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  • 251.
    Björklund, Gunilla
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Driver Interaction: Informal Rules, Irritation and Aggressive Behaviour2005Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    On a daily basis drivers have to share the roads with a great number of other road users. To make the driving task possible every driver has to take the intentions and behaviours of other road users into account. In other words, the road users have to interact with each other. The general aim of this thesis was to examine factors that regulate and influence the interaction between road users. To do so, three studies, applying a social psychological approach to driving, were conducted. In the first study it was investigated how the rules of priority, the design of the intersection, and the behaviour of other drivers influence yielding behaviour in intersections. The second study examined driver irritation and its relationship with aggressive behaviours. Finally, in the third study drivers’ attributions of their own and other drivers’ behaviour were investigated in relation to driver irritation. The thesis also includes a minor field study, aiming at examining to what extent informal traffic rules are used in intersections and in roundabouts, as well as measuring the validity of self-reports. The results indicate that, in addition to the formal rules, drivers rely on informal rules based on road design and on other drivers’ behaviour. Drivers also differ with respect to strategies of yielding behaviour. Irritability and aggressive behaviour on the roads appear largely to depend on drivers’ interactions and drivers’ interpretation of the behaviour of others. Some aggressive behaviour is an expression of irritation and may provoke irritation of other drivers. This means that an irritated driver might start a chain reaction, spreading irritation and aggressive behaviour from driver to driver. To diminish irritation and aggressive behaviour on the roads it is necessary to change drivers’ behaviour either by changing the road design or, which is probably a more possible remedy, by changing their general attitudes about driving. By providing drivers with insight into the cognitive biases they are subject to when judging other road users’ behaviour, both driver irritation and aggressive behaviours on the roads probably would decrease.

    Delarbeid
    1. Driver behaviour in intersections: Formal and informal traffic rules
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Driver behaviour in intersections: Formal and informal traffic rules
    2005 Inngår i: Transportation Research Part F, Vol. 8, s. 239-253Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93527 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2005-09-23 Laget: 2005-09-23bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Driver irritation and aggressive behaviour
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Driver irritation and aggressive behaviour
    Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Submitted
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93528 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2005-09-23 Laget: 2005-09-23bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Driver attribution and irritation
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Driver attribution and irritation
    Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Submitted
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93529 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2005-09-23 Laget: 2005-09-23bibliografisk kontrollert
  • 252.
    Björklund, Susann
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teologiska fakulteten, Teologiska institutionen.
    What could a 4 temperament-based personality type system reveal about aid workers in the humanitarian field?2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The humanitarian sector is in need to prioritize its human resources. Inadequate recruitment processes, aid workers that enter the field unprepared, failed interrelationships and team dissatisfaction leads to poorer work quality, poorer health, and a high employee turnover that are costly for the field, and negative on the side of accountability to the beneficiaries of aid. In order to address these problems the study is investigating the use of a personality type system tool developed by the researcher, the 4mpt-system (4 major personality types-system),that tentatively is constructed as a tool to be applied within human resources in the humanitarian sector to access individual preferences and character traits that would facilitate in addressing the issues mentioned above. The data is gathered via in-depth semi-structured interviews of 7 informants working in the international humanitarian sector. The first objective is to study the reliability and validity of the 4mpt-system. The second objective is to study what information that could be accessed via the 4mpt-system tool from the 7 informants participating in the study. The result of the study would demonstrate that all of the informants could be assigned to a specific temperament type via a qualitative data analyze method designed from the 4mpt-system and that the temperaments affected the informants to a large extent (from motivations and skills to organisational preferences and personal belief systems). Further, the answers of the informants matched the theoretical definitions of the traits assigned to the temperament types by Keirsey (1998) and Fisher (2009), which was a positive indication for a good validity of the 4mpt-system. By verifying the similarity between the answers of informants assigned to the same temperament type, validity was further confirmed. The results of the study supported the reliability and validity of the 4mpt -system. The type of information that could be accessed via the 4mpt-system in the study was among other the motivation for beginning in the humanitarian field, work task preferences, professional skills, problem-solving approaches, decision making processes, likes and dislikes with work and work tasks, organisational structure preference, preference for working directly in the field or working from the office, and general outlooks and personal belief systems.

  • 253.
    Björkstrand, Johannes
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The Amygdala, Fear and Reconsolidation: Neural and Behavioral Effects of Retrieval-Extinction in Fear Conditioning and Spider Phobia2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The amygdala is crucially involved in the acquisition and retention of fear memories. Experimental research on fear conditioning has shown that memory retrieval shortly followed by pharmacological manipulations or extinction, thereby interfering with memory reconsolidation, decreases later fear expression. Fear memory reconsolidation depends on synaptic plasticity in the amygdala, which has been demonstrated in rodents using both pharmacological manipulations and retrieval-extinction procedures. The retrieval-extinction procedure decreases fear expression also in humans, but the underlying neural mechanism have not been studied. Interfering with reconsolidation is held to alter the original fear memory representation, resulting in long-term reductions in fear responses, and might therefore be used in the treatment of anxiety disorders, but few studies have directly investigated this question.

    The aim of this thesis was to examine the effects of the retrieval-extinction procedure on amygdala activity and behavioral fear expression in humans. The work presented here also investigated whether findings from studies on recent fear memories, established through fear conditioning, extends to naturally occurring long-term phobic fears.

    Study I, combining fear conditioning and a retrieval-extinction procedure with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), demonstrated that memory retrieval shortly followed by extinction reduces later amygdala activity and fear expression in healthy subjects. In Study II, these subjects were re-tested 18 months later. The results showed that the effects on fear expression were still present and that initial amygdala activity predicted long-term fear expression. Using an adapted version of the retrieval-extinction procedure, Study III showed that memory retrieval shortly followed by exposure to spider pictures, attenuates subsequent amygdala activity and increases approach behavior in subjects with life-long fear of spiders. In Study IV, these subjects were re-tested 6 months later, and the results showed that effects on amygdala activity as well as approach behavior were maintained.

    In summation, retrieval-extinction leads to long-lasting reductions in amygdala activity and fear expression. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that retrieval-extinction alters an amygdala dependent fear memory. Retrieval-extinction can also attenuate long-term phobic fears, indicating that this manipulation could be used to enhance exposure-based treatments for anxiety disorders. 

    Delarbeid
    1. Disruption of reconsolidation erases a fear memory trace in the human amygdala
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Disruption of reconsolidation erases a fear memory trace in the human amygdala
    Vise andre…
    2012 (engelsk)Inngår i: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 337, nr 6101, s. 1550-1552Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Memories become labile when recalled. In humans and rodents alike, reactivated fear memories can be attenuated by disrupting reconsolidation with extinction training. Using functional brain imaging, we found that, after a conditioned fear memory was formed, reactivation and reconsolidation left a memory trace in the basolateral amygdala that predicted subsequent fear expression and was tightly coupled to activity in the fear circuit of the brain. In contrast, reactivation followed by disrupted reconsolidation suppressed fear, abolished the memory trace, and attenuated fear-circuit connectivity. Thus, as previously demonstrated in rodents, fear memory suppression resulting from behavioral disruption of reconsolidation is amygdala-dependent also in humans, which supports an evolutionarily conserved memory-update mechanism.

