steadily until very old age. This increase cannot be explained by selection effects, since individuals with lower breeding success were shown not to have lower survival. Consequently, this gain must be ascribed primarily to an age-related improvements of individual competence and/or increased reproductive effort. Annual survival of adult birds was age- and year-dependent. The latter was partly explained by winter severity. The size of the white spots on five outermost primaries predicted the bird’s future survival and divorce probabilities and hence, pair endurance capability. Gulls with larger spots enjoyed higher survival and lower divorce rates compared to birds with smaller spots. This suggests that the wing tip pattern might function as a condition dependent signal, revealing individual variation in quality. One of the advantages of persistent pair bond was the ability to start breeding early in the season. The timing of breeding of firm pairs advanced with time not only due to mates’ increasing age, but also owing to their experience together. Although both sexes had phenotypic effects on laying date, it was heritable only in females. On the phenotypic and genotypic level, early laying was under positive fecundity and survival selection in females.

    Delarbeid
    1. Reproductive success in presenescent common gulls (Larus canus): the importance of the last year of life
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Reproductive success in presenescent common gulls (Larus canus): the importance of the last year of life
    2004 (engelsk)Inngår i: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, Vol. 271, nr 1552, s. 2059-2064Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-95193 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2006-11-22 Laget: 2006-11-22 Sist oppdatert: 2009-03-31bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Survival rates of breeding common gulls in Estonia
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Survival rates of breeding common gulls in Estonia
    1995 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Applied Statistics, ISSN 0266-4763, Vol. 22, nr 5-6, s. 1057-1062Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-95194 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2006-11-22 Laget: 2006-11-22 Sist oppdatert: 2009-03-31bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Wing tip pattern predicts future survival and divorce probability in common gulls (Larus canus)
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Wing tip pattern predicts future survival and divorce probability in common gulls (Larus canus)
    (engelsk)Manuskript (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-95195 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2006-11-22 Laget: 2006-11-22 Sist oppdatert: 2010-01-14bibliografisk kontrollert
    4. Selection on the seasonal timing of reproduction in the common gull Larus canus: Roles of the sexes, of genes, and of the environment
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Selection on the seasonal timing of reproduction in the common gull Larus canus: Roles of the sexes, of genes, and of the environment
    (engelsk)Manuskript (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-95196 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2006-11-22 Laget: 2006-11-22 Sist oppdatert: 2010-01-14bibliografisk kontrollert
    5. Heritability of head size in the common gull Larus canus in relation to environmental conditions during offspring growth
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Heritability of head size in the common gull Larus canus in relation to environmental conditions during offspring growth
    1997 (engelsk)Inngår i: Heredity, ISSN 0018-067X, Vol. 79, nr 2, s. 201-207Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-95197 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2006-11-22 Laget: 2006-11-22 Sist oppdatert: 2009-03-31bibliografisk kontrollert
  • 281.
    Rattiste, Kalev
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Reproductive success in presenescent common gulls (Larus canus): the importance of the last year of life2004Inngår i: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, Vol. 271, nr 1552, s. 2059-2064Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 282.
    Rattiste, Kalev
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Lilleleht, Vilju
    Survival rates of breeding common gulls in Estonia1995Inngår i: Journal of Applied Statistics, ISSN 0266-4763, Vol. 22, nr 5-6, s. 1057-1062Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 283.
    Rattiste, Kalev
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Saks, Lauri
    Wing tip pattern predicts future survival and divorce probability in common gulls (Larus canus)Manuskript (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 284.
    Rice, A. M.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Pearse, D. E.
    Becker, T.
    Newman, R. A.
    Lebonville, C.
    Harper, G. R.
    Pfennig, K. S.
    Development and characterization of nine polymorphic microsatellite markers for Mexican spadefoot toads (Spea multiplicata) with cross-amplification in Plains spadefoot toads (S-bombifrons)2008Inngår i: Molecular Ecology Resources, ISSN 1755-098X, Vol. 8, nr 6, s. 1386-1389Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We developed nine polymorphic microsatellite markers for the Mexican spadefoot toad, Spea multiplicata. Allele numbers range from five to 12, with observed heterozygosities from 0.48 to 0.87. Because two loci are in linkage disequilibrium, these nine loci provide eight independent markers. Three loci exhibit departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, possibly resulting from null alleles or population admixture. These markers will be useful for assessing population structure and relatedness in S. multiplicata. Based on our success at cross-amplification in the Plains spadefoot toad (Spea bombifrons), these loci also may be useful in this species with additional optimization.

