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  • 251.
    Morberg Jämterud, Sofia
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teologiska fakulteten, Teologiska institutionen.
    Human Dignity: A Study in Medical Ethics2016Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Human dignity is an enunciated ethical principle in many societies, and it has elicited a great deal of interest, not least because it is central in health care. However, it has also been the subject of criticism. Some have argued that it is sufficient to rely on a principle of autonomy, and that dignity is a redundant principle or concept in health care. Other discussions have focused on the precise meaning of dignity, and how a principle of dignity should be interpreted and applied. This dissertation discusses questions on the principle of dignity and the meaning of the concept. In addition to a theoretical analysis of these questions, a qualitative research study has been carried out, based on interviews with physicians in palliative and neonatal care, and hospital chaplains, looking at dignity at the beginning and end of life. This dissertation can be categorised as empirical ethics because of its methodological approach. Based on a narrative analysis of the interviews, the results from the study shed light on the theoretical discussion on dignity. Through the history of ideas, dignity has often been linked to human abilities such as autonomy and rationality. However, autonomy is only one of the aspects which emerged from the qualitative research in this dissertation. Other aspects introduced into the discussion on dignity include human vulnerability, interdependence and the responsibility to face vulnerability in others. Some theoretical perspectives on dignity are criticised in the light of the empirical results. Furthermore, the dissertation includes a theological perspective where a Christological view – connected to Bakhtin’s ethics of responsibility – forms a critique to both the Kantian deontological perspective and dignity acquired by virtue. The dissertation also considers how the results can be applied to medical practice.

  • 252.
    Namli, Elena
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teologiska fakulteten, Teologiska institutionen, Tros- och livsåskådningsvetenskap, Etik.
    Critique of Human Rights Universalism2018Ingår i: Relativism and Post-Truth in Contemporary Society: Possibilities and Challenges / [ed] Stenmark, Mikael; Fuller, Steve; Zackariasson, Ulf, Palgrave Macmillan, 2018, s. 123-140Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This essay offers a critical analysis of several forms of skepticism toward human rights universality. What is the substance of the critique of human rights universalism? To what extent is this critique a form of relativism? Is such relativism preferable to universalism?

     

    It is argued that a reasonable critique of human rights universalism calls for a new form of universalism. The perspective proposed is that of “critical universalism”, i.e. a normative universalism informed by the challenge of relativism. Additionally, human rights are understood in this essay as a multidimensional value system with legal, political, and moral levels. It is therefore argued that the universality of human rights cannot be justified if human rights are interpreted as primarily legal norms. Nor is it possible to claim universal validity on behalf of conventional political moralities. What is justifiable is a call for a universality of moral judgments that is an essential feature of ethics as critique of conventional norms.

  • 253.
    Namli, Elena
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teologiska fakulteten, Teologiska institutionen.
    De mänskliga rättigheterna i en demokrati2017Ingår i: Mänskliga rättigheter i det offentliga Sverige / [ed] Anna-Sara Lind och Elena Namli, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2017, 1, s. 55-74Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 254.
    Namli, Elena
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teologiska fakulteten, Teologiska institutionen.
    Etikens ontologiska grund: En analys av Lev Karsavins personalism2000Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna bok presenteras en av de mest betydelsefulla ryska filosoferna, Lev Karsavin (1882-1952). Analysen är ett bidrag till diskussionen om särarten i den ryska kristna filosofin.

  • 255.
    Namli, Elena
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teologiska fakulteten, Teologiska institutionen.
    Frälsar skönheten världen?: En reflektion över den ryska teologins särart.2014Ingår i: Med blicken österut: Hyllningsskrift till Per-Arne Bodin / [ed] Per Ambrosiani, Elisabeth Löfstrand, Ewa Teodorowicz-Hellman, Skellefteå: Artos , 2014, s. 247-265Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 256.
    Namli, Elena
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teologiska fakulteten, Teologiska institutionen, Tros- och livsåskådningsvetenskap, Etik.
    Human Dignity and Protection of Rights: An Argument against Legalistic Reductionism2017Ingår i: Responsibility and the Enhancement of Life / [ed] Gunter Thomas and Heike Springhart, Leipzig: Evangelische Verlagsanstalt - Wissenschaft, 2017, s. 53-68Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 257.
    Namli, Elena
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teologiska fakulteten, Teologiska institutionen.
    Human Rights as Ethics, Politics, and Law2014Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This study offers a critical approach to the connections between the law, politics, and morality as they figure in human rights discourse. It argues that human rights must be understood – ethically, politically, and legally – through the prism of reasonable skepticism towards the legitimacy of contemporary institutions for the protection of human rights. The colonial legacy of human rights, the lack of transparent principles for dealing with conflicting rights, and the counterproductive overemphasis upon the importance of legal instruments are considered as offering serious challenges to the lasting legitimacy of human rights. These challenges are analyzed by means of selected human rights-related cases as well as theoretical discussion.