    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-181451 (URN)10.1126/science.1223006 (DOI)000308912900054 ()22997340 (PubMedID)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2012-09-24 Laget: 2012-09-24 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-07bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Disruption of Memory Reconsolidation Erases a Fear Memory Trace in the Human Amygdala: An 18-Month Follow-Up.
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Disruption of Memory Reconsolidation Erases a Fear Memory Trace in the Human Amygdala: An 18-Month Follow-Up.
    Vise andre…
    2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, nr 7, s. e0129393-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Fear memories can be attenuated by reactivation followed by disrupted reconsolidation. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging we recently showed that reactivation and reconsolidation of a conditioned fear memory trace in the basolateral amygdala predicts subsequent fear expression over two days, while reactivation followed by disrupted reconsolidation abolishes the memory trace and suppresses fear. In this follow-up study we demonstrate that the behavioral effect persists over 18 months reflected in superior reacquisition after undisrupted, as compared to disrupted reconsolidation, and that neural activity in the basolateral amygdala representing the initial fear memory predicts return of fear. We conclude that disrupting reconsolidation have long lasting behavioral effects and may permanently erase the fear component of an amygdala-dependent memory.

    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-259785 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0129393 (DOI)000358153000028 ()26132145 (PubMedID)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Swedish Research Council, 521-2010-3284, 421-2009-2343The Swedish Brain Foundation, FO2014-0151
    Merknad

    Boethius stiftelse  PSYK2010/143, Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research, Heumanska stiftelsen

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-08-11 Laget: 2015-08-11 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-04bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Disrupting Reconsolidation Attenuates Long-Term Fear Memory in the Human Amygdala and Facilitates Approach Behavior
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Disrupting Reconsolidation Attenuates Long-Term Fear Memory in the Human Amygdala and Facilitates Approach Behavior
    Vise andre…
    2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 26, nr 19, s. 2690-95Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Memories become labile and malleable to modification when recalled [1]. Fear-conditioning experiments in both rodents and humans indicate that amygdala-localized short-term fear memories can be attenuated by disruption of their reconsolidation with extinction training soon after memory activation [2-7]. However, this may not be true for natural long-term fears. Studies in rodents indicate that although it is possible to disrupt the reconsolidation of older memories [8-11], they appear to be more resistant [1, 3, 9, 12, 13]. In humans, 1-week-old conditioned fear memories have been attenuated by behaviorally induced disruption of reconsolidation [14], but it remains to be seen whether this is possible for naturally occurring long-term fears and whether the underlying neural mechanisms are similar to those found in experimental fear-conditioning paradigms. Using functional brain imaging in individuals with a lifelong fear of spiders, we show that fear memory activation followed by repeated exposure to feared cues after 10 min, which disrupts reconsolidation, attenuates activity in the basolateral amygdala at re-exposure 24 hr later. In contrast, repeated exposure 6 hr after fear memory activation, which allows for reconsolidation, did not attenuate amygdala activity. Disrupted, but not undisrupted, reconsolidation facilitated approach behavior to feared cues, and approach behavior was inversely related to amygdala activity during re-exposure. We conclude that memory activation immediately preceding exposure attenuates the neural and behavioral expression of decades-old fear memories and that, similar to experimentally induced fear memories, the basolateral amygdala is crucially involved in this process.

    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-302737 (URN)10.1016/j.cub.2016.08.022 (DOI)000385690800032 ()27568591 (PubMedID)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Swedish Research CouncilThe Swedish Brain Foundation
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-09-08 Laget: 2016-09-08 Sist oppdatert: 2017-11-21bibliografisk kontrollert
    4. Think twice, it's all right: Long lasting effects of disrupted reconsolidation on brain and behavior in human long-term fear
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Think twice, it's all right: Long lasting effects of disrupted reconsolidation on brain and behavior in human long-term fear
    Vise andre…
    2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: Behavioural Brain Research, ISSN 0166-4328, E-ISSN 1872-7549, Vol. 324, s. 125-129Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Memories can be modified when recalled. Experimental fear conditioning studies support that amygdala-localized fear memories are attenuated when reconsolidation is disrupted through extinction training immediately following memory activation. Recently, using functional brain imaging in individuals with lifelong spider fears, we demonstrated that fear memory activation followed by repeated exposure to feared cues after 10 min, thereby disrupting reconsolidation, attenuated activity in the amygdala during later re-exposure, and also facilitated approach behavior to feared cues. In contrast, repeated exposure 6 h after fear memory activation, allowing for reconsolidation, did not attenuate amygdala activity and resulted in less approach behavior as compared to the group that received disrupted reconsolidation. We here evaluated if these effects are stable after 6 months and found that amygdala activity was further reduced in both groups, with a tendency towards greater reductions in the 10 min than the 6 h group. Hence, disrupted reconsolidation results in long lasting attenuation of amygdala activity. The behavioral effect, with more approach towards previously feared cues, in the 10 min than the 6 h group also persisted. Thus, the brain effect of disrupted reconsolidation is stable over 6 months and the behavioral effect also remained. We therefore conclude that disrupted reconsolidation result in a long-lasting diminished fear memory representation in the amygdala which may have clinical importance.

    Emneord
    Reconsolidation disruption, Extinction, Exposure therapy, Amygdala, Approach behavior, Spider fear
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-315854 (URN)10.1016/j.bbr.2017.02.016 (DOI)000397691100016 ()28214541 (PubMedID)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Swedish Research Council, 2013-2825, 2012-00804The Swedish Brain Foundation, F02014-0151
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-02-21 Laget: 2017-02-21 Sist oppdatert: 2018-06-26bibliografisk kontrollert
  • 254.
    Björkstrand, Johannes
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ågren, Thomas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Frick, Andreas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Engman, Jonas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Larsson, Elna-Marie
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Radiologi.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Disruption of Memory Reconsolidation Erases a Fear Memory Trace in the Human Amygdala: An 18-Month Follow-Up.2015Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, nr 7, s. e0129393-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Fear memories can be attenuated by reactivation followed by disrupted reconsolidation. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging we recently showed that reactivation and reconsolidation of a conditioned fear memory trace in the basolateral amygdala predicts subsequent fear expression over two days, while reactivation followed by disrupted reconsolidation abolishes the memory trace and suppresses fear. In this follow-up study we demonstrate that the behavioral effect persists over 18 months reflected in superior reacquisition after undisrupted, as compared to disrupted reconsolidation, and that neural activity in the basolateral amygdala representing the initial fear memory predicts return of fear. We conclude that disrupting reconsolidation have long lasting behavioral effects and may permanently erase the fear component of an amygdala-dependent memory.

