uu.seUppsala universitets publikationer
Ändra sökning
Avgränsa sökresultatet
3456789 251 - 300 av 864
RefereraExporteraLänk till träfflistan
Permanent länk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Träffar per sida
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sortering
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Författare A-Ö
  • Författare Ö-A
  • Titel A-Ö
  • Titel Ö-A
  • Publikationstyp A-Ö
  • Publikationstyp Ö-A
  • Äldst först
  • Nyast först
  • Skapad (Äldst först)
  • Skapad (Nyast först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Äldst först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyast först)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidigaste först)
  • Disputationsdatum (senaste först)
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Författare A-Ö
  • Författare Ö-A
  • Titel A-Ö
  • Titel Ö-A
  • Publikationstyp A-Ö
  • Publikationstyp Ö-A
  • Äldst först
  • Nyast först
  • Skapad (Äldst först)
  • Skapad (Nyast först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Äldst först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyast först)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidigaste först)
  • Disputationsdatum (senaste först)
Markera
Maxantalet träffar du kan exportera från sökgränssnittet är 250. Vid större uttag använd dig av utsökningar.
  • 251. Dowling, D. K.
    et al.
    Maklakov, A. A.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Friberg, U.
    Hailer, F.
    Applying the genetic theories of ageing to the cytoplasm: cytoplasmic genetic covariation for fitness and lifespan2009Ingår i: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 22, nr 4, s. 818-827Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Two genetic models exist to explain the evolution of ageing - mutation accumulation (MA) and antagonistic pleiotropy (AP). Under MA, a reduced intensity of selection with age results in accumulation of late-acting deleterious mutations. Under AP, late-acting deleterious mutations accumulate because they confer beneficial effects early in life. Recent studies suggest that the mitochondrial genome is a major player in ageing. It therefore seems plausible that the MA and AP models will be relevant to genomes within the cytoplasm. This possibility has not been considered previously. We explore whether patterns of covariation between fitness and ageing across 25 cytoplasmic lines, sampled from a population of Drosophila melanogaster, are consistent with the genetic associations predicted under MA or AP. We find negative covariation for fitness and the rate of ageing, and positive covariation for fitness and lifespan. Notably, the direction of these associations is opposite to that typically predicted under AP.

  • 252. Drobniak, Szymon M.
    et al.
    Dubiec, Anna
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Cichon, Mariusz
    Maternal Age-Related Depletion of Offspring Genetic Variance in Immune Response to Phytohaemagglutinin in the Blue Tit (Cyanistes caeruleus)2015Ingår i: Evolutionary biology, ISSN 0071-3260, E-ISSN 1934-2845, Vol. 42, nr 1, s. 88-98Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies examining age-specific patterns in genetic variance have focussed primarily on changes in the genetic variance within cohorts. It remains unclear whether parental age may affect the genetic variance among offspring. To date, such an effect has been reported only in a single study performed in a wild bird population. Here, we provide experimental evidence that the additive genetic variance (V-A) observed among offspring may be related to parental age in a wild passerine-the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus). To separate genetic and environmental components of phenotypic variance in nestling body size and immune function we cross-fostered nestlings between pairs of broods born to young and old mothers and used an animal model to estimate V-A. We show that the genetic variance in immune response to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and body weight among offspring depends on maternal age. V-A in response to PHA appeared to be lower among nestlings of older mothers. Such a tendency was not observed for tarsus length. We argue that the lower V-A may result either from depletion of additive genetic variation due to selection acting on parents across age classes or from environmental effects confounded with parental age. Thus, our study suggests that parental age may significantly affect estimates of quantitative genetic parameters in the offspring.

  • 253. Drobniak, Szymon M.
    et al.
    Wiejaczka, Dariusz
    Arct, Aneta
    Dubiec, Anna
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Cichon, Mariusz
    Low Cross-Sex Genetic Correlation in Carotenoid-Based Plumage Traits in the Blue Tit Nestlings (Cyanistes caeruleus)2013Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 7, s. e69786-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In some bird species, both adult and juvenile individuals are often brightly coloured. It has been commonly assumed that identical plumage colouration present in both sexes results from strong intersexual genetic correlations in colour-related traits. Here, we aimed at testing this hypothesis in juvenile individuals and looked at genetic parameters describing carotenoid-based colouration of blue tit nestlings in a wild population. To separate genetic and environmental sources of phenotypic variation we performed a cross-fostering experiment. Our analyses confirmed the existence of sexual dichromatism in blue tit nestlings and revealed a significant, although low, genetic component of carotenoid-based colouration. However, genetic effects are expressed differently across sexes as indicated by low cross-sex genetic correlations (r(mf)). Thus our results do not support the prediction of generally high rmf and suggest that intersexual constraints on the evolution of colouration traits may be weaker than expected. We hypothesise that observed patterns of genetic correlations result from sex-specific selective pressures acting on nestling plumage colouration.

  • 254. Duan, M.
    et al.
    Zhang, T.
    Hu, W.
    Xie, S.
    Sundström, Fredrik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Li, Z.
    Zhu, Z.
    Risk-taking behaviour may explain high predation mortality of GH-transgenic common carp Cyprinus carpio2013Ingår i: Journal of Fish Biology, ISSN 0022-1112, E-ISSN 1095-8649, Vol. 83, nr 5, s. 1183-1196Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The competitive ability and habitat selection of juvenile all-fish GH-transgenic common carp Cyprinus carpio and their size-matched non-transgenic conspecifics, in the absence and presence of predation risk, under different food distributions, were compared. Unequal-competitor ideal-free-distribution analysis showed that a larger proportion of transgenic C. carpio fed within the system, although they were not overrepresented at a higher-quantity food source. Moreover, the analysis showed that transgenic C. carpio maintained a faster growth rate, and were more willing to risk exposure to a predator when foraging, thereby supporting the hypothesis that predation selects against maximal growth rates by removing individuals that display increased foraging effort. Without compensatory behaviours that could mitigate the effects of predation risk, the escaped or released transgenic C. carpio with high-gain and high-risk performance would grow well but probably suffer high predation mortality in nature.

  • 255.
    Dubiec, Anna
    et al.
    Polish Acad Sci, Museum & Inst Zool, Warsaw, Poland..
    Podmokla, Edyta
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Krakow, Poland..
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Intra-individual changes in haemosporidian infections over the nesting period in great tit females2017Ingår i: Parasitology Research, ISSN 0932-0113, E-ISSN 1432-1955, Vol. 116, nr 9, s. 2385-2392Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Prevalence of haemosporidian parasites in bird populations varies temporally both between years and within a year. In contrast to variation at the population level, relatively little is known about variation in infection attributes at the individual level, especially in non-migratory species. We examined intra-individual changes in the presence and identity of haemosporidian parasites (genera Plasmodium and Haemoproteus) over the course of the nesting period in females of great tits (Parus major)-a species considered to be resident over much of its distribution range. Birds were sampled during two stages of the nesting period: nest building and nestling rearing. The mean time interval between sampling occasions was 43 days. Between the first and second samplings, 30.6% of females gained at least one parasite lineage and 18.5% lost the lineage. Haemoproteus gains were over three times more common than Plasmodium gains. The probability of the lineage gain decreased with the date of the first sampling, was higher in individuals in better body condition and differed between years, but was not associated with the host age. The probability of the lineage loss was not explained by any of the considered parameters except for year. These results indicate that in a large proportion of a population, infection attributes (presence/absence and/or parasite identity) may change over the nesting period and the occurrence of such changes may be associated with the individual quality. Consequently, this phenomenon should be taken into account to correctly interpret parasite-mediated effects.

  • 256.
    Dubiec, Anna
    et al.
    Polish Acad Sci, Museum & Inst Zool, Wilcza 64, PL-00679 Warsaw, Poland..
    Podmokla, Edyta
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Gronostajowa 7, PL-30387 Krakow, Poland..
    Zagalska-Neubauer, Magdalena
    Polish Acad Sci, Ornithol Stn, Museum & Inst Zool, Nadwislanska 108, PL-80680 Gdansk, Poland..
    Drobniak, Szymon M.
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Gronostajowa 7, PL-30387 Krakow, Poland..
    Arct, Aneta
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Gronostajowa 7, PL-30387 Krakow, Poland..
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Cichon, Mariusz
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Gronostajowa 7, PL-30387 Krakow, Poland..
    Differential prevalence and diversity of haemosporidian parasites in two sympatric closely related nonmigratory passerines2016Ingår i: Parasitology, ISSN 0031-1820, E-ISSN 1469-8161, Vol. 143, nr 10, s. 1320-1329Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Haemosporidian parasites infecting birds show distinct heterogeneity in their distribution among host species. However, despite numerous studies on the prevalence and diversity of parasite communities across species, very little is known on patterns of differences between them. Such data is lacking because up to date the majority of studies explored the patterns of variation in infections in different years, different time of sampling within a year or a breeding cycle, different study sites or was based on a small sample size, all of which may affect the estimates of prevalence and parasite diversity. Here, the prevalence, richness and diversity of haemosporidian parasites from the genera Plasmodium and Haemoproteus were studied in two closely related non-migratory hole-nesting passerines: Great Tits and Blue Tits. Birds were sampled in sympatrically breeding populations during two seasons at the same stage of their breeding cycle - late nestling care. Great Tits were more prevalently infected with Plasmodium and Haemoproteus parasites (97.1 vs 71.2%), harboured a higher proportion of multiple infections (26.2 vs 3.2%) and had a more diverse parasite community (11 vs 5 parasite lineages) than Blue Tits. Observed differences between two host species are discussed with reference to their breeding densities and immunological and behavioural characteristics.