  • 258.
    Namli, Elena
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teologiska fakulteten, Teologiska institutionen.
    Jewish Rationalism, Ethics, and Revolution: Hermann Cohen in Nevel2014Ingår i: JewishThought, Utopia, and Revolution / [ed] Namli, Elena; Svenungsson Jayne and Vincent Alana M, Amsterdam/New York: Rodopi, 2014, 1, s. 127-144Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 259.
    Namli, Elena
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teologiska fakulteten, Teologiska institutionen.
    Orthodox Theology: Politics and Power2017Ingår i: Political Theologies in Orthodox Christianity: Common Challenges and Divergent Positions / [ed] Kristina Stoeckl, Ingeborg Gabriel, and Aristotle Papanikolaou, Bloomsbury Academic, 2017, s. 265-282Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 260.
    Namli, Elena
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teologiska fakulteten, Teologiska institutionen, Tros- och livsåskådningsvetenskap, Etik.
    Pavel Florenskij och den ryska teologins vara eller icke-vara2013Ingår i: Arche - tidskrift för psykoanalys, humaniora och arkitektur, ISSN 2000-7817, Vol. 1-2, nr 42-43, s. 71-79Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 261.
    Namli, Elena
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teologiska fakulteten, Teologiska institutionen, Tros- och livsåskådningsvetenskap, Etik.
    Två ryska röster om krig och fred: En reflektion över motståndets estetik2013Ingår i: Kritiker, ISSN 1104-196x, nr 27, s. 50-55Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 262.
    Namli, Elena
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teologiska fakulteten, Teologiska institutionen, Tros- och livsåskådningsvetenskap, Etik.
    Universal Rights versus Sharia?: Reflections on the Moral and Legal Dimensions of Human Rights Law and Sharia2013Ingår i: Religion and Human Rights: an international journal, ISSN 1871-031X, E-ISSN 1871-0328, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 139-161Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article develops a critique of the monopoly of liberal ideology in the field of human rights by considering how law, morality and politics are related to each other. The author argues that the constructive potential of international human rights law does not lie in its being understood and practiced as a positive law. On the contrary, to focus on human rights law as positive law is to conceal the political nature of human rights and to prevent effective development of its moral and political potential. Further, the author considers the case of Sharia law and argues that Sharia, for it to be implemented concretely in the social, political, and legal spheres, must be understood as a moral and religious ‘way’. These interpretations of human rights law and Sharia are used as the basis for a critique of the idea that human rights law and Sharia contradict each other.

     

  • 263.
    Namli, Elena
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teologiska fakulteten, Teologiska institutionen.
    Православное богословие и искушение властью2014Ingår i: Государство, Религия, Церковь, ISSN 2073.7203, Vol. 32, nr 3, s. 12-41Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 264.
    Namli, Elena
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teologiska fakulteten, Teologiska institutionen, Tros- och livsåskådningsvetenskap, Etik.
    Grenholm, Carl-Henric
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teologiska fakulteten, Teologiska institutionen, Tros- och livsåskådningsvetenskap, Etik.
    Etik2019Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vad är karakteristiskt för en rätt handling? Hur bidrar religiösa traditioner till den etiska reflektionen? Vad innebär det att respektera människovärdet inom biomedicinsk etik och sexualetik? Dessa frågor behandlas i denna bok, som ger en introduktion till filosofisk och teologisk etik. Den vänder sig till universitetsstudenter och andra som intresserar sig för en kritisk reflektion över moralen.

    Boken presenterar klassiska teorier inom normativ etik och etisk teori, men den innehåller också en diskussion om vilka teorier som är berättigade. I kritisk dialog med utilitarism och dygdetik argumenterar författarna för en modifierad variant av kantiansk etik, vars grund är principen om lika respekt för vars och ens värdighet. 

    I boken behandlas även tillämpad etik ingående – särskilt politisk etik, miljöetik, biomedicinsk etik och sexualetik. Bidrag från feministisk etik är integrerade i bokens olika avsnitt. Läsaren får vidare inblick i skilda religioners etik. Särskilt uppmärksammas kristen etik, samtidigt som också judendomens etik och muslimsk etik diskuteras.

  • 265.
    Namli, Elena
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teologiska fakulteten, Teologiska institutionen, Tros- och livsåskådningsvetenskap, Etik.
    Lindkvist, Linde
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teologiska fakulteten, Teologiska institutionen, Tros- och livsåskådningsvetenskap, Etik.
    Human Vulnerability and Vulnerable Rights.: On Children's Rights and Asylum Politics in Sweden.2019Ingår i: Unaccompanied Migrant Children: Social, Legal, and Ethical Perspectives / [ed] Hille Haker and Molly Greening, Lexington Books, 2019, s. 121-137Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Vulnerability is a part of human existence, a substantial dimension of what it means to be human. As several scholars have convincingly argued, the concept of vulnerability challenges any attempt to reduce the question of human dignity to a protection of individual autonomy.

    We contribute to the discussion by arguing in favor of a more dialectical understanding of the relation between vulnerability and human rights. We start off with a short presentation of our view of the Swedish case of medical age assessments. In the next step we formulate what appears to be a paradox—the Swedish state incorporating the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) and, simultaneously, enforcing inhumane restrictions on the rights of young asylum seekers. We proceed by deconstructing the paradox and arguing that these seemingly conflicting trends can be explained as manifestations of two different but interrelated dimensions of the current human rights culture, namely, juridification of human rights protection and reduction of vulnerability to a function of age. In the concluding part of the chapter we offer a critical reflection on the relation between authentic human rights protection and human vulnerability.

