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  • 251.
    Balkenius, Christian
    et al.
    Lund Univ Cognit Sci, Lund, Sweden.
    Fawcett, Christine
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Uppsala universitet, Kollegiet för avancerade studier (SCAS).
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Johansson, Birger
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Lund Univ Cognit Sci, Lund, Sweden.
    Pupillary Correlates of Emotion and Cognition: A Computational Model2019Inngår i: 2019 9th International IEEE/EMBS Conference On Neural Engineering (NER), IEEE, 2019, s. 903-907Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In addition to controlling the influx of light to the retina, the pupil also reacts as a result of cognitive and emotional processing. This makes it possible to use pupil dilation as an index for cognitive effort and emotional arousal. We show how an extended version of a computational model of pupil dilation can account for pupillary contagion effects where the pupil of an observer dilates upon seeing another person with dilated pupils. We also show how the model can reproduce the effects of cognitive effort in a math exercise. Furthermore, we investigate how the model can account for different explanations for the abnormal pupil response seen in individuals with or at risk for autism spectrum disorder. The reported computer simulations illustrate the usefulness of system-level models of the brain in addressing complex cognitive and emotional phenomena.

  • 252.
    Bannbers, Elin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Obstetrik & gynekologi.
    Gingnell, Malin
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Obstetrik & gynekologi. Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Engman, Jonas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Morell, Arvid
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för radiologi, onkologi och strålningsvetenskap, Enheten för radiologi.
    Comasco, Erika
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap.
    Kask, Kristiina
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Obstetrik & gynekologi.
    Garavan, Hugh
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Wikström, Johan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för radiologi, onkologi och strålningsvetenskap, Enheten för radiologi.
    Sundström Poromaa, Inger
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Obstetrik & gynekologi.
    The effect of premenstrual dysphoric disorder and menstrual cycle phase on brain activity during response inhibition2012Inngår i: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 142, nr 1-3, s. 347-350Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) has generally not been associated with impulsive behavior. However, some studies suggest that women with PMDD have higher impulsivity scores than healthy controls and that brain activity during response inhibition may vary across the menstrual cycle. Therefore, our aim was to unravel potentially important cognitive aspects of PMDD by investigating brain activity during response inhibition in women with PMDD and healthy controls in relation to menstrual cycle phase.

    METHODS:

    Fourteen PMDD patients and 13 healthy controls performed a Go/NoGo task to measure brain activity during response inhibition by use of event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    RESULTS:

    Women with PMDD displayed decreased activity during both menstrual cycle phases compared to healthy controls in several task-related parietal areas. A significant group by phase interactions was found in the left insula, driven by enhanced activity among healthy controls in the follicular phase and by enhanced insula activity during the luteal phase among PMDD patients.

    LIMITATIONS:

    The limitations of the present study are the relatively limited sample size, the relatively small number of NoGo trials and the lack of a baseline contrast for the NoGo trials.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    During response inhibition women with PMDD have reduced activity in areas associated with attention and motor function which is unrelated to menstrual cycle phase. Insular cortex activity, involved in both affective and cognitive processing, was significantly activated during the luteal phase among PMDD women. These findings are relevant for the understanding of how ovarian steroids influence mood symptoms in women.

  • 253.
    Bannbers, Elin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Gingnell, Malin
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Obstetrik & gynekologi. Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Engman, Jonas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Morell, Arvid
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för radiologi, onkologi och strålningsvetenskap, Enheten för radiologi.
    Sylvén, Sara
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Skalkidou, Alkistis
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Kask, Kristiina
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Bäckström, Torbjörn
    Department of Clinical Science, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Wikström, Johan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för radiologi, onkologi och strålningsvetenskap, Enheten för radiologi.
    Sundström Poromaa, Inger
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Prefrontal activity during response inhibition decreases over time in the postpartum period2013Inngår i: Behavioural Brain Research, ISSN 0166-4328, E-ISSN 1872-7549, Vol. 241, nr 1, s. 132-138Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The postpartum period is characterized by complex hormonal changes, but human imaging studies in the postpartum period have thus far predominantly focused on the neural correlates of maternal behavior or postpartum depression, whereas longitudinal studies on neural correlates of cognitive function across the postpartum period in healthy women are lacking. The aim of this study was to longitudinally examine response inhibition, as a measure of executive function, and its neural correlates in healthy postpartum women and non-postpartum controls. Thirteen healthy postpartum women underwent event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a Go/NoGo task. The first assessment was made within 48hours of delivery, and the second at 4-7 weeks postpartum. In addition, 13 healthy women examined twice during the menstrual cycle were included as non-postpartum controls. In postpartum women region of interest analyses revealed task-related decreased activations in the right inferior frontal gyrus, right anterior cingulate, and bilateral precentral gyri at the late postpartum assessment. Generally, postpartum women displayed lower activity during response inhibition in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri and precentral gyri compared to non-postpartum controls. No differences in response inhibition performance were found between time-points or between groups. In conclusion, this study has discovered that brain activity in prefrontal areas during a response inhibition task decreases throughout the course of the first postpartum weeks and is lower than in non-postpartum controls. Further studies on the normal adaptive brain activity changes that occur during the postpartum period are warranted.

  • 254.
    Bannbers, Elin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Gingnell, Malin
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Engman, Jonas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Morell, Arvid
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för radiologi, onkologi och strålningsvetenskap. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Radiologi.
    Sylvén, Sara
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Skalkidou, Alkistis
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Kask, Kristiina
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Wikström, Johan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för radiologi, onkologi och strålningsvetenskap.
    Sundström-Poromaa, Inger
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Prefrontal activity during response inhibition decreases over time in postpartum womenManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 255.
    Barradas, Gonçalo
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    A Cross-Cultural Approach to Psychological Mechanisms Underlying Emotional Reactions to Music2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Music plays a crucial role in everyday life by enabling listeners to seek individual emotional experiences. To explain why such emotions occur, we must understand the underlying process that mediates between surface-level features of the music and aroused emotions. This thesis aimed to investigate how musical emotions are mediated by psychological mechanisms from a cross-cultural perspective.

    Study I manipulated four mechanisms by selecting ecologically valid pieces of music that featured information relevant for each mechanism. The results suggested that listeners’ emotions could be successfully predicted based on theoretically based manipulations of target mechanisms. However, Study I featured only listeners from a single culture, neglecting the possible role of contextual and individual factors.

    Study II investigated the prevalence of emotions, mechanisms, and listening motives in a web survey featuring listeners from both individualist and collectivist countries. Results indicated that patterns of prevalence of emotions and mechanisms were quite similar across cultures. Still, Study II found that certain emotions such as nostalgia and the mechanism episodic memory were more frequent in collectivist cultures. In contrast, sadness and the mechanism musical expectancy were more frequent in individualist cultures. Study II also suggested that listening motives were country-specific, rather than subject to the individualism-collectivism dimension.

    Study III explored how particular mechanisms are manifested within a collectivist cultural setting with great potential for deeply felt emotions: fado music in Portugal. Interviews with listeners provided in-depth information on how the cultural context might shape listening motives and emotions. The results revealed that listeners strived for musical experiences that would arouse culturally valued emotions. Music-evoked nostalgia and contextual factors were regarded as important and contributed to an enhanced sense of wellbeing.

    Study IV tested the influence of lyrics on the emotions induced by Swedish and Portuguese pieces of music. The results revealed cross-cultural differences in how lyrics influenced emotions. The differences were not related to the music’s origin, but to the listener’s origin, suggesting that the impact of lyrics depends on the cultural background of the listener.

    In conclusion, the thesis suggests that cultural factors serve as moderators of effects of biologically based mechanisms for emotion induction.