  • 257.
    Dutoit, Ludovic
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Mugal, Carina
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Bolivar, Paulina
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Wang, Mi
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Nadachowska-Brzyska, Krystyna
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Smeds, Linnea
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Ellegren, Hans
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Sex-biased gene expression, sexual antagonism and levels of genetic diversity in the collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis) genome2018Ingår i: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 27, nr 18, s. 3572-3581Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Theoretical work suggests that sexual conflict should promote the maintenance of genetic diversity by the opposing directions of selection on sexually antagonistic mutations in males and females. This prediction, so far not been empirically tested on a genome-wide scale, could potentially contribute towards genomic heterogeneity in levels of genetic diversity. We used large-scale population genomic and transcriptomic data from the collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis) to analyse how sex-biased gene expression – one outcome of sexual conflict – relates to genetic variability. Here, we demonstrate that the extent of sex-biased gene expression of both male-biased and female-biased genes is significantly correlated with levels of nucleotide diversity in gene sequences and that this correlation extends to the overall levels of genomic diversity. We find evidence for balancing selection in sex-biased genes, suggesting that sex-biased gene expression could be seen as a component counteracting the diversity-reducing effects of linked positive and purifying selection. The observation of significant genetic differentiation between males and females for male-biased genes indicates ongoing sexual conflict and sex-specific viability selection, potentially driven by sexual selection. Our results thus provide a new perspective on the long-standing question in evolutionary biology of how genomes can remain so genetically variable in face of strong natural and sexual selection.

  • 258.
    Dutoit, Ludovic
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Nadachowska-Brzyska, Krystyna
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Linnéa, Smeds
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Ellegren, Hans
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Estimation of contemporary effect population size in an island population of the collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis) using large-scale genome dataManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to its central importance to many aspects of evolutionary biology and population genetics, the long-term effective population size (Ne) has been estimated for numerous species and populations. However, estimating contemporary Ne is difficult and in practice this parameter is often not known. In principle, contemporary Ne can be estimated using either analyses of temporal changes in allele frequencies or the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between unlinked markers. We applied these approaches for contemporary Ne estimation of a relatively recently founded island population of collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis). We sequenced the genomes of 85 birds sampled in 1993 and 2015, and used a method of Jorde & Ryman (2007) to estimate Ne to ≈5,000 based on the amount of genetic drift observed between the two cohorts. This corresponds to an effective size/census size (Ne/Nc) ratio of ≈0.5. An approach based on LD applied to each cohort could not separate from Ne infinity. When individuals from the two cohorts were pooled, Ne was estimated to 10,000-25,000, but these estimates may be sensitive to biases. We conclude that whole-genome sequence data offer new possibilities for estimation of contemporary Ne, but also note that such estimation remains difficult. 

  • 259.
    Edelaar, Pim
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Assortative mating also indicates that common crossbill Loxia curvirostra vocal types are species2008Ingår i: Journal of Avian Biology, ISSN 0908-8857, E-ISSN 1600-048X, Vol. 39Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Compared to most other birds, the taxonomy of crossbills (Loxia) is still highly unsettled. However, much progress seemsto be achievable when data on vocalisations is included. In a recent paper, Summers et al. (2007) argued that strongassortative mating indicated that parrot crossbill Loxia pytyopsittacus, Scottish crossbill Loxia scotica and common crossbill Loxia curvirostra behave as good species when breeding in sympatry. Here I argue that their data, when placed in thecontext of other studies, also indicate that three vocally differentiated European populations within the common crossbillare species (following the biological species concept of Mayr (1963): species are groups of interbreeding naturalpopulations that are reproductively isolated from other such groups). If this tentative conclusion remains to be upheld, itmight have large repercussions for our understanding of the speciation process as well as for a number of more appliedissues such as the discovery and description of biodiversity and the conversation of mobile, cryptic species.

  • 260.
    Edelaar, Pim
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Siepielski, Adam M.
    Clobert, Jean
    Matching habitat choice causes directed gene flow: A neglected dimension in evolution and ecology2008Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 62, s. 2462-2472Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Gene flow among populations is typically thought to be antagonistic to population differentiation and local adaptation. However,this assumes that dispersing individuals disperse randomly with respect to their ability to use the environment. Yet dispersingindividuals often sample and compare environments and settle in those environments that best match their phenotype, causingdirected gene flow, which can in fact promote population differentiation and adaptation. We refer to this process as “matchinghabitat choice.” Although this process has been acknowledged by several researchers, no synthesis or perspective on its potentiallywidespread importance exists. Here we synthesize empirical and theoretical studies, and offer a new perspective that matchinghabitat choice can have significant effects on important and controversial topics. We discuss the potential implications of matchinghabitat choice for the degree and rate of local adaptation, the evolution of niche width, adaptive peak shifts, speciation in thepresence of gene flow, and on our view and interpretation of measures of natural selection. Because of its potential importance forsuch a wide range of topics, we call for heightened empirical and theoretical attention for this neglected dimension in evolutionaryand ecological studies.

  • 261. Edvardsson, M
    et al.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Copulatory courtship and cryptic female choice in red flour beetles Tribolium castaneum2000Ingår i: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 267, nr 1443, s. 559-563Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 262. Egea-Serrano, Andres
    et al.
    Hangartner, Sandra
    Laurila, Anssi
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Rasanen, Katja
    Multifarious selection through environmental change: acidity and predator-mediated adaptive divergence in the moor frog (Rana arvalis)2014Ingår i: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 281, nr 1780Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental change can simultaneously cause abiotic stress and alter biological communities, yet adaptation of natural populations to co-changing environmental factors is poorly understood. We studied adaptation to acid and predator stress in six moor frog (Rana arvalis) populations along an acidification gradient, where abundance of invertebrate predators increases with increasing acidity of R. arvalis breeding ponds. First, we quantified divergence among the populations in anti-predator traits (behaviour and morphology) at different rearing conditions in the laboratory (factorial combinations of acid or neutral pH and the presence or the absence of a caged predator). Second, we evaluated relative fitness (survival) of the populations by exposing tadpoles from the different rearing conditions to predation by free-ranging dragonfly larvae. We found that morphological defences (relative tail depth) as well as survival of tadpoles under predation increased with increasing pond acidity (under most experimental conditions). Tail depth and larval size mediated survival differences among populations, but the contribution of trait divergence to survival was strongly dependent on prior rearing conditions. Our results indicate that R. arvalis populations are adapted to the elevated predator pressure in acidified ponds and emphasize the importance of multifarious selection via both direct (here: pH) and indirect (here: predators) environmental changes.

  • 263.
    Ekman, Jan
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Griesser, Michael
    Siberian jays: delayed dispersal in the absence of cooperative breeding2016Ingår i: Cooperative breeding in vertebrates: studies of ecology, evolution and behavior / [ed] Walter D. Koenig, Janis L. Dickinson, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016, s. 6-18Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 264. Ellegren, H.
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Sheldon, B. C.
    Sex ratio adjustment in relation to paternal attractiveness in a wild bird population1996Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 93, nr 21, s. 11723-11728Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 265. Engdahl, Cecilia
    et al.
    Larsson, Par
    Naslund, Jonas
    Bravo, Mayra
    Evander, Magnus
    Lundström, Jan O.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Ahlm, Clas
    Bucht, Goran
    Identification of Swedish mosquitoes based on molecular barcoding of the COI gene and SNP analysis2014Ingår i: Molecular Ecology Resources, ISSN 1755-098X, E-ISSN 1755-0998, Vol. 14, nr 3, s. 478-488Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosquito-borne infectious diseases are emerging in many regions of the world. Consequently, surveillance of mosquitoes and concomitant infectious agents is of great importance for prediction and prevention of mosquito-borne infectious diseases. Currently, morphological identification of mosquitoes is the traditional procedure. However, sequencing of specified genes or standard genomic regions, DNA barcoding, has recently been suggested as a global standard for identification and classification of many different species. Our aim was to develop a genetic method to identify mosquitoes and to study their relationship. Mosquitoes were captured at collection sites in northern Sweden and identified morphologically before the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences of 14 of the most common mosquito species were determined. The sequences obtained were then used for phylogenetic placement, for validation and benchmarking of phenetic classifications and finally to develop a hierarchical PCR-based typing scheme based on single nucleotide polymorphism sites (SNPs) to enable rapid genetic identification, circumventing the need for morphological characterization. The results showed that exact phylogenetic relationships between mosquito taxa were preserved at shorter evolutionary distances, but at deeper levels, they could not be inferred with confidence using COI gene sequence data alone. Fourteen of the most common mosquito species in Sweden were identified by the SNP/PCR-based typing scheme, demonstrating that genetic typing using SNPs of the COI gene is a useful method for identification of mosquitoes with potential for worldwide application.