  • 266.
    Namli, Elena
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teologiska fakulteten, Teologiska institutionen, Tros- och livsåskådningsvetenskap, Etik.
    Lindkvist, Linde
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teologiska fakulteten, Teologiska institutionen, Tros- och livsåskådningsvetenskap, Etik.
    Human Vulnerability and Vulnerable Rights: On Children’s Rights and Asylum Politics in Sweden2018Ingår i: Unaccompanied Migrant Children: Social, Legal, and Ethical Perspectives / [ed] Haker, Hille and Greening, Molly, Lexington Books, 2018, s. 121-137Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    How does human vulnerability relate to human dignity and human rights? Are human rights an instrument of reducing or even overcoming vulnerability in order for human beings to secure their autonomy, agency, and dignity? An affirmative answer to this question is a traditional approach within human rights studies and human rights practices.

    In this chapter we challenge this view by addressing the situation of unaccompanied minors seeking asylum in contemporary Sweden.

  • 267.
    Nihlén Fahlquist, Jessica
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Responsibility and privacy -: ethical aspects of using GPS to track children.2017Ingår i: Surveillance futures: social and ethical implications of new technologies for children and young people / [ed] Emmeline Taylor; Tonya Rooney, Routledge , 2017Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 268.
    Nihlén Fahlquist, Jessica
    Philosophy Section, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands.
    Responsibility and Privacy: Ethical Aspects of Using GPS to Track Children2015Ingår i: Children & society, ISSN 0951-0605, E-ISSN 1099-0860, Vol. 29, nr 1, s. 38-47Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    With GPS technology, children can be monitored 24 h a day throughout their childhood and teens. In spite of the advantages in terms of safety and security, there are ethical problems with this. In this article, some of these are discussed. First, the concept of parental responsibility is explored and discussed in the context of GPS and children. Second, against the background of psychological research, it is argued that it is not conducive for children's sense of responsibility to be constantly monitored. Third, the question whether children have a right to privacy is discussed. It is concluded that due to the considerable uncertainty concerning the effects of constant monitoring as well as the ethical problems discussed, we ought to adopt a cautious attitude to using GPS to track children.

  • 269.
    Nihlén Fahlquist, Jessica
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Responsibility as a virtue and the problem of many hands2015Ingår i: Moral responsibility and the problem of many hands / [ed] Ibo van de Poel, Lambèr Royakkers, Sjoerd D. Zwart, Routledge, 2015Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 270.
    Nihlén Fahlquist, Jessica
    et al.
    TU Delft / 3TU, Centre for Ethics and Technology, Delft, The Netherlands .
    Doorn, Neelke
    Van de Poel, Ibo
    Design forthe value of responsibility2015Ingår i: Handbook of ethics, values and technological design: Sources, Theory, Values and Application Domains / [ed] Jeroen van den Hoven, Ibo van de Poel and Pieter Vermaas, Springer, 2015Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The responsibility of engineers and designers for the products they design is a common topic in engineering ethics and ethics of technology. However, in this chapter we explore what designing for the value of responsibility could entail. The term “design for the value of responsibility” can be interpreted in (at least) two ways. First, it may be interpreted as a design activity that explicitly takes into account the effect of technological designs on the possibility of users (and others) to assume responsibility or to be responsible. Second, it may refer to a design activity that explicitly affects the allocation of responsibility among the ones operating or using the technology and other affected people. In this chapter, we discuss both interpretations of design for the value of responsibility. In both interpretations, a technological design can be said to affect a person’s responsibility. As there are no explicit methods or approaches to guide design for responsibility, this chapter explores three cases in which design affected responsibility and develops on basis of them design heuristics for design for responsibility. These cases are the alcohol interlock for cars in Sweden, the V-chip for blocking violent television content and developmental podcasting devices in rural Zimbabwe. We conclude by raising some open issues and suggesting future work.

  • 271.
    Nihlén Fahlquist, Jessica
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Roeser, Sabine
    Ethical problems with information on infant feeding in developed countries2011Ingår i: Public Health Ethics, Vol. 4, nr 2, s. 192-202Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Most sources providing information on infant feeding strongly recommend breastfeeding. The WHO and UNICEF recommend that women breastfeed their babies and that health professionals promote breastfeeding. This creates severe pressure on women to breastfeed, a pressure which is ethically questionable since many women have physical or emotional problems with breastfeeding. In this article, we use insights from the ethics of risk to criticize the current breastfeeding policy. We argue that there are problems related to balancing aggregate wellbeing versus individual wellbeing, that not enough attention is paid to alternatives, that women’s emotions and their need for free choice should be considered and that issues of equity are currently overlooked. We also criticize the way scientific information is presented in the current policy. We conclude that the official sources of information on infant feeding should be revised. Information should be more nuanced and designed to support mothers, and families in making a free choice on what is the best way to feed their babies.