  • 285.
    Rice, Amber M.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Leichty, Aaron R.
    Pfennig, David W.
    Parallel evolution and ecological selection: replicated character displacement in spadefoot toads2009Inngår i: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 276, nr 1676, s. 4189-4196Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecological character displacement-trait evolution stemming from selection to lessen resource competition between species-is most often inferred from a pattern in which species differ in resource-use traits in sympatry but not in allopatry, and in which sympatric populations within each species differ from conspecific allopatric populations. Yet, without information on population history, the presence of a divergent phenotype in multiple sympatric populations does not necessarily imply that there has been repeated evolution of character displacement. Instead, such a pattern may arise if there has been character displacement in a single ancestral population, followed by gene flow carrying the divergent phenotype into multiple, derived, sympatric populations. Here, we evaluate the likelihood of such historical events versus ongoing ecological selection in generating divergence in trophic morphology between multiple populations of spadefoot toad (Spea multiplicata) tadpoles that are in sympatry with a heterospecific and those that are in allopatry. We present both phylogenetic and population genetic evidence indicating that the same divergent trait, which minimizes resource competition with the heterospecific, has arisen independently in multiple sympatric populations. These data, therefore, provide strong indirect support for competition's role in divergent trait evolution.

  • 286. Rice, WR
    et al.
    Stewart, AD
    Morrow, EH
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi. Zooekologi.
    LInder, JE
    Ortieza, N
    Byrne, PG
    Assessing sexual conflict in the Drosophila melanogaster laboratory model system2006Inngår i: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society Series B, Vol. 362, s. 287-299Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 287.
    Rintamäki, PT
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för evolutionsbiologi. Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi. POPULATION BIOLOGY.
    Stone, JR
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för evolutionsbiologi. Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi. Zooekologi.
    Lundberg, A
    Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Seasonal and diurnal body-mass fluctuations for two nonhoarding species of Parus in Sweden modeled using path analysis2003Inngår i: The Auk, Vol. 120, nr 3, s. 658-668Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 288.
    Rode, Nicolas O.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Morrow, Edward H.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    An examination of genetic variation and selection on condition in Drosophila melanogaster males2009Inngår i: Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, ISSN 0013-8703, E-ISSN 1570-7458, Vol. 131, nr 2, s. 167-177Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the genic capture hypothesis, the maintenance of additive genetic variation in fitness-related traits is due to both condition-dependence of these traits and high genetic variation for condition. Evidence supporting this latter assumption is scarce. In this study, we investigated, using hemiclonal analysis, standing genetic variation for condition and relative adult fitness in male Drosophila melanogaster (Meigen) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). The absolute fat and the relative fat content were used as indices of body condition and were measured along with adult relative fitness from males reared in high or low larval densities. The results did not demonstrate genetic variation for condition or adult relative fitness. However, the larval density encountered during development had a strong and significant effect on all traits. Surprisingly, although not significant, negative selection gradients acting on absolute fat and relative fat content were also found in both treatments. These findings challenge one of the main assumptions of the genic capture hypothesis and the use of fat content as an ideal index of condition.

  • 289.
    Rogell, Björn
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Populationsbiologi och naturvårdsbiologi.
    Eklund, Martin
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap.
    Thörngren, Hanna
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Laurila, Anssi
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Populationsbiologi och naturvårdsbiologi.
    Höglund, Jacob
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Populationsbiologi och naturvårdsbiologi.
    The effects of selection, drift and genetic variation on life-history trait divergence among insular populations of natterjack toad, Bufo calamita2010Inngår i: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 19, nr 11, s. 2229-2240Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Although loss of genetic variation is frequently assumed to be associated with loss of adaptive potential, only few studies have examined adaptation in populations with little genetic variation. On the Swedish west coast, the northern fringe populations of the natterjack toad Bufo calamita inhabit an atypical habitat consisting of offshore rock islands. There are strong among-population differences in the amount of neutral genetic variation, making this system suitable for studies on mechanisms of trait divergence along a gradient of within-population genetic variation. In this study, we examined the mechanisms of population divergence using Q(ST)-F-ST comparisons and correlations between quantitative and neutral genetic variation. Our results suggest drift or weak stabilizing selection across the six populations included in this study, as indicated by low Q(ST)-F-ST values, lack of significant population x temperature interactions and lack of significant differences among the islands in breeding pond size. The six populations included in this study differed in both neutral and quantitative genetic variation. Also, the correlations between neutral and quantitative genetic variation tended to be positive, however, the relatively small number of populations prevents any strong conclusions based on these correlations. Contrary to the majority of Q(ST)-F-ST comparisons, our results suggest drift or weak stabilizing selection across the examined populations. Furthermore, the low heritability of fitness-related traits may limit evolutionary responses in some of the populations.