  • 266.
    Eriksson, Björn
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Socio-economic impacts of marine conservation efforts in three Indonesian fishing communities2019Ingår i: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 103, s. 59-67Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous conservation initiatives have been undertaken to protect large marine animals by legal protection and implementing marine protected areas (MPAs). Despite these efforts, many marine animals are still threatened, partly due to lack of compliance with conservation regulations. Meanwhile, research suggests that conservation efforts which also take socio-economic factors such as fishermen's livelihoods into account during planning and implementation are more likely to succeed. This study examined the compliance and socio-economic situation of local fishing communities at three sites in Indonesia (Nusa Penida, Tanjung Luar and Komodo National Park) where shark and manta ray conservation efforts have been implemented. 59 local residents were interviewed. The results showed that 49% of those residents had experienced a deterioration and 37% an improvement in their economic situation since conservation efforts in the form of species protection or MPAs were implemented in their area. The economic situation of the residents was associated with their access to alternative livelihoods, access to information on conservation rules, and relationship with conservation authorities. Particularly, interviewees with easier access to alternative income and a positive relationship with conservation authorities also experienced an increase in their economy. In addition, compliance with conservation efforts was positively related to improved economic situation, access to alternative livelihoods and information on conservation rules. These factors all differed among the three study sites, leading to different compliance levels between sites. The results of this study indicate the importance of considering socio-economic factors and of involving local communities when planning and implementing conservation efforts.

  • 267.
    Erkosar, Berra
    et al.
    Univ Lausanne, Dept Ecol & Evolut, Lausanne, Switzerland.;Univ Lausanne, Dept Fundamental Microbiol, Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Yashiro, Erika
    Univ Lausanne, Dept Fundamental Microbiol, Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Zajitschek, Felix
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi. Univ New South Wales, Sch Biol Earth & Environm Sci, Evolut & Ecol Res Ctr, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Friberg, Urban
    Linkoping Univ, AVIAN Behav Genom & Physiol Grp, IFM Biol, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Maklakov, Alex A
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    van der Meer, Jan R.
    Univ Lausanne, Dept Fundamental Microbiol, Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Kawecki, Tadeusz J.
    Univ Lausanne, Dept Ecol & Evolut, Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Host diet mediates a negative relationship between abundance and diversity of Drosophila gut microbiota2018Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 8, nr 18, s. 9491-9502Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Nutrient supply to ecosystems has major effects on ecological diversity, but it is unclear to what degree the shape of this relationship is general versus dependent on the specific environment or community. Although the diet composition in terms of the source or proportions of different nutrient types is known to affect gut microbiota composition, the relationship between the quantity of nutrients supplied and the abundance and diversity of the intestinal microbial community remains to be elucidated. Here, we address this relationship using replicate populations of Drosophila melanogaster maintained over multiple generations on three diets differing in the concentration of yeast (the only source of most nutrients). While a 6.5-fold increase in yeast concentration led to a 100-fold increase in the total abundance of gut microbes, it caused a major decrease in their alpha diversity (by 45-60% depending on the diversity measure). This was accompanied by only minor shifts in the taxonomic affiliation of the most common operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Thus, nutrient concentration in host diet mediates a strong negative relationship between the nutrient abundance and microbial diversity in the Drosophila gut ecosystem.

  • 268.
    Ermold, Friederike
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Climate change time machine: Adaptation to 30 years of warming in the Baltic Sea2016Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Earth mean surface temperature has increased by 1 °C since the industrial revolution, and this has already had considerable effects on animal and plant species. Ecological responses to the warming climate – often facilitated via phenotypic plasticity – are ubiquitous. However, even though evolution can occur rapidly there are only few examples of genetic adaptation to climate change.

    In my thesis, I used a near-natural system to study if and how organisms have adapted to 30 years of warming, and how this has affected competitive species interactions. I investigated Baltic Sea populations of the aquatic snails Galba truncatula and Theodoxus fluviatilis, which had been subjected to cooling water discharge from power plants, resulting in water temperatures 4 to 10 °C higher than in the surrounding sea.

    G. truncatula had high upper thermal limits and large acclimation potential. This plasticity may have helped the species to survive under the new conditions, allowing evolution through natural selection to take place. I found that the populations of the two thermal origins had diverged in SNP markers associated with warmer temperature, whereas divergence in selectively neutral markers was mainly related to geographical distance. Adaptation occurred from standing genetic variation, emphasizing the importance of genetic diversity and population size in enabling the persistence of populations. Changes in thermal sensitivity of growth and survival were subtle yet significant, and complied with theoretical models of thermal adaptation in ectotherms. At the community level, pre-adaptation to warmer conditions aided the native T. fluviatilis when competing with the alien Potamopyrgus antipodarum. However, interspecific competition limited the snails most in those traits favored under warming, highlighting the challenge of adapting to different selecting forces during global change.

    The persistence of species and populations under climate change depends on several factors - plasticity allowing for initial survival, evolvability in allowing the genetic changes, and species interactions affecting the new ecological niches. The results of my thesis indicate that persistence under climate change is possible when these factors align, but the relative roles of ecology and plasticity may explain why there are so few observed instances of evolution in response to climate change.  

    Delarbeten
    1. Do the (rapid) evolution: genetic differentiation after 30 years of warming
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Do the (rapid) evolution: genetic differentiation after 30 years of warming
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Evolutionsbiologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-271553 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2016-01-11 Skapad: 2016-01-10 Senast uppdaterad: 2016-02-12
    2. Life history evolution of Galba truncatula in cooling water discharge: evidence for rapid thermal adaptation?
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Life history evolution of Galba truncatula in cooling water discharge: evidence for rapid thermal adaptation?
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Evolutionsbiologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-271554 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2016-01-11 Skapad: 2016-01-10 Senast uppdaterad: 2016-02-12
    3. Thirty years of warming has not affected preferred and critical maximum temperatures in Galba trunctula
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Thirty years of warming has not affected preferred and critical maximum temperatures in Galba trunctula
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Zoologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-271555 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2016-01-11 Skapad: 2016-01-10 Senast uppdaterad: 2016-02-12
    4. Competitive interactions in a warmer world: a transplant experiment
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Competitive interactions in a warmer world: a transplant experiment
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Ekologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-271556 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2016-01-11 Skapad: 2016-01-10 Senast uppdaterad: 2016-02-12
  • 269.
    Ermold, Friederike
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Islam, M. Tarikul
    Jokela, Jukka
    Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology.
    Laurila, Anssi
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Life history evolution of Galba truncatula in cooling water discharge: evidence for rapid thermal adaptation?Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 270.
    Ermold, Friederike
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Laurila, Anssi
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Competitive interactions in a warmer world: a transplant experimentManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 271.
    Ermold, Friederike
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Meyer-Lucht, Yvonne
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Höglund, Jacob
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Laurila, Anssi
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Do the (rapid) evolution: genetic differentiation after 30 years of warmingManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 272.
    Ermold, Friederike
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Nannstedt, Elin
    Johansson, Magnus P.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Laurila, Anssi
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Thirty years of warming has not affected preferred and critical maximum temperatures in Galba trunctulaManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 273.
    Esperk, T.
    et al.
    Univ Tartu, Inst Ecol & Earth Sci, Dept Zool, Tartu, Estonia.;Univ Zurich, Inst Evolutionary Biol & Environm Studies, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Kjaersgaard, A.
    Univ Zurich, Inst Evolutionary Biol & Environm Studies, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Walters, R. J.
    Univ Zurich, Inst Evolutionary Biol & Environm Studies, Zurich, Switzerland.;Univ Reading, Sch Biol Sci, Reading, Berks, England..
    Berger, David
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi. Univ Zurich, Inst Evolutionary Biol & Environm Studies, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Blanckenhorn, W. U.
    Univ Zurich, Inst Evolutionary Biol & Environm Studies, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Plastic and evolutionary responses to heat stress in a temperate dung fly: negative correlation between basal and induced heat tolerance?2016Ingår i: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 29, nr 5, s. 900-915Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Extreme weather events such as heat waves are becoming more frequent and intense. Populations can cope with elevated heat stress by evolving higher basal heat tolerance (evolutionary response) and/or stronger induced heat tolerance (plastic response). However, there is ongoing debate about whether basal and induced heat tolerance are negatively correlated and whether adaptive potential in heat tolerance is sufficient under ongoing climate warming. To evaluate the evolutionary potential of basal and induced heat tolerance, we performed experimental evolution on a temperate source population of the dung fly Sepsis punctum. Offspring of flies adapted to three thermal selection regimes (Hot, Cold and Reference) were subjected to acute heat stress after having been exposed to either a hot-acclimation or non-acclimation pretreatment. As different traits may respond differently to temperature stress, several physiological and life history traits were assessed. Condition dependence of the response was evaluated by exposing juveniles to different levels of developmental (food restriction/rearing density) stress. Heat knockdown times were highest, whereas acclimation effects were lowest in the Hot selection regime, indicating a negative association between basal and induced heat tolerance. However, survival, adult longevity, fecundity and fertility did not show such a pattern. Acclimation had positive effects in heat-shocked flies, but in the absence of heat stress hot-acclimated flies had reduced life spans relative to non-acclimated ones, thereby revealing a potential cost of acclimation. Moreover, body size positively affected heat tolerance and unstressed individuals were less prone to heat stress than stressed flies, offering support for energetic costs associated with heat tolerance. Overall, our results indicate that heat tolerance of temperate insects can evolve under rising temperatures, but this response could be limited by a negative relationship between basal and induced thermotolerance, and may involve some but not other fitness-related traits.