  • 255. Björkstrand, Johannes
    et al.
    Ågren, Thomas
    Motilla Hoppe, Johanna
    Hjorth, Olof
    Frick, Andreas
    Åhs, Fredrik
    Engman, Jonas
    Hultberg, Sara
    Gingnell, Malin
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Furmark, Tomas
    Approach behavior to fear conditioned cues is modulated by monetary reward and correlated to serotonin and dopamine transporter binding in the amygdala2016Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 256.
    Björkstrand, Johannes
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ågren, Thomas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, S-17176 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Frick, Andreas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Larsson, Elna-Marie
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Radiologi.
    Hjorth, Olof
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, S-17176 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Disrupting Reconsolidation Attenuates Long-Term Fear Memory in the Human Amygdala and Facilitates Approach Behavior2016Inngår i: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 26, nr 19, s. 2690-95Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Memories become labile and malleable to modification when recalled [1]. Fear-conditioning experiments in both rodents and humans indicate that amygdala-localized short-term fear memories can be attenuated by disruption of their reconsolidation with extinction training soon after memory activation [2-7]. However, this may not be true for natural long-term fears. Studies in rodents indicate that although it is possible to disrupt the reconsolidation of older memories [8-11], they appear to be more resistant [1, 3, 9, 12, 13]. In humans, 1-week-old conditioned fear memories have been attenuated by behaviorally induced disruption of reconsolidation [14], but it remains to be seen whether this is possible for naturally occurring long-term fears and whether the underlying neural mechanisms are similar to those found in experimental fear-conditioning paradigms. Using functional brain imaging in individuals with a lifelong fear of spiders, we show that fear memory activation followed by repeated exposure to feared cues after 10 min, which disrupts reconsolidation, attenuates activity in the basolateral amygdala at re-exposure 24 hr later. In contrast, repeated exposure 6 hr after fear memory activation, which allows for reconsolidation, did not attenuate amygdala activity. Disrupted, but not undisrupted, reconsolidation facilitated approach behavior to feared cues, and approach behavior was inversely related to amygdala activity during re-exposure. We conclude that memory activation immediately preceding exposure attenuates the neural and behavioral expression of decades-old fear memories and that, similar to experimentally induced fear memories, the basolateral amygdala is crucially involved in this process.

  • 257.
    Björnsdotter, Annika
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Enebrink, Pia
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ghaderi, Ata
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Family Check-Up and iComet: a Randomized Controlled Trial in Sweden2013Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 258.
    Björnsdotter, Annika
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Enebrink, Pia
    Karolinska Inst, Div Psychol, Dept Clin Neurosci, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ghaderi, Ata
    Karolinska Inst, Div Psychol, Dept Clin Neurosci, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Psychometric properties of online administered parental Strengths and Difficulties Questionnarie (SDQ), and normative data based on combined online and paper-and-pencil administration2013Inngår i: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, ISSN 1753-2000, E-ISSN 1753-2000, Vol. 7, artikkel-id 40Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    To examine the psychometric properties of the online administered parental version of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and to provide parental norms from a nationwide Swedish sample.

    Methods

    A total of 1443 parents from of a national probability sample of 2800 children aged 10-13 years completed the SDQ online or as usual (i.e., using paper-and-pencil).

    Results

    The SDQ subscales obtained from the online administration showed high internal consistency (polychoric ordinal alpha), and confirmatory factor analysis of the SDQ five factor model resulted in excellent fit. The Total Difficulties score of the SDQ and its other subscales were significantly related to the Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD) rating scale. Norms for the parent version of SDQ obtained from the Internet were identical to those collected using paper-and-pencil. They were thus combined and are presented sorted by child gender and age.

    Conclusions

    The SDQ seems to be a reliable and valid instrument given its high internal consistency, clear factor structure and high correlation with other instruments capturing the intended constructs. Findings in the present study support its use for online data collection, as well as using norms obtained through paper-and-pencil-administration even when SDQ has been administrated online.

  • 259.
    Björnsdotter, Annika
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Enebrink, Pia
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ghaderi, Ata
    Karolinska Institutet.
    The Importance of Parental Knowledge2013Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Poor parenting is an important risk factor for development of conduct problems in children and adolescents. Inadequate parental monitoring is an example of a negative parenting behavior that has been shown to predict child conduct problems Findings from previous research on parental monitoring has been mixed due to the use of inconsistent and vague definitions. However, later research suggests that it is "parental knowledge" rather than "parental monitoring" that is associated with child and adolescent conduct problems. In the present study, we used an existing questionnaire that measures three possible sources of parental knowledge: child disclosure, parental solicitation and parental control. Our aims were to 1) examine the factor structure of a parenting monitoring/knowledge scale, 2) analyze if a high level of child disclosure and parental control as well as a low level of parental solicitation were associated to low conduct problems, 3) examine if a measure of family warmth correlates with child disclosure, and 4) whether parental knowledge mediates the relation between parental warmth and conduct problems. Parents of a national probability sample of 2800 children aged 10-13 years old were asked to complete a survey including these different scales. A total of 1446 parents completed the questionnaires. Brief description Analysis of the importance of parental knowledge regarding child disruptive behavior using an existing questionnaire that measures parental knowledge through three possible sources: child disclosure, parental solicitation and parental control.

  • 260.
    Björnsdotter, Annika
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ghaderi, A.
    Kadesjö, C.
    Enebrink, P.
    Evaluation of the Family Check-Up and iCometfor families with children aged 10-13 years with externalizing behavior problemsManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 261. Blom, Eva Henje
    et al.
    Serlachius, Eva
    Chesney, Margaret A
    Olsson, Erik M G
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Psykosocial onkologi och stödjande vård.
    Adolescent girls with emotional disorders have a lower end-tidal CO2 and increased respiratory rate compared with healthy controls2014Inngår i: Psychophysiology, ISSN 0048-5772, E-ISSN 1469-8986, Vol. 51, nr 5, s. 412-418Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Hyperventilation has been linked to emotional distress in adults. This study investigates end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2 ), respiratory rate (RR), and heart rate variability (HRV) in adolescent girls with emotional disorders and healthy controls. ETCO2 , RR, HRV, and ratings of emotional symptom severity were collected in adolescent female psychiatric patients with emotional disorders (n = 63) and healthy controls (n = 62). ETCO2 and RR differed significantly between patients and controls. ETCO2 , HR, and HRV were significant independent predictors of group status, that is, clinical or healthy, while RR was not. ETCO2 and RR were significantly related to emotional symptom severity and to HRV in the total group. ETCO2 and RR were not affected by use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. It is concluded that emotional dysregulation is related to hyperventilation in adolescent girls. Respiratory-based treatments may be relevant to investigate in future research.

  • 262.
    Blåvarg, Christina
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The alluring nature of episodic odor memory: Sensory and cognitive correlates across age and sex2016Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Episodic memory for olfactory information is still relatively uncharted. The overall purpose of this thesis is to investigate the sensory and cognitive causes of the well-established age-related decline in olfactory episodic odor memory and of the age-independent sex difference in olfactory episodic memory. The purpose of Study I was to investigate the causes of the sex difference in olfactory episodic memory. The results show that the female advantage in episodic recognition memory seems to be explained by women´s higher aptitude in odor identification for familiar odors. With this background, the purpose of Study II was to investigate the age-related decline in olfactory episodic memory, with a particular eye to the role of odor identification. When controlling for the sensory variables olfactory threshold and odor quality discrimination, and the cognitive factor mental speed, the age-related deterioration in odor identification was eliminated. This suggests that changes in basic sensory and cognitive abilities underlie the age-related impairment in odor identification. The purpose of Study III was to investigate the role of recollective experience and intention to memorize for age-related and sex-related differences in episodic odor memory. Younger adults reported more experiences of remembering, and the elderly adults more experiences of feeling of knowing. The participants benefited from intentionality at encoding when the odors were unfamiliar, but intentionality did not affect memory for the familiar odors. The purpose of Study IV was to investigate the role of subjectively perceived qualities of the encoded odors for episodic memory across age and sex. Odors perceived as unpleasant, intense, and irritable were more easily remembered throughout the adult life span. The oldest adults selectively recognized the odors they rated as highly irritable indicating compensatory use of trigeminal activation. Overall, the result suggests that episodic odor memory rely heavily on both sensory and cognitive abilities, but in a different manner depending on demographic factors. The age-related decline appears to be driven by a sensory flattening disabling adequate cognitive processing. The age-independent sex difference on the other hand, is mainly cognitively mediated and driven by cognitive factors such as the ability to verbalize olfactory information.