    Delarbeid
    1. From sound to significance: Exploring the mechanisms underlying emotional reactions to music
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>From sound to significance: Exploring the mechanisms underlying emotional reactions to music
    2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: American Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0002-9556, E-ISSN 1939-8298, Vol. 128, nr 3, s. 281-304Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A common approach to studying emotional reactions to music is to attempt to obtain direct links between musical surface features such as tempo and a listener's responses. However, such an analysis ultimately fails to explain why emotions are aroused in the listener. In this article we explore an alternative approach, which aims to account for musical emotions in terms of a set of psychological mechanisms that are activated by different types of information in a musical event. This approach was tested in 4 experiments that manipulated 4 mechanisms (brain stem reflex, contagion, episodic memory, musical expectancy) by selecting existing musical pieces that featured information relevant for each mechanism. The excerpts were played to 60 listeners, who were asked to rate their felt emotions on 15 scales. Skin conductance levels and facial expressions were measured, and listeners reported subjective impressions of relevance to specific mechanisms. Results indicated that the target mechanism conditions evoked emotions largely as predicted by a multimechanism framework and that mostly similar effects occurred across the experiments that included different pieces of music. We conclude that a satisfactory account of musical emotions requires consideration of how musical features and responses are mediated by a range of underlying mechanisms.

    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-261219 (URN)000359014200001 ()
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Swedish Research Council
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-09-08 Laget: 2015-08-31 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-04
    2. Prevalence of emotions, mechanisms, and motives in music listening: A comparison of individualist and collectivist cultures
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Prevalence of emotions, mechanisms, and motives in music listening: A comparison of individualist and collectivist cultures
    2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Psychomusicology, ISSN 0275-3987, E-ISSN 2162-1535Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Accepted
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-310598 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-12-16 Laget: 2016-12-16 Sist oppdatert: 2017-10-13
    3. Understanding nostalgia and sadness in fado music: A qualitative approach to the psychological mechanisms underlying musical emotions
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Understanding nostalgia and sadness in fado music: A qualitative approach to the psychological mechanisms underlying musical emotions
    (engelsk)Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig) Submitted
    Emneord
    Fado music, Nostalgia, Psychological mechanisms, Qualitative method, Sadness, Wellbeing
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-312498 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-01-27 Laget: 2017-01-10 Sist oppdatert: 2017-02-07
    4. When words matter: Lyrics and their relationship to musical emotions in Portugal and Sweden
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>When words matter: Lyrics and their relationship to musical emotions in Portugal and Sweden
    (engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Emneord
    Cross-cultural comparison, Emotion, Lyrics, Mechanisms, Music
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-312500 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-01-27 Laget: 2017-01-10 Sist oppdatert: 2017-10-13
  • 256.
    Barradas, Gonçalo
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Understanding nostalgia and sadness in fado music: A qualitative approach to the psychological mechanisms underlying musical emotionsArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 257.
    Barradas, Gonçalo
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Sakka, Laura S.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    When words matter: Lyrics and their relationship to musical emotions in Portugal and SwedenManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 258. Bartl-Pokorny, K. D.
    et al.
    Pokorny, F.
    Boelte, S.
    Langmann, A.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Wolin, T.
    Einspieler, C.
    Sigafoos, J.
    Marschik, P. B.
    Eye Tracking in Basic Research and Clinical Practice2013Inngår i: Klinische Neurophysiologie, ISSN 1434-0275, E-ISSN 1439-4081, Vol. 44, nr 3, s. 193-198Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Eye tracking is a non-invasive technique based on infrared video technology that is used to analyse eye movements. Such analyses might provide insights into perceptual and cognitive capacities. It is a method widely used in various disciplines, such as ophthalmology, neurology, psychiatry and neuropsychology for basic science, but also clinical practice. For example, recent studies on children who were later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders revealed early abnormal eye movement patterns in socio-communicative settings; children with dyslexia appeared also to have peculiar eye movement patterns, expressed in longer fixation durations and smaller saccades while reading. Current research using eye tracking systems in combination with neurophysiological and brain imaging techniques will add to a better understanding of cognitive, linguistic and socio-communicative development and in the near future possibly also lead to a broader clinical application of this method.

  • 259.
    Bartusch, Cajsa
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Industriell teknik.
    Juslin, Peter
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Persson-Fischier, Ulrika
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Industriell teknik. Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi, Kulturantropologiska avdelningen.
    Stenberg, Jesper
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Industriell teknik.
    Elkonsumenters drivkrafter för en ökad förbrukningsflexibilitet: Hushålls attityder och anpassningar till en tidsdifferentierad och effektbaserad elnätstariff2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    De estimerade effekterna av en tidsdifferentierad och effektbaserad elnätstariff, i form av förändrade elkonsumtionsmönster, är förhållandevis marginella och begränsade till hushåll som bor i villa. Resultaten tyder på att villaägarna i Sollentuna, som ett led i sin anpassning av elanvändningen till effekttariffen, har minskat sin elanvändning under höglasttid med 2,3 och 1,2 procent under sommar- respektive vintermånaderna i jämförelse med referensgruppen i Saltsjö-Boo. Det finns inget som tyder på en liknande effekt bland bostadsrätter och motsvarande analyser avseende hyresrätter har inte varit möjliga med anledning av att referensgruppen i det här fallet inte var representativ.

    Resultaten indikerar vidare att effekttariffer tydligt påverkar hushålls attityder och intentioner att flytta elanvändning från hög- till låglasttid, men att dessa inte återspeglas i deras faktiska beteende. Det finns således endast ett svagt samband mellan förekomsten av effekttariff och andelen el som förbrukas under hög- respektive låglasttid bland de hushåll som omfattades av studien. De psykologiska faktorer som har störst betydelse för om, och i så fall i vilken utsträckning, hushållen anpassar sin elanvändning till en effekttariff i det här avseendet är de förväntade konsekvenserna av, och därmed attityden till, den aktuella beteendeförändringen samt den upplevda graden av kontroll över densamma. Mer konkret innebär det att ekonomiska besparingar samt positiva effekter för miljö, klimatförändringar och en hållbar utveckling för yngre och kommande generationer utgör de viktigaste drivkrafterna, medan omständigheten att man anser sin elförbrukning vara i princip obefintlig, eller att man redan idag använder i stort sett all el under låglasttid utgör de största hindren, för att anpassa sin elanvändning till effekttariffen.

    De skillnader som har observerats avseende såväl drivkrafter som faktiskt beteende är genomgående större mellan de olika boendeformerna än de båda områdena, det vill säga skillnaderna som beror på om hushållen har en effekttariff eller inte, vilket tyder på att man bör anpassa affärsmodeller för ökad förbrukningsflexibilitet till olika hushållskategorier. Denna slutsats bekräftas av en klusteranalys och påföljande segmentering, som identifierade sex för ändamålet relevanta och heterogena grupper av hushåll inom varje boendeformskategori.

    Slutsatsen som har dragits är således att viljan finns där, men att de önskade effekterna uteblir. Potentialen är med andra ord stor, men vi behöver mer sofistikerade affärsmodeller för att realisera den.