  • 274.
    Evans, Simon
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Sports doping vastly underestimated2015Ingår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 519, nr 7541, s. 33-33Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 275.
    Evans, Simon R.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi. Univ Zurich, Dept Evolutionary Biol & Environm Studies, Winterthurerstr 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Climate change upends selection on ornamentation in a wild bird2017Ingår i: NATURE ECOLOGY & EVOLUTION, ISSN 2397-334X, Vol. 1, nr 2, artikel-id UNSP 0039Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Secondary sexual traits have high heritabilities and are exposed to strong, environmentally sensitive selection, and so are expected to evolve rapidly in response to sustained environmental change. We examine the eco-evolutionary dynamics of ornament expression in a long-term study population of collared flycatchers, Ficedula albicollis, in which forehead patch size, which positively influences male reproductive success, declined markedly over 34 years. Annual fitness selection on forehead patch size switched from positive to negative during the study, a reversal that is accounted for by rising spring temperatures at the breeding site: highly ornamented males were selectively favoured following cold breeding seasons but selected against following warm breeding seasons. An 'individual animal model' describes a decline in the genetic values of breeding males during the study, which simulations showed was unlikely to result from drift alone. These results are thus consistent with adaptive evolution of a sexually selected trait in response to climate change.

  • 276.
    Evans, Simon R.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Schielzeth, Holger
    Forstmeier, Wolfgang
    Sheldon, Ben C.
    Husby, Arild
    Nonautosomal Genetic Variation in Carotenoid Coloration2014Ingår i: American Naturalist, ISSN 0003-0147, E-ISSN 1537-5323, Vol. 184, nr 3, s. 374-383Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Carotenoid-based coloration plays an important role in signaling, is often sexually dimorphic, and is potentially subject to directional and/or sex-specific selection. To understand the evolutionary dynamics of such color traits, it is essential to quantify patterns of inheritance, yet nonautosomal sources of genetic variation are easily overlooked by classical heritability analyses. Carotenoid metabolism has recently been linked to mitochondria, highlighting the potential for color variation to be explained by cytoplasmically inherited factors. In this study, we used quantitative genetic animal models to estimate the importance of mitochondrial and sex chromosome-linked sources of genetic variation in coloration in two songbird populations in which dietary carotenoids are either unmodified (great tit plumage) or metabolized into alternative color forms (zebra finch beak). We found no significant Z-linked genetic variance in great tit plumage coloration, while zebra finch beak coloration exhibited significant W linkage and cytoplasmic inheritance. Our results support cytoplasmic inheritance of color in the zebra finch, a trait based on endogenously metabolized carotenoids, and demonstrate the potential for nonautosomal sources to account for a considerable share of genetic variation in coloration. Although often overlooked, such nonautosomal genetic variation exhibits sex-dependent patterns of inheritance and potentially influences the evolution of sexual dichromatism.

  • 277.
    Evans, Simon R.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Sheldon, Ben C.
    Colour in a new light: a spectral perspective on the quantitative genetics of carotenoid colouration2015Ingår i: Functional Ecology, ISSN 0269-8463, E-ISSN 1365-2435, Vol. 29, nr 1, s. 96-103Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Carotenoid-based colours are model traits for research on animal signalling and sexual selection but, whereas the consequences of variable expression have been extensively studied, its causes are rarely quantified. This issue is complicated by the composite nature of carotenoid-based colour patches, which combine pigments and a reflective background. Ultimately, the evolution of such colours will be determined by the processes that govern variable expression of these mechanisms. We present a novel approach to assessing the quantitative genetics of colour expression, in which reflectance spectra are analysed directly, thereby avoiding the data loss and inherent subjectivity of summary colour variables. Further, the influence of the component mechanisms can be distinguished in spectral analyses due to their contrasting wavelength-dependencies. Using data from a 6-year study of carotenoid-based plumage reflectance in wild great tits (Parus major), we employ a multi-parallel animal modelling' approach to estimate sources of variance for narrow (2nm) wavebands across the visible spectrum. Moderate heritability estimates were limited to the violet-blue region of the spectrum, diagnostic of the carotenoid content of plumage being heritable. The natal environment effect was limited entirely to the violet-blue, again indicating that it relates to variation in carotenoid content of feathers. Other wavelengths were sensitive to annual and permanent environmental variation but only marginally influenced by additive genetic variation. Hence, background reflectance is the component that is more sensitive to the environment. Analysing reflectance spectra directly provided an objective perspective of the dynamics of colour expression that is not apparent when relying on summary colour scores. In this case, our results suggest that carotenoid deposition may be an effective target of selection and hence could explain the important role carotenoids frequently play in intraspecific signalling.

  • 278.
    Evans, Simon R.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Sheldon, Ben C.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Pigments versus structure: examining the mechanism of age-dependent change in a carotenoid-based colour2013Ingår i: Journal of Animal Ecology, ISSN 0021-8790, E-ISSN 1365-2656, Vol. 82, nr 2, s. 418-428Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Within-population colour variation is widespread in animals, yet the determinants of variable coloration have been relatively neglected by ecologists. Age-dependent expression of conspicuous coloration is prevalent, particularly in birds. Such patterns can be generated by multiple combinations of demographic heterogeneity or within-individual change; longitudinal analyses are necessary to establish the importance of these processes. Further, although pigment-based colours are composite traits, produced by multiple component mechanisms (e.g. feather microstructure and carotenoid pigmentation), the contributions of these mechanisms to components of age dependence are rarely considered, even though doing so may yield information about the ecological causes for age-dependent coloration. We used a large-scale, longitudinal study of carotenoid-based plumage coloration in great tits (Parus major) to show age dependence of plumage coloration is driven almost exclusively by within-individual effects in the first 2years of life. Using wavelength-specific analyses, we show that feather microstructure, while sensitive to annual variation, is independent of age, with increased carotenoid deposition driving changes in coloration. However, estimates of local carotenoid availability did not explain the change in coloration within individuals, suggesting that pigment availability may not be limiting. We thus show that it is individual-level changes in the pigment component of carotenoid-based coloration that determines age-dependent colour expression in great tits. More generally, our study highlights the utility of wavelength-specific analyses in determining the mechanisms underlying changes in expression of composite colour traits.

  • 279.
    Faulks, L. K.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Östman, O.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Inst Coastal Res, Dept Aquat Resources, Skolvagen 6, S-74242 Oregrund, Sweden..
    Adaptive major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and neutral genetic variation in two native Baltic Sea fishes (perch Perca fluviatilis and zander Sander lucioperca) with comparisons to an introduced and disease susceptible population in Australia (P-fluviatilis): assessing the risk of disease epidemics2016Ingår i: Journal of Fish Biology, ISSN 0022-1112, E-ISSN 1095-8649, Vol. 88, nr 4, s. 1564-1583Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study assessed the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and neutral genetic variation and structure in two percid species, perch Perca fluviatilis and zander Sander lucioperca, in a unique brackish ecosystem, the Baltic Sea. In addition, to assess the importance of MHC diversity to disease susceptibility in these populations, comparisons were made to an introduced, disease susceptible, P. fluviatilis population in Australia. Eighty-three MHC class II B exon 2 variants were amplified: 71 variants from 92 P. fluviatilis samples, and 12 variants from 82 S. lucioperca samples. Microsatellite and MHC data revealed strong spatial genetic structure in S. lucioperca, but not P. fluviatilis, across the Baltic Sea. Both microsatellite and MHC data showed higher levels of genetic diversity in P. fluviatilis from the Baltic Sea compared to Australia, which may have facilitated the spread of an endemic virus, EHNV in the Australian population. The relatively high levels of genetic variation in the Baltic Sea populations, together with spatial genetic structure, however, suggest that there currently seems to be little risk of disease epidemics in this system. To ensure this remains the case in the face of ongoing environmental changes, fisheries and habitat disturbance, the conservation of local-scale genetic variation is recommended.