    Delarbeid
    1. Differential sex effects in olfactory functioning: The role of verbal processing
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Differential sex effects in olfactory functioning: The role of verbal processing
    2002 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, ISSN 1355-6177, E-ISSN 1469-7661, Vol. 8, s. 691-698Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Emneord
    Olfaction, Sex, Recognition memory, Familiarity, Identification, Verbal processing, Quality discrimination
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Psykologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-264975 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-10-20 Laget: 2015-10-20 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-01
    2. Odor Identification in Old Age: Demographic, Sensory, and Cognitive Correlates
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Odor Identification in Old Age: Demographic, Sensory, and Cognitive Correlates
    2005 (engelsk)Inngår i: Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition, ISSN 1382-5585, E-ISSN 1744-4128, Vol. 12, s. 231-244Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Emneord
    Olfaction, Age, Sex, Identification, Speed, Verbal fluency, Threshold, Quality discrimination
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Psykologi; Geriatrik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-264976 (URN)10.1080/138255890968385 (DOI)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-10-20 Laget: 2015-10-20 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-01
    3. Recollective experience in odor recognition: influences of adult age and familiarity
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Recollective experience in odor recognition: influences of adult age and familiarity
    2006 (engelsk)Inngår i: Psychological Research, ISSN 0340-0727, E-ISSN 1430-2772, Vol. 70, s. 68-75Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Emneord
    Olfaction, Episodic memory, Recollective experience, Age, Sex, Familiarity, Intentionality, identification
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Psykologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-265008 (URN)10.1007/s00426-004-0190-9 (DOI)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-10-20 Laget: 2015-10-20 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-01
    4. Bad Odors Stick Better Than Good Ones: Olfactory Qualities and Odor Recognition
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Bad Odors Stick Better Than Good Ones: Olfactory Qualities and Odor Recognition
    2009 (engelsk)Inngår i: Experimental Psychology, ISSN ISSN-L 1618-3169, ISSN-Print 1618-3169, ISSN-Online 2190-5142, Vol. 56, nr 6, s. 375-380Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Emneord
    odor, adult, age, sex, odor recognition memory, odor quality, hedonics, pleasantness, intensity, irritability, trigeminal
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Psykologi; Geriatrik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-265009 (URN)10.1027/1618-3169.56.6.375 (DOI)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-10-20 Laget: 2015-10-20 Sist oppdatert: 2015-12-16
  • 263.
    Bodin, M
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Enheter med anknytning till universitetet, Institutet för bostads- och urbanforskning.
    Hartig, T
    Does the outdoor environment matter for psychological restoration gained through running?2003Inngår i: Psychology of Sport and Exercise, nr 4, s. 141-153Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 264.
    Bodén, Robert
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Psykiatri, Akademiska sjukhuset.
    Abrahamsson, Tore
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Psykiatri, Akademiska sjukhuset.
    Holm, Gunnar
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Psykiatri, Akademiska sjukhuset.
    Borg, Jacqueline
    Psychomotor and cognitive deficits as predictors of 5-year outcome in first-episode schizophrenia2014Inngår i: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 68, nr 4, s. 282-288Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Cognitive deficits are common in schizophrenia but the predictive value of these deficits for long-term outcome in first-episode patients is unclear. Aims: We aimed to investigate associations of performance in psychomotor and cognitive tests with a 5-year functional and symptomatic outcome. Methods: After clinical stabilization, patients with a first schizophrenia spectrum diagnosis (n = 46) were assessed for global cognitive function [Synonyms, Reasoning, and Block Design (SRB)], psychomotor speed [Trail Making Test (TMT) and finger tapping] and verbal learning (Claeson-Dahl Verbal Learning Test). The subsequent 5-year outcome regarding independent living, occupational and social function, and symptomatic remission status was assessed. Results: Low psychomotor speed was associated with poor social function 5 years later, with an odds ratio (OR) of 3.37 and a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.08-10.51, adjusted for antipsychotic drug use. Better performance on finger tapping with the non-dominant hand was associated with an increased risk of a 5-year symptomatic non-remission (adjusted OR = 0.42, CI 0.19-0.96). Occupational function and independent living were not significantly associated with any of the investigated tests. Conclusions: Psychomotor speed is associated with a long-term outcome regarding social function and symptom remission in patients with first-episode schizophrenia.

  • 265.
    Boersma, Greta J.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Klinisk diabetologi och metabolism. Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences.
    Smeltzer, Michael D.
    University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience.
    Scott, Karen A.
    University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience; University College Cork, Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience.
    Scheurink, Anton J.
    University of Groningen, Department of Neuroendocrinology, GELIFES, Neurobiology.
    Tamashiro, Kellie L.
    Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences.
    Sakai, Randall R.
    University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience.
    Stress coping style does not determine social status, but influences the consequences of social subordination stress2017Inngår i: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 178, s. 126-133Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Chronic stress exposure may have negative consequences for health. One of the most common sources of chronic stress is stress associated with social interaction. In rodents, the effects of social stress can be studied in a naturalistic way using the visual burrow system (VBS). The way an individual copes with stress, their "stress coping style", may influence the consequences of social stress. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that stress coping style may modulate social status and influence the consequences of having a lower social status. We formed 7 VBS colonies, with 1 proactive coping male, 1 passive coping male, and 4 female rats per colony to assess whether a rat's coping style prior to colony formation could predict whether that individual is more likely to become socially dominant. The rats remained in their respective colonies for 14 days and the physiological and behavioral consequences of social stress were assessed. Our study shows that stress coping style does not predict social status. However, stress coping style may influence the consequences of having a lower social status. Subordinate passive and proactive rats had distinctly different wound patterns; proactive rats had more wounds on the front of their bodies. Behavioral analysis confirmed that proactive subordinate rats engaged in more offensive interactions. Furthermore, subordinate rats with a proactive stress coping style had larger adrenals, and increased stress responsivity to a novel acute stressor (restraint stress) compared to passive subordinate rats or dominant rats, suggesting that the allostatic load may have been larger in this group. (c) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 266.
    Bohlin, G.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten.
    Susceptibility to sleep during a habituation procedure as related to individual differences1972Inngår i: Journal of Research in Personality, ISSN 0022-1023, Vol. 6, nr 2-3, s. 248-254Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 267.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    ADHD, EF deficits and socio-emotional functions: Developmental perspectives2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 268.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    ESO-seminarium om tidig hjälp till barn som har det svårt i skolan: Några kommentarer2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 269.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Issues in understanding the role of EF in children’s behavior problems2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 270.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Eninger, Lilianne
    Brocki, Karin Cecilia
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Thorell, Lisa B.
    Disorganized Attachment and Inhibitory Capacity: Predicting Externalizing Problem Behaviors2012Inngår i: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, ISSN 0091-0627, E-ISSN 1573-2835, Vol. 40, nr 3, s. 449-458Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether attachment insecurity, focusing on disorganized attachment, and the executive function (EF) component of inhibition, assessed at age 5, were longitudinally related to general externalizing problem behaviors as well as to specific symptoms of ADHD and Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and callous-unemotional (CU) traits. General externalizing problem behaviors were also measured at age 5 to allow for a developmental analysis. Outcome variables were rated by parents and teachers. The sample consisted of 65 children with an oversampling of children with high levels of externalizing behaviors. Attachment was evaluated using a story stem attachment doll play procedure. Inhibition was measured using four different tasks. The results showed that both disorganized attachment and poor inhibition were longitudinally related to all outcome variables. Controlling for initial level of externalizing problem behavior, poor inhibition predicted ADHD symptoms and externalizing problem behaviors, independent of disorganized attachment, whereas for ASD symptoms no predictive relations remained. Disorganized attachment independently predicted CU traits.