  • 260.
    Bartusch, Cajsa
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Industriell teknik.
    Stikvoort, Britt
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Residential demand response in the long run: Assessing the effects of a time-of-use power tariff 20 years after implementing it2018Inngår i: Behave 2018: Book of Abstracts / [ed] Hackenfort, Markus; Carabias-Hütter, Vicente; Hartmann, Cathérine; Janser, Marcel;: Schwarz, Natalie; Stücheli-Herlach, Peter, Zürich, 2018, s. 30-31Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 261.
    Bas-Hoogendam, Janna Marie
    et al.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden, Netherlands..
    van Steenbergen, Henk
    Leiden Univ, Leiden, Netherlands..
    Pannekoek, J. Nienke
    Imperial Coll London, London, England..
    Fouche, Jean-Paul
    Univ Cape Town, Rondebosch, South Africa..
    Lochner, Christine
    Stellenbosch Univ, Stellenbosch, South Africa..
    Hattingh, Coenraad J.
    Univ Cape Town, Rondebosch, South Africa..
    Cremers, Henk R.
    Univ Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Månsson, Kristoffer N. T.
    Linkoping Univ, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Frick, Andreas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Engman, Jonas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umea Univ, Umea, Sweden..
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linkoping Univ, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Fredriksson, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Straube, Thomas
    Univ Munster, Munster, Germany..
    Peterburs, Jutta
    Univ Munster, Munster, Germany..
    Klumpp, Heide
    Univ Illinois, Chicago, IL USA..
    Phan, K. Luan
    Univ Illinois, Chicago, IL USA..
    Roelofs, Karin
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Stein, Dan J.
    Univ Cape Town, Rondebosch, South Africa..
    van der Wee, Nic. J. A.
    Leiden Univ, Med Ctr, Leiden, Netherlands..
    Sample Size Matters: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Multi-Center Mega-Analysis of Gray Matter Volume in Social Anxiety Disorder2017Inngår i: Biological Psychiatry, ISSN 0006-3223, E-ISSN 1873-2402, Vol. 81, nr 10, s. S7-S8Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 262.
    Bas-Hoogendam, Janna Marie
    et al.
    Leiden Univ, Inst Psychol, Wassenaarseweg 52, NL-2333 AK Leiden, Netherlands.;Leiden Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Psychiat, Leiden, Netherlands.;Leiden Inst Brain & Cognit, Leiden, Netherlands..
    van Steenbergen, Henk
    Leiden Univ, Inst Psychol, Wassenaarseweg 52, NL-2333 AK Leiden, Netherlands.;Leiden Inst Brain & Cognit, Leiden, Netherlands..
    Pannekoek, J. Nienke
    Imperial Coll London, Div Brain Sci, Ctr Psychiat, Neuropsychopharmacol Unit, London, England..
    Fouche, Jean-Paul
    Univ Cape Town, Dept Psychiat & Mental Hlth, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Lochner, Christine
    UCT MRC Unit Anxiety & Stress Disorders, Cape Town, South Africa.;Univ Stellenbosch, Dept Psychiat, Tygerberg, South Africa..
    Hattingh, Coenraad J.
    Univ Cape Town, Dept Psychiat & Mental Hlth, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Cremers, Henk R.
    Univ Amsterdam, Dept Clin Psychol, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Månsson, Kristoffer N.T.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Frick, Andreas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Engman, Jonas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umea Univ, Umea Ctr Funct Brain Imaging UFBI, Umea, Sweden.;Copenhagen Univ Hosp Hvidovre, Ctr Funct & Diagnost Imaging & Res, DRCMR, Hvidovre, Denmark..
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden.;Linkoping Univ, Dept Behav Sci & Learning Psychol, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Straube, Thomas
    Univ Munster, Inst Med Psychol & Syst Neurosci, Munster, Germany..
    Peterburs, Jutta
    Univ Munster, Inst Med Psychol & Syst Neurosci, Munster, Germany..
    Klumpp, Heide
    Univ Illinois, Dept Psychiat, Chicago, IL USA.;Univ Illinois, Dept Psychol, Chicago, IL USA..
    Phanp, K. Luan
    Univ Illinois, Dept Psychiat, Chicago, IL USA.;Univ Illinois, Dept Psychol, Chicago, IL USA..
    Roelofs, Karin
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Behav Sci Inst, Nijmegen, Netherlands.;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Donders Inst Brain Cognit & Behav, Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Veltman, Dick J.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Med Ctr, Dept Psychiat, Neurosci Campus Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    van Tol, Marie-Jose
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Neurosci, Groningen, Netherlands..
    Stein, Dan J.
    Univ Cape Town, Dept Psychiat & Mental Hlth, Cape Town, South Africa.;UCT MRC Unit Anxiety & Stress Disorders, Cape Town, South Africa..
    van der Wee, Nic J. A.
    Leiden Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Psychiat, Leiden, Netherlands.;Leiden Inst Brain & Cognit, Leiden, Netherlands..
    Voxel-based morphometry multi-center mega-analysis of brain structure in social anxiety disorder2017Inngår i: NeuroImage: Clinical, ISSN 0353-8842, E-ISSN 2213-1582, Vol. 16, s. 678-688Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a prevalent and disabling mental disorder, associated with significant psychiatric comorbidity. Previous research on structural brain alterations associated with SAD has yielded inconsistent results concerning the direction of the changes in graymatter (GM) in various brain regions, as well as on the relationship between brain structure and SAD-symptomatology. These heterogeneous findings are possibly due to limited sample sizes. Multisite imaging offers new opportunities to investigate SAD-related alterations in brain structure in larger samples. An international multi-center mega-analysis on the largest database of SAD structural T1-weighted 3T MRI scans to date was performed to compare GM volume of SAD-patients (n = 174) and healthy control (HC)-participants (n = 213) using voxel-based morphometry. A hypothesis-driven region of interest (ROI) approach was used, focusing on the basal ganglia, the amygdala-hippocampal complex, the prefrontal cortex, and the parietal cortex. SAD-patients had larger GM volume in the dorsal striatum when compared to HC-participants. This increase correlated positively with the severity of self-reported social anxiety symptoms. No SAD-related differences in GM volume were present in the other ROIs. Thereby, the results of this mega-analysis suggest a role for the dorsal striatum in SAD, but previously reported SAD-related changes in GM in the amygdala, hippocampus, precuneus, prefrontal cortex and parietal regions were not replicated. Our findings emphasize the importance of large sample imaging studies and the need for meta-analyses like those performed by the Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium.

  • 263.
    Batalha, Luisa
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Affirmative action: The role of ideological context, self interest, and conservative ideologiesManuskript (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 264.
    Batalha, Luisa
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Intergroup Relations: When is My Group More Important than Yours?2008Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Intergroup relations are characterised by favourable and unfavourable biases. Towards one’s own group these biases are mostly favourable – ingroup favouritism. Research has, however, shown that outgroup favouritism, that is, the preference for a group to which the person does not belong, also permeates intergroup relations. Several theories such as social identity theory, social dominance theory, and system justification theory offer explanations of the dynamics of intergroup relations and biases. Despite not strictly being a theory of intergroup relations, right-wing authoritarianism also offers an explanation of intergroup bias by accounting for prejudice and ethnocentrism. Likewise, ideological conservatism has been shown to influence intergroup relations.

    Based within these theories, this dissertation attempts to explain the social-psychological mechanisms regulating in- and outgroup favouritism. More specifically, Study I examines issues of power and legitimacy in relation to social perception and gender. Studies II and III examine the relationships between social psychological variables and affirmative action, which is aimed at diminishing inequalities between social groups. Together, the studies showed that gender plays a role in intergroup bias, both as an independent variable and as an object of social discrimination. Conservative ideologies predicted ingroup favouritism, but variably. Attitudes towards affirmative action were influenced by the way this issue is semantically framed. The results are discussed in relation to the theories of intergroup relations exposed above and the pertinent issue of attitude ambivalence in understanding outgroup favouritism.