  • 280.
    Faulks, Leanne
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Gilligan, D.
    Beheregaray, L. B.
    Ragged mountain ranges, droughts and flooding rains: The evolutionary history and conservation of Australian freshwater fishes2014Ingår i: Austral Ark: The State of Wildlife in Australia and New Zealand / [ed] Adam Stow, Norman Maclean, Gregory I. Holwell, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014, s. 492-511Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Australia hosts a unique assemblage of flora and fauna derived from a combination of Gondwanan relict and more recently evolved endemic taxa and is recognised as one of the world’s megadiverse countries. Despite the continent’s high species biodiversity, the Australian freshwater fish fauna is relatively depauperate. The conservation of freshwater fishes in Australia is of increasing importance as many species are listed as threatened by the IUCN. The major threatening processes for Australian freshwater fishes are habitat degradation, river regulation, anthropogenic barriers to dispersal, introduced species, disease and climate change. The use of molecular genetic tools to infer evolutionary history and to inform conservation is well recognised and is one way of predicting how fish may respond to these threatening processes. Nonetheless, there are few Australian cases that allow a bigger picture assessment of evolutionary processes across a broad range of environments, yet within a single taxonomic group. The temperate freshwater perches of the genus Macquaria provide an exception. This chapter uses this fish group as a case study in phylogeography and population genetics to explore and identify evolutionary processes relevant for aquatic conservation across a large section of eastern and central Australia. Australian freshwater fishes: biodiversity and conservation Australia hosts a unique assemblage of flora and fauna derived from a combination of Gondwanan relict and more recently evolved endemic taxa (Allen et al., 2002; Sanmartin & Ronquist,2004)and is recognised as one of the world's megadiverse countries (Mittermeier et al., 1997).

  • 281.
    Faulks, Leanne
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Svanbäck, Richard
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Eklöv, Peter
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Limnologi.
    Östman, Örjan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Genetic and morphological divergence along the littoral–pelagic axis in two common and sympatric fishes: perch, Perca fluviatilis (Percidae) and roach, Rutilus rutilus (Cyprinidae)2015Ingår i: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 114, nr 4, s. 929-940Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals are constantly in competition with one another and, on both ecological and evolutionary timescales, processes act to reduce this competition and promote the gain of fitness advantages via diversification. Here we have investigated the genetic (AFLP) and morphological (geometric morphometrics) aspects of the littoral–pelagic axis, a commonly observed resource polymorphism in freshwater fishes of postglacial lakes. We found a large degree of variation in the genetic and morphological divergence between littoral and pelagic perch and roach across Swedish lakes. Although there was evidence of assortative mating (elevated kinship values) in both species, we could not find any significant coupling of morphology and genetic divergence. Instead, there was evidence that the extent of resource polymorphism may be largely caused by phenotypic plasticity. These results suggest that assortative mating, which can lead to genetically determined adaptive divergence, does occur in these species, particularly perch, but not according to genetically fixed morphological traits. The behavioural mechanisms facilitating associative mating need to be investigated to explore the interaction between phenotypic plasticity and adaptive genetic divergence and their roles in diversification.

  • 282.
    Faulks, Leanne
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Svanbäck, Richard
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Limnologi.
    Ragnarsson-Stabo, Henrik
    Eklöv, Peter
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Limnologi.
    Östman, Örjan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Intraspecific Niche Variation Drives Abundance-Occupancy Relationships in Freshwater Fish Communities2015Ingår i: American Naturalist, ISSN 0003-0147, E-ISSN 1537-5323, Vol. 186, nr 2, s. 272-283Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A positive relationship between occupancy and average local abundance of species is found in a variety of taxa, yet the mechanisms driving this association between abundance and occupancy are still enigmatic. Here we show that freshwater fishes exhibit a positive abundance-occupancy relationship across 125 Swedish lakes. For a subset of 9 species from 11 lakes, we estimated species-specific diet breadth from stable isotopes, within-lake habitat breadth from catch data for littoral and pelagic nets, adaptive potential from genetic diversity, abiotic niche position, and dispersal capacity. Average local abundance was mainly positively associated with both within-lake habitat and diet breadth, that is, species with larger intraspecific variation in niche space had higher abundances. No measure was a good predictor of occupancy, indicating that occupancy may be more directly related to abundance or abiotic conditions than to niche breadth per se. This study suggests a link between intraspecific niche variation and a positive abundance-occupancy relationship and implies that management of freshwater fish communities, whether to conserve threatened or control invasive species, should initially be aimed at niche processes.

  • 283.
    Faulks, Leanne
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi. Univ Tsukuba, Sugadaira Montane Res Ctr, Sugadaira Kogen 1278-294, Ueda, Nagano 3862204, Japan..
    Östman, Örjan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi. Inst Coastal Res, Dept Aquat Resources, Skolvagen 6, S-74242 Oregrund, Sweden..
    Genetic Diversity and Hybridisation between Native and Introduced Salmonidae Fishes in a Swedish Alpine Lake2016Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, nr 3, artikel-id e0152732Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the processes underlying diversification can aid in formulating appropriate conservation management plans that help maintain the evolutionary potential of taxa, particularly under human-induced activities and climate change. Here we assessed the microsatellite genetic diversity and structure of three salmonid species, two native (Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus and brown trout, Salmo trutta) and one introduced (brook charr, Salvelinus fontinalis), from an alpine lake in sub-arctic Sweden, Lake Ann. The genetic diversity of the three species was similar and sufficiently high from a conservation genetics perspective: corrected total heterozygosity, H'(T) = 0.54, 0.66, 0.60 and allelic richness, A(R) = 4.93, 5.53 and 5.26 for Arctic charr, brown trout and brook charr, respectively. There were indications of elevated inbreeding coefficients in brown trout (G(IS) = 0.144) and brook charr (G(IS) = 0.129) although sibling relationships were likely a confounding factor, as a high proportion of siblings were observed in all species within and among sampling locations. Overall genetic structure differed between species, Fst = 0.01, 0.02 and 0.04 in Arctic charr, brown trout and brook charr respectively, and there was differentiation at only a few specific locations. There was clear evidence of hybridisation between the native Arctic charr and the introduced brook charr, with 6% of individuals being hybrids, all of which were sampled in tributary streams. The ecological and evolutionary consequences of the observed hybridisation are priorities for further research and the conservation of the evolutionary potential of native salmonid species.

  • 284.
    Faust, Ellika
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Marine Sci Tjarno, S-45296 Stromstad, Sweden..
    Andre, Carl
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Marine Sci Tjarno, S-45296 Stromstad, Sweden..
    Meurling, Sara
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Kochmann, Judith
    Senckenberg Biodiversitat & Klima Forschungszentr, Senckenberg Gesell Nat Forsch, D-60325 Frankfurt, Germany..
    Christiansen, Henrik
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Marine Sci Tjarno, S-45296 Stromstad, Sweden.;Katholieke Univ Leuven, Lab Biodivers & Evolutionary Genom, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium..
    Jensen, Lasse Fast
    Fisheries & Maritime Museum, DK-6710 Esbjerg V, Denmark..
    Charrier, Gregory
    Univ Bretagne Occidentale, Lab Sci Environm Marin LEMAR, UMR 6539, UBO,CNRS,IRD,Ifremer,IUEM, F-29280 Plouzane, France..
    Laugen, Ane T.
    Novia Univ Appl Sci, Ekenas 10600, Finland.;Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Strand, Asa
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Marine Sci Tjarno, S-45296 Stromstad, Sweden..
    Origin and route of establishment of the invasive Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas in Scandinavia2017Ingår i: Marine Ecology Progress Series, ISSN 0171-8630, E-ISSN 1616-1599, Vol. 575, s. 95-105Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying the routes and rates of introductions is fundamental for the understanding of marine invasions. Recurring introductions over the last 50 yr have led to the establishment of feral Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas populations throughout Europe. In the northern countries, Sweden and Norway, the species first occurred in large numbers in 2006. Here, we investigated the relative importance of introduction via re-laying of cultured oysters imported for consumption from France, Ireland or the Netherlands, and dispersal of oyster larvae by ocean currents from wild oyster populations in Denmark. Using microsatellite DNA markers, we estimated genetic differentiation among Pacific oysters collected at 4 Swedish locations, 3 Norwegian locations and 9 potential source locations in Denmark, Ireland, the Netherlands and France. All Swedish samples and 1 Norwegian sample(Tromlingene) were genetically similar to each other and the Danish samples and showed significant genetic differentiation from all other populations. Consequently, it appears that the Pacific oyster populations in Sweden, Denmark and Tromlingene are closely connected and/or share a recent origin. The 2 remaining Norwegian samples(Hui and Espevik) differed from each other and all other populations, but showed similarities to wild oyster samples from Scandinavia and Ireland, respectively. Overall, the results underline a complex origin of Norwegian oysters, with gene flow from Swedish/Danish populations, as well as other unidentified sources. The apparent connectivity among most of the Scandinavian populations has implications for regional management of this invasive species, and highlights possible scenarios for other marine invasive species with a similar life history.