  • 271.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Hagekull, Berit
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Socio-emotional development: From infancy to young adulthood2009Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 50, nr 6, s. 592-601Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Results from the Uppsala Longitudinal Study (ULS), which started in 1985, are reported in two sections. The first section gives a summary of longitudinal data from infancy to middle childhood (age 9 years; n = 96) concerning predictions of social functioning aspects from the theoretical perspectives of temperament, attachment, and health psychology (social factors). The second section presents the first results emanating from a follow-up when participants were 21 years old (n = 85). The developmental roots of social anxiety symptoms were studied from the same perspectives as above, although with a special focus on the predictive power of the temperament trait of shyness/inhibition. Results for middle childhood outcomes showed that temperament characteristics were relevant for most outcomes, whereas the contribution of attachment was most convincingly shown in relation to social competence and personality. Social factors were found to have moderating functions, but direct effects were also shown, the most interesting perhaps being positive effects of non-parental day care. Results from the 21-year data confirmed the expected predictive relation from shyness/inhibition to symptoms of social anxiety and further showed this relation to be specific; the relation to symptoms of depression did not survive control for social anxiety, although the opposite was true. The broad analysis of predictor associations with social anxiety, showing the relevance of other temperament factors as well as interactive effects, again attested to the need for multi-faceted models to analyze developmental trajectories.

  • 272. Bohman, Benjamin
    et al.
    Ghaderi, Ata
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Rasmussen, Finn
    Psychometric Properties of a New Measure of Parental Self-Efficacy for Promoting Healthy Physical Activity and Dietary Behaviors in Children2013Inngår i: European Journal of Psychological Assessment, ISSN 1015-5759, E-ISSN 2151-2426, Vol. 29, nr 4, s. 291-298Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a lack of validated measures of parental self-efficacy (PSE) covering both physical activity and dietary behaviors in children which can be used to prevent childhood obesity. This study developed a new measure of PSE for promoting healthy physical activity and dietary behaviors in children and assessed its psychometric properties. Participants were mothers (n = 2,232) with 3-year-old first-born children living in Stockholm, Sweden. The mothers responded to questionnaires measuring PSE, locus of control, and self-esteem. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a three-factor structure, interpreted as PSE for promoting healthy dietary behaviors in children (Factor 1), PSE for limit-setting of unhealthy dietary or physical activity behaviors in children (Factor 2), and PSE for promoting healthy physical activity behaviors in children (Factor 3). The factor model was supported by confirmatory factor analysis. The internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the new PSE measure were high; discriminant validity was adequate. The Parental Self-Efficacy for Promoting Healthy Physical Activity and Dietary Behaviors in Children Scale (PSEPAD) shows promise as a valuable instrument in childhood obesity prevention.

  • 273.
    Bojner Horwitz, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Allmänmedicin och preventivmedicin.
    Lennartsson, Anna-Karin
    Theorell, Töres P. G.
    Ullen, Fredrik
    Engagement in dance is associated with emotional competence in interplay with others2015Inngår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, artikkel-id 1096Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study has explored the relation between dance achievement and alexithymia in a larger Swedish population sample (Swedish Twin Registry) with a study sample of 5431 individuals. Dance achievement (CAQ) was assessed in relation to Alexithymia (Toronto Alexithymia Scale, TAS-20) including the three subscales: Difficulty Identifying Feelings (DIF), Difficulty Describing Feelings (DDF), and Externally Oriented Thinking (EOT). The results show a significant negative association between the TAS subscale (EOT) and creative achievement in dance. A high EOT score corresponds to poor ability to communicate feelings to the environment. There was no consistent association between the other factors DIF and DDF and dance achievement. Dance activity and training seem to be involved in the body's emotional interplay with others. Embodied cognition, emotional perception, and action are discussed as factors relevant to measuring the skill of a dancer.

  • 274.
    Bojner Horwitz, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap. Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Norra Stationsgatan 69,V 7, S-11364 Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Inst, Inst Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Ctr Social Sustainabil, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stenfors, Cecilia
    Univ Chicago, Dept Psychol, Chicago, IL 60637 USA;Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Osika, Walter
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Norra Stationsgatan 69,V 7, S-11364 Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Inst, Inst Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Ctr Social Sustainabil, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Writer's Block Revisited Micro-Phenomenological Case Study on the Blocking Influence of an Internalized Voice2018Inngår i: Journal of consciousness studies, ISSN 1355-8250, E-ISSN 2051-2201, Vol. 25, nr 3-4, s. 9-28Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Writer's block, a common form of procrastination, can have a serious negative impact on an individual's academic performance. In this case study, a student with writer's block was interviewed and asked to perform body movements that represented the process of writing a master's thesis. A micro-phenomenological method was used to investigate the student's experience of writer's block and the role of an inner voice. The analysis unveiled the process by which the inner voice impeded the student, i.e. how the student perceived a set of mental images, movements, and sensations in relation to the 'inner voice'. The findings suggest that non-verbal modes of learning - through movement - may be applied productively to overcome writer's block and other forms of procrastination in broader areas such as research writing. Moreover, the micro-phenomenological method, together with the interpretation of video recordings, can reveal valuable information regarding this learning process in higher education.

  • 275. Bolte, S.
    et al.
    Bartl-Pokorny, K.D.
    Jonsson, U.
    Berggren, S.
    Zhang, D.
    Kostrzewa, E.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Einspieler, C.
    Pokorny, F. B.
    Jones, E. J. H.
    Roeyers, H.
    Charman, T.
    Marschik, P. B.
    How can clinicians detect and treat autism early? Methodological trends of technology use in research2016Inngår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 105, nr 2, s. 137-144Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We reviewed original research papers that used quantifiable technology to detect early autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and identified 376 studies from 34 countries from 1965 to 2013. Publications have increased significantly since 2000, with most coming from the USA. Electroencephalogram, magnetic resonance imaging and eye tracking were the most frequently used technologies. Conclusion: The use of quantifiable technology to detect early ASD has increased in recent decades, but has had limited impact on early detection and treatment. Further scientific developments are anticipated, and we hope that they will increasingly be used in clinical practice for early ASD screening, diagnosis and intervention.

  • 276.
    Bothelius, Kristoffer
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Insomnia: How, for Whom and What about Acceptance?2015Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Sleep is essential for survival but a significant minority of the adult population are dissatisfied with their sleep, and 6-10% meet the criteria for insomnia disorder, characterised by difficulties falling asleep at bedtime, waking up in the middle of the night or too early in the morning, and daytime symptoms. Cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia (CBT-I), an evidence-based sleep-focused intervention, has been suggested as the treatment of choice for chronic insomnia. However, access to specialised sleep therapists is sparse, and a service delivery model based on the principles of ‘stepped care’ has been proposed. Even though CBT-I is shown to be effective, there is a need to continue the development of cognitive behavioural treatments for insomnia. As a complement to traditional interventions, the potential value of acceptance, that is, to make an active choice of openness towards psychological experiences, has been recognized. However, it has not yet been systematically investigated, and specific instruments for studying acceptance in insomnia are lacking.