    Delarbeid
    1. Outgroup favoritism: The role of power perception, gender, and conservatism
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Outgroup favoritism: The role of power perception, gender, and conservatism
    2007 Inngår i: Current Research in Social Psychology, Vol. 13, nr 4, s. 38-49Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-96819 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2008-03-06 Laget: 2008-03-06bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Affirmative action: The role of ideological context, self interest, and conservative ideologies
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Affirmative action: The role of ideological context, self interest, and conservative ideologies
    Manuskript (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-96820 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2008-03-06 Laget: 2008-03-06 Sist oppdatert: 2010-01-13bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Affirmative action: The relationship with stereotyping, recipient's gender, and sexism
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Affirmative action: The relationship with stereotyping, recipient's gender, and sexism
    Manuskript (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-96821 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2008-03-06 Laget: 2008-03-06 Sist oppdatert: 2010-01-13bibliografisk kontrollert
  • 265.
    Batalha, Luisa
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The construction of gendered identities through personality traits: A post-structuralist critique: gendered indentities2006Inngår i: Gay & Lesbian Issues and psychology Review, ISSN 1833-4512, Vol. 2, nr 1, s. 3-11Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 266.
    Batalha, Luisa
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Akrami, Nazar
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Outgroup favoritism: The role of power perception, gender, and conservatism2007Inngår i: Current Research in Social Psychology, Vol. 13, nr 4, s. 38-49Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 267.
    Batalha, Luisa
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Akrami, Nazar
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Outgroup favoritism: the role of power perception, gender, and conservatism2007Inngår i: Current Research in Social Psychology, ISSN 1088-7423, E-ISSN 1088-7423, Vol. 13, nr 4, s. 38-49Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 268.
    Batalha, Luisa
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Akrami, Nazar
    Affirmative action: The relationship with stereotyping, recipient's gender, and sexismManuskript (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 269.
    Bayat, Jari Taghavi
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Dent Med, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Huggare, Jan
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Dent Med, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Akrami, Nazar
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Distinguishing between global and dental self-esteem in evaluating malocclusions2019Inngår i: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 77, nr 6, s. 452-456Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: When dealing with the impact of malocclusion on self-esteem, the terms global and dental self-esteem are sometimes used. Although these terms are related to one another, they do not depict the same concept. The aims of this paper were to explore if the two forms of self-esteem are distinguishable, to find out if they represent different factors, and to investigate how they are related to malocclusion. Materials and methods: A sample consisting of 150 adolescents, aged 13 years, completed self-assessed measures of Dental and Global Self-Esteem. Orthodontic treatment need for each individual was assessed by the Dental Health Component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN-DHC). Data were analysed by factor analyses and a 5 (IOTN-DHC grades) by 2 (global vs. dental self-esteem) ANOVA, with the IOTN-DHC grades as the independent and self-esteem (repeated measure) as the dependent variables. Results: The factor analyses showed that the two forms of self-esteem, based on the measures, are distinguishable. More importantly, the results of the ANOVA revealed that Dental and Global Self-Esteem are differentially related to IOTN-DHC. Specifically, Dental Self-Esteem varied across IOTN-DHC scale while Global Self-Esteem did not. There was no effect of gender. Conclusions: Dental self-esteem is related to malocclusion while global self-esteem is not. These findings have implications in areas where the predictive power of dental self-esteem needs to be considered.

  • 270.
    Bayat, Jari Taghavi
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Dent Med, Div Orthodont, SE-14104 Huddinge, Sweden.
    Huggare, Jan
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Dent Med, Div Orthodont, SE-14104 Huddinge, Sweden.
    Mohlin, Bengt
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Odontol, Dept Orthodont, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Akrami, Nazar
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Determinants of orthodontic treatment need and demand: a cross-sectional path model study2017Inngår i: European Journal of Orthodontics, ISSN 0141-5387, E-ISSN 1460-2210, Vol. 39, nr 1, s. 85-91Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To put forward a model predicting orthodontic treatment need and demand. Furthermore, to explore how much of the variance in treatment demand could be explained by a set of self-assessed measures, and how these measures relate to professionally assessed treatment need. Subjects and methods: One hundred and fifty adolescents, aged 13 years, completed a questionnaire which included a set of self-assessed measures dealing with self-esteem, such as dental and global self-esteem, various aspects of malocclusion, such as perceived malocclusion and perceived functional limitation, and treatment demand. Treatment need was assessed by Dental Health Component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need grading. Path analysis was used to examine the relations between the measures and if they could predict treatment need and demand. Results: The measures proved to be reliable and inter-correlated. Path analysis revealed that the proposed model had good fit to the data, providing a test of the unique effect of all included measures on treatment need and demand. The model explained 33% of the variance in treatment demand and 22% of the variance in treatment need. Limitations: The specific age group could affect the generalizability of the findings. Moreover, although showing good fit to data, the final model is based on a combination of theoretical reasoning and semi-explorative approach. Conclusions: The proposed model displays the unique effect of each included measure on treatment need and demand, explaining a large proportion of the variance in perceived treatment demand and professionally assessed treatment need. The model would hopefully lead to improved and more cost-efficient predictions of treatment need and demand.

  • 271.
    Bejerot, Susanne
    et al.
    Orebro Univ, Sch Med Sci, Orebro, Sweden;Orebro Univ, Univ Hlth Care, Fac Med & Hlth, Res Ctr, Orebro, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Ann
    Municipal Norrtalje, Cent Hlth Serv Presch, Sch & Upper Secundary Sch, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rosén, Jörgen
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Bejerot, Eva
    Orebro Univ, Sch Business, Orebro, Sweden.
    Elwin, Marie
    Orebro Univ, Univ Hlth Care, Fac Med & Hlth, Res Ctr, Orebro, Sweden.
    Teaching psychiatry to large groups in society2019Inngår i: BMC Medical Education, ISSN 1472-6920, E-ISSN 1472-6920, Vol. 19, artikkel-id 148Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is a need to educate a range of professionals in caring for individuals with long-term mental disability who reside within our communities. Empathy alone is insufficient. The Kognus 4-Step Education Program was developed to achieve this goal.

    Method: The program consisted of independent courses, including an 18-session basic course on psychiatric disability (on-site or online), advanced courses, and highly specialized training programs (Nidotherapy/Peer Consultation). Experts lectured together with clients with psychiatric disabilities. We first report Swedish reforms in which institutionalized patients were relocated to semi-independent individual households. We then describe the design and implementation of the education program. Approximately 50% of participants who were younger than 36years old lacked any healthcare education. The participants' backgrounds, perceptions, participation in the education program, and costs are presented.

    Results: Between 2009 and 2014, 8959 participants attended the Kognus psychiatry courses online or on-site in Stockholm (basic on-site course, n=2111; online course, n=4480; advanced courses, n=2322; highly specialized programs, n=46). A total of 73% of the participants satisfactorily attended the basic sessions on-site compared with 11% of the online participants. The developers conducted the education program for the first 3years. Thereafter, another course provider continued the program with other types of participants. The program was perceived to be equally interesting and meaningful to participants with low and high levels of education, demonstrating the generalizability of the program. The quality of the basic and advanced courses was rated as 4.4 and 4.3, respectively, on a 5-point Likert scale.

    Conclusions: Personnel without appropriate education who work with people with psychiatric/intellectual disabilities can be educated in large numbers. The Kognus program represents a novel and successful way of training people who have no formal education about some essentials of good mental healthcare. Moreover, the model can be easily implemented elsewhere.

  • 272. Belalov, V. V.
    et al.
    Dyagileva, Yu. O.
    Pavlenko, V. B.
    Kochukhova, Olga M.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Neurophysiological Analysis of Speech Perception in 2.5 to 3.5-Year-Old Orphans and Children Raised in a Family2014Inngår i: Neurophysiology (New York), ISSN 0090-2977, E-ISSN 1573-9007, Vol. 46, nr 1, s. 79-87Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2.5-3.5-year-old orphans (n = 41) and children raised in a family (n = 50), we examined specificities of speech perception-related changes in the spectral power density (SPD) of the EEG rhythms. Changes in the SPDs of the theta-, alpha-, beta-, and gamma-rhythms in 16 EEG leads where estimated at presentation of a meaningful speech fragment record (short poem) and of a reversed record of the same signal (direct and reversed speech, respectively). The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development III demonstrated the existence of noticeable delays in the development of speech in orphans. Comparison of background EEGs and EEGs in the course of listening for direct speech showed that the alpha-rhythm is desynchronized, while the theta-, beta-, and, especially, gamma-oscillations are synchronized upon perception of the above stimulus. In this case, children raised in a family demonstrated significant increases in the gamma-rhythm SPD in 13 leads of both hemispheres; in orphans, this was observed only in 8 loci localized mostly in the left hemisphere. In children of both groups, listening for reversed speech induced mostly desynchronization of all EEG rhythms with the greatest drops in the gamma SPD mostly in the frontal and left temporal leads. Comparison of SPDs of the EEG components (rhythms) at listening for direct and reversed speech demonstrated that powers of theta-, beta-, and gamma-oscillations increased at presentation of a direct (comprehended) speech in children of both groups. In children raised in families, greater SPDs of the gamma-rhythm were observed in 13 leads (differences were most significant in the frontal parts of the left hemisphere). In institutionalized children, the number of leads with significant increments of the gamma-rhythm power was significantly smaller (only 9). It is supposed that smaller increases in the SPD of of gamma-range oscillations in orphans are related to deviations in the processing of a semantic component of speech perception. This can result from insufficient development of cerebral neuronal networks responsible for processing of verbal information.