  • 290.
    Rogell, Björn
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Populationsbiologi och naturvårdsbiologi.
    Thörngren, Hanna
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Laurila, Anssi
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Populationsbiologi och naturvårdsbiologi.
    Höglund, Jacob
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Populationsbiologi och naturvårdsbiologi.
    Fitness costs associated with low genetic variation are reduced in a harsher environment in amphibian island populations2010Inngår i: Conservation Genetics, ISSN 1566-0621, E-ISSN 1572-9737, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 489-496Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    A basic premise of conservation geneticists is that low levels of genetic variation are associated with fitness costs in terms of reduced survival and fecundity. These fitness costs may frequently vary with environmental factors and should increase under more stressful conditions. However, there is no consensus on how fitness costs associated with low genetic variation change under natural conditions in relation to the stressfulness of the environment. On the Swedish west coast, natterjack toad Bufo calamita populations show a strong population genetic structure and large variation in the amount of within-population genetic variation. We experimentally examined the survival of natterjack larvae from six populations with different genetic variation in three thermal environments corresponding to (a) the mean temperature of natural ponds (stable, laboratory), (b) a high temperature environment occurring in desiccating ponds (stable, laboratory) and (c) an outdoor treatment mimicking the natural, variable thermal conditions (fluctuating, semi-natural). We found that larvae in the outdoor treatment had poorer survival than larvae in the stable environments suggesting that the outdoor treatment was more stressful. Overall, populations with higher genetic variation had higher larval survival. However, a significant interaction between treatments and genetic variation indicated that fitness costs associated with low genetic variation were less severe in the outdoor treatment. Thus, we found no support for the hypothesis that fitness costs associated with low genetic variation increase under more stressful conditions. Our results suggest that natural thermal stress may mask fitness losses associated with low genetic variation in these populations.

  • 291.
    Rogell, Björn
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Populationsbiologi och naturvårdsbiologi.
    Thörngren, Hanna
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Populationsbiologi och naturvårdsbiologi. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Palm, Stefan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Populationsbiologi och naturvårdsbiologi.
    Laurila, Anssi
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Populationsbiologi och naturvårdsbiologi.
    Höglund, Jacob
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Populationsbiologi och naturvårdsbiologi.
    Genetic structure in peripheral populations of the natterjack toad, Bufo calamita, as revealed by AFLP2010Inngår i: Conservation Genetics, ISSN 1566-0621, E-ISSN 1572-9737, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 173-181Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Decreased fitness due to loss of genetic variation is a well recognised issue in conservation biology. Along the Swedish west coast, the endangered natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) occurs on, for the species, highly unusual habitat of rocky islands. Although the toads inhabit a restricted geographical area (maximum distance between the populations is 71 km), the fragmented nature of the landscape makes the genetic properties of the populations of conservation interest. However, lack of genetic variation found using conventional methods (microsatellites) has impeded genetic studies within these peripheral populations so far. In this study we assess population structure and genetic variation among seven of these fringe populations using 105 polymorphic Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) loci. We found a well-defined population structure without evidence for isolation by distance, implying restricted gene flow between populations. Additionally, the populations differed in their amount of genetic variation, emphasizing the need to monitor genetically impoverished populations for possible declines mediated by inbreeding depression and reduced adaptive potential. Conservation implications for these unique populations are discussed in the light of our results.