    The present thesis is based on three studies: Study I showed that manual-guided CBT for insomnia delivered by ordinary primary care personnel has a significant effect on perceived insomnia severity, sleep onset latency and wake time after sleep onset. Study II demonstrated that non-responders in Study I reported shorter sleep time at baseline than did responders, a notion that may help select patients for this type of low-end intervention in a stepped care treatment approach. Study III aimed to develop a new assessment instrument for studying acceptance of insomnia, the Sleep Problem Acceptance Questionnaire (SPAQ), resulting in an eight-item questionnaire with two factors; the first being Activity Engagement, persisting with normal activities even when sleep is unsatisfactory, and the second involving Willingness, avoiding fighting and trying to control sleep problems.

    In conclusion, the present thesis demonstrates that it is feasible to treat patients with insomnia using CBT-I administrated by ordinary primary care personnel in general practice, and that those with relatively longer initial sleep duration benefit most from treatment, enabling allocation to relevant treatment intensity. In addition, acceptance of sleep difficulties may be quantified using the SPAQ.

    Delarbeid
    1. Manual-guided cognitive-behavioural therapy for insomnia delivered by ordinary primary care personnel in general medical practice: a randomized controlled effectiveness trial
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Manual-guided cognitive-behavioural therapy for insomnia delivered by ordinary primary care personnel in general medical practice: a randomized controlled effectiveness trial
    2013 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 22, nr 6, s. 688-696Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Chronic insomnia is a prevalent problem in primary health care and tends to be more serious than insomnia in the general population. These patients often obtain little benefit from hypnotics, and are frequently open to exploring various options for medical treatment. However, most general practitioners (GPs) are unable to provide such options. Several meta-analyses have shown that cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for insomnia results in solid improvements on sleep parameters, and a few studies have demonstrated promising results for nurse-administered CBT in primary care. The aim of this randomized controlled study was to investigate the clinical effectiveness of manual-guided CBT for insomnia delivered by ordinary primary care personnel in general medical practice with unselected patients. Sixty-six primary care patients with insomnia were randomized to CBT or a waiting-list control group. The CBT group improved significantly more than the control group using the Insomnia Severity Index as the outcome. The effect size was high. Sleep diaries showed a significant, medium-sized treatment effect for sleep onset latency and wake time after sleep onset. However, for all measures there is a marked deterioration at follow-up assessments. Almost half of the treated subjects (47%) reported a clinically relevant treatment effect directly after treatment. It is concluded that this way of delivering treatment may be cost-effective.

    Emneord
    cognitive-behavioural therapy, non-pharmacological, sleep disorder, treatment
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-212305 (URN)10.1111/jsr.12067 (DOI)000326884000012 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2013-12-10 Laget: 2013-12-09 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-06bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Initial Sleep Time Predicts Success in Manual-Guided Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Initial Sleep Time Predicts Success in Manual-Guided Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia
    Vise andre…
    2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Behavioural Sleep Medicine, ISSN 1540-2002, E-ISSN 1540-2010, Vol. 14, nr 4, s. 378-388Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive behavioral therapy produces significant and long-lasting improvement for individuals with insomnia, but treatment resources are scarce. A "stepped care" approach has therefore been proposed, but knowledge is limited on how to best allocate patients to different treatment steps. In this study, 66 primary-care patients with insomnia attended a low-end treatment step: manual-guided cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for insomnia delivered by ordinary primary-care personnel. Based on clinically significant treatment effects, subjects were grouped into treatment responders or nonresponders. Baseline data were analyzed to identify predictors for treatment success. Long total sleep time at baseline assessment was the only statistically significant predictor for becoming a responder, and sleep time may thus be important to consider before enrolling patients in low-end treatments.

    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-266762 (URN)10.1080/15402002.2015.1007995 (DOI)000374971100003 ()26323054 (PubMedID)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-11-10 Laget: 2015-11-10 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-01bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Measuring Acceptance of Sleep Difficulties: The Development of the Sleep Problem Acceptance Questionnaire
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Measuring Acceptance of Sleep Difficulties: The Development of the Sleep Problem Acceptance Questionnaire
    Vise andre…
    2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: Sleep, ISSN 0161-8105, E-ISSN 1550-9109, Vol. 38, nr 11, s. 1815-1822Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Study Objectives: Acceptance may be an important therapeutic process in sleep medicine, but valid psychometric instruments measuring acceptance related to sleep difficulties are lacking. The purpose of this study was to develop a measure of acceptance in insomnia, and to examine its factor structure as well as construct validity. Design: In a cross-sectional design, a principal component analysis for item reduction was conducted on a first sample (A) and a confirmatory factor analysis on a second sample (B). Construct validity was tested on a combined sample (C). Setting: Questionnaire items were derived from a measure of acceptance in chronic pain, and data were gathered through screening or available from pretreatment assessments in four insomnia treatment trials, administered online, via bibliotherapy and in primary care. Participants: Adults with insomnia: 372 in sample A and 215 in sample B. Sample C (n = 820) included sample A and B with another 233 participants added. Measures: Construct validity was assessed through relations with established acceptance and sleep scales. Results: The principal component analysis presented a two-factor solution with eight items, explaining 65.9% of the total variance. The confirmatory factor analysis supported the solution. Acceptance of sleep problems was more closely related to subjective symptoms and consequences of insomnia than to diary description of sleep, or to acceptance of general private events. Conclusions: The Sleep Problem Acceptance Questionnaire (SPAQ), containing the subscales "Activity Engagement" and "Willingness", is a valid tool to assess acceptance of insomnia.

    Emneord
    acceptance; experiential avoidance; insomnia; principal component analysis; psychometric evaluation; scale construction; Sleep Problem Acceptance Questionnaire; willingness
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-259064 (URN)10.5665/sleep.5170 (DOI)000363740100021 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-07-25 Laget: 2015-07-25 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-04bibliografisk kontrollert
  • 277.
    Bothelius, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Jernelöv, Susanna
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    McCracken, Lance
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Measuring Acceptance of Sleep Difficulties: The Development of the Sleep Problem Acceptance Questionnaire2015Inngår i: Sleep, ISSN 0161-8105, E-ISSN 1550-9109, Vol. 38, nr 11, s. 1815-1822Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Study Objectives: Acceptance may be an important therapeutic process in sleep medicine, but valid psychometric instruments measuring acceptance related to sleep difficulties are lacking. The purpose of this study was to develop a measure of acceptance in insomnia, and to examine its factor structure as well as construct validity. Design: In a cross-sectional design, a principal component analysis for item reduction was conducted on a first sample (A) and a confirmatory factor analysis on a second sample (B). Construct validity was tested on a combined sample (C). Setting: Questionnaire items were derived from a measure of acceptance in chronic pain, and data were gathered through screening or available from pretreatment assessments in four insomnia treatment trials, administered online, via bibliotherapy and in primary care. Participants: Adults with insomnia: 372 in sample A and 215 in sample B. Sample C (n = 820) included sample A and B with another 233 participants added. Measures: Construct validity was assessed through relations with established acceptance and sleep scales. Results: The principal component analysis presented a two-factor solution with eight items, explaining 65.9% of the total variance. The confirmatory factor analysis supported the solution. Acceptance of sleep problems was more closely related to subjective symptoms and consequences of insomnia than to diary description of sleep, or to acceptance of general private events. Conclusions: The Sleep Problem Acceptance Questionnaire (SPAQ), containing the subscales "Activity Engagement" and "Willingness", is a valid tool to assess acceptance of insomnia.