  • 273.
    Benedict, Christian
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Brooks, Samantha J
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    O'Daly, Owen G
    Almèn, Markus S
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Morell, Arvid
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för radiologi, onkologi och strålningsvetenskap, Enheten för radiologi.
    Åberg, Karin
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för radiologi, onkologi och strålningsvetenskap, Enheten för radiologi.
    Gingnell, Malin
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Schultes, Bernd
    Hallschmid, Manfred
    Broman, Jan-Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap.
    Larsson, Elna-Marie
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för radiologi, onkologi och strålningsvetenskap, Enheten för radiologi.
    Schiöth, Helgi B
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Acute Sleep Deprivation Enhances the Brain's Response to Hedonic Food Stimuli: An fMRI Study2012Inngår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 97, nr 3, s. E443-447Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context:

    There is growing recognition that a large number of individuals living in Western society are chronically sleep deprived. Sleep deprivation is associated with an increase in food consumption and appetite. However, the brain regions that are most susceptible to sleep deprivation-induced changes when processing food stimuli are unknown.

    Objective:

    Our objective was to examine brain activation after sleep and sleep deprivation in response to images of food.

    Intervention:

    Twelve normal-weight male subjects were examined on two sessions in a counterbalanced fashion: after one night of total sleep deprivation and one night of sleep. On the morning after either total sleep deprivation or sleep, neural activation was measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging in a block design alternating between high- and low-calorie food items. Hunger ratings and morning fasting plasma glucose concentrations were assessed before the scan, as were appetite ratings in response to food images after the scan.

    Main Outcome Measures:

    Compared with sleep, total sleep deprivation was associated with an increased activation in the right anterior cingulate cortex in response to food images, independent of calorie content and prescan hunger ratings. Relative to the postsleep condition, in the total sleep deprivation condition, the activation in the anterior cingulate cortex evoked by foods correlated positively with postscan subjective appetite ratings. Self-reported hunger after the nocturnal vigil was enhanced, but importantly, no change in fasting plasma glucose concentration was found.

    Conclusions:

    These results provide evidence that acute sleep loss enhances hedonic stimulus processing in the brain underlying the drive to consume food, independent of plasma glucose levels. These findings highlight a potentially important mechanism contributing to the growing levels of obesity in Western society.

  • 274.
    Bengtsgard, K
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Bohlin, G
    Social inhibition and overfriendliness: Two-year follow-up and observational validation2001Inngår i: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL CHILD PSYCHOLOGY, ISSN 0047-228X, Vol. 30, nr 3, s. 364-375Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Studied socioemotional functioning in 3 groups (n = 15) of high-inhibited, low-inhibited-overfriendly, and low-inhibited-low-overfriendly children at age 9, who were identified by parental ratings in a sample (N = 392) at age 7. Ratings of social inhibiti

  • 275.
    Bengtsgård, Kerstin
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Social inhibition and socioemotional functioning in middle childhood2000Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Social inhibition, or in lay language "shyness", means a tendency to react with fearful and hesitant behaviors innovel social encounters. Lowinhibition, on the other hand is associated with a capacity to easily approachnovel social situations. However, low-inhibition might co-occur with difficulties in inhabiting undesired socialbehaviors. When disinhibited behavior in the sense of a lack of normal reserve, or indiscriminate socialbahaviors, is seen, this phenomenon is, in this thesis, named overfriendliness.

    Study I and Study II aimed at investigating socioemotional functioning in socially high and low-inhibitedchildren, with a special focus on overfriendliness. In Study I, high- and low-inhibited groups were compared toa medium-inhibited group with respect to problem behaviors and social competencies. Among low-inhibitedchildren, a group of overfriendly children was compared to a low-overfriendly group. Study II aimed atfurthering the knowledge about socioemotional functioning in high-inhibited children and in low-inhibitedchildren, when considering high and low overfriendliness. Study III considered problem behaviors in high-andlow-inhibited children when taking dysregulation - as indicated by negative emotionality and impersistence invarious activities - into account. Dysregulation was found to be associated with comorbid internalizing,externalizmg and attention problem behaviors. Results from the three studies show that high social inhibitionwas associated with a heightened risk for internalizing problem behaviors, less well developed socialcompetencies and socioemotional distress reactions. Low social inhibition was, if not co-occurring withoverfriendliness or with broad dysregulation, associated with especially well functioning development, and withlow risk for internalizing problems. Overfriendliness was primarily characterized by attention problembehaviors. When compared with the low-overfriendly group the high-overfriendly group also showed morethrill seeking, hyperactivity, externalising problem behaviors, internalizing problem behaviors, and less welldeveloped social competencies.

    Results indicated presence of different developmental pathways among socially low-inhibited children, andpointed to the importance of taking the heterogeneity among low-inhibited children into account in the study ofsocioemotional development.

  • 276. Bennett-Levy, James
    et al.
    McManus, Freda
    Westling, Bengt E.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Fennell, Melanie
    Acquiring and Refining CBT Skills and Competencies: Which Training Methods are Perceived to be Most Effective?2009Inngår i: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, ISSN 1352-4658, E-ISSN 1469-1833, Vol. 37, nr 5, s. 571-583Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A theoretical and empirical base for CBT training and supervision has started to emerge. Increasingly sophisticated maps of CBT therapist competencies have recently been developed, and there is evidence that CBT training and supervision can produce enhancement of CBT skills. However, the evidence base suggesting which specific training techniques are most effective for the development of CBT competencies is lacking. Aims: This paper addresses the question: What training or supervision methods are perceived by experienced therapists to be most effective for training CBT competencies? Method: 120 experienced CBT therapists rated which training or supervision methods in their experience had been most effective in enhancing different types of therapy-relevant knowledge or skills. Results: In line with the main prediction, it was found that different training methods were perceived to be differentially effective. For instance, reading, lectures/talks and modelling were perceived to be most useful for the acquisition of declarative knowledge, while enactive learning strategies (role-play, self-experiential work), together with modelling and reflective practice, were perceived to be most effective in enhancing procedural skills. Self-experiential work and reflective practice were seen as particularly helpful in improving reflective capability and interpersonal skills. Conclusions: The study provides a framework for thinking about the acquisition and refinement of therapist skills that may help trainers, supervisors and clinicians target their learning objectives with the most effective training strategies.

  • 277. Bennett-Levy, James
    et al.
    Westling, Bengt E
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    McManus, Freda
    Are some therapist training methods better than others?: It depends on what you are training2008Inngår i: Proceedings 38th EABCT Annual Congress, 10-13 September, 2008, Helsinki, Finland, 2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 278.
    Berbyuk, Tanya
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Gjerss, Gabriel
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Snabbhet och precision hos det visuella korttidsminnet för randmönster och ovaler2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här uppsatsen handlar om korttidsminnet (arbetsminnet) och dess kapacitet att lagra och processa information. Ett perceptionsexperiment som utfördes ger en inblick i hur korttidsminnet fungerar i praktiken och innefattar randmönster och ovaler som stimuli. Responstid och precision mäts och jämförs med avseende på betingelser som position och orientering. Uppsatsens hypotes är att samma respektive olika position på stimuli har betydelse för både snabbhet och precision. Resultatet bekräftade denna hypotes. Det visade sig också att även orientering på våra stimuli har en signifikant effekt på precision. Dock finns det ingen signifikant skillnad i snabbhet eller precision med avseende på om det är ovaler eller spatial frekvens.