  • 272.
    Nihlén Fahlquist, Jessica
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik. Delft University of Technology.
    Roeser, Sabine
    Delft University of Technology.
    Nuclear energy, responsible risk communication and moral emotions: a three level framework2015Ingår i: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 18, nr 3, s. 333-346Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Communication about nuclear risks is treacherous territory, especially after Fukushima, requiring not only considerations about effectiveness, but also about ethical legitimacy. In this paper, a three-level framework of morally responsible risk communication is developed, focusing on the procedure, the message and the effects of risk communication. This gives rise to three conditions of ethically responsible risk communication: it requires a legitimate procedure, an ethically justified risk message and concern for and evaluation of the effects of the message and procedure. The role of emotions, such as sympathy, empathy and feelings or responsibility, is emphasized as a key to addressing and explicating moral values at these three levels. Emotions point out moral aspects of risks such as justice, fairness and autonomy. This framework can shed important new light on morally responsible communication about nuclear risks. The first condition of this framework requires that the procedure of communication is participatory, in order to include the relevant moral emotions and values concerning nuclear energy of all stakeholders. A legitimate procedure does not guarantee an ethically justified message concerning nuclear risks. For this reason, the second condition requires an ethical deliberation of the message and the values and emotions entailed in it. Finally, the third condition requires a moral evaluation of the effects of risk communication concerning nuclear energy. A successful risk communication effort triggers reflection, compassion and a willingness to take responsibility for energy-related issues. Problematic effects of risk communication can be a lack of trust or a sense of hopelessness and passivity. Evaluating all three levels from a moral point of view should be done in an iterative way, allowing possible revisions and improvements. Considering the high stakes and current stalemates in the nuclear debate, the suggested model provides a promising, constructive and morally legitimate way forward.

  • 273.
    Noutsou, Elektra
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teologiska fakulteten, Teologiska institutionen.
    Moral stress in humanitarian aid workers: A qualitative study on aid workers working with the migratin flow to Europe2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 274.
    Nyberg, Maria
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teologiska fakulteten, Teologiska institutionen.
    Människovärdet och de mänskliga rättigheterna: En analys av tre perspektiv på människovärdet och de mänskliga rättigheterna2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    This study is a critical analysis of three different views on human dignity and its function in the discourse of human rights: that of Christopher McCrudden, Jürgen Habermas and Elena Namli. The three positions are interpreted, analyzed and compared in order to see which is most reasonable.

    The conclusion is that Habermas’s and McCrudden’s view of human rights as legal reduces human dignity to a legal concept. Namli’s perspective of human dignity as a moral principle generates a wider understanding of human dignity and its function. As a moral principle, human dignity has the potential both to function rightly in the legal sphere as well as being an ethical tool for critique of all conventional norms in the society.

    Habermas makes an important contribution as he transforms the traditional rationalistic Kantian view on human dignity to be applicable in the political and social sphere as it relates to the institutional protection of rights. Namli modifies further the Kantian view, as she considers humanity to be social and as such contextually construed. Human dignity can therefore be used contextually to interpret human rights and guide prioritization between rights. It can further counteract the current tendancy of monopolization of interpretations of human rights.

    Habermas’s och Namli’s approach to human dignity as a substantial normative concept, which is universal and egalitarian, is considered more plausible than McCrudden’s view. However, Namli’s perspective is more reasonable than Habermas’s as she acknowledge that human beings have the right to be respected in their humanity only by being humans.

     

  • 275.
    Ohlsson, Johanna
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för rysslandsstudier.
    External actors as peacemakers?: Agency and legitimisation strategies from ethical perspectives2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 276.
    Ohlsson, Johanna
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för rysslandsstudier.
    International Proxy Agency: Framework for Ethical Analysis of Peacebuilding Processes2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 277.
    Ohlsson, Johanna
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för rysslandsstudier.
    International Proxy Agency: Framework for Ethical Analysis of Peacebuilding Processes2016Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 278.
    Ohlsson, Johanna
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för rysslandsstudier.
    International Proxy Agency: New Framework for Ethical Analysis of Peacebuilding Processes2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 279.
    Ohlsson, Johanna
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teologiska fakulteten, Teologiska institutionen.
    Jail and Justice: Understanding Security and Justice Sector Reform of Corrections in Post-Conflict Liberia2012Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 280.
    Ohlsson, Johanna
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teologiska fakulteten, Teologiska institutionen, Tros- och livsåskådningsvetenskap, Etik.
    On the Ethics of External States in Peacebuilding: A Critical Study of Justification2018Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Even the most obvious actions require justification. The need for justification of peacebuilding involvements is always present. This thesis argues that justification is particularly needed when there is a prevalent power asymmetry between an external state and a host community. The dissertation addresses how the attempts of states to justify their engagement in peacebuilding should be evaluated in the light of justification theory. The study’s research questions are addressed by developing a theoretical framework based on justification theory that is combined with empirical case studies. As a result, the starting-point for this dissertation is both descriptive and normative. It builds upon and develops the theory of justification offered by Rainer Forst, by testing Forst’s formal criteria of reciprocity and generality on two case studies, the Republic of South Africa and the Russian Federation.

    The thesis attempts to scrutinize the role played by the justifications made by external states engaged in peacebuilding. The focus on how Russia and South Africa view, act, and try to justify their peacebuilding efforts, serves to further nuance our theoretical understanding of the justification of external states in peacebuilding processes. The study is exploring which justification strategies are being used and how. By combining ethical analysis with empirical research and by building on an analysis of the case studies, the study presents two typologies of the attempts at justification which Russia and South Africa make in their foreign policy discourse. In order to accomplish this, the thesis uses different methods, including case studies, expert interviews, and document analysis.