  • 278.
    Bothelius, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Kyhle, Kicki
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Characteristics of treatment responders and analysis of treatment effects on secondary measures following cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 279.
    Bozic, Nick
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Douglas, Graeme
    Furner, Stephen
    Hill, Eileen
    Jansson, Gunnar
    Johnson, Valerie
    Petrie, Helen
    Tobin, Michael
    Bringhammar, Cecilia
    Danielsson, A.
    Report on Birmingham field trial with recommendations1996Inngår i: TIDE Project 1148 - MoBIC, Deliverable 6.6Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 280.
    Braukmann, Ricarda
    et al.
    Radboud University Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
    Stapel, Janny
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Hunnius, Sabine
    Radboud University Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
    Conducting infant EEG and NIRS experiments: Commonalities and differences2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 281.
    Brav, Agneta
    et al.
    Mälardalen University.
    Andersson, Kin
    Mälaralen University.
    Lantz, Annika
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Group initiative and self-organizational activities in industrial work groups2009Inngår i: European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, ISSN 1359-432X, E-ISSN 1464-0643, Vol. 18, nr 3, s. 347-377Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous work groups are involved in goal setting and planning and hence can define their jobs and the outcome idiosyncratically. Our interest lies in how job design restricts or creates possibilities for groups to redefine their work and thus go beyond formal requirements. The aim was to test a model of the relationships between dimensions of job design, group processes, group initiative, and self-organizational activities. The results are based on work task analyses and questionnaires administered to 31 work groups at four Swedish industrial companies. The theoretical input-process-output model received substantial support. Dimensions of job design affect whether a group, through collective reflexivity, can redefine work and proactively create conditions and organize work so that uncertainty can be handled and new tasks mastered. Group processes such as cooperation and social support enhance group initiative to achieve such meaningful change. In this study, reflexivity does not impact on group initiative, but does explain the major amount of variance in self-organizational activities. Work task analyses can be a useful tool for providing groups with the prerequisites for self-organizational activities. We believe these to be essential for the groups' capacity to be involved in the innovation process from idea to finished product.

  • 282.
    Brehmer, Berndt
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Jansson, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Swdedes in Moro I: The effects of providing specific goals in a complex dynamic taskManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 283.
    Bring, Annika
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Fysioterapi.
    Åsenlöf, Pernilla
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Fysioterapi.
    Söderlund, A.
    Malardalen Univ, Sch Hlth Care & Social Welf, Physiotherapy, Vasteras, Sweden..
    What Is The Comparative Effectiveness Of Current Standard Treatment, Against An Individually Tailored Behavioural Programme Delivered Either On The Internet Or Face-To-Face For People With Acute Whiplash Associated Disorder?: A Randomized Controlled Trial2016Inngår i: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 1070-5503, E-ISSN 1532-7558, Vol. 23, s. S187-S188Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 284.
    Broberg, Anders
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    Karlstads universitet.
    Appell, Petra
    Karlstads universitet.
    Axberg, Ulf
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Cater, Åsa
    Örebro universitet.
    Draxler, Helena
    Karlstads universitet.
    Eriksson, Maria
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Iversen, Clara
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Utveckling av bedömningsinstrument och stödinsatser för våldsutsatta barn2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 285.
    Broberg, Anders
    et al.
    Psykologiska institutionen, Göteborgs universitet.
    Almqvist, Linnéa
    Psykologiska institutionen, Göteborgs universitet.
    Axberg, Ulf
    Psykologiska institutionen, Göteborgs universitet.
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    Karlstads universitet.
    Cater, Åsa
    Örebro universitet.
    Eriksson, Maria
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Stöd till barn som upplevt våld mot mamma: Preliminära resultat från en nationell utvärdering2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 286. Broberg, Anders
    et al.
    Risholm-Mothander, Pia
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ivarsson, Tord
    Anknytning i praktiken: Tillämpningar av anknytningsteorin2008Bok (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 287.
    Brocki, K. C.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Bohlin, G
    Developmental change in the relation between executive functions and symptoms of ADHD and co-occuring behaviour problems2006Inngår i: Infant and Child Development, Vol. 15, nr 1, s. 19-40Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 288.
    Brocki, Karin
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Placing neuroanatomical models of executive function in a developmental context: Imaging and imaging-genetic strategies2008Inngår i: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 1129, s. 246-255Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 289.
    Brocki, Karin
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Provisional hypotheses for the molecular genetics of cognitive development: Imaging genetic pathways in the anterior cingulate cortex2008Inngår i: Biological Psychology, ISSN 0301-0511, E-ISSN 1873-6246, Vol. 79, s. 23-29Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 290.
    Brocki, Karin
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Stop-Signal Inhibition in the General Population: Development, Construct Validity and Relation to ADHD Symptoms2007Inngår i: Child Neuropsychology, ISSN 0929-7049, E-ISSN 1744-4136, Vol. 1, s. 1-18Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 291.
    Brocki, Karin
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The Relations between Executive Function and Language in Preschool Children2009Inngår i: Private Speech, Executive Functioning, and the Development of Verbal Self-Regulation / [ed] A. Winsler och C. Fernyhough, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 292.
    Brocki, Karin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Executive functions in children aged 6-13:: A dimensional and developmental study2004Inngår i: Developmental Neuropsychology, Vol. 26, s. 571-593Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 293.
    Brocki, Karin C.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Eninger, Lilianne
    Thorell, Lisa B.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Interrelations Between Executive Function and Symptoms of Hyperactivity/Impulsivity and Inattention in Preschoolers: A Two Year Longitudinal Study2010Inngår i: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, ISSN 0091-0627, E-ISSN 1573-2835, Vol. 38, nr 2, s. 163-171Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study, including children at risk for developing Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), examined the idea that complex executive functions (EFs) build upon more simple ones. This notion was applied in the study of longitudinal interrelations between core EF components - simple and complex inhibition, selective attention, and working memory (WM) - at age 5 and 6 as well as their predictive relations to ADHD symptoms at age 7. The results showed that simple inhibition and selective attention at age 5 independently predicted complex inhibition and WM at age 6. In addition, EFs primarily predicted symptoms of inattention rather than hyperactivity/impulsivity even at this young age. Finally, age 6 complex inhibition was shown to act as a mediator in the relations between simple inhibition and selective attention at age 5 and symptoms of inattention at age 7. These findings provide novel longitudinal support for the theory that fundamental EF components show a progression with age toward more complex executive control (see Garon et al. Psychological Bulletin 134(1):31-60 2008). Further, complex inhibition, implicating both inhibition and WM, seems to be a particularly strong correlate of ADHD symptoms in young children and should as such be the focus of future studies examining the relation between cognitive function and ADHD symptoms from a developmental perspective.

  • 294.
    Brocki, Karin C.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Forslund, Tommie
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Frick, Matilda
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Do Individual Differences in Early Affective and Cognitive Self-Regulation Predict Developmental Change in ADHD Symptoms From Preschool to Adolescence?2019Inngår i: Journal of Attention Disorders, ISSN 1087-0547, E-ISSN 1557-1246, ISSN 1087-0547, Vol. 23, nr 13, s. 1656-1666Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The role of heterogeneous self-regulation deficits in ADHD has long been emphasized. Yet, longitudinal studies examining distinct self-regulation processes as prospective predictors of developmental change in ADHD symptoms spanning wide developmental periods are scarce. The aim of the current study was to examine affective and cognitive self-regulation as predictors of developmental change in ADHD symptoms from preschool to adolescence in a sample with one third of the children being at risk for developing an ADHD and/or ODD diagnosis.