  • 279.
    Berger, AK
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Fratiglioni, L
    Forsell, Y
    Winblad, B
    Bäckman, Lars
    The occurrence of depressive symptoms in the preclinical phase of AD - A population-based study1999Inngår i: NEUROLOGY, ISSN 0028-3878, Vol. 53, nr 9, s. 1998-2002Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To examine preclinical depressive symptoms 3 years before the diagnosis of AD. Methods: The authors compared incident AD patients and nondemented individuals in terms of baseline mood- and motivation-related symptoms of depression, and assesse

  • 280.
    Berger, A.-K
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Small, B J
    Forsell, Y
    Winblad, B
    Bäckman, Lars
    Preclinical symptomatology of major depression in very old age: A prospective longitudinal study1998Inngår i: American Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 155, s. 1039-1043Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The authors' goal was to examine whether individuals diagnosed as having major depression experienced greater levels of depressive symptoms and cognitive dysfunction up to 3 years before the clinical diagnosis was rendered. Method: The study in

  • 281.
    Bergh, Robin
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Prejudiced Personalities Revisited: On the Nature of (Generalized) Prejudice2013Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In the media, one type of prejudice is often discussed as isolated from other types of prejudice. For example, after Breivik’s massacre, intolerance toward Muslims was intensely debated (for good reasons). However, his manifesto also disclosed extreme attitudes towards women and gays, a fact which passed without much notice. Still, in understanding why some individuals are so extremely intolerant compared to others, the psychological unity underlying different kinds of prejudice (e.g., racism, sexism) needs to be considered. This psychological unity, referred to as generalized prejudice, provided the starting point for personality theories on prejudice because it suggests that some people are simply more biased than other people in principle. Today it is well known that two basic personality characteristics, agreeableness and openness to new experiences, are powerful predictors of prejudice. However, more precisely what these variables can, versus cannot, explain has received little attention. Consequently, the aim of this thesis was to provide a more fine-grained analysis of generalized prejudice and its personality roots. Paper I demonstrated that personality mainly accounts for variance shared by several prejudice targets (generalized prejudice) whereas group membership mainly predicts unique variance in prejudice towards a particular target group. Thus, personality and group membership factors explain prejudice for different reason, and do not contradict each other. Paper II demonstrated, across three studies, that agreeableness and openness to experience are related to self-reported (explicit) prejudice, but not automatically expressed (implicit) biases. Personality seems informative about who chooses to express devaluing sentiments, but not who harbors spontaneous biases. Finally, Paper III examined the assumption that personality explains (explicit) generalized prejudice because some people simply favor their own group over all other groups (ethnocentrism). Providing the first direct test of this assumption, the results from three studies suggest that while agreeableness and openness to experience explain generalized prejudice, they do not account for purely ethnocentric attitudes. This indicates a fundamental difference between ethnocentrism and generalized prejudice. All in all, self-reported personality seems to have little to do with spontaneous group negativity or simple ingroup favoritism. However, personality strongly predicts deliberate and verbalized devaluation of disadvantaged groups.

    Delarbeid
    1. Generalized prejudice: Common and specific components
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Generalized prejudice: Common and specific components
    2011 (engelsk)Inngår i: Psychological Science, ISSN 0956-7976, E-ISSN 1467-9280, Vol. 22, nr 1, s. 57-59Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Psykologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-141035 (URN)10.1177/0956797610390384 (DOI)000294708600012 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2011-01-10 Laget: 2011-01-10 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-11bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. The Personality Underpinnings of Explicit and Implicit Generalized Prejudice
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>The Personality Underpinnings of Explicit and Implicit Generalized Prejudice
    2012 (engelsk)Inngår i: Social Psychology and Personality Science, ISSN 1948-5506, E-ISSN 1948-5514, Vol. 3, nr 5, s. 614-621Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The idea of prejudice as a tendency that can be generalized from one target to another and the personality–prejudice relationship have been widely examined using explicit measures. However, less is known about this tendency and its relation to personality for implicit prejudice measures, like the implicit association test (IAT). Three studies including explicit and corresponding implicit prejudice measures toward various target groups confirmed a generalized factor for both types of measures with a stronger common component for the explicit factor. Personality was significantly related to the explicit measures only. Also, the personality and prejudice measures were unrelated to explicit and implicit attitudes toward an irrelevant target which rules out potential method confound. These results indicate that explicit and implicit prejudice measures tap different psychological constructs relating differently to the individual’s self-reported personality. The findings have implications for the debate on whether IAT scores reflect personally endorsed attitudes.

    Emneord
    personality, generalized prejudice, implicit association test, cultural stereotypes, personal attitudes
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-208609 (URN)10.1177/1948550611432937 (DOI)000208936600013 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2013-10-25 Laget: 2013-10-04 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-06bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Ethnocentric Personality: A 60-Year Old Myth?
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Ethnocentric Personality: A 60-Year Old Myth?
    (engelsk)Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig) Submitted
    Abstract [en]

    After World War II, researchers began searching for a prejudiced personality. This inquiry relied, and still relies, on interrelations between prejudice toward different targets (generalized prejudice) and correlations with ideology and personality variables. The conventional wisdom here became that some people are systematically more biased toward all outgroups (ethnocentrism). However, it is not conclusive that generalized prejudice reflect outgroup biases. For example, Gays and overweight people could be targeted by prejudice alike because they are minorities, not because they are outgroups. Based on three experiments employing the minimal group paradigm, this paper provides the first direct test of the ethnocentric personality assumption. We found that personality (Agreeableness & Openness to Experience) only accounted for a small share of the variance in ethnocentrism but, in line with previous research, a large share in generalized prejudice. We propose a re-evaluating the ethnocentric personality notion and a distinction between ethnocentrism and generalized prejudice.

    Emneord
    Ethnocentrism, generalized prejudice, personality, agreeableness, openness to experience
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Psykologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-210291 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2013-11-04 Laget: 2013-11-04 Sist oppdatert: 2014-01-23bibliografisk kontrollert
  • 282.
    Bergh, Robin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Harvard Univ, Dept Psychol, William James Hall,33 Kirkland St, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA..
    Akrami, Nazar
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Are non-agreeable individuals prejudiced?: Comparing different conceptualizations of agreeableness2016Inngår i: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 101, s. 153-159Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has documented associations between prejudice and agreeableness, as well as openness to experience, from the five-factor model (FFM). Still, empathy/altruism and narcissism/honesty-humility are related traits and also potent predictors of prejudice. Thus, we examined whether there is an association between prejudice and agreeableness, as a global trait, or if the correlations depend on facets that are part of the broader FM factor, but belong to other dimensions in the HEXACO model. We further analyzed how well the documented relations of agreeableness on prejudice hold up when entered alongside empathy/altruism and honesty-humility within the HEXACO framework. Results from Sweden and the United States showed that only FFM agreeableness, and not the HEXACO counterpart, correlates with an index of prejudice (racism and sexism). Furthermore, the negative relations of FFM agreeableness were absent or reversed in regression analyses with the other HEXACO predictors. Instead, we found negative effects of honesty-humility and empathy/altruism on prejudice. Thus, the effect of agreeableness on prejudice is directly contingent on its definition in relation to honesty-humility and empathy/altruism. In conclusion, we found little evidence of an association between a global agreeableness trait and prejudice.

  • 283.
    Bergh, Robin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Akrami, Nazar
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ethnocentric Personality: A 60-Year Old Myth?Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    After World War II, researchers began searching for a prejudiced personality. This inquiry relied, and still relies, on interrelations between prejudice toward different targets (generalized prejudice) and correlations with ideology and personality variables. The conventional wisdom here became that some people are systematically more biased toward all outgroups (ethnocentrism). However, it is not conclusive that generalized prejudice reflect outgroup biases. For example, Gays and overweight people could be targeted by prejudice alike because they are minorities, not because they are outgroups. Based on three experiments employing the minimal group paradigm, this paper provides the first direct test of the ethnocentric personality assumption. We found that personality (Agreeableness & Openness to Experience) only accounted for a small share of the variance in ethnocentrism but, in line with previous research, a large share in generalized prejudice. We propose a re-evaluating the ethnocentric personality notion and a distinction between ethnocentrism and generalized prejudice.