  • 292.
    Rosenqvist, Gunilla
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Berglund, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Is female sexual-behavior a neglected topic?1992Inngår i: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, ISSN 0169-5347, E-ISSN 1872-8383, Vol. 7, nr 6, s. 174-176Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 293.
    Rova, Emma
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi. Zooekologi.
    Exploring mechanisms of sympatric speciation2005Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 294.
    Rudh, Andreas
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Rogell, Björn
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Populationsbiologi och naturvårdsbiologi. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Höglund, Jacob
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Populationsbiologi och naturvårdsbiologi. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Non-gradual variation in colour morphs of the strawberry poison frog Dendrobates pumilio: genetic and geographical isolation suggest a role for selection in maintaining polymorphism2007Inngår i: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 16, nr 20, s. 4284-4294Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The relative roles that geographical isolation and selection play in driving population divergence remain one of the central questions in evolutionary biology. We approached this question by investigating genetic and morphological variation among populations of the strawberry poison frog, Dendrobates pumilio, in the Bocas del Toro archipelago, Panama. We found significant population genetic structure and isolation by distance based on amplified fragment length polymorphism markers. Snout vent length (SVL), coloration and the extent and size of dorsal black spots showed large variation among the studied populations. Differences in SVL correlated with genetic distance, whereas black spot patterns and other coloration parameters did not. Indeed, the latter characters were observed to be dramatically different between contiguous populations located on the same island. These results imply that neutral divergence among populations may account for the genetic patterns based on amplified fragment length polymorphism markers and SVL. However, selective pressures need to be invoked in order to explain the extraordinary variation in spot size and coverage, and coloration. We discuss the possibility that the observed variation in colour morphs is a consequence of a combination of local variation in both natural selection on an aposematic signal towards visual predators and sexual selection generated by colour morph-specific mate preferences.

  • 295. Rundle, H.D.
    et al.
    Ödeen, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Mooers, A.
    An experimental test for indirect benefits in Drosophila melanogaster2007Inngår i: BMC Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1471-2148, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 7, s. 36-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Despite much empirical attention, tests for indirect benefits of mate choice have rarely considered the major components of sexual and nonsexual offspring fitness relevant to a population. Here we use a novel experimental design to test for the existence of any indirect benefits in a laboratory adapted population of D. melanogaster. Our experiment compared the fitness (mating success, longevity, and productivity) of individuals possessing genomes that derived two generations previously from males that were either entirely successful (studs) or wholly unsuccessful (duds) at achieving mates in three subsequent rounds of mating trials. Results. Males from the stud treatment were 30% more successful on average at securing mates than males from the dud treatment. In contrast, we found no difference between treatments in measures of productivity or of longevity when measured in a mixed-sex environment. In the absence of females, however, males in the stud treatment outlived males in the dud treatment. Conclusion. Our results suggest that mating with successful males in this population provides an indirect benefit to females and that, at least in this environment, the benefit arises primarily through the production of more attractive male offspring. However, it is unclear whether this represents solely a traditional sexy sons benefit or whether there is an additional good genes component (with male offspring simply allocating their surplus condition to traits that enhance their mating success). The lack of any detectable differences in female fitness between the two treatments suggests the former, although the longevity advantage of males in the stud treatment when females were absent is consistent with the latter. Determining the effect of this indirect benefit on the evolution of female mate preferences (or resistance) will require comparable data on the direct costs of mating with various males, and an understanding of how these costs and benefits integrate across generations and vary among environments.

  • 296. Russell, A.F.
    et al.
    Young, A.J.
    Spong, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Clutton-Brock, T.H.
    Helpers increase the reproductive potential of offspring in cooperative meerkats2007Inngår i: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 274, nr 1609, s. 513-520Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In both animal and human societies, individuals may forego personal reproduction and provide care to the offspring of others. Studies aimed at investigating the adaptive nature of such cooperative breeding systems in vertebrates typically calculate helper ‘fitness’ from relationships of helper numbers and offspring survival to independence. The aim of this study is to use observations and supplemental feeding experiments in cooperatively breeding meerkats, Suricata suricatta, to investigate whether helpers influence the long-term reproductive potential of offspring during adulthood. We show that helpers have a significant and positive influence on the probability that offspring gain direct reproductive success in their lifetimes. This effect arises because helpers both reduce the age at which offspring begin to reproduce as subordinates and increase the probability that they will compete successfully for alpha rank. Supplemental feeding experiments confirm the causality of these results. Our results suggest that one can neither discount the significance of helper effects when none is found nor necessarily estimate accurately the fitness benefit that helpers accrue, unless their effects on offspring are considered in the long term.