    This study is written within the critical discipline of social ethics. By making a critical analysis of the official Russian and South African foreign policy discourses on peace engagements, this dissertation aims to contribute to existing literature both empirically and theoretically. The analysis shows that Forst’s formal criteria are useful, but not sufficient, to analyse states’ justificatory attempts. The study aims to contribute both to our understanding of Russian and South African engagements in peacebuilding processes abroad, as well as justification of peacebuilding and the role of ethics and morality in foreign policy generally.

  • 281.
    Oldfield, Edwin
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teologiska fakulteten, Teologiska institutionen.
    The Core-based Worldview model2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This essay starts at the proposition that there is not yet a satisfying way to differentiate between different worldviews. Although many attempts have been made, they fail in ways that are difficult to pinpoint. The usual way of researching a worldview is to start from a set of questions that are deemed fundamental to our beliefs, a method the author regards as flawed. In this essay it is instead proposed that we should regard actions and behaviour to determine worldview, because they lead us to the essential part of worldview, the core. To get a worldview with this method, we would categorise different tendencies of actions of individuals, instead of trying to ask them questions and categorising the answers. From this, a model of four different worldviews is established based of four different aims that are sought in actions. These for are: the way of virtue; the way of empowerment or worldly security; the way of pleasure; and the way of spiritual liberation or salvation. The aim of this model is to increase our explanatory power in terms of what people believe, why they act as they do, and what decisions they reach.

  • 282.
    Palmer, Brian
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teologiska fakulteten, Teologiska institutionen.
    Larsmo, Ola
    Raoul Wallenberg Calendar 20132013 (uppl. 1)Bok (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    365 accounts of civic courage from around the world

  • 283.
    Patrignani, Norberto
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för visuell information och interaktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Bildanalys och människa-datorinteraktion.
    Computer ethics 2013: From policy vacuum to slow-tech2014Ingår i: Mondo Digitale, ISSN 1720-898X, Vol. XIII, nr 50, s. 1-4Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose to steer the digital revolution towards a new kind of ICT, by designing and developingtechnologies that are good, clean, and fair. An ICT that is human-centred, and that takes intoaccount both the limits of the planet and those of human beings.

  • 284.
    Patrignani, Norberto
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för visuell information och interaktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Bildanalys och människa-datorinteraktion.
    From computer ethics to future (and information) ethics: The challenge of Nano-Bots2014Ingår i: Ethical dimensions of bio-nanotechnology: Present and future applications in telemedicine / [ed] Nuno Sotero Alves da Silva and Goncalo Jorge Morais da Costa, Hershey, PA, USA: IGI Global, 2014Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the emerging technologies that is getting a lot of attention is nano-technology. In particular,in this area, the convergence of research fields of biotechnology, information technology, nanotechnologyand neuroscience (or cognitive science) is introducing nano-robots, or nano-bots. These machines promise to lead to the development of a large number potential applications in medicine,but at the same time they raise also a lot of social and ethical issues. This chapter introduces severalways to start an ethical reflection in relation to nano-bots. The traditional "computer ethics"approach and the new "future ethics" proposition are both discussed and applied to this technology.The challenges introduced by nano-bots are so complex that it is possible that the application of thePrecautionary Principle would be required. A further ethical analysis of nano-bots applications inmedicine may benefit from new methodologies and strategies such as the stakeholders' network andFloridi's "entropy (the evil of Infosphere)" concept.

  • 285.
    Patrignani, Norberto
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för visuell information och interaktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Bildanalys och människa-datorinteraktion.
    DeMarco, Marco
    Digital citizenship and social responsibility of computer professionals2014Ingår i: Mondo Digitale, ISSN 1720-898X, Vol. XIII, nr 49, s. 1-10Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital revolution is taking us into the Information Society so quickly that the entire Information and Communication Technology (ICT) world has no time to reflect on new social and ethical issues. In particular this dramatic change put computer professionals in a position full of opportunities but also with new responsibilities. Computer professionals and Information Systems managers have in front of them a "rainbow" of risks and opportunities, they face a collection of ethical dilemmas and social issues that requires a deep reflection and debate among all stakehoders: universities, ICT professional organizations, ICT industry, policy makers, users and society at large. A code of ethics for computer professionals could be a good starting point for defining a collection of guidelines.

  • 286.
    Patrignani, Norberto
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för visuell information och interaktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Bildanalys och människa-datorinteraktion.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för visuell information och interaktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Bildanalys och människa-datorinteraktion.
    Cloud Computing: The Ultimate Step Towards the Virtual Enterprise?2015Ingår i: Computers & Society: The Newsletter of the ACM Special Interest Group on Computers and Society Special Issue on 20 Years of ETHICOMP / [ed] Mark Coeckelbergh, Bernd Stahl, and Catherine Flick; Vaibhav Garg and Dee Weikle, ACM Digital Library, 2015, s. 68-72Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a reflection on cloud computing among users, organizations, policy makers, and providers. In particular the focus is on the social and ethical implications for organizations developing a strategy for cloud computing. Also the new roles and responsibilities of the CIOs are analyzed within the complexity of the stakeholders' network around cloud computing. The cloud opportunities but also the issues of concerns are investigated due to their importance for organizations that are more and more shifting towards virtual enterprises.