  • 284.
    Bergh, Robin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Akrami, Nazar
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Social identity and prejudiced personality2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 285.
    Bergh, Robin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Akrami, Nazar
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Does the personality-prejudice relationship change as a function of identity salience?2009Inngår i: 11th European Social Cognition Network Meeting 2009: Warsaw, Poland, Warsaw, Poland, 2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 286.
    Bergh, Robin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Akrami, Nazar
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Social identity and prejudiced personality2010Inngår i: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 48, nr 3, s. 317-321Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested that the relation between personality and prejudice varies as a function of identity salience but previous empirical results are not conclusive. Extending previous research, we conducted an experimental study (N = 122) with pre- and post-manipulation measures of personality, and a post-manipulation measurement of prejudice, under conditions of control (no identity manipulation), personal or national identity. The results revealed no differences in the magnitude of the personality-prejudice correlations across conditions, neither for the pre- nor post-manipulation scores. Correlations based on pre- and post-manipulation variables, within each condition, did not differ significantly either. This indicates that neither prejudice nor personality variables were affected by identity salience. Thus, the study provides no support for the contention that the personality-prejudice relation varies as a function of social identity.

  • 287.
    Bergh, Robin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Akrami, Nazar
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    The Compatibility of Personality and Social Identity Processes: The Effect of Gender Identity on Neuroticism2012Inngår i: European Journal of Personality, ISSN 0890-2070, E-ISSN 1099-0984, Vol. 26, nr 3, s. 175-181Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In an experimental study (N?=?186), we examined the effect of identity (gender versus personal) on participants' self-rated neuroticism and estimates of mean neuroticism for men and women. Self-rated neuroticism was measured before and after the identity salience manipulation. Following self-categorization theory, we predicted that identity salience would affect levels of self-rated neuroticism and the estimates (perceptions) of mean neuroticism for each sex. From a personality perspective, we expected substantial correlations between pre-manipulation and post-manipulation neuroticism scores in both identity conditions. The relation between participants' self-rated neuroticism and their estimates of mean neuroticism for their own sex was also examined. The effect of identity salience was unclear with regard to self-rated neuroticism levels, whereas the manipulation had apparent effects on estimated mean neuroticism levels for men and women. Also, self-rated neuroticism was found to predict estimates of mean neuroticism for men and women in the gender, but not personal, identity condition. Finally, in line with a personality perspective, the relative positions in self-rated neuroticism were highly stable in both conditions. The findings indicate a compatibility of self-categorization theory and personality perspectives and suggest that both are valuable to understand the changeability and stability of the self.

  • 288.
    Bergh, Robin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Akrami, Nazar
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    The Personality Underpinnings of Explicit and Implicit Generalized Prejudice2012Inngår i: Social Psychology and Personality Science, ISSN 1948-5506, E-ISSN 1948-5514, Vol. 3, nr 5, s. 614-621Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The idea of prejudice as a tendency that can be generalized from one target to another and the personality–prejudice relationship have been widely examined using explicit measures. However, less is known about this tendency and its relation to personality for implicit prejudice measures, like the implicit association test (IAT). Three studies including explicit and corresponding implicit prejudice measures toward various target groups confirmed a generalized factor for both types of measures with a stronger common component for the explicit factor. Personality was significantly related to the explicit measures only. Also, the personality and prejudice measures were unrelated to explicit and implicit attitudes toward an irrelevant target which rules out potential method confound. These results indicate that explicit and implicit prejudice measures tap different psychological constructs relating differently to the individual’s self-reported personality. The findings have implications for the debate on whether IAT scores reflect personally endorsed attitudes.

  • 289.
    Bergh, Robin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Harvard Univ, Dept Psychol, William James Hall,33 Kirkland St, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA..
    Akrami, Nazar
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Sidanius, Jim
    Harvard Univ, Dept Psychol, William James Hall,33 Kirkland St, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA..
    Sibley, Chris G.
    Univ Auckland, Dept Psychol, Auckland 1, New Zealand..
    Is Group Membership Necessary for Understanding Generalized Prejudice?: A Re-Evaluation of Why Prejudices Are Interrelated2016Inngår i: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, ISSN 0022-3514, E-ISSN 1939-1315, Vol. 111, nr 3, s. 367-395Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many scholars have proposed that people who reject one outgroup tend to reject other outgroups. Studies examining a latent factor behind different prejudices (e.g., toward ethnic and sexual minorities) have referred to this as generalized prejudice. Such research has also documented robust relations between latent prejudice factors and basic personality traits. However, targets of generalized prejudice tend to be lower in power and status and thus it remains an open question as to whether generalized prejudice, as traditionally studied, is about devaluing outgroups or devaluing marginalized groups. We present 7 studies, including experiments and national probability samples (N = 9,907 and 4,037) assessing the importance of outgroup devaluation, versus status- or power based devaluations, for understanding the nature of generalized prejudice, and its links to personality. Results show that (a) personality variables do not predict ingroup/outgroup biases in settings where power and status differences are absent, (b) women and overweight people who score high on generalized prejudice devalue their own groups, and (c) personality variables are far more predictive of prejudice toward low-compared with high-status targets. Together, these findings suggest that the personality explanation of prejudice including the generalized prejudice concept is not about ingroups versus outgroups per se, but rather about devaluing marginalized groups.

  • 290.
    Bergh, Robin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Harvard Univ, Dept Psychol, 33 Kirkland St, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA.
    Lindskog, Marcus
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The group-motivated sampler2019Inngår i: Journal of experimental psychology. General, ISSN 0096-3445, E-ISSN 1939-2222, Vol. 148, nr 5, s. 845-862Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Does ingroup favoritism reflect experience or some preset motivation? The latter possibility is well examined in social psychology, but models from cognitive psychology suggest that unrepresentative samples of experience can generate biases even in the absence of motivational concerns. It remains unclear, however, how motivation and initially sampled experiences interact when both influences are possible, and people encounter new groups. Extending classic arguments about motivated information gathering, we propose that people can be described as “group-motivated samplers”—marked by a tendency to primarily seek out information about one’s own group, and to attend more to information that portrays the ingroup in a positive light. Four experiments showed that information seeking almost always starts with the ingroup, and that people chose to gather more information from the ingroup compared to an outgroup. In subsequent group evaluations, people were excessively positive about ingroups giving a good initial impression. Participants were also fairly accurate, on average, about the direction and magnitude of group differences when the ingroup was de facto better, but downplayed those differences in the opposite situation. Further analyses indicated that first experiences led to biased evaluations because people failed to discount for nonrepresentative (positive) ingroup experiences, whereas interpretive biases seem responsible for evaluations based on belonging to a better/worse performing group. Taken together, while social psychologists know that people tend to portray ingroups in a flattering light, we show how people selectively incorporate early experiences to build those impressions. 

  • 291.
    Bergh, Robin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Harvard Univ, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA..
    Sidanius, Jim
    Harvard Univ, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA..
    Sibley, Chris G.
    Univ Auckland, Auckland 1, New Zealand..
    Dimensions of Social Dominance: Their Personality and Socio-political Correlates within a New Zealand Probability Sample2015Inngår i: NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY, ISSN 1179-7924, Vol. 44, nr 2, s. 25-34Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Social Dominance Orientation (SDO) was introduced as a unidimensional construct predicting numerous socio-political attitudes. However, recent findings suggest that SDO is composed of two sub-dimensions: dominance (SDO-D) and anti-egalitarianism (SDO-E). Despite converging evidence concerning their empirical differentiability, there is little consensus on how to best define them. Thus, we examined the correlates of SDO-D and SDO-E using a broad array of personality, political, ethnic and gender issue variables within a New Zealand national probability sample (N = 5,741) with European and Maori participants. SDO-D primarily related to the personality trait of honesty-humility, hostile and benevolent sexism. SDO-E primarily related to political conservatism and pro-Maori policies. In many cases, the predictive power differed between SDO-D and SDO-E, and across ethnic groups.