  • 297.
    Rydin, E.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Limnologi.
    Vrede, T.
    Persson, J.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Limnologi.
    Holmgren, S.
    Jansson, M.
    Tranvik, L.J.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Limnologi.
    Milbrink, G.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Compensatory nutrient enrichment in an oligotrophic mountain reservoir: effects and fate of added nutrients2008Inngår i: Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 1015-1621, E-ISSN 1420-9055, Vol. 70, nr 3, s. 323-336Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Most Scandinavian rivers are impounded for power production. High altitude reservoirs retain water during summer and fall for power production during winter and spring. The oligotrophic lakes Mjölkvattnet and Burvattnet were impounded in 1942. Annual water level fluctuations caused by regulation have resulted in a loss of littoral habitat, and Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations have declined. To assess compensatory nutrient enrichment as a remedy against declining fish populations, we added dissolved phosphate and nitrate to Mjölkvattnet in June and July in 2002 and 2003, and used the upstream lake Burvattnet as a reference system. Nutrient addition doubled water column total phosphorus concentration, from 3 to 6 μg P/L and increased nitrogen concentration by about 20 μg/L. Half of the added phosphorus settled out as organic matter, and about one third was lost downstream. Phytoplankton production and biomass increased, but species composition remained principally unchanged. Rotifers and cladocerans responded rapidly, as did the condition of fish. After two years of nutrient addition, five year old Arctic char had doubled in weight and increased significantly in length, reaching pre-impoundment conditions.

  • 298.
    Rönn, Johanna
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Katvala, Mari
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Coevolution between harmful male genitalia and female resistance in seed beetles2007Inngår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 104, nr 26, s. 10921-10925Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Reproductive conflict between the sexes is thought to be a key force in the evolution of many reproductive characters, but persuasive evidence for its significance is still scarce. The spectacular evolution of male genitalia that impose physical injury on females during mating has often been suggested to be a product of sexually antagonistic coevolution, but our understanding of these extraordinary adaptations is very limited and there is no direct data addressing their evolutionary elaboration. We show that more spiny male genitalia causes more harm to females during copulation and we provide comparative evidence for the correlated evolution between these antagonistic adaptations in males and a female counter adaptation (the amount of connective tissue in the copulatory duct) in a group of insects. By combining comparative and experimental methods, we demonstrate that imbalance of relative armament of the sexes affects evolution of the economics of reproduction: as males evolve genitalia that are more harmful relative to the level of female counteradaptation, costs associated with mating for females increase and population fitness is depressed. Our results unveil a coevolutionary arms race between the sexes and are consistent with a proposed link between sexual conflict, species’ viability and the risk of extinction.

  • 299.
    Rönn, Johanna
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Katvala, Mari
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    The costs of mating and egg production in Callosobruchus seed beetles2006Inngår i: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 72, nr 2, s. 335-342Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The net cost of reproduction, as well as the trade-off between reproduction and lifespan, is affected by many male and female adaptations. Because several of these are sexually selected, we expect the cost of reproduction to be affected by sexual selection. For example, traits favoured in males by sexual selection may cause elevated costs of mating for females. We conducted a series of experiments where we independently varied female exposure to males and access to oviposition substrates in six congeneric seed beetle species (Callosobruchus spp.). These experiments allowed us to partition the cost of reproduction for females into the cost of mating and the cost of egg production. The results show that there is dramatic variation across species in the costs and benefits of a single mating in terms of effects on female lifespan. In some species, females lived for longer after mating once while others showed a net cost of mating expressed as a reduction in lifespan. Lifelong cohabitation with males resulted in a shortened lifespan for females of all species but the extent to which cohabitation reduced female lifespan varied across species. We also found partial support for a depressed lifetime egg production as a result of cohabitation with males. Collectively, our results reveal a remarkable variation across species in the costs and benefits of mating within this clade of closely related and ecologically uniform species. We conclude that key traits, which influence the economics of sexual interactions and reproduction, have evolved rapidly in this model system.

     

  • 300.
    Saether, Stein Are
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för evolution, genomik och systematik, Evolutionsbiologi.