  • 287.
    Patrignani, Norberto
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Bildanalys och människa-datorinteraktion.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Bildanalys och människa-datorinteraktion.
    Is the IT infrastructure future proof?2011Ingår i: The social impact of social computing / [ed] A. Bisset et al., Sheffield, UK: Sheffield Hallam University , 2011, s. 356-361Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The ICT infrastructure and its technological core are now becoming the critical infrastructures of our society. Our activities and processes are now relying on these platforms, they are now our social and business platforms. But are they sustainable? What are the (physical) limits to take into account when looking into the ICT future? Do the planet have enough resources to sustain the making, powering and wasting of all the electronic devices needed to support our social and business platforms in the future? This paper addresses the issue of evaluating the environmental impact of ICT. Starting from the analysis of the sustainability of one of its most celebrated "laws", the Moore's law, we analyse its entire life-cycle, from "silicon-factories", to their use in data centres, to the final destination of ICT products: recycling and reuse (trash ware) in the best case or, uncontrolled waste traffic towards poor countries with health hazards and environmental pollution, in the worst case. We introduce a new dimension in the social and ethical analysis related to ICT: the future. What are the implications of this future ethics in ICT?

  • 288.
    Patrignani, Norberto
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för visuell information och interaktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Bildanalys och människa-datorinteraktion.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för visuell information och interaktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Bildanalys och människa-datorinteraktion.
    On the Complex Relationship Between ICT Systems and the Planet2018Ingår i: This Changes Everything –ICT and Climate Change: What Can We Do? / [ed] David Kreps, Charles Ess, Louise Leenen, Kai Kimppa, Springer, 2018, s. 181-187Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the challenges of designing sustainable Information and Communication Technology (ICT) systems. The complexity of ICT systems, the number of stakeholders involved (technology providers, policymakers, users, etc.), and the extension and global scale of ICT supply chain are the main challenges at the core of the complex relationship between ICT systems and the planet Earth. ICT offer an opportunity for an exchange between matter-energy and information: the better use of information offers the greatopportunity for decreasing the environmental impact of human activities by decreasing the matter and energy consumption. But, on the other side, like anyhuman activity, the design, production, use, and disposal of complex ICT systems,has as a consequence a growth in entropy. This intriguing dilemma is one of the most difficult challenges in front of designers, ICT companies, users, and policy makers. This paper concentrates on the designers, the engineers’ dilemmas: what are the ethical competences, the skills, the methods for addressing these complex ethical dilemmas? Among the many ethical approaches, the“virtue/future ethics” is proposed as a core ethical competence for the designers and engineers of the future.

  • 289.
    Patrignani, Norberto
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för visuell information och interaktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Bildanalys och människa-datorinteraktion.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för visuell information och interaktion.
    On the Difficult Task of Teaching Computer Ethics to Engineers2017Ingår i: ORBIT Journal, ISSN 2515-8562, Vol. 1, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the challenges of teaching computer ethics to engineers. The computer professionals are identified as the starting point of the stakeholders network of ICT and as a consequence it is underlined the importance of computer ethics courses for engineers. To this purpose, a simple four-steps methodology is proposed for teaching computer ethics. The importance of applying the paradigm of complex systems is then described and the three dimensions of Slow Tech (good, clean, and fair ICT) are proposed as a compass for designing complex socio-technical systems. Finally some preliminary results coming from the feedback of about some hundreds students in several years are illustrated.

  • 290.
    Patrignani, Norberto
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för visuell information och interaktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Bildanalys och människa-datorinteraktion.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för visuell information och interaktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Bildanalys och människa-datorinteraktion.
    On the Difficult Task of TeachingComputer Ethics to Engineers2017Ingår i: CEPE/Ethicomp 2017: Electronic Collection / [ed] Richard Volkman, Torino: Università degli Studi di Torino , 2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the challenges of teaching computer ethics to engineers. Thecomputer professionals are identified as the starting point of the stakeholders network ofICT and as a consequence it is underlined the importance of computer ethics courses forengineers. To this purpose, a simple four-steps methodology is proposed for teachingcomputer ethics. The importance of applying the paradigm of complex systems is thendescribed and the three dimensions of Slow Tech (good, clean, and fair ICT) areproposed as a compass for designing complex socio-technical systems. Finally somepreliminary results coming from the feedback of about some hundreds students in severalyears are illustrated.

  • 291.
    Patrignani, Norberto
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för visuell information och interaktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Bildanalys och människa-datorinteraktion.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för visuell information och interaktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Bildanalys och människa-datorinteraktion.
    The brave new world of socio-technical systems: Cloud computing2013Ingår i: The possibilities of ethical ICT, Kolding: University of Southern Denmark , 2013, s. 377-383Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we propose an analysis of Cloud Computing as a new kind of socio-technical system. For many organizations, moving ICT from the capital expenditure line to the operational expenditure line, by using "ICT services on-demand" and paying them by consumption, is an opportunity. From another perspective Cloud Computing represents a big shift back towards centralized architectures where end-users and organizations will use on.demand resources provided by very large datacentres. Are we moving from the "autonomy" of the 1980's introduced by Personal Computing to the "heteronomy" of Cloud Computing of the XXI century? For analysing the main social and ethical issues related to Cloud Computing we propose a simple model based on the Socio-Technical Systems concept. The co-shaping between society and technology is clean-cut and can be a useful tool for users and organisations that are considering to enter into the world of ICT as-a-service. We finally investigate possible connections between our reflections about Cloud Computing and more deep ethical, philosophical, and psychological ways of addressing these issues.