    Method: At 5 years laboratory measures for hot and cool executive function (EF) and parental and teacher ratings were used for regulation of positive and negative emotionality. Symptoms of ADHD and ODD were measured at 5 and 13 years using parental and teacher ratings based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV).

    Results: Converging developmental paths in hyperactivity/impulsivity across time were found for those high versus low in early cognitive self-regulation, whereas the development of inattention symptoms diverged across time for those high versus low in early affective self-regulation.

    Conclusion: These results support the idea that different aspects of self-regulation are important for developmental change in the two separate ADHD symptom domains from preschool to adolescence.

  • 295.
    Brocki, Karin C.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nyberg, Lilianne
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Thorell, Lisa B.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Early concurrent and longitudinal symptoms of ADHD and ODD: Relations to different types of inhibitory control and working memory2007Inngår i: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, ISSN 0021-9630, E-ISSN 1469-7610, Vol. 48, nr 10, s. 1033-1041Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim of the present study was to investigate how three different types of inhibitory control - interference control within task, interference control outside task, and prepotent response inhibition - and two types of working memory - verbal and spatial - would relate to early symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), both concurrently and longitudinally. Methods: Seventy-two preschoolers, 1/3 who had been identified as being at risk for developing ADHD and/or ODD, completed neuropsychological tasks designed to measure inhibitory control and working memory. Behavioral symptoms were measured through parental and teacher ratings of the DSM-IV criteria for ADHD and ODD. Results: Our results suggest distinct types of inhibitory control as being good predictors of concurrent and longitudinal symptoms of ADHD, rather than ODD. However, no associations were obtained between working memory and ADHD or ODD symptoms either concurrently or longitudinally. Conclusions: This study emphasizes the need to isolate complex executive processes and break them down into components in order to properly understand the neuropsychological roots involved in ADHD and ODD.

  • 296.
    Brocki, Karin C.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Randall, K.D.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Kerns, K. A.
    Working memory in school-aged children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder combined type: Are deficits modality specific and are they independent of impaired inhibitory control?2008Inngår i: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, ISSN 1380-3395, E-ISSN 1744-411X, Vol. 30, nr 7, s. 749-759Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines differences between children with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder combined type (ADHD-C) and normal controls on verbal and visuospatial working-memory (WM) tasks. The extent to which WM deficits in children with ADHD-C are independent of impaired inhibitory control was also examined. Two groups of 7- to 12-year-old boys participated in this study. The first group included 31 boys diagnosed with ADHD-C, and the second group included 34 boys without ADHD. Various verbal and visuospatial WM tasks and two inhibitory control tasksprepotent response inhibition and interference controlwere used. Overall, our results suggest impaired verbal and visuospatial WM processes in children with ADHD-C, as well as a lower level of performance on prepotent response inhibition. WM deficits in ADHD have previously been suggested to be particularly salient in the spatial domain, our results instead showed the largest effect for a verbal WM task thought to put heavy load on the executive or attentional control component of the WM system. An interpretation of this finding is that it is variation in terms of difficulty level or load on the executive WM processes, rather than variation in modality (verbal versus visuospatial), that is important in demonstrating WM deficits in ADHD-C. Finally, findings from logistic regression analyses showed that deficits in WM and inhibitory control seem to be semi-independent in children with ADHD-C, at least with regard to the elementary school age.

  • 297.
    Brocki, Karin C.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Tillman, Carin M.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    CPT performance, motor activity, and continuous relations to ADHD symptom domains: A developmental study2010Inngår i: European Journal of Developmental Psychology, ISSN 1740-5629, E-ISSN 1740-5610, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 178-197Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a population-based sample consisting of 401 6- to 12-year-olds, this study examined normative age and sex distributions on motor activity as measured in an actigraphic-based motion tracking system (MTS) and on attention-related functions derived from a Continuous Performance Test (CPT). Specific objectives were to present new knowledge on age-related change in motor activity and to study age effects on changes in motor activity and CPT performance as a function of time on task. Further, continuous relations between the two ADHD symptom domains and CPT performance and motor activity, and importantly, age effects in these relations were examined. CPT performance improved, and level of motor activity decreased with age. Linear associations between the two ADHD symptom domains and several of the CPT and MTS parameters support available research describing the nature of ADHD as a continuous dimension with variable expression throughout the general population. Further, our study is one of the first to provide developmental data using a time on task design, particularly with regard to motor activity. Imperative for ADHD future research are our results showing that age matters in the relation between ADHD behaviours and neuropsychological function.

  • 298.
    Brocki, Karin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Clerkin, S. M.
    Guise, K. G.
    Fan, Jin
    Fossella, J. A.
    Assessing the molecular genetics of the development of executive attention in children: focus on genetic pathways related to the anterior cingulate cortex and dopamine2009Inngår i: Neuroscience, ISSN 0306-4522, E-ISSN 1873-7544, Vol. 164, nr 1, s. 241-246Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that children show gradual and protracted improvement in an array of behaviors involved in the conscious control of thought and emotion. Non-invasive neuroimaging in developing populations has revealed many neural correlates of behavior, particularly in the developing cingulate cortex and frontostriatal circuits. These brain regions, themselves, undergo protracted molecular and cellular change in the first two decades of human development and, as such, are ideal regions of interest for cognitive- and imaging-genetic studies that seek to link processes at the biochemical and synaptic levels to brain activity and behavior. We review our research to date that employs both adult and child-friendly versions of the attention network task (ANT) in an effort to begin to describe the role of specific genes in the assembly of a functional attention system. Presently, we constrain our predictions for genetic association studies by focusing on the role of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and of dopamine in the development of executive attention.

  • 299.
    Brocki, Karin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Department of psychiatry, New York, USA.
    Tillman, Carin
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Mental Set Shifting in Childhood: The Role of Working Memory and Inhibitory Control2014Inngår i: Infant and Child Development, ISSN 1522-7227, E-ISSN 1522-7219, Vol. 23, nr 6, s. 588-604Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of working memory (WM) and inhibition in mental set shifting was examined from an individual difference perspective in children aged 5-14years (N=117). Using the Hearts and Flowers task the rationale of the present study was to directly test the theoretical assumption that mental set shifiting in childhood primarily builds on WM and inhibitory processes. Theoretical predictions about WM and inhibitory demands in the congruent and incongruent conditions of the Hearts and Flowers task were also considered because these blocks underlie relevant measures of set shifting. The findings show that both WM and inhibition (extracted as factors in confirmatory factor analysis) are important for set shifting but that this general association is driven by the link between these executive functions (EFs) and the goal-representation aspect (i.e. global switch costs) of shifting, rather than to the actual switch-implementation process (i.e. local switch costs). In addition, our findings are novel in showing that, despite a substantial correlation between the two EF components, it was the variance specific to WM and inhibition that was important for mental set shifting.

  • 300.
    Broman, Daniel A.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Olsson, Mats J
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nordin, Steven
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lateralization of olfactory cognitive functions: Effects of rhinal side of stimulation2001Inngår i: Chemical Senses, Vol. 26, s. 1187-1192Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
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