  • 285.
    Finotello, Simone
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi. Univ Trieste, Dept Life Sci, Trieste, Italy..
    Feckler, Alexander
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Aquat Sci & Assessment, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Bundschuh, Mirco
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Aquat Sci & Assessment, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Repeated pulse exposures to lambda-cyhalothrin affect the behavior, physiology, and survival of the damselfly larvae Ischnura graellsii (Insecta; Odonata)2017Ingår i: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, ISSN 0147-6513, E-ISSN 1090-2414, Vol. 144, s. 107-114Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Damselflies form an essential part of the aquatic and terrestrial food web. Pesticides may, however, negatively affect their behavior, physiology, and survival. To assess this, a 42-day-lasting bioassay was conducted, during which damselfly larvae (Ischnura graellsii; n = 20) were repeatedly exposed to lambda-cyhalothrin (3 days at; 0, 10, 50, 250, 1250, and 6250 ng LCH L-1), followed by recovery phases (4 days) in pesticide-free medium for six weeks. This exposure design was used to simulate frequent runoff events in the field. Variables related to the behavior (strikes against prey and capture success), growth, physiology (lipid content and fatty acid composition), as well as mortality were assessed throughout the experiment. The two highest LCH concentrations induced 100% mortality within the first 48 h, whereas 85% of the test organisms survived 28 days under control conditions. The number of strikes against prey was not affected by LCH. In contrast, prey capture success decreased significantly (up to similar to 50% at 250 ng LCH L-1, for instance, after the third pulse exposure) following LCH-exposures compared to the control. This difference was not observed after recovery phases, however, which did not counteract the enhanced energy demand for detoxification and defense mechanisms indicated by a lower growth rate (up to similar to 20%) and lipid content (up to similar to 30%) of damselflies at 50 and 250 ng LCH L-1. In addition, two essential fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid and arachidonic acid) and two precursors (linolenic acid and alinolenic acid) decreased in their concentrations upon exposure towards 250 ng LCH L-1. Thus the results of this study indicate that long-term exposure towards LCH pulses can affect damselfly behavior, physiology and survival. Given the essential role of damselflies in food web dynamics, these effects may potentially translate into local population impairments with subsequent bottom-up directed effects within and across ecosystem boundaries.

  • 286.
    Fisher, Matthew C.
    et al.
    Imperial Coll London, Sch Publ Hlth, Fac Med, Dept Infect Dis Epidemiol, St Marys Campus, London W2 1PG, England.
    Ghosh, Pria
    Imperial Coll London, Sch Publ Hlth, Fac Med, Dept Infect Dis Epidemiol, St Marys Campus, London W2 1PG, England;North West Univ, Unit Environm Sci & Management, Private Bag x6001, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa.
    Shelton, Jennifer M. G.
    Imperial Coll London, Sch Publ Hlth, Fac Med, Dept Infect Dis Epidemiol, St Marys Campus, London W2 1PG, England.
    Bates, Kieran
    Imperial Coll London, Sch Publ Hlth, Fac Med, Dept Infect Dis Epidemiol, St Marys Campus, London W2 1PG, England.
    Brookes, Lola
    Inst Zool, Regents Pk, London NW1 4RY, England.
    Wierzbicki, Claudia
    Imperial Coll London, Sch Publ Hlth, Fac Med, Dept Infect Dis Epidemiol, St Marys Campus, London W2 1PG, England.
    Rosa, Goncalo M.
    Inst Zool, Regents Pk, London NW1 4RY, England;Univ Lisbon, Fac Ciencias, Ctr Ecol Evolut & Environm Changes CE3C, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Farrer, Rhys A.
    Imperial Coll London, Sch Publ Hlth, Fac Med, Dept Infect Dis Epidemiol, St Marys Campus, London W2 1PG, England.
    Aanensen, David M.
    Imperial Coll London, Sch Publ Hlth, Fac Med, Dept Infect Dis Epidemiol, St Marys Campus, London W2 1PG, England;Ctr Genom Pathogen Surveillance, Wellcome Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambs, England.
    Alvarado-Rybak, Mario
    Univ Andres Bello, Fac Ecol & Recursos Nat, Ctr Invest Sustentabilidad, Republ 440, Santiago, Chile.
    Bataille, Arnaud
    Seoul Natl Univ, Sch Biol Sci, Lab Behav & Populat Ecol, Seoul 08826, South Korea;CIRAD, UMR ASTRE, F-34398 Montpellier, France;Univ Montpellier, ASTRE, CIRAD, INRA, Montpellier, France.
    Berger, Lee
    James Cook Univ, Coll Publ Hlth Med & Vet Sci, Hlth Res Grp 1, Townsville, Qld 4811, Australia.
    Böll, Susanne
    Agcy Populat Ecol & Nat Conservancy, Gerbrunn, Germany.
    Bosch, Jaime
    CSIC, Museo Nacl Ciencias Nat, C Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, E-28006 Madrid, Spain.
    Clare, Frances C.
    Imperial Coll London, Sch Publ Hlth, Fac Med, Dept Infect Dis Epidemiol, St Marys Campus, London W2 1PG, England.
    Courtois, Elodie A.
    Univ Guyane, CNRS, IFREMER, LEEISA, Cayenne 97300, French Guiana.
    Crottini, Angelica
    Univ Porto, InBIO, CIBIO Ctr Invest Biodiversidade & Recursos Genet, P-4485661 Vairao, Portugal.
    Cunningham, Andrew A.
    Inst Zool, Regents Pk, London NW1 4RY, England.
    Doherty-Bone, Thomas M.
    Royal Zool Soc Scotland, Conservat Programmes, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Gebresenbet, Fikirte
    Oklahoma State Univ, Dept Integrat Biol, Life Sci West 113, Stillwater, OK 74078 USA.
    Gower, David J.
    Nat Hist Museum, Life Sci, London SW7 5BD, England.
    Höglund, Jacob
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    James, Timothy Y.
    Univ Michigan, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.
    Jenkinson, Thomas S.
    Univ Michigan, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.
    Kosch, Tiffany A.
    Seoul Natl Univ, Sch Biol Sci, Lab Behav & Populat Ecol, Seoul 08826, South Korea;James Cook Univ, Coll Publ Hlth Med & Vet Sci, Hlth Res Grp 1, Townsville, Qld 4811, Australia.
    Lambertini, Carolina
    Univ Estadual Campinas, Inst Biol, Dept Biol Anim, Lab Hist Nat Anfibios Brasileiros, BR-13083862 Campinas, SP, Brazil.
    Laurila, Anssi
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Lin, Chun-Fu
    Endem Species Res Inst, Zool Div, 1 Ming Shen East Rd, Nantou 552, Taiwan.
    Loyau, Adeline
    UFZ Helmholtz Ctr Environm Res, Dept Conservat Biol, Permoserstr 15, D-04318 Leipzig, Germany;Univ Toulouse, CNRS, ECOLAB, INPT,UPS, Toulouse, France.
    Martel, An
    Univ Ghent, Dept Pathol Bacteriol & Avian Dis, Fac Vet Med, Salisburylaan 133, B-9820 Merelbeke, Belgium.
    Meurling, Sara
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Miaud, Claude
    Univ Paul Valery Montpellier, Univ Montpellier, PSL Res Univ, CEFE,UMR 5175,CNRS,EPHE,Biogeog & Ecol Vertebres, Montpellier, France.
    Minting, Pete
    Amphibian & Reptile Conservat ARC Trust, 655A Christchurch Rd, Bournemouth BH1 4AP, Dorset, England.
    Ndriantsoa, Serge
    Durrell Wildlife Conservat Trust, Madagascar Programme, Antananarivo, Madagascar.
    O'Hanlon, Simon J.
    Imperial Coll London, Sch Publ Hlth, Fac Med, Dept Infect Dis Epidemiol, St Marys Campus, London W2 1PG, England;Inst Zool, Regents Pk, London NW1 4RY, England.
    Pasmans, Frank
    Univ Ghent, Dept Pathol Bacteriol & Avian Dis, Fac Vet Med, Salisburylaan 133, B-9820 Merelbeke, Belgium.
    Rakotonanahary, Tsanta
    Durrell Wildlife Conservat Trust, Madagascar Programme, Antananarivo, Madagascar.
    Rabemananjara, Falitiana C. E.
    Durrell Wildlife Conservat Trust, Madagascar Programme, Antananarivo, Madagascar;IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Grp Madagascar, Antananarivo 101, Madagascar.
    Ribeiro, Luisa P.
    Univ Estadual Campinas, Inst Biol, Dept Biol Anim, Lab Hist Nat Anfibios Brasileiros, BR-13083862 Campinas, SP, Brazil.
    Schmeller, Dirk S.
    UFZ Helmholtz Ctr Environm Res, Dept Conservat Biol, Permoserstr 15, D-04318 Leipzig, Germany;Univ Toulouse, CNRS, ECOLAB, INPT,UPS, Toulouse, France.
    Schmidt, Benedikt R.
    Univ Zurich, Dept Evolutionary Biol & Environm Studies, Winterthurerstr 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland;Univ Neuchatel, Info Fauna Karch, Bellevaux 51,UniMail Batiment 6, CH-2000 Neuchatel, Switzerland.
    Skerratt, Lee
    James Cook Univ, Coll Publ Hlth Med & Vet Sci, Hlth Res Grp 1, Townsville, Qld 4811, Australia.
    Smith, Freya
    APHA, Natl Wildlife Management Ctr, Woodchester Pk GL10 3UJ, Glos, England.
    Soto-Azat, Claudio
    Univ Andres Bello, Fac Ecol & Recursos Nat, Ctr Invest Sustentabilidad, Republ 440, Santiago, Chile.
    Tessa, Giulia
    Nonprofit Assoc Zirichiltaggi Sardinia Wildlife C, Str Vicinale Filigheddu 62-C, I-07100 Sassari, Italy.
    Toledo, Luis Felipe
    Univ Estadual Campinas, Inst Biol, Dept Biol Anim, Lab Hist Nat Anfibios Brasileiros, BR-13083862 Campinas, SP, Brazil.
    Valenzuela-Sanchez, Andres
    Univ Andres Bello, Fac Ecol & Recursos Nat, Ctr Invest Sustentabilidad, Republ 440, Santiago, Chile;ONG Ranita Darwin, Nataniel Cox 152, Santiago, Chile.
    Verster, Ruhan
    North West Univ, Unit Environm Sci & Management, Private Bag x6001, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa.
    Vörös, Judit
    Hungarian Nat Hist Museum, Dept Zool, Collect Amphibians & Reptiles, Baross U 13, H-1088 Budapest, Hungary.
    Waldman, Bruce
    Seoul Natl Univ, Sch Biol Sci, Lab Behav & Populat Ecol, Seoul 08826, South Korea.
    Webb, Rebecca J.
    James Cook Univ, Coll Publ Hlth Med & Vet Sci, Hlth Res Grp 1, Townsville, Qld 4811, Australia.
    Weldon, Che
    North West Univ, Unit Environm Sci & Management, Private Bag x6001, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa.
    Wombwell, Emma
    Inst Zool, Regents Pk, London NW1 4RY, England.
    Zamudio, Kelly R.
    Cornell Univ, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, Ithaca, NY 14853 USA.
    Longcore, Joyce E.
    Univ Maine, Sch Biol & Ecol, Orono, ME 04469 USA.
    Garner, Trenton W. J.
    Inst Zool, Regents Pk, London NW1 4RY, England;Nonprofit Assoc Zirichiltaggi Sardinia Wildlife C, Str Vicinale Filigheddu 62-C, I-07100 Sassari, Italy;North West Univ, Unit Environm Sci & Management, Private Bag x6001, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa.
    Development and worldwide use of non-lethal, and minimal population-level impact, protocols for the isolation of amphibian chytrid fungi2018Ingår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, artikel-id 7772Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Parasitic chytrid fungi have emerged as a significant threat to amphibian species worldwide, necessitating the development of techniques to isolate these pathogens into culture for research purposes. However, early methods of isolating chytrids from their hosts relied on killing amphibians. We modified a pre-existing protocol for isolating chytrids from infected animals to use toe clips and biopsies from toe webbing rather than euthanizing hosts, and distributed the protocol to researchers as part of the BiodivERsA project RACE; here called the RML protocol. In tandem, we developed a lethal procedure for isolating chytrids from tadpole mouthparts. Reviewing a database of use a decade after their inception, we find that these methods have been applied across 5 continents, 23 countries and in 62 amphibian species. Isolation of chytrids by the non-lethal RML protocol occured in 18% of attempts with 207 fungal isolates and three species of chytrid being recovered. Isolation of chytrids from tadpoles occured in 43% of attempts with 334 fungal isolates of one species (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) being recovered. Together, these methods have resulted in a significant reduction and refinement of our use of threatened amphibian species and have improved our ability to work with this group of emerging pathogens.