  • 292.
    Berglund, E
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Eriksson, M
    Communicative development in Swedish children 16-28 months old: The Swedish early communicative development inventory-words and sentences2000Inngår i: SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY, Vol. 41, nr 2, s. 133-144Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To describe the development of words and sentences in Swedish children 16-28 months old, 900 parental reports on 336 children were analyzed. Subjects were randomly selected from the national birth register, and there was a response rate of 88%. The assess

  • 293.
    Berglund, Kristina
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Roman, Erika
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap.
    Balldin, Jan
    Berggren, Ulf
    Eriksson, Matts
    Gustavsson, Petter
    Fahlke, Claudia
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Do men with excessive alcohol consumption and social stability have an addictive personality?2011Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 52, nr 3, s. 257-260Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The existence of an "addictive" personality has been extensively debated. The current study investigated personality in male individuals with excessive alcohol consumption (n = 100) in comparison to a population-based control group (n = 131). The individuals with excessive alcohol consumption were recruited by advertisements in a regional daily newspaper and controls from a population based Swedish Twin Registry. Personality was assessed by the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP). Comparisons were made with normative data. Furthermore, by using a multivariate projection-based approach (Principal Component Analysis; PCA), hidden structures of traits and possible relationships among the individuals with excessive consumption and the controls was investigated. The individuals with excessive alcohol consumption as well as the controls had mean values within the normative range in all scales of the KSP. Moreover, the PCA analysis revealed no systematic between-group separation. Taken together, this result demonstrates that male individuals with excessive alcohol consumption do not have a personality different from that of a general population, which supports the notion of no "addictive personality".

  • 294.
    Bergman, Kristian
    et al.
    Barn- och ungdomspsykiatrin, Stockholms läns landsting.
    Diderholm, Sofia
    Studenthälsan, Uppsala universitet.
    Rautalinko, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Problemorienterande samtal: manual för behandlare2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med metoden Problemorienterande samtal är att i fyra samtal aktivera en klients reflekterande förmåga. Behandlaren vill väcka klientens nyfikenhet att utforska inre samband kring egen central problematik och därigenom öka hennes förståelse av sig själv.

  • 295. Bergman, O
    et al.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Appel, L
    Linnman, Claes
    Faria, Vanda
    Henningsson, S
    Hariri, A
    Bani, M
    Bettica, P
    Merlo Pich, E
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Eriksson, E
    Westberg, L
    Amygdala blood flow is associated with dopamine transporter gene pslymorphism in patients with social anxiety disorder and healthy controls.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 296. Bergman, O.
    et al.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Appel, Lieuwe
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för radiologi, onkologi och strålningsvetenskap, Enheten för nuklearmedicin och PET.
    Linnman, Claes
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Faria, Vanda
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Bani, M.
    Pich, E. M.
    Bettica, P.
    Henningsson, S.
    Manuck, S. B.
    Ferrell, R. E.
    Nikolova, Y. S.
    Hariri, A. R.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Westberg, L.
    Eriksson, E.
    Association between amygdala reactivity and a dopamine transporter gene polymorphism2014Inngår i: Translational Psychiatry, ISSN 2158-3188, E-ISSN 2158-3188, Vol. 4, s. e420-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Essential for detection of relevant external stimuli and for fear processing, the amygdala is under modulatory influence of dopamine (DA). The DA transporter (DAT) is of fundamental importance for the regulation of DA transmission by mediating reuptake inactivation of extracellular DA. This study examined if a common functional variable number tandem repeat polymorphism in the 3' untranslated region of the DAT gene (SLC6A3) influences amygdala function during the processing of aversive emotional stimuli. Amygdala reactivity was examined by comparing regional cerebral blood flow, measured with positron emission tomography and [O-15] water, during exposure to angry and neutral faces, respectively, in a Swedish sample comprising 32 patients with social anxiety disorder and 17 healthy volunteers. In a separate US sample, comprising 85 healthy volunteers studied with blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging, amygdala reactivity was assessed by comparing the activity during exposure to threatening faces and neutral geometric shapes, respectively. In both the Swedish and the US sample, 9-repeat carriers displayed higher amygdala reactivity than 10-repeat homozygotes. The results suggest that this polymorphism contributes to individual variability in amygdala reactivity.

  • 297. Bergman, P
    et al.
    Åborg, Carl
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Stoetzer, U
    Ahlberg, G
    Hallsten, L
    Lundberg, I
    Johansson, G
    Svartengren, M
    Do job demands and job control affect problem-solving?2012Inngår i: Work, nr 42, s. 195-203Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 298.
    Berlin, Lisa
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The Role of Inhibitory Control and Executive Functioning in Hyperactivity/ADHD2003Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examined inhibition, executive functioning and their possible relation to childhood problems of hyperactivity and inattention, in its clinical form referred to as Attention Deficit Hyper-activity Disorder (ADHD). Concurrent as well as longitudinal relations were of interest, and both clinical and non-clinical samples were studied.

    Study I demonstrated concurrent relations between executive inhibition and both hyperactivity and conduct problems in preschool. However, the relation between inhibition and conduct problems could be attributed to the large overlap between hyperactivity and conduct problems.

    In Study II, linear relations were found between executive inhibition and hyperactivity, whereas inhibition to the unfamiliar was related to hyperactivity, social initiative, as well as social anxiety. Non-linear analyses showed that children with high levels of both types of inhibition were at risk for developing low social initiative and social anxiety, whereas children with low levels of inhibition were at risk for developing hyperactivity, but at the same time protected from social anxiety.

    In Study III, executive inhibition was longitudinally related to ADHD symptoms in both school and at home for boys, but only in the school context for girls. Executive inhibition was also related to more general executive functioning deficits, and concurrent relations were found between executive functioning and ADHD symptoms, although in both cases only for boys. Inhibition and executive functioning made independent contributions to the understanding of ADHD symptoms for boys, and together explained about half the variance in inattention problems.

    In Study IV, group differences were found between ADHD children and controls for both inhibition and various other executive function measures. These measures also discriminated well between groups. The best model, which included measures tapping inhibition, working memory and emotion regulation, classified 86% of the children correctly.

    In summary, the results of the present thesis were mostly supportive of Barkley’s hybrid model of ADHD, although it should be noted that the question of whether inhibition should be regarded as primary to other executive functions requires further investigation.

  • 299.
    Berlin, Lisa
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Development psychology.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Development psychology.
    Response inhibition, hyperactivity, and conduct problems among preschool children2002Inngår i: Journal of clinical child and adolescent psychology, ISSN 1537-4416, Vol. 31, nr 2, s. 242-251Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Investigated the relation among response inhibition, hyperactivity, and conduct problems in a nonclinical sample of 115 preschool children, using 2 different types of go/no-go tasks well as a Stroop-like task. In line with the assumption that hyperactivity is related to disinhibition, the results showed that it was the measures of response inhibition, and not other performance measures, that were related to teacher ratings of hyperactivity. There was also a significant relation between response inhibition and conduct problems. Interestingly, the correlation between response inhibition and conduct problems was not significant when partialling out the effect of hyperactivity, whereas the correlation between inhibition and hyperactivity did remain significant when controlling for conduct problems. Although the association between inhibition, hyperactivity, and conduct problems appeared to be partly different for boys and girls, these differences were not statistically significant.

  • 300.
    Berlin, Lisa
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nyberg, Lilianne
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Janols, Lars-Olof
    Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap.
    How well do measures of inhibition and other executive functions discriminate between children with ADHD and controls?2004Inngår i: Neuropsychol Dev Cogn C Child Neuropsychol, ISSN 0929-7049, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 1-13Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
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