  • 292.
    Patrignani, Norberto
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för visuell information och interaktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Bildanalys och människa-datorinteraktion.
    Whitehouse, Diane
    Slow Tech: a quest for good, clean and fair ICT2014Ingår i: Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, ISSN 1477-996X, E-ISSN 1758-8871, ISSN 1477-996X, Vol. 12, nr 2, s. 78-92Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce the term Slow Tech as a way of describinginformation and communication technology (ICT) that is good, clean and fair. These aretechnologies that are human centred, environmentally sustainable and socially desirable.Design/methodology/approach – The paper’s approach is based on a qualitative discourse thatjustifies the introduction of Slow Tech as a new design paradigm.Findings – The limits of the human body, and the need to take into account human wellbeing, thelimits of the planet and stakeholders’ interests in decision making, all suggest the need for a newparadigm, Slow Tech, in the design of ICT and ICT systems. Three scenarios are described as casestudies.

  • 293.
    Patrignani, Norberto
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för visuell information och interaktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Bildanalys och människa-datorinteraktion.
    Whitehouse, Diane
    Slow Tech: The bridge between computer ethics and business ethics2014Ingår i: Proceedings 11th International Conference on human Choice and computers, HC11, 2014: ICT and society / [ed] K. Kimppa, D. Whitehouse, T. Kuusela and J. Phahlamohlaka, Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2014, s. 92-106Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the difficult task of implementing the concept of Slow Tech, that is,information and communication technology (ICT) that is good, clean and fair, in a businessenvironment. It investigates the democratic, environmental, and social challenges currently facingICT vendors. More specifically, it examines the opportunities available for these companies to useSlow Tech as a bridging mechanism between their Computer Ethics and their Business Ethicsstrategies, based on Corporate Social Responsibility. Last but not least, it highlights what some"next step" questions for further investigation and implementation might be and the challenges ofimplementing these.

  • 294.
    Patrignani, Norberto
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för visuell information och interaktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Bildanalys och människa-datorinteraktion.
    Whitehouse, Diane
    Slow tech: Towards good, clean and fair ICT2013Ingår i: The possibilities of ethical ICT / [ed] T. W. Bynum, W. Fleishman, A. Gerdes, G. Moeldrup Nielsen and S. Rogerson, Kolding: University of Southern Denmark , 2013, s. 384-390Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Slow tech is a new way of looking at technology. It means designing and developingtechnologies that are ‘slow’, with the aim of being good, clean, and fair. It has, as anaspiration, the design and use of a new kind of information and communicationtechnologies (ICT): ICT that is human-centred, and that takes into account both thelimits of the planet and those of human beings. The focus of this reflection paper is onICT that speaks to the needs of the environment and society, and is thus implicitlyethical. It contributes towards promoting slow tech to an audience of computerprofessionals and computer end-users.

  • 295.
    Paulsson Vides, Rebecca
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teologiska fakulteten, Teologiska institutionen.
    Tensions of Universal Claims and Contextual Sensitivities: The Case of Religious Freedom: An examination of Martha Nussbaum and Saba Mahmood’s ways of                             mediating the tensions of religious freedom2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats utgår från en filosofisk diskussion kring spänningen mellan universella anspråk och specifika sammanhang när det kommer till mänskliga rättigheter och hur dessa spänningar kan medlas utifrån en undersökning av religionsfriheten. För att åstadkomma studeras två inriktningar, den ena liberal och den andra postkolonial. Dessa inriktningar representeras av Martha Nussbaum respektive Saba Mahmood. I och med en jämförande analys mellan dessa två inriktningar är förhoppningen att deras likheter och skillnader blir tydligare, samt att nyanserna inom debatten mellan universalism och kontextualism blir tydligare. Det finns många spänningar mellan teori och praktik när det kommer till rätten till religionsfrihet och just denna rättighet är på så sätt användbar för att utforska spänningen mellan universalism och kontextualism när det kommer till mänskliga rättigheter. Denna uppsats visar därmed att det finns flera likheter mellan dessa inriktningar och att de därför inte kan anses vara oförenliga med varandra. Detta för med sig en insikt i möjligheter till att medla mänskliga rättigheter mellan teori och praktik.

  • 296.
    Pennartz, Cyriel M. A.
    et al.
    Department of Cognitive and Systems Neuroscience, Swammerdam Institute for Life Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands ; Research Priority Area, Brain and Cognition, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Farisco, Michele
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik. Biogem, Biology and Molecular Genetics Institute, Ariano Irpino, Italy.
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Indicators and Criteria of Consciousness in Animals and Intelligent Machines: An Inside-Out Approach2019Ingår i: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5137, E-ISSN 1662-5137, Vol. 13, artikel-id 25Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s society, it becomes increasingly important to assess which non-human and non-verbal beings possess consciousness. This review article aims to delineate criteria for consciousness especially in animals, while also taking into account intelligent artifacts. First, we circumscribe what we mean with “consciousness” and describe key features of subjective experience: qualitative richness, situatedness, intentionality and interpretation, integration and the combination of dynamic and stabilizing properties. We argue that consciousness has a biological function, which is to present the subject with a multimodal, situational survey of the surrounding world and body, subserving complex decision-making and goal-directed behavior. This survey reflects the brain’s capacity for internal modeling of external events underlying changes in sensory state. Next, we follow an inside-out approach: how can the features of conscious experience, correlating to mechanisms inside the brain, be logically coupled to externally observable (“outside”) properties? Instead of proposing criteria that would each define a “hard” threshold for consciousness, we outline six indicators: (i) goal-directed behavior and model-based learning; (ii) anatomic and physiological substrates for generating integrative multimodal representations; (iii) psychometrics and meta-cognition; (iv) episodic memory; (v) susceptibility to illusions and multistable perception; and (vi) specific visuospatial behaviors. Rather than emphasizing a particular indicator as being decisive, we propose that the consistency amongst these indicators can serve to assess consciousness in particular species. The integration of scores on the various indicators yields an overall, graded criterion for consciousness, somewhat comparable to the Glasgow Coma Scale for unresponsive patients. When considering theoretically derived measures of consciousness, it is argued that their validity should not be assessed on the basis of a single quantifiable measure, but requires cross-examination across multiple pieces of evidence, including the indicators proposed here. Current intelligent machines, including deep learning neural networks (DLNNs) and agile robots, are not indicated to be conscious yet. Instead of assessing machine consciousness by a brief Turing-type of test, evidence for it may gradually accumulate when we study machines ethologically and across time, considering multiple behaviors that require flexibility, improvisation, spontaneous problem-solving and the situational conspectus typically associated with conscious experience.

  • 297.
    Persson, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för visuell information och interaktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Bildanalys och människa-datorinteraktion.
    Implicit bias in predictive data profiling within recruitments2016Ingår i: Privacy and Identity Management: Facing up to Next Steps, Springer, 2016, s. 212-230Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 298.
    Persson, Anders
    et al.
    University of California.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för visuell information och interaktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Bildanalys och människa-datorinteraktion.
    How to Make Decisions with Algorithms: Ethical Decision-Making Using Algorithms within Predictive Analytics2017Ingår i: CEPE/Ethicomp 2017: ElectronicCollection / [ed] Richard Volkman, Torino: Università degli Studi di Torino , 2017, s. 1-13Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of automated decision-making support, such as algorithms within predictive analytics,will inevitably be more and more relevant and will be affecting society. Sometimes it is good,and sometimes there seems to be negative effect, such as with discrimination. The solutionfocused on in this paper is how humans and algorithms, or ICT, could interact within ethicaldecision-making. What predictive analytics can produce is, arguably, mostly implicit knowledge,so what a human decision-maker could, possibly, help with is the explicit thought processes.This could be one way to conceptualize an interactive effect between humans and algorithms thatcould be fruitful. Presently there does not seem to be very much research regarding predictiveanalytics and ethical decisions, concerning this human-algorithm interaction. Rather it is often afocus on pure technological solutions, or with laws and regulation.

  • 299.
    Persson de Fine Licht, Karl
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik. Chalmers Univ Technol, Res Inst Sweden RISE, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hostile urban architecture: A critical discussion of the seemingly offensive art of keeping people away2017Ingår i: Etikk i praksis, ISSN 1890-3991, E-ISSN 1890-4009, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 27-44Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    For many years, some urban architecture has aimed to exclude unwanted groups of people from some locations. This type of architecture is called "defensive" or "hostile" architecture and includes benches that cannot be slept on, spikes in the ground that cannot be stood on, and pieces of metal that hinder one's ability to skateboard. These defensive measures have sparked public outrage, with many thinking such measures lead to suffering, are disrespectful, and violate people's rights. In this paper, it is argued that these views are difficult to defend and that much more empirical research on the topic is needed.

  • 300.
    Petrini, Carlo
    et al.
    Italian National Institute of Health.
    Farisco, Michele
    Biogem IRGS, Institute of Research “Gaetano Salvatore”, Ariano Irpino (AV), Italy Correspondence: Michele Farisco, Biogem IRGS, Institute of Research “Gaetano Salvatore”, Via Camporeale, 83031 Ariano Irpino (AV), Italy.
    Informed Consent for Cord Blood Donation: A Theoretical and Empirical Study2011Ingår i: Blood Transfusion, ISSN 1723-2007, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 292-300Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and objectives

    Umbilical cord blood (CB) banking and therapeutic use raiseseveral ethical issues: medical indications, legal framework, public versus private biobanks,autologous versus allogeneic use, ownership, commercialisation, quality assurance and manyothers. Surrogate informed consent is one of the most notable controversial ethical issues. Theaim of this study was to analyse and compare informed consent forms for CB collection, storageand use in the 18 accredited biobanks of the Italian Network.

    Material and methods

    The first part of the article gives a brief overview of the scientificframework, the comparison of allogeneic and autologous use and Italian regulations. In thesecond part the contents of the consent forms from the 18 Italian biobanks are compared with the"NetCord-FACT International Standards for Cord Blood Collection, Banking, and Release forAdministration".

    Results

    Most of the Italian consent forms differ significantly from the NetCord-FACTStandards, with regards both to formal and substantial aspects.

    Conclusion

    Italian forms for CB collection, storage and use need standardisation to meetinternational criteria.

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