  • 287. Fitzpatrick, John L.
    et al.
    Montgomerie, Robert
    Desjardins, Julie K.
    Stiver, Kelly A.
    Kolm, Niclas
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Balshine, Sigal
    Female promiscuity promotes the evolution of faster sperm in cichlid fishes2009Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 106, nr 4, s. 1128-1132Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sperm competition, the contest among ejaculates from rival males to fertilize ova of a female, is a common and powerful evolutionary force influencing ejaculate traits. During competitive interactions between ejaculates, longer and faster spermatozoa are expected to have an edge; however, to date, there has been mixed support for this key prediction from sperm competition theory. Here, we use the spectacular radiation of cichlid fishes from Lake Tanganyika to examine sperm characteristics in 29 closely related species. We provide phylogenetically robust evidence that species experiencing greater levels of sperm competition have faster-swimming sperm. We also show that sperm competition selects for increases in the number, size, and longevity of spermatozoa in the ejaculate of a male, and, contrary to expectations from theory, we find no evidence of trade-offs among sperm traits in an interspecific analysis. Also, sperm swimming speed is positively correlated with sperm length among, but not within, species. These different responses to sperm competition at intra-and interspecific levels provide a simple, powerful explanation for equivocal results from previous studies. Using phylogenetic analyses, we also reconstructed the probable evolutionary route of trait evolution in this taxon, and show that, in response to increases in the magnitude of sperm competition, the evolution of sperm traits in this clade began with the evolution of faster (thus, more competitive) sperm.

  • 288.
    Fletcher, Kevin
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Causes and consequences of life-history variation: The effects of parasites, glucocorticoids, and environmental conditions in the collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis)2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Life-history is the study of all the different stages of life that affect reproductive success and survival between the birth and death of an organism. The reproductive output of an organism is constrained by many things including time, resource, disease agents and environmental conditions. In addition, lineage-specific traits and the limitations of the physiological systems can limit how an organism responds to ecological processes, and thus constrains the variation of life histories represented in nature. Central to the theory of life history are the trade-offs that organisms make during their lifetime to maximise their reproductive potential. In this thesis, I focus on the effect of haemosporidian blood parasites on host life history, in relation to the glucocorticoid response and environmental conditions. The host study species is a population of collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis), a species that provides bi-parental care, located in the south of Gotland. We show that nestling condition predicts parasite infection and that parasite-mediated selection can start early on in the birds’ life. We also found a link between Lower levels of glucocorticoids and parasite infection, which might indicate a trade-off between immunity and reproductive effort. Adult birds’ upregulated glucocorticoids in response to an increase in reproductive effort and a predictable change in energy demand during reproduction. I also show that glucocorticoids respond to changing environmental conditions. These results together accentuate the importance of the plasticity of the glucocorticoid response to reproductive success. Moreover, higher levels of hormone during reproduction predicted survival to the next breeding season. In nestlings, glucocorticoid levels increased as a consequence of parent infection status and an increase in reproductive effort. Overall, our results indicate that the glucocorticoid response is context dependent. Finally, female collared flycatchers might pay a fitness cost as a consequence of parasite infection, but can still reproduce successfully suggesting that they can tolerate the parasite. To further our understanding of costs related to parasite infection, we must understand better the mechanisms that enable the host to tolerate infection. This study indicates that glucocorticoids provide a useful tool to detect how wild birds respond to predictable and unpredictable challenges.

    Delarbeten
    1. The pattern of haemosporidian blood parasite infection in collared flycatchers during their lifetime
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>The pattern of haemosporidian blood parasite infection in collared flycatchers during their lifetime
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Nyckelord
    Haemosporidian blood parasite, collared flycatcher nestlings, recruitment, body condition index, survival
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Evolutionsbiologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-330842 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-10-04 Skapad: 2017-10-04 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-10-12
    2. Experimental brood size manipulation and parental infection status affect development stress as revealed by nestling feather corticosterone
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Experimental brood size manipulation and parental infection status affect development stress as revealed by nestling feather corticosterone
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Nyckelord
    Corticosterone, development stress, reproductive effort, bi-parental care, intergenerational costs, recruitment, long-term effects, haemosporidian blood parasites
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Evolutionsbiologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-330843 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-10-04 Skapad: 2017-10-04 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-10-05
    3. Upregulation of baseline corticosterone in response to the life-history stage and a brood experiment detected in the droppings of a wild bird
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Upregulation of baseline corticosterone in response to the life-history stage and a brood experiment detected in the droppings of a wild bird
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Nyckelord
    Life history, metabolized corticosterone, glucocorticoid, reproductive investment, weather conditions, collared flycatcher
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Evolutionsbiologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-330844 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-10-04 Skapad: 2017-10-04 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-10-05
    4. Glucocorticoid level during reproduction predicts survival but is suppressed in response to parasite infection in collared flycatchers
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Glucocorticoid level during reproduction predicts survival but is suppressed in response to parasite infection in collared flycatchers
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Nyckelord
    Metabolised corticosterone, Haemosporidian blood parasite, survival, trade-off
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Evolutionsbiologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-330845 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-10-04 Skapad: 2017-10-04 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-10-05
    5. Methods of glucocorticoid sampling in a natural population
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Methods of glucocorticoid sampling in a natural population
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Nyckelord
    Circulating corticosterone, metabolised corticosterone, feather corticosterone, condition index, collared flycatcher nestling
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Evolutionsbiologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-330846 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-10-04 Skapad: 2017-10-04 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-10-05
  • 289.
    Fletcher, Kevin
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Relating life history and physiology2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 290.
    Fletcher, Kevin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik.
    Björklund, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik.
    Träff, Johan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik.
    The pattern of haemosporidian blood parasite infection in collared flycatchers during their lifetimeManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 291.
    Fletcher, Kevin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Xiong, Ye
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Fletcher, Erika
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Glucocorticoid response to both predictable and unpredictable challenges detected as corticosterone metabolites in collared flycatcher droppings2018Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 12, artikel-id e0209289Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In most vertebrate animals, glucocorticoid hormones are the chief mediators of homeostasis in response to ecological conditions and as they progress through their lifecycle. In addition, glucocorticoids are a major part of the stress response and stress induced elevations of the hormone can make it difficult to assess glucocorticoid secretion in response to changes in life-stage and current environmental conditions in wild animals. Particularly when quantifying circulating levels of glucocorticoids in the blood which fluctuate rapidly in response to stress. An alternative method of quantifying glucocorticoids is as hormone metabolites in faeces or urine giving a historical sample related to the gut passage time and urinary tract that is less sensitive to stressful events which cause spikes in the circulating hormone level. Although the concentration of glucocorticoid metabolites are influenced by faecal mass thereby potentially affecting any differences in hormone metabolites detected amongst samples. In the present study, we aimed to detect changes in levels of corticosterone, the primary bird glucocorticoid, in relation to the phase of reproduction, in a breeding population of collared flycatchers by sampling corticosterone metabolites in droppings. We also tested how corticosterone metabolite concentrations were affected by ambient temperature and related to body condition in adult birds. Our results indicate that the upregulation of corticosterone between incubation and nestling feeding in female birds is crucial for successful reproduction in this species. Also, females appear to downregulate corticosterone during incubation in response to lower ambient temperature and poorer body condition. Our results did not indicate a relationship between dropping mass and corticosterone metabolite concentrations, which suggests that our findings were linked to the regulation of corticosterone in response to predictable and unpredictable challenges.

  • 292. Forabosco, F.
    et al.
    Lohmus, M.
    Rydhmer, L.
    Sundström, L. F.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Genetically modified farm animals and fish in agriculture: A review2013Ingår i: Livestock Science, ISSN 1871-1413, E-ISSN 1878-0490, Vol. 153, nr 1-3, s. 1-9Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Developments in biotechnology over the past 25 years have allowed scientists to engineer genetically modified (GM) animals for use in various areas of agriculture and medicine. The great majority of GM animals and fish are currently only at the research stage. However, some animals with an anticipated use in food production are close to reaching the grocery shelf at least, they will be soon available for marketing. GM livestock include many different kinds of animals and species modified with the intention of improving economically important traits such as growth-rate, quality of meat, milk composition, disease resistance and survival. Pigs have been engineered to grow faster and to produce more meat with less feed; the composition of pork has also been improved for healthier human consumption. Scientists have paid particular attention to pig health, raising piglet survival rates, reducing the risks of infectious disease, and fortifying the porcine immune system. Sheep have been modified to improve wool production and immunity, and to reduce the risk of mortality following infections by bacteria and lethal viruses. Growth-rate in chickens has been increased with only limited success, because conventional selection has already improved this trait close to its biological limit. However, disease resistance (e.g. to H5N1) and the survival of newly hatched chicks have been improved. Udder health and survival are the most important traits improved by transgenic technology in cattle. GM cows with resistance to BSE have been bred. Similar traits are targeted in fish, dominated by salmon, carp and tilapia species, where the focus is on meat production, meat quality, and disease resistance. The number of GM farm animals and fish developed in laboratories is increasing, but for the present the number of species close to entering the market remains small.

  • 293. Forabosco, Flavio
    et al.
    Sundström, Fredrik L.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Rydhmer, Lotta
    An algorithm for the identification of genetically modified animals2013Ingår i: Trends in Biotechnology, ISSN 0167-7799, E-ISSN 1879-3096, Vol. 31, nr 5, s. 8-10Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The diffusion of genetically modified (GM) animals has generated a demand for accurate and unique identification to assure compliance with relevant national and international legislation. Individual identification of GM animals is essential to improve safety and traceability, as well as to fulfill the present and future expectations of producers, consumers, and authorities.

  • 294.
    Forsberg, Lars A.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Dannewitz, Johan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Petersson, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Grahn, Mats
    Influence of genetic dissimilarity in the reproductive success and mate choice of brown trout – females fishing for optimal MHC dissimilarity2007Ingår i: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 20, nr 5, s. 1859-1869Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined the reproductive success of 48 adult brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) which were allowed to reproduce in a stream that was controlled for the absence of other trout. Parentage analyses based on 11 microsatellites permitted us to infer reproductive success and mate choice preferences in situ. We found that pairs with intermediate major histocompatibility complex (MHC) dissimilarity mated more often than expected by chance. It appears that female choice was the driving force behind this observation because, compared with other individuals, males with intermediate MHC dissimilarity produced a larger proportion of offspring, whereas female reproductive output did not show this pattern. Hence, rather than seeking mates with maximal MHC dissimilarity, as found in several species, brown trout seemed to prefer mates of intermediate MHC difference, thus supporting an optimality-based model for MHC-dependent mate choice.

     

  • 295.
    Forsman, Jukka T.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Hjernquist, Mårten B.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Experimental evidence for the use of density based interspecific social information in forest birds2009Ingår i: Ecography, ISSN 0906-7590, E-ISSN 1600-0587, Vol. 32, nr 3, s. 539-545Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Reproductive success and habitat preference are generally assumed to be negatively associated with densities of con- and heterospecific competitors. However, recent theoretical studies have suggested that in some cases habitat preference may have a nonlinear unimodal function in relation to con- or heterospecific competitor densities - intermediate densities being preferred. Such a pattern is expected if con- or heterospecific densities are used as a proximate cue in habitat selection, which may produce benefits by reducing searching costs and providing information about current habitat quality and costs of competition. At low density the use of such cues, and hence habitat selection, are hampered, whereas at high density costs of competition exceed the benefits of using cues, leading to avoidance. Here, we tested this hypothesis by examining whether arboreal migratory birds use the density of resident titmice (Parus spp.) in habitat selection decisions. Many migrants and titmice species share similar resource needs making titmice density a reliable source of information for migrants. At the scale of habitat patches, we experimentally created a range of titmice densities from low to very high and subsequently measured the density response of migrants. In contrast to the unimodal habitat preference hypothesis, the average species number and total density of migratory birds were positively and linearly correlated with manipulated titmice density. Thus, migrants probably use titmice density as a relative indicator of habitat quality (abundance or quality of food) because foliage gleaners that share similar food resource with titmice, but not ground foragers, showed a positive association with manipulated titmice density. These results emphasize the positive effect of interspecific social information on habitat choice decisions and diversity of migratory bird community.

  • 296. Forsman, Jukka T.
    et al.
    Kivela, Sami M.
    Jaakkonen, Tuomo
    Seppanen, Janne-Tuomas
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Doligez, Blandine
    Avoiding perceived past resource use of potential competitors affects niche dynamics in a bird community2014Ingår i: BMC Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1471-2148, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 14, s. 175-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Social information use is usually considered to lead to ecological convergence among involved con-or heterospecific individuals. However, recent results demonstrate that observers can also actively avoid behaving as those individuals being observed, leading to ecological divergence. This phenomenon has been little explored so far, yet it can have significant impact on resource use, realized niches and species co-existence. In particular, the time-scale and the ecological context over which such shifts can occur are unknown. We examined with a long-term (four years) field experiment whether experimentally manipulated, species-specific, nest-site feature preferences (symbols on nest boxes) are transmitted across breeding seasons and affect future nest-site preferences in a guild of three cavity-nesting birds. Results: Of the examined species, resident great tits (Parus major) preferred the symbol that had been associated with unoccupied nest boxes in the previous year, i.e., their preference shifted towards niche space previously unused by putative competitors and conspecifics. Conclusions: Our results show that animals can remember the earlier resource use of conspecifics and other guild members and adjust own decisions accordingly one year after. Our experiment cannot reveal the ultimate mechanism(s) behind the observed behaviour but avoiding costs of intra-or interspecific competition or ectoparasite load in old nests are plausible reasons. Our findings imply that interspecific social information use can affect resource sharing and realized niches in ecological time-scale through active avoidance of observed decisions and behavior of potentially competing species.

  • 297. Friberg, U
    et al.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Fitness effects of female mate choice: preferred males are detrimental for Drosophila melanogaster females2003Ingår i: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 16, nr 5, s. 797-811Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 298. Fricke, C
    et al.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Conspecific sperm precedence in flour beetles2004Ingår i: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 67, s. 729-732Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 299. Fricke, C
    et al.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Divergence in replicated phylogenies: the evolution of partial post-mating prezygotic isolation in bean weevils2004Ingår i: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 17, nr 6, s. 1345-1354Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 300.
    Fricke, Claudia
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Andersson, C.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Natural selection hampers divergence of reproductive traits in a seed beetle2010Ingår i: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 23, nr 9, s. 1857-1867Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Speciation is thought to often result from indirect selection for reproductive isolation. This will occur when reproductive traits that cause reproductive isolation evolve (i) as a by-product of natural selection on traits with which they are genetically correlated or (ii) as an indirect result of diversifying sexual selection. Here, we use experimental evolution to study the degree of divergent evolution of reproductive traits by manipulating the intensity of natural and sexual selection in replicated selection lines of seed beetles. Following 40 generations of selection, we assayed the degree of divergent evolution of reproductive traits between replicate selection lines experiencing the same selection regime. The evolution of reproductive traits was significantly divergent across selection lines within treatments. The evolution of reproductive traits was both slower and, more importantly, significantly less divergent among lines experiencing stronger directional natural selection. This suggests that reproductive traits did not evolve as an indirect by-product of adaptation. We discuss several ways in which natural selection may hamper divergent evolution among allopatric populations.

3456789 251 - 300 av 864
RefereraExporteraLänk till träfflistan
Permanent